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HCI Tables of Contents: 01020304050607080910111213

Human-Computer Interaction 3

Editors:Thomas P. Moran
Dates:1987/1988
Volume:3
Publisher:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Standard No:ISSN 0737-0024
Papers:12
Links:Table of Contents
  1. HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 1
  2. HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 2
  3. HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 3
  4. HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 4

HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 1

Editorial

Introduction to this Special Issue on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work BIB 1-2
  Bill Curtis; Thomas W. Malone

Articles

A Language/Action Perspective on the Design of Cooperative Work BIBA 3-30
  Terry Winograd
In creating computer-based systems, we work within a perspective that shapes the design questions that will be asked and the kinds of solutions that are sought. This article introduces a perspective based on language as action, and explores its consequences for system design. We describe a communication tool called The Coordinator, which was designed from a language/action perspective; and we suggest how further aspects of coordinated work might be addressed in a similar style. The language/action perspective is illustrated with an example based on studies of nursing work in a hospital ward and contrasted to other currently prominent perspectives.
Relationships and Tasks in Scientific Research Collaboration BIBA 31-58
  Robert E. Kraut; Jolene Galegher; Carmen Egido
What are the requirements on computer- and telecommunications-based tools to aid groups in producing intellectual products? In this article we examine research collaborations as a particularly informative example of group work and propose a framework for describing research collaboration that should provide guidance to those developing technology to support collaborative work. The framework is based on 50 semistructured interviews with researchers in psychology, management science, and computer science. It focuses on the problems in forming and maintaining personal relationships and completing tasks that researchers must solve to have a successful collaboration. These problems occur when collaborators are initiating projects, executing them, and documenting results.
Cognitive Science and Organizational Design: A Case Study of Computer Conferencing BIBA 59-85
  Kevin Crowston; Thomas W. Malone; Felix Lin
Many researchers have investigated and speculated about the link between information technology and organizational structure with very mixed results. This article suggests that part of the reason for these mixed results is the coarseness of previous analyses of both technology and structure. It describes a new and much more detailed perspective for investigating this link. Using concepts of object-oriented programming from artificial intelligence, the information processing that occurs in organizations is characterized in terms of the kinds of messages people exchange and the ways they process those messages. The utility of this approach is demonstrated through the analysis of a case in which a reduction in levels of management is coupled with the introduction of a computer conferencing system. The detailed model developed for this case helps explain both macro-level data about the changes in the organizational structure, and micro-level data about individuals' use of the system.

HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 2

Articles

An Architecture for Intelligent Interfaces: Outline of an Approach to Supporting Operators of Complex Systems BIBA 87-122
  William B. Rouse; Norman D. Geddes; Renwick E. Curry
The conceptual design of a comprehensive support system for operators of complex systems is presented. Key functions within the support system architecture include information management, error monitoring, and adaptive aiding. One of the central knowledge sources underlying this functionality is an operator model that involves a combination of algorithmic and symbolic models for assessing and predicting an operator's activities, awareness, intentions, resources, and performance. Functional block diagrams are presented for the overall architecture as well as the key elements within this architecture. A variety of difficult design issues are discussed, and ongoing efforts aimed at resolving these issues are noted.
The Minimal Manual BIBA 123-153
  John M. Carroll; Penny L. Smith-Kerker; James R. Ford; Sandra A. Mazur-Rimetz
The Minimal Manual was designed to address difficulties people have with state-of-the-art self-instruction manuals in learning to use powerful computing devices. It is briefer; it helps learners to coordinate their attention between the system and the manual; it specifically trains error recognition and recovery; it better supports reference use after training. In two experiments, the Minimal Manual was shown to afford more efficient learning progress than an otherwise comparable, commercially-developed self-instruction manual, and was superior in the specific areas predicted by its design.
Procedures for Obtaining and Testing User-Selected Terminologies BIBA 155-177
  Charles P. Bloom
Four experiments were conducted to assess procedures for obtaining and testing user-selected terms for task-specific concepts in complex, unfamiliar word-processing instructions. Experiment 1 tested user-selected terms against both user-nominated and the original technical terms. The final three experiments employed only the user-selected and technical terms. The effect of terminology on subjects' abilities to follow the instructions was evaluated by measuring errors and task completion times during the practice period. Comprehension of the instructions was assessed by performance on a transfer task. Extensive practice produced acceptable and comparable performance for all term types. However, instruction comprehension, as measured by the transfer task, was clearly influenced by terminology. User-selected word-processing terms were more understandable than both user-nominated and the original technical terms. In addition, the present study demonstrated that transfer tasks can be more sensitive (and often more appropriate) evaluations of the goodness of a term than learning measures.

HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 3

Articles

Construction Kits and Design Environments: Steps Toward Human Problem-Domain Communication BIBA 179-222
  Gerhard Fischer; Andreas C. Lemke
Our goal is to build cooperative computer systems to augment human intelligence. In these systems, the communication between the user and the computer plays a crucial role. To provide the user with the appropriate level of control and a better understanding, we have to replace human-computer communication with human problem-domain communication, which allows users to concentrate on the problems of their domain and to ignore the fact that they are using a computer tool.
   Construction kits and design environments are tools that represent steps toward human problem-domain communication. A construction kit is a set of building blocks that models a problem domain. The building blocks define a design space (the set of all possible designs that can be created by combining these blocks). Design environments go beyond construction kits in that they bring to bear general knowledge about design (e.g., which meaningful artifacts can be constructed, how and which blocks can be combined with each other) that is useful for the designer. Prototypical examples of these systems (especially in the area of user interface design) are described in detail, and the feasibility of this approach is evaluated.
A Keystroke Analysis of Learning and Transfer in Text Editing BIBA 223-274
  Mark K. Singley; John R. Anderson
Two experiments studied the acquisition and transfer of text-editing skill. The first experiment, originally reported in Singley and Anderson (1985) but reanalyzed in greater detail here, found nearly total transfer between two similar line editors and partial transfer from the line editors to a screen editor. Analyses of the keystroke data revealed that the majority of the improvement during both learning and transfer was concentrated in the planning components of the skill. The second experiment found little evidence for negative transfer between a pair of screen editors designed for maximal interference using a classic interference paradigm. The few instances of negative transfer observed were better characterized as the positive transfer of nonoptimal methods rather than instances of true procedural interference. These results support an identical elements model of transfer based on a production system representation of cognitive skill. The relative magnitudes of transfer observed were consistent with detailed measures of production system overlap. In addition, localized transfer sites were hypothesized and identified through a series of microanalyses. Finally, specific transfer predictions based on the differential practice of general and specific components were tested and confirmed.
Animation Using Temporal Constraints: An Overview of the Animus System BIBA 275-307
  Robert Adamy Duisberg
Algorithm animation has a growing role in computer-aided algorithm design, documentation and debugging, because interactive graphics is a richer channel than text for communication. Most animation is currently done laboriously by hand, and it often has the character of canned demonstrations with restricted user interaction. Animus is a system that allows for easy construction of an animation with minimal concern for lower-level graphics programming. Constraints are used to describe the appearance and structure of a picture as well as how those pictures evolve in time. The implementation and support of temporal constraints are substantive extensions to previous constraint languages that had only allowed for the specification of a static state. Use of the Animus system is demonstrated in the creation of animations of dynamic mechanical and electrical circuit simulations, sorting algorithms, problems in operating systems, and geometric curve drawing algorithms.

HCI 1987-1988 Volume 3 Issue 4

Articles

Analysis of the Cognition Involved in Spreadsheet Software Interaction BIBA 309-349
  Judith Reitman Olson; Erik Nilsen
This article analyzes details of the cognition involved when people use spreadsheet software, a task that is both a major microcomputer application and a cognitively intense task. This task is analyzed in terms of the GOMS model (Card, Moran, & Newell, 1983), to test the generality of the model and to extend its set of parameters. We found that people using two seemingly similar spreadsheet applications, Lotus 1-2-3 and Multiplan, require very different amounts of time to accomplish the same tasks. Experienced users of Lotus 1-2-3 took far longer to complete the same four tasks than experienced Multiplan users did. It was found that some of additional time was due to the fact that Lotus 1-2-3 offers a choice of two general methods to enter formulas. Lotus requires that the user decide which to use; this decision takes time. And, when the users type in the address of the cell in which the values reside instead of using the cursor to point to it, they pause a long time before typing each entry. Presumably they are scanning the screen and calculating the coordinates to type in during the pause. Again, these cognitive processes take time. In an analysis of a second task -- adjusting the column width -- there was substantial evidence that the performance changes when a method is repeated in close succession. This repetition affects the parameters that reflect the time it takes to retrieve command parts from memory. When the parameters for scanning, decision, and repetition were added to the keystroke analysis of our task, we found remarkable correspondence with the basic parameters from the Card et al. (1983) original work: The keystroke times and mental preparation times from their original experiments were very close to the estimates of those same parameters in our tasks. However, in our analysis of the spreadsheet task, we expanded the parameter set in the keystroke model to account for performance in tasks that require substantial planning, scanning, and repetition.
Debugging: An Analysis of Bug-Location Strategies BIBA 351-399
  Irvin R. Katz; John R. Anderson
This article presents a series of four experiments investigating students' debugging of LISP programs. The experiments involve a population of subjects who know LISP reasonably well and whose errors are best classified as slips (Brown & Van Lehn, 1980). That is, students are unlikely to repeat the same errors either within their program or across programs (Experiment 1). The students' understanding of LISP is also reflected in their debugging behavior: They can usually fix a bug once they locate it. Students' difficulties are in locating the erroneous line of code. We observe that students use a variety of bug-location strategies during debugging (Experiment 2) and that the choice of strategy differs depending on whether students are debugging their own programs or other students' programs (Experiment 3). In addition, we observe that although the different bug-location strategies affect which lines of a program are searched, once students decide on a line, their ability to judge whether or not the line is correct and their ability to correct an error are not substantially affected by the strategy being used to locate the line (Experiment 4). Finally, we argue that our results have implications not only for debugging in other computer languages, but for the general processes involved in troubleshooting as well.