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Human-Computer Interaction 27

Editors:Thomas P. Moran
Dates:2012
Volume:27
Publisher:Taylor and Francis Group
Standard No:ISSN 0737-0024
Papers:13
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HCI 2012-04-05 Volume 27 Issue 1/2
  2. HCI 2012-07-01 Volume 27 Issue 3
  3. HCI 2012-10-01 Volume 27 Issue 4

HCI 2012-04-05 Volume 27 Issue 1/2

Introduction to this Special Issue on Designing for Personal Memories: Past, Present, and Future BIBFull-Text 1-12
  Elise van den Hoven; Corina Sas; Steve Whittaker
Before I Forget: From Personal Memory to Family History BIBAFull-Text 13-36
  Siân E. Lindley
This article presents findings from a field study of 8 persons older than 50 who were undertaking a range of activities with the intention of "recording their memories for posterity." We describe practices associated with dealing with inherited family archives; the creation of new artifacts (such as scrapbooks and collections of letters) out of repurposed archived materials; and the recording of one's memoirs. Our analysis leads us to emphasise a distinction between "personal" memory and memory "for family," noting that although memory is used in the construction of a sense of one's own history, and in enabling personal reflection on the past, the work that is bound up with processing archives and producing new artifacts is heavily influenced by a desire to make them accessible and relevant to children and grandchildren, both now and in the future. The tending to, and crafting of, these materials can be understood as a means of creating a "joint" past and reinforcing a wider family narrative. We conclude that through these practices, memory is used a resource for self but also for future family life.
Socio-Technical Lifelogging: Deriving Design Principles for a Future Proof Digital Past BIBAFull-Text 37-62
  Steve Whittaker; Vaiva Kalnikaite; Daniela Petrelli; Abigail Sellen; Nicolas Villar; Ofer Bergman; Paul Clough; Jens Brockmeier
Lifelogging is a technically inspired approach that attempts to address the problem of human forgetting by developing systems that "record everything." Uptake of lifelogging systems has generally been disappointing, however. One reason for this lack of uptake is the absence of design principles for developing digital systems to support memory. Synthesizing multiple studies, we identify and evaluate 4 new empirically motivated design principles for lifelogging: Selectivity, Embodiment, Synergy, and Reminiscence. We first summarize four empirical studies that motivate the principles, then describe the evaluation of four novel systems built to embody these principles. We show that design principles were generative, leading to the development of new classes of lifelogging system, as well as providing strategic guidance about how those systems should be built. Evaluations suggest support for Selection and Embodiment principles, but more conceptual and technical work is needed to refine the Synergy and Reminiscence principles.
A Design Perspective on Three Technology Heirlooms BIBAFull-Text 63-91
  Richard Banks; David Kirk; Abigail Sellen
Artifacts play an important role as triggers for personal memory. They help in the recollection of past experience and in reminiscing about people, places, and times gone by. Of particular interest to us is one type of artifact, the heirloom, which may also have rich connections with memory, but often through the lens of the life of a deceased member of a family, or a friend. Issues of personal memory and heirlooms are complex, diverse, and subtle. In this article we describe a design case study investigating the role technology will play as part of the process of inheritance. We describe the process of translating fieldwork related to artifacts and heirlooms into a design space from which a broad set of themes, concepts and prototypes emerged. We describe the development of this space, its thematic arrangement, and finally a number of resultant artifact designs.
Reconstructing the Past: Personal Memory Technologies Are Not Just Personal and Not Just for Memory BIBAFull-Text 92-123
  Masashi Crete-Nishihata; Ronald M. Baecker; Michael Massimi; Deborah Ptak; Rachelle Campigotto; Liam D. Kaufman; Adam M. Brickman; Gary R. Turner; Joshua R. Steinerman; Sandra E. Black
Research has shown that personal memory technologies are a promising way to address the needs of older adults with memory impairments. In this article, we review three recently completed studies that evaluated technologies for personal memories intended for persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the first study, we worked with 12 participants with AD or MCI and their families to construct DVD-based Multimedia Biographies that depicted prominent events, people, and places from the participant's past. We then evaluated over a period of 6 months psychosocial effects that viewing the biographies had on the participants and their family members. These effects included stimulating reminiscence of past events, triggering predominantly positive emotions of happiness and occasional moments of sadness, and engaging conversations with family members. In our second study, we designed a home-based ambient display that allowed a man with AD to similarly review his past life, in combination with recent photos automatically captured by a lifelogging device called SenseCam. Psychometric tests and semistructured interviews revealed how the intervention appeared to improve the participant's sense of self and lower apathy. In our final study of 5 cognitively impaired participants we compared representations of recent experiences captured with SenseCam in 3 ways: with the raw image stream, with a slide show consisting of a selected number of SenseCam images narrated by a family member, and with a control reviewing no images. Results included evidence that reviewing SenseCam images improved episodic recall for personal events depicted in the images for 4 of the 5 participants. Based on lessons learned from this research, we suggest that personal memory technologies should not just be framed as systems for augmenting an individual user's capacity for accurate recall of personal events, but instead should support groups of people such as members of a family in telling their life stories. This conception yields benefits beyond the support of memory, such as fostering a sense of self and strengthening interpersonal relationships with family members. We conclude the article by presenting design considerations to help guide and inform the development and evaluation of future "personal memory" technologies.
Food for Talk: Phototalk in the Context of Sharing a Meal BIBAFull-Text 124-150
  Kenton O'Hara; John Helmes; Abigail Sellen; Richard Harper; Martijn ten Bhömer; Elise van den Hoven
Photographic mementos are important signifiers of our personal memories. Rather than simply passive representations of memories to "preserve" the past, these photos are actively displayed and consumed in the context of everyday behavior and social practices. Within the context of these settings, these mementos are invoked in particular ways to mobilize particular social relations in the present. Taking this perspective, we explore how photo mementos come to be used in the everyday social setting of sharing meal. Rather than a simple concern with nutritional consumption, the shared meal is a social event and important cultural site in the organization of family and social life with culturally specific rhythms, norms, rights, and responsibilities. We present a system -- 4 Photos -- that situates photo mementos within the social concerns of these settings. The system collates photo mementos from those attending the meal and displays them at the dining table to be interacted with by all. Through a real-world deployment of the system, we explore the social work performed by invoking these personal memory resources in the context of real-world settings of shared eating. We highlight particular features of the system that enable this social work to be achieved.
Experiences of Aiding Autobiographical Memory Using the SenseCam BIBAFull-Text 151-174
  Aiden R. Doherty; Katalin Pauly-Takacs; Niamh Caprani; Cathal Gurrin; Chris J. A. Moulin; Noel E. O'Connor; Alan F. Smeaton
Human memory is a dynamic system that makes accessible certain memories of events based on a hierarchy of information, arguably driven by personal significance. Not all events are remembered, but those that are tend to be more psychologically relevant. In contrast, lifelogging is the process of automatically recording aspects of one's life in digital form without loss of information. In this article we share our experiences in designing computer-based solutions to assist people review their visual lifelogs and address this contrast. The technical basis for our work is automatically segmenting visual lifelogs into events, allowing event similarity and event importance to be computed, ideas that are motivated by cognitive science considerations of how human memory works and can be assisted. Our work has been based on visual lifelogs gathered by dozens of people, some of them with collections spanning multiple years. In this review article we summarize a series of studies that have led to the development of a browser that is based on human memory systems and discuss the inherent tension in storing large amounts of data but making the most relevant material the most accessible.
Experiences With Designing Tools for Everyday Reminiscing BIBAFull-Text 175-198
  Dan Cosley; Victoria Schwanda Sosik; Johnathon Schultz; S. Tejaswi Peesapati; Soyoung Lee
Reminiscing is a valuable activity throughout the lifespan, helping people establish and maintain their identities and their relationships. Much of this happens in an everyday way, with reminiscing arising naturally out of one's experiences, thoughts, and conversations. In this article we describe work around Pensieve, a tool to support everyday, spontaneous, individual reminiscing through memory triggers -- e-mailed reminders that contain snippets from content one has previously created in social media or generic questions that encourage people to reflect on their past. Through a combination of interviews, questionnaires, design activities, and a long-term deployment of Pensieve, we demonstrate the potential value of social media content such as Facebook wall posts and status updates for supporting reminiscence, the utility of systems that support spontaneous reminiscing and writing about the past, the importance of reminders to both reminiscing and lifelogging systems, and insights into people's current practices in reminiscing in social media. Through this work, we generate a number of design goals, issues to consider, and directions for future work around designing systems to support reminiscence and other types of reflection on personal experience.

HCI 2012-07-01 Volume 27 Issue 3

An Experimental Analysis of Experiential and Cognitive Variables in Web Navigation BIBAFull-Text 199-234
  Paul van Schaik; Jonathan Ling
Cognitive and experiential factors in human-computer interaction have been the focus of significant recent attention, but there is a lack of a much needed integrated approach to these issues. The current article proposes such an approach and applies this, combined with the person-task-artifact model (Finneran & Zhang, 2003), to the modeling of web navigation. In an experiment, artifact complexity and task complexity were manipulated. The effects of the experimental manipulations and intrinsic motivation on flow experience, task performance and task outcome were tested. The main effects of the manipulations were confirmed. Further analyses demonstrated that flow was a mediator of the effect of experimental manipulations on task performance, and task performance was a mediator of the effect of flow on task outcome. Overall, the results in the domain of web navigation that are presented here demonstrate the need for taking an integrated cognitive-experiential approach in the modeling of human-computer interaction.
It's a Pleasure Buying Here: The Effects of Web-Store Design on Consumers' Emotions and Attitudes BIBAFull-Text 235-276
  Talya Porat; Noam Tractinsky
We draw on research in human-computer interaction, information systems, environmental psychology, and marketing to develop and to test a model, which suggests that salient design characteristics of the web store (aesthetics and usability) influence the emotions of visitors to the store's site, which in turn affect their attitudes toward the store. A study examined the proposed model in two e-commerce domains -- bookstores and apparel stores. The results, based on data collected from 327 participants, suggest that the effect of the design aspects on attitudes toward the store was partially mediated by affect. In addition, certain design aspects also affected attitudes directly. Specifically, effects of perceived aesthetic aspects of the online store were mainly mediated by affect. The influence of perceived usability was mainly direct and less mediated by affect. Both pleasure and arousal were associated with attitudes toward the store, with pleasure being the main mediator between store design and attitudes toward the store.
Interaction Design Beyond the Product: Creating Technology-Enhanced Activity Spaces BIBAFull-Text 277-309
  Victor Kaptelinin; Liam J. Bannon
The field of interaction design to date has been predominantly concerned with designing products, that is, devices, systems, and more recently services. A growing body of theoretical and empirical analyses suggests that the scope of interaction design needs to be expanded: An explicit concern of the field should include not only helping designers create better products but also helping people themselves create better environments for their work, learning, and leisure activities. In this article we argue that expanding the scope of interaction design beyond products requires a revision of some of the most central concepts in interaction design, including the notion of "the object of design" and our understanding of the impact of technologies on human practices. The aim of the article is to explore some of these conceptual challenges and discuss possible ways of dealing with them. We differentiate between intrinsic and extrinsic technology-enabled practice transformation, and foreground the need for interaction design research and practice to more directly deal with analysis and construction of technology-enhanced activity spaces. The implications of these notions for the research agenda of interaction design are discussed.

HCI 2012-10-01 Volume 27 Issue 4

Collective Practices in Common Information Spaces: Insight From Two Case Studies BIBAFull-Text 311-351
  Demosthenes Akoumianakis; Chrisoula Alexandraki
This research explores the design of practice toolkits as components, distinct from community management systems, allowing members of a virtual community to engage in the practice the community is about. Our analysis is informed by two case studies in different application domains each presenting alternative but complementary insights to the design of computer-mediated practice toolkits. The first case study describes how established practices in music performance are encapsulated in a suitably augmented music notation toolkit so as to support the learning objectives of virtual teams engaged in music master classes. The second case study presents experience with the development of a toolkit for engaging in the practice of vacation package assembly. This time the virtual team is a cross-organization virtual community of practice whose members streamline their efforts by internalizing and performing in accordance to a new (virtual) practice. Findings from the two studies reveal two distinct orientations in the design of practice toolkits. Specifically, in application domains where practices are well established (i.e., music performance), the toolkit serves as the medium for reconstructing an existing practice in virtual settings. In contrast, when cross-organization collaboration is involved (i.e., vacation package assembly), the toolkit should be designed so as to encapsulate a "meta"-practice, exhibiting both boundary and locality.
Multilingual Touchscreen Keyboard Design and Optimization BIBAFull-Text 352-382
  Xiaojun Bi; Barton A. Smith; Shumin Zhai
A keyboard design, once adopted, tends to have a long-lasting and worldwide impact on daily user experience. There is a substantial body of research on touch-screen stylus keyboard optimization. Most of it has focused on English only. Applying rigorous mathematical optimization methods and addressing diacritic character design issues, this article expands this body of work to French, Spanish, German, and Chinese. More important and counter to the intuition that optimization by nature is necessarily specific to each language, this article demonstrates that it is possible to find common layouts that are highly optimized across multiple languages for stylus (or single finger) typing. We first obtained a layout that is highly optimized for both English and French input. We then obtained a layout that is optimized for English, French, Spanish, German, and Chinese pinyin simultaneously, reducing its stylus travel distance to about half of QWERTY's for all of the five languages. In comparison to QWERTY's 3.31, 3.51, 3.7, 3.26, and 3.85 keys of movement for English, French, Spanish, German, and Chinese, respectively, the optimized multilingual layout has an average travel distance of 1.88, 1.86, 1.91, 1.77, and 1.68 keys, correspondingly. Applying Fitts's law with parameters validated by a word tapping experiment, we show that these multilingual keyboards also significantly reduce text input time for multiple languages over the standard QWERTY for experienced users. In comparison to layouts individually optimized for each language, which are also obtained in this article, simultaneously optimizing for multiple languages caused only a minor performance degradation for each language. This surprising result could help to reduce the burden of multilingual users having to switch and learn new layouts for different languages. In addition, we also present and analyze multiple ways of incorporating diacritic characters on multilingual keyboards. Taken together, the present work provides a quantitative foundation for the understanding and designing of multilingual touch-screen keyboards.