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HCD Tables of Contents: 0911

HCD 2011: 2nd International Conference on Human Centered Design

Fullname:HCD 2011: 2nd International Conference on Human Centered Design
Note:Volume 16 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6776
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-21752-4 (print), 978-3-642-21753-1 (online); hcibib: HCD11
Papers:66
Pages:605
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Human Centered Design Methods and Tools
  2. Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction
  3. Human Centered Design in Health and Rehabilitation Applications
  4. Human Centered Design in Work, Business and Education
  5. Applications of Human Centered Design

Human Centered Design Methods and Tools

Investigating Users' Interaction with Physical Products Applying Qualitative and Quantitative Methods BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Chun-Juei Chou; Chris Conley
When using products, people are sometimes involved in activities other than the products' primary use. Some of these activities are peripheral, while others may reinforce people's experiences with the products. The latter is related to the focus of this research -- user engagement. User engagement is defined as a situation in which a product provides one or more additional features related to its primary function, so the user engages more senses through the product experience. This research investigates how six product samples engage subjects. The result shows that the six product samples can engage users and therefore result in an interesting user-product relationship. Based on the subjects' reactions, user engagement can be categorized into at least three types: sensory, physical, and emotional engagement. In addition, products can enable user engagement because they possess particular properties that represent mimicking, inspiring, or staging a function.
Keywords: user engagement; engaging products; user-product interaction
Human Interaction and Collaborative Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Kevin A. Clark
Collaborative innovation is on the rise. The tools, techniques and technologies to foster human interaction in the service of collaborative innovation are increasing every year. Interactions that lead to win-win outcomes are also on the rise. Examples in this paper include the IBM advisory council program and process, the design of a global cross-company and cross-culture derivative in Content Evolution Labs, and the emergence of EduPresence to drive a global education network using telepresence and other technology-enabled forms of interactive learning. Samples of collaborative innovation techniques are explored, including the team use of Post-Its™, journey mapping, and voting and group-commitment.
Keywords: Advisory; board; collaboration; collaborative; commitment; connection; continuous; coping; council; diversity; education; human; innovation; interaction; interactor; members; membership; outsourcing; progress; team; technology; telepresence
A Pattern Approach for Designing Application BIBAKFull-Text 22-27
  Kohei Daimaru; Buntaro Kaji
We propose to include a pattern approach in design-process for application. Pattern approach is typically used as reference of best practice. In this case, we use pattern of current operation as input to inspect requirement of next-new application. We tried case study and studied about those results.
Keywords: Design; Pattern Language; Application; Requirement
A Holistic Model for Integrating Usability Engineering and Software Engineering Enriched with Marketing Activities BIBAKFull-Text 28-37
  Holger Fischer; Karsten Nebe; Florian Klompmaker
To support the integration of usability engineering and software engineering this paper analyses corresponding international standards and introduces a model that consists of activities and artifacts highlighting dependencies, similarities and possible points for integration. In addition the model presents activities that serve as potential integration points for the third discipline of marketing. By using this model processes can be aligned easier on a common information base (e.g. activities, artifacts). Innovative thinking will be forced by considering the business perspective of marketing activities likewise.
Keywords: Integration; Usability Engineering; Software Engineering; Marketing; Marketing Research; Standards ISO 9241-210; ISO/TS 18152; ISO/IEC 12207; ISO/IEC 15504
Investigation of Indirect Oral Operation Method for Think Aloud Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 38-46
  Masahiro Hori; Yasunori Kihara; Takashi Kato
Usability testing with prototypes is typically conducted with a concurrent think-aloud protocol. Due to the simultaneous process of prototype operation and verbalization, participants of the think-aloud testing sometimes say very little and are likely to become silent when they are required to think abstractly or complete complex tasks. In this paper, we propose a method of user operation with oral instruction, which facilitates thinking aloud because oral operation would help participants to keep a continuous flow of verbalization. To investigate the quantity and quality of utterances made during think aloud protocols, we conducted a comparative study between oral and conventional manual operation methods. The study was carried out with two test objects: an interactive prototype of a touch-screen digital camera and photo album software with standard mouse/keyboard user interface. Our results demonstrated that the oral operation method was more effective in drawing more utterances for explanation and observation that would be an important source of discovering usability problems although the effect was dependent on the user interface of test objects.
Keywords: Concurrent think-aloud protocols; keep talking; usability testing; prototype evaluation
Exploring the Impact of Cultures on Web Usability Test BIBAKFull-Text 47-54
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh
Many previous studies reveal that cultures not only affect web design, but also impact web usability test. Most previous cross cultural web usability research adopted a western usability method to collect data from users, however some researchers have recognized that there is a need to define usability by considering in cultural context [7] [12] [15]. The traditional usability method is not a properly way to investigate people from different cultures. New usability methods are required to be developed to completely understand users from different cultures. Much more research is required to be developed to reach at guidelines for possible differences which web developers could integrate in methodology when web usability evaluating in a target culture market. In this paper, the literature review begins in illustrating the constant transformation and evolution of the web usability concept, then come to the discussion of the problems in the previous cross cultural usability methodologies. Furthermore an usability evaluation is constructed. Finally the ways for improving cultural usability methodology are recommended based on the initial results of the experiment. It is hoped that this research would contribute to an increased awareness of how culture may impact usability evaluation and the implications can help and ensure more efficient usability evaluation.
Keywords: Cross Cultural; Web Usability
A Three-Fold Integration Framework to Incorporate User-Centered Design into Agile Software Development BIBAKFull-Text 55-64
  Shah Rukh Humayoun; Yael Dubinsky; Tiziana Catarci
We present a framework that incorporates user-centered design (UCD) philosophy into agile software development through a three-fold integration approach: at the process life-cycle level for the selection and application of appropriate UCD methods and techniques in the right places at the right times; at the iteration level for integrating UCD concepts, roles, and activities during each agile development iteration planning; and at the development-environment level for managing and automating the sets of UCD activities through automated tools support. We also present two automated tools -- UEMan and TaMUlator, which provide the realization of the development-environment level integration.
Keywords: User-centered design (UCD); agile software development; usability evaluation; integrated development environment (IDE); UEMan; TaMUlator
Development of Web-Based Participatory Trend Forecasting System: urtrend.net BIBAKFull-Text 65-73
  Eui-Chul Jung; SoonJong Lee; HeeYun Chung; BoSup Kim; HyangEun Lee; YoungHak Oh; YounWoo Cho; WoongBae Ra; HyeJin Kwon; June-Young Lee
The goal of this research is to develop a participatory system that can capture live trend issues and people's latent needs in the issues. Web 2.0 technology is adopted because open and sharable information platform is important for this development. The urtrend.net is developed with three sub systems: issue monitoring & generation system, imagination & creation system, and value finding system. This paper focuses on the development of the first and second sub systems. Using the System 1, trend related data are gathered and analyzed to extract emerging trend issues in our lives. Using the System 2, people can join freely the public discussion on the issues from the System 1. System 3 will be developed to analyze people's discussion to provide deep insights for designers. The urtrend.net enables designers and planners to be more creative and innovative because the system will produce more sophisticated trend information with rich and informative resources.
Keywords: Participatory System Design; Web 2.0; Trend Forecasting System
Consideration of HCD Methods for Service Innovation Design BIBAKFull-Text 74-80
  Akira Kondo; Naoko Kondo
In modern society the service industry has took main role in advanced countries and the service innovation, how to design to improve productivity of the service, become a major issue in the business world. The service has four features as intangible, concurrency, heterogeneity, and extinction, then the service design process and perspective are considered to be different from the product design in the industrial age. When we build the service business, we should think about service elements such as a service receiver, a service provider, field of services, and time axis, in comprehensive viewpoint. In the service industry, we have to provide the service to satisfy customers, but it is necessary to understand the varying needs of different customers. Traditionally this process is relied on the ability of the person providing the service. The improvement of the service productivity was depends on the individual's tacit knowledge in the large part, there are also limits of human ability, then it is difficult to generalize. On the other hand, modern Web services that are provided through the internet, information processing technology could be speculated the information needs of users through the human computer interaction, it has become possible to improve the service productivity. In this paper, in order to achieve improved the service productivity by information technology services, and we considered how to embody changeable user desires as explicit knowledge using the human-centered design techniques. As a concrete methodology, in order to systematically understand the varying needs of users, is considered to be a ethnography and contextual inquiry method, as output in order to incorporate the inference engine need to be written as a structured form. As for the psychological needs of users, I think it is appropriate to consider developing a persona, the issue is a how to build a appropriate emotional model. What may be modeled using the technique of human-centered design to the desire for services that change these users, such as shops electrons on the current Internet, analyze the user's preferences, select the information that may be of interest for each user show to take a case recommendation service system, and consider.
Keywords: Service Innovation; Human Centered Design
Descriptive Words for Expressing the User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 81-90
  Masaaki Kurosu
User experience is a function of various traits of the artifact including the usability. In the first part of this article, various traits of the artifacts were examined before the purchase, during the purchase and after the purchase (usage) on how values of each trait vary depending on the phase. In the second part, the direct examination on the descriptive words in terms of the user experience was examined based on the proposed concept of GOB, POB and SOB.
Keywords: user experience; usability; satisfaction; pleasure; happiness
Expert-Sided Workflow Data Acquisition by Means of an Interactive Interview System BIBAKFull-Text 91-100
  Daniel Ley
This paper outlines an approach for gathering workflow data via an interactive interview system. By means of this approach, data acquisition for a subsequent task and/or process analysis is conducted by a process expert instead of a process analyst as customary in application of conventional data acquisition methods. Beside other problems concerning existing techniques, this may solve the dilemma of a lacking common basis between expert and analyst in terms of process knowledge and process thinking.
   A classification method is described which allows a definition of processes acquirable by the system. Furthermore, a procedure for decomposing processes is used to gather workflow data in a systematic way. During system application, feedback by sub-process models directs experts to process thinking while system records impart process knowledge for the analyst. The applicability of this approach is shown by results of a first system evaluation. Advantages and disadvantages in relation to common data acquisition methods are stated.
Keywords: Data Acquisition Method; Process Analysis; Task Analysis; Interview System; Process Thinking; Process Knowledge
Human Systems Integration Design: Which Generalized Rationale? BIBAKFull-Text 101-109
  Romain Lieber; Didier Fass
In this paper, we present a synthesis of our fundamental and theoretical research on human system integration and human in-the-loop system for enhancing human performance -- especially for technical gestures, in safety critical systems operations such as surgery, astronauts' extra-vehicular activities and aeronautics. Grounding humans-systems integration engineering and design (modelling and simulation) on a formally and experimentally verified theoretical framework, is a necessity to make sure of human in-the-loop system security, safety and reliability. The rise issues concerned with scientific principles of human systems integration and rationale for human in-the-loop systems technical engineering and managerial specific rules.
Keywords: human systems integration; human in-the-loop system; performance; security; safety; reliability; theoretical principles; generalized rationale
The Impact of Human-Centred Design Workshops in Strategic Design Projects BIBAKFull-Text 110-119
  André Liem; Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders
Implementation of Human-centred Design methods in the Fuzzy Front-End is not likely to lead to diversification in educational product planning exercises, where time lines are short and executors lack experience. Companies, interested to collaborate with M.Sc. students on strategic design projects, should have realistic ambitions with respect to innovation and value creation. Moreover, diversification is not the only generic growth strategy to gain competitive advantage. Value can also be created from developing new products for existing markets, or creating new markets for existing products. On the contrary, companies who aim for diversification in their generic growth strategies, may not always end up with a complementary "high valued" design outcome. From a learning perspective, the understanding of HCD methods created awareness among students and companies that respect and empathy for the end-user are important for enriching their design processes, as such increasing the chances for diversification in subsequent projects with clients.
Keywords: User-centred Design; Human-centred Design; Co-creation; Design-led Innovation; Front End of Innovation; Positioning Maps; Diversification
Quantitative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Idea Generation in the Wild BIBAKFull-Text 120-129
  Lassi A. Liikkanen; Matti M. Hämäläinen; Anders Häggman; Tua Björklund; Mikko P. Koskinen
New ideas are the primary building blocks in attempts to produce novel interactive technology. Numerous idea generation methods such as Brainstorming have been introduced to support this process, but there is mixed evidence regarding their effectiveness. In this paper we describe an experimental, quantitative methodology from the domain of product design research for evaluating different idea generation methods. We present prominent results from relevant literature and new data from a study of idea generation in the wild. The study focused on the effects of the physical environment, or in other words, the physical context, on designers' capacity to produce ideas. 25 students working in small groups took part in an experiment with two design tasks. Moving from an office environment to the actual surroundings of the intended use, we discovered that the change in resulting ideas was surprisingly small. Of the measured dimensions, the real-world context influenced only the feasibility of ideas, leaving quantity, novelty, utility and level of detail unaffected. This finding questions the value of diving into the context as a design idea generation practice.
Keywords: Design methods; idea generation; creativity; psychology
Usability Standards across the Development Lifecycle BIBAKFull-Text 130-137
  Mary Frances Theofanos; Brian Stanton
In 2005 the International Organization for Standardization published ISO/IEC 25062 "Common Industry Format (CIF) for Usability Test Reports." This standard focuses on documenting the results of usability testing in a consistent format in terms of user effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction that allows comparison among products by purchasers of such systems. However, soon after its publication the user community advocated for additional standards to document the output of usability-related work within the development lifecycle. A second usability CIF, "A General Framework for Usability-related Information" (ISO/IEC Technical Report 25060) is now available that identifies seven outputs of the usability-engineering process. The framework focuses on documenting those elements needed for design and development of usable systems. To successfully use the framework it is critical to understand the relationship of these elements to the human-centered design process and the activities of the system life-cycle processes. These new Common Industry Format standards for usability-related information are a further step in standardizing usability engineering in industry.
Keywords: Usability; User Centered Design; Common Industry Format; standards; lifecycle; software development
Note: Best Paper Award
Structure of FUN Factors in the Interaction with Products BIBAFull-Text 138-143
  Sayoko Tominaga; Toshihisa Doi; Toshiki Yamaoka; Yuka Misyashita; Masayoshi Toriumi
In recent years interaction design has looked to questions of most typically positive emotions such as satisfaction, pleasure and delight. This study investigated the factors of FUN as joy and pleasure, which are created in interaction between human and products, and found their relationship. We aim for gaining useful information when we design products. First, the questionnaire regarding SCT (sentence completion test) were conducted and were analyzed by DEMATEL method (Decision MAking Trial & Evaluation Laboratory) As a result, it was found that the factors of FUN were clarified and examined the relationship.
Extraction of User Interaction Patterns for Low-Usability Web Pages BIBAKFull-Text 144-152
  Toshiya Yamada; Noboru Nakamichi; Tomoko Matsui
Our goal is to point out usability problems in web pages in order to improve the web usability. We investigate the relation between user interaction behaviors in web-viewing and evaluation results of web usability by subjects. And we extract discriminative patterns for user interaction behaviors in visited web pages with low usability by using the PrefixSpan based subsequence boosting (Pboost).
Keywords: Web Usability; PrefixSpan Boosting (Pboost); User Interaction; Machine learning
A Proposal of Service Design Evaluation Method BIBAKFull-Text 153-159
  Toshiki Yamaoka
This paper describes service evaluation method After a structure of service are explained, the service design are shown concretely. A structure of service consists of 4 factors of environment, machine, customer and employee. The relationship of customer versus environment, machine, and service employee are defined. The structure of service design is constructed based on 5 factors: service organization system, service design concept, interaction between customers and service employees / machine, produced good service quality and increased service productivity. Finally the two service design evaluation methods based on above-mentioned service items are proposed. The one is evaluated from viewpoint of customer's expectation and evaluation. The another one is the checklist consisted of seven questionnaires.
Keywords: service design evaluation; structure of service; structure of service design
Idea Creation Method for HCD BIBAKFull-Text 160-165
  Kazuhiro Yamazaki
The purpose of this study is to discover a design methodology for user experience design. This paper focuses on design creation method on UCD (User Centered Design) process. After proposing an approach to utilize design creation method, author utilized this method on UCD education for 3rd grade student on university to evaluate propose method. After the result of this education, author got several findings.
Keywords: Design Creation; User Centered Design; User Experience Design; Photo Essay
Vision-Proposal Design Method BIBAKFull-Text 166-174
  Koji Yanagida; Yoshihiro Ueda; Kentaro Go; Katsumi Takahashi; Seiji Hayakawa; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The "Vision-proposal Design Method" discussed in this paper is a practical method for designing in an age of ubiquitous computing. This comprehensive method makes possible new and innovative services, systems and products that are currently unavailable, as well as proposing advances for those that currently exist. It encompasses the entire HCD (Human-Centered Design) process, and presents a new vision with experiential value for both user and business from an HCD viewpoint. It creates specific ideas for services, systems and products while also delivering their specifications. This paper reviews evaluation results of its utility and effectiveness through a brief summary of the method with examples of its application.
Keywords: Structured scenario-based design method; vision; scenario; persona

Mobile and Ubiquitous Interaction

Possibilities for Cultural Customization of Mobile Communication Devices: The Case of Iranian Mobile Users BIBAKFull-Text 177-186
  Bijan Aryana; Casper Boks; Azadeh Navabi
Global producers of mobile communication devices recognize the importance of cultural differences in the emerging markets; however it seems that the main concentration in both academic and business areas is on the large number of users with low incomes, while users from other classes of these societies are not studied well. In this study after set of integrated reviews on areas of Mass Customization, New Product Development and Mobile HCI an experiment was planned based on the unexplored aspects of users' culture and mobile communication devices relationships. A number of young educated users from middle class tested a new smart phone during its marketing process in Iran. They were sampled based on a global producer's marketing program. After a phase of self documentation, users selected two applications of the device for the usability tests and found culture related usability problems during the tests. Finally they proposed solutions in a participatory design process.
Keywords: Cultural Customization; Mobile HCI; New Product Development; Mass Customization; Smart Phones; Emerging Markets
Smart Sol -- Bringing User Experience to Facility Management: Designing the User Interaction of a Solar Control Unit BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
  Patricia Böhm; Tim Schneidermeier; Christian Wolff
While a lot of attention is paid to the design of consumer electronics like mobile phones, various other domains have been neglected so far when it comes to user experience. In this paper a user-centered design approach for designing the user interface of a controller for solar thermal plants and heat exchanger stations -- called smart sol -- is described. The design process is characterized by the cooperation of user experience designers on the one hand and engineers and programmers on the other hand.
Keywords: user experience; user-centered design; user interface design; human-machine interaction; nontraditional user interfaces; facility management
Co-simulation and Multi-models for Pervasive Computing as a Complex System BIBAKFull-Text 197-206
  Laurent Ciarletta
Pervasive Computing is about interconnected and situated computing resources providing us(ers) with contextual services. These systems, embedded in the fabric of our daily lives, are complex: numerous interconnected and heterogeneous entities are exhibiting a global behavior impossible to forecast by merely observing individual properties. Firstly, users physical interactions and behaviors have to be considered. They are influenced and influence the environment. Secondly, the potential multiplicity and heterogeneity of devices, services, communication protocols, and the constant mobility and reorganization also need to be addressed. This article summarizes our research on this field towards both closing the loop between humans and systems and taming the complexity, using multi-modeling (to combine the best of each domain specific model) and co-simulation (to design, develop and evaluate) as part of a global conceptual and practical toolbox. We share our vision for a strong research (and development) leading to the realization of Pervasive Computing.
Keywords: Pervasive Computing; Ubiquitous Computing; Ambient Intelligence; Human-in-the-loop; Distributed Simulation; Co-simulation; Multi-model; Emulation; Benchmarks; Multi-Agent System
Design and Development of Eyes- and Hands-Free Voice Interface for Mobile Phone BIBAKFull-Text 207-216
  Kengo Fujita; Tsuneo Kato
This paper describes the design and development process of our new eyes- and hands-free interface which provides the fundamental functions of a mobile phone by voice interaction through a Bluetooth headset. We first identify four conditions which must be met in order to make the interface acceptable to Japanese users. Next, we define design guides which address each of these conditions. In accordance with the design guides, we propose and implement the interface system. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed interface, we had participants operate a mobile phone while walking while simultaneously confirming a switching signal which either permitted or forbade them to walk. The experimental results showed that the proposed interface was more effective than the conventional interfaces for operating a mobile phone while simultaneously performing other tasks. The participants pointed out some problems during the interviews, and we address these problems.
Keywords: Mobile Phone; Voice Interface; Eyes-free Operation; Hands-free Operation; Bluetooth Headset; Design Process; Japanese users
Influence of a Multimodal Assistance Supporting Anticipatory Driving on the Driving Behavior and Driver's Acceptance BIBAKFull-Text 217-226
  Hermann Hajek; Daria Popiv; Mariana Just; Klaus Bengler
This work presents an investigation of a multimodal human-machine interface (HMI) of an anticipatory driver assistance system. The HMI of the system consists of visual indicators displayed in the digital instrument cluster and discrete impulses of an active gas pedal (AGP). The assistance recognizes the upcoming driving situation, informs the driver about its emergence, and suggests a driving action, which execution assures significant reduction in fuel consumption. The experiment is performed in the fixed-base driving simulator. Results show that during assisted drives an average reduction in fuel consumption amounts to 7.5%, in comparison to the drives without assistance. In 50% and 80% of all the cases, participants release the accelerator correspondingly within 1.2 and 2 seconds after receiving the first information. Two thirds of the test subjects grade the concept as "good" and "very good". The participants appreciate AGP discrete feedback especially in rare, unexpected, and potentially critical situations.
Keywords: Advanced driver assistance system; multimodal human-machine interface; anticipatory driving; active gas pedal
Real User Experience of ICT Devices among Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 227-234
  Ayako Hashizume; Toshimasa Yamanaka; Masaaki Kurosu
As a representative device of ICT-related devices and systems, authors selected the mobile phone for our research. Authors started their analysis from the questionnaire research roughly focusing on the use of mobile phone. As a result, it was revealed that the elderly people have low literacy for using the mobile phone compared to the young people. Furthermore, the elderly people living in urban area have higher level of mobile phone literacy, while those who are living in rural area tend to rely on others, especially young people. In order to analyze the difference between urban are and rural area and between young people and elderly people, authors then conducted a field survey adopting the contextual inquiry and analyzed the data by applying M-GTA, then summarized the information as a category relationship diagram. In the diagram, such factors as the motivation for using mobile phone, the active involvement to the communication and the mobile phone literacy were regarded as the principal components.
Keywords: user experience; usability; mobile phone; elderly people; M-GTA; literacy
Human Affordance as Life-Log for Environmental Simulations BIBAKFull-Text 235-242
  Masayuki Ihara; Minoru Kobayashi; Takahiro Yoshioka
This paper presents the design principle of establishing environmental simulation systems on the "human affordance" collected as user life-log. We envisage that combining life-log applications with a consideration of cognitive science will yield better life-log utilization. Research questions in this study are how to collect life-logs without user resistance to exposing the logs and how we can continuously utilize the latest life-logs. Our answer to the first question is to transform the recorded data to the extent that the user willingly accepts the automatic release of his/her life log. Our answer to the second question is to employ the affordance theory in cognitive science.
Keywords: Life-log; human affordance; transformation; environmental simulation
Guideline Development of Mobile Phone Design for Preventing Child Abuse BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  JoonBin Im; Eui-Chul Jung; JungYoon Yang
This paper is studied to develop a guideline of mobile phone design that protects a child from crimes. It is studied that the criminal commits crimes through the three steps of 1) approach, 2) attract, and 3) plunder -- movement. Through this research, it was found that the child's recognition of the criminal situation could prevent the child from crimes. Because of limitations of child's cognition, this study is conducted to provide diverse solutions that could notify abnormal signs to the guardians using a mobile phone, even when the child has no awareness of the situation. In addition, the patterns of the child's usual route and walking speed are logged for detecting the criminal situation. This feature enables the guardians to intervene the crime. A design guideline for developing hardware and applications of a mobile phone is suggested through case analysis and expert interviews.
Keywords: Cracking Crime; Anti-Crime Design; Child Abuse; Mobile Phone Design; Design Guideline
The Impact of Robots Language Form on People's Perception of Robots BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Yunkyung Kim; Sonya S. Kwak; Myungsuk Kim
Robots in people's daily life have social relationships with human. This study investigated how the expression of social relationship in human communication is applied to human-robot relationship. We expressed two axes of social relationship through robots' verbal language. In a 2 (address: calling participants' name vs. not calling participants' name) x 2 (speech style: honorific vs. familiar) between-participants experiment (N=60), participants experienced one of four types of the robot and evaluate the robot's friendliness and dominance. Participants rated robots friendlier when it called their name than when it didn't call their name. In the case of robots' dominance, there was no significant difference in whether the robot called participants' name as well as the robot's forms of language. Based on the experiment results, we discussed the use of a social relationship concept for designing robots' dialogue.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Robot dialogue; Interpersonal traits; Social relationship
Adjustable Interactive Rings for iDTV: First Results of an Experiment with End-Users BIBAKFull-Text 262-271
  Leonardo Cunha de Miranda; Heiko Horst Hornung; Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
Based on previous results of our research in the field of physical artifacts for interaction with Interactive Digital Television (iDTV) we developed a new digital device we named Adjustable Interactive Rings (AIRs). This work presents a quantitative analysis of an experiment conducted with twelve end-users in order to investigate the interaction of users with the hardware prototype of AIRs for iDTV. The experiment results presented in this paper indicate a positive acceptance of our solution and a good learning curve with respect to the interaction language of this physical artifact of interaction.
Keywords: interactive digital television; interaction design; user experiment; quantitative analysis; gesture-based interaction; human-computer interaction

Human Centered Design in Health and Rehabilitation Applications

Cognitive Prostheses: Findings from Attempts to Model Some Aspects of Cognition BIBAKFull-Text 275-284
  Norman Alm; Arlene Astell; Gary Gowans; Maggie Ellis; Richard Dye; Phillip Vaughan; Philippa Riley
Improvements in the power and portability of computing systems have made possible the field of cognitive prostheses, which attempts to make up for cognitive impairment by to some degree modeling cognitive processes in software. Research on interfacing directly with the brain is at a very early stage. However, in research into dementia care, a number of non-invasive research prototypes have been developed to support people with dementia in specific areas of functioning, such as carrying out everyday activities, holding a conversation, being entertained, and being creative. Findings from the individual projects which may have general applicability are highlighted.
Keywords: Cognitive prostheses; assistive technology; dementia
Management of Weight-Loss: Patients' and Healthcare Professionals' Requirements for an E-health System for Patients BIBAKFull-Text 285-294
  Anita Das; Arild Faxvaag; Dag Svanæs
An increasing number of patients with overweight undergo weight-reduction treatment. However, many people experience challenges with long-term maintenance and are in risk of weight-regain. Currently there is no unique solution that ensures long-term maintenance of lost weight. Several studies have explored the effectiveness of web-based and e-health interventions, on improving the outcomes of weight-management. The results are unclear. This paper describes requirements for e-health solutions for weight-loss patients. Our findings suggest that such solutions need to be developed in collaboration with both patients and healthcare professionals to ensure that they are in line with medical treatment in addition to taking consideration to the behavioral aspects of using such systems.
Keywords: Design; E-health; Healthcare; Obesity; User involvement
A Study on the Visibility of the Light Emitting Braille Block BIBAKFull-Text 295-303
  Hiromi Fukuda; Noriaki Kuwahara; Takao Suzuki; Kazunari Morimoto
About 60% of the visually impaired people are low-vision. Light-emitting textured paving block by using LED is developed to support the mobility of such visually impaired because such block is considered to be effective for notifying specific places such as the entrance, the exit, and so on to the weak eyesight people in the night. This block uses the innovative lighting mechanism by which extremely long-life light emission by using the battery is enabled. So far, there is no report on the visibility of the LED by using this mechanism. Therefore, in this paper, we report the result of the preliminary experiment for evaluating the visibility, and discuss on the trade-off between the visibility and the electric consumption.
Keywords: Low-vision; Light-emitting textured paving block; LED; Visibility
Knowledge Based Design of User Interface for Operating an Assistive Robot BIBAKFull-Text 304-312
  Rebekah Hazlett-Knudsen; Melissa A. Smith; Aman Behal
In this paper, the research objective is to develop and implement a procedure for integration of user preferences and abilities into the Graphical User Interface (GUI) of a Wheelchair Mounted Robotic Arm (WMRA) to be operated by users with Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (TSCI).
Keywords: Graphic user interface (GUI); robotic assistive devices; MANUS robotics system; heuristics; traumatic spinal cord injury
Holistic Prosthetic Approaches to the Hearing Handicapped People: Communication Tools in Various Situations BIBAKFull-Text 313-320
  Kazuyuki Kanda; Tsutomu Kimura
We define our term holistic prosthesis, and stated why we coined new word and its background. We showed some example of holistic use of prosthetic manufactures. A new idea is proposed for supporting the hearing handicapped people from our point of view. We introduced an experiment at a museum as an example of informational support in public.
Keywords: holism; prosthesis; public; hearing handicapped
Human-Centered Design in the Care of Immobile Patients BIBAKFull-Text 321-326
  Thomas Läubli; Roger Gassert; Masaru Nakaseko
Nurses frequently suffer from low back pain, but oppose against using mechanical lifting devices. It was found that the nurses' reluctance to use technical aids may be due to several drawbacks of currently used lifting devices in patient care: 1) the lifting maneuver is controlled through a control device located at a distant position form the patient (e.g. fixed to the supporting structure). 2) Conventional lifting devices are position controlled and operate at a low velocity. 3) The lifting device holds the entire weight of the patient, while the nurse performs translational movements. Therefore existing technological solutions were studied and novel ways were explored of achieving intuitive interaction, e.g. through the use of force and position sensors and shared control strategies. The initial results of our task analysis suggest that both the handicapped/ immobile person and the nurse may be supported by intelligent assistive lifting devices.
Keywords: nurses; lifting device; intuitive interaction
Electronic Medication Reminder for Older Adults BIBAKFull-Text 327-334
  Yi-Lin Lo; Chang-Franw Lee; Wang-Chin Tsai
As the numbers of the elderly people is increasing rapidly, it is important and urgent to design appropriate products for older adults. Because of physical and mental function decline, the elderly need to take multiple drugs, they often occurring medication non-compliance behavior, seriously affecting the health of the elderly. Forget to take medicine is one the most frequency problem, so there were several products designed for reminder, such as electronic pillbox. In recent years, with the development of smart phone, some software was also designed for medication reminder. For the lifestyle and electronic products using experience, not all of the elderly use cell phone in Taiwan, and they do not operate any other function except making a phone call. To discusses whether the software suitable to the elderly was the purpose of this study.
   This is an exploratory study about electronic medication reminder in Taiwan, there were total 30 volunteers join the project, included 15 older adults; through interviews and a questionnaire survey with the elderly, try to gather difficulties and needs from the elderly when using an electronic medication reminder. The results showed correlations between the interface-complexity and preference of older adults; they would rather choose electronic pillbox than smart phone because it is easier setting and more "approachable". Through the study results, hope the findings will help clarify the direction of further research and to develop more suitable for the elderly on the operating trends.
Keywords: Older Adults; Medication Compliance; Pillbox; Electronic Medication Reminder
Development of a Wearable Airbag for Preventing Fall Related Injuries BIBAFull-Text 335-339
  Toshiyo Tamura; Takumi Yoshimura; Masaki Sekine; Mitsuo Uchida
We have developed a wearable airbag that incorporates a fall detection system that uses both acceleration and angular velocity signals to trigger inflation of the airbag. The fall detection algorithm was devised using a thresholding technique with the signals of an accelerometer and gyro sensor. The thresholds of acceleration less than ± 3 m/s2 and the integral of angular velocity exceed 0.52 rad/s were used. Five young healthy subjects mimicked falls, and their signals of acceleration and angular velocity were monitored. Then, we developed a fall detection algorithm that could detect signals 300 ms before the fall. This signal was used as a trigger to inflate the airbag to a capacity of 2.4 L. The system has been manufactured but the accuracy was not 100% of operation. In this study we have improved fall detection algorithm to operate correctly in daily life.
Semantic-Conditioned Peripheral Vision Acuity Fading Awareness (PVAFA) BIBAKFull-Text 340-347
  Ming-Chia Wang; Manlai You
This is a pilot study report that explores one of the factors that influence one's awareness of the extent of vision acuity other than biological reasons. Semantic factor is chosen to put to test to match the tests' linguistic nature of words reading. Look-then-answer style of self-report method is adopted to better reflect this experiment's goal of understanding how one "consciously knows" his or her quality of vision at that moment of words reading. By comparisons of fixating and gazing at a two-character segment of a reading line set in forms of Chinese and Korean characters of right-reading and wrong-reading versions, it can be checked to see how semantic factors influence one's Peripheral Vision Acuity Fading Awareness (PVAFA). Results show the tendencies that partially support semantic-conditioned interpretations that: (1) the better a reading line's semantic meaning understood, e.g., native Chinese readers gaze at Chinese characters, the more peripheral visions smeared than gazing at Korean characters; (2) the harder the lexical information can be identified, i.e., gazing at wrong-reading characters (in this case, upside-down typesetting), the lenient the PVAFA effect to occur. A follow-up discussion stresses how semantic factors mingle with vision acuity awareness in a lab set-up is worthy further hypothesized to probe its broader implications on visual form perception in both real world situations and human-computer interacted environments.
Keywords: foveal visions; vision acuity; visual form perception; visual logics

Human Centered Design in Work, Business and Education

Culturally Situated Design Tools: Animated Support Tools for Mathematics BIBAKFull-Text 351-359
  Albanie T. Bolton; Cheryl D. Seals
Culturally Situated Design Tools (CSDTs) are web-based software applications that allow students to create simulations of cultural arts: Native American beadwork, African American cornrow hairstyles, urban graffiti, and so forth; using these underlying mathematical principles. CSDTs are the rationale of creating a set of culturally designed games utilizes gaming as a teaching tool to attract and instruct students with familiar methods and environments. The focus of this study is on Ron Eglash and others research on the indigenous design of various cultures using computer game simulations to teach math and computer science in the classroom sector. This study will review the development and evaluation of CSDTs, and discuss how various activities attempt to navigate through the potential dangers and rewards of this potent hybrid of information technology (CSDTs), traditional culture and individual creativity.
Keywords: Culturally Situated Design Tools (CSDTs); educational gaming; ethnomathematics; mathematics; culture; computing
Towards a Paperless Air Traffic Control Tower BIBAKFull-Text 360-368
  Tanja Bos; Marian Schuver-van Blanken; Hans Huisman
A prototype of an Electronic Flight Strip (EFS) system for air traffic controllers in the tower was developed in a participatory design process with rapid prototyping. The process which included five intermediate part task evaluations resulted in a prototype in which the existing working methods could be maintained. During a whole task evaluation of the EFS system in a tower simulator the usability of the EFS system was evaluated as well as the impact of the EFS system on strip hand-over, the controllers' mental picture and head-down time. It revealed that controllers were able to handle peak traffic with EFS after just 20 minutes of familiarization. Furthermore, the hand-over of traffic with EFSs was better supported according to the controllers. Nevertheless incoming strips were left unnoticed longer with EFSs and head-down time increased. For these reasons the support of the controllers' mental picture was rated slightly lower with EFSs. With small improvements and more familiarization the concept is considered ready for implementation.
Keywords: Air traffic control; Tower; Electronic Flight Strips (EFSs); Design; Evaluation; Simulation; Usability
A Design-Supporting Tool for Implementing the Learning-Based Approach: Accommodating Users' Domain Knowledge into Design Processes BIBAKFull-Text 369-378
  Jung-Min Choi; Keiichi Sato
In the current interactive product/system design, while users' acquisition of sufficient knowledge for operating a product or system is increasingly considered important, their acquisition of problem-solving knowledge in the task domain has largely been disregarded. Without enough domain knowledge, users will bot be able to learn how to creatively adjust their product us to produce satisfactory results and better experiences. This research aims to develop a methodology for designing interactive products/systems that can support users' development of domain knowledge through interaction. This new approach to user-product interaction is named the Learning-Based Approach (LBA). Based on the previous theoretical and empirical studies, this paper proposes some mechanisms for implementing the LBA. Then, a computer-based tool is developed in order to support designers' more effective and efficient application of the LBA mechanisms in design processes.
Keywords: users' domain knowledge; Learning-Based Approach; design-supporting system; interaction design methodology
A Methodical Approach for Developing Valid Human Performance Models of Flight Deck Operations BIBAFull-Text 379-388
  Brian F. Gore; Becky L. Hooey; Nancy Haan; Deborah L. Bakowski; Eric Mahlstedt
Validation is critically important when human performance models are used to predict the effect of future system designs on human performance. A model of flight deck operations was validated using a rigorous, iterative, model validation process. The process included the validation of model inputs (task trace and model input parameters), process models (workload, perception, and visual attention) and model outputs of human performance measures (including workload and visual attention). This model will be used to evaluate proposed changes to flight deck technologies and pilot procedures in the NextGen Closely Spaced Parallel Operations concept.
Building Human Profile by Aggregation of Activities -- Application to Aeronautics Safety BIBAFull-Text 389-396
  Laurent Chaudron; David Guéron; Nicolas Maille; Jean Caussanel
The work related here is devoted to the setup of a methodology regarding the study of polyvalent objects about which our knowledge is incomplete.
   It is concerned with the analysis and characterization of flights/flight maneuvers, considered from the standpoint of the involved human operators. The two following issues have been identified: 1) incompleteness, which comes from the second-hand nature of the recorded data that describes and situates the pilot's activity, and 2) variability of human sensations and reactions, as a result of which identical stimulations may cause different reactions and different observations may correspond to identical sensations/situations.
   Our aim is not to close up on the theoretical mechanisms of perception and preference but, based on these mechanisms, to obtain a behavioural model that will be used 1) to characterize observed patterns amongst the various recorded data, 2) to anticipate the patterns to be observed and to relate them to particular flight conditions.
   We introduce the three-step process of supervised aggregation, an aggregation driven by experts and expertise, which we successfully put into practice in the case of elementary turns. This process was developed aiming to convey characterizing and predictive power, notwithstanding the incompleteness and variability of observable data.
Building a Shared Cross-Cultural Learning Community for Visual Communication Design Education BIBAKFull-Text 397-406
  Takahito Kamihira; Miho Aoki; Tomoya Nakano
This paper discusses a case study of an educational online visual communication design project. The project is to develop an online platform, which facilitates cross-cultural communications and educational experiences for college-level students and educators in the visual communication design field in conjunction with information graphics assignments. The online system developed for this project allows students in visual design courses to share their class assignments and evaluate works posted by the members from other countries. The assignments are designed to encourage students to investigate the cultural differences and roles of images in visual communication design. The pedagogical value of the project is evaluated by analyzing user interview and survey results.
Keywords: Cultural Issues and Usability; Human Centered Design; Visual Communication; Infographics; Learning Community; Design Education
Expansion of the System of JSL-Japanese Electronic Dictionary: An Evaluation for the Compound Research System BIBAKFull-Text 407-416
  Tsutomu Kimura; Daisuke Hara; Kazuyuki Kanda; Kazunari Morimoto
We have developed the JSL-Japanese Electronic Dictionary System in which Japanese meaning of a signing was looked in and the corresponding signing video movie was displayed. Our system finds out the target sign through analyzing the phonological components of the sign. We failed to find "e-mail" or "medical doctor" in JSL which are daily used words, because these sings are compounds and the system did not include a compound searching system in it. This paper shows how we developed an enlarged model of the dictionary and result of the evaluation test.
Keywords: sign; Japanese; phoneme; dictionary; compound; database
Co-creation Process of Collaborative Work with Communication Robot BIBAKFull-Text 417-424
  Seita Koike; Takeshi Ogino; Sari Takamura; Tatsushi Miyaji; Yuki Miyajima; Daishi Kato; Koyo Uemura; Kazuo Kunieda; Keiji Yamada
This paper reports on fieldwork concerning co-creation among primary school students. The students brainstormed ideas and made a play using a robot as a prop. We observed their group decision-making process in creating their performance, and concluded that setting up a environment with some "order" is necessary, but freedom must also be preserved for organic decision-making. Our results showed that the Japanese children are 1) collaborative decision-makers (deciding not by majority or by a single leader), 2) avoid conflicts by relying on everyday experience to back their arguments, 3) require outside perspective of a facilitator, and 4) can have equal say if props are used.
Keywords: Robot; co-creation; collaboration; design; communication
Virtual Office, Community, and Computing (VOCC): Designing an Energy Science Hub Collaboration System BIBAKFull-Text 425-434
  April A. Lewis; Gilbert G. Weigand
The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) implements a management strategy that imbues physical collocation; community; collaboration; central leadership; multidisciplinary teams executing a single milestones-driven plan; and integrated, co-dependent projects. The CASL-streamlined management structure includes collocation at CASL, use of technology to achieve multidiscipline collaboration, video conferencing for meetings, and a VOCC project that integrates both the latest and emerging technologies to build an extended "virtual one roof." CASL is headquartered at ORNL, where the CASL leadership and a majority of the multidisciplinary, multi-institutional scientists and engineers will be located. Work performed at partner sites will be seamlessly integrated across the consortium on a real-time basis via community and computing (VOCC) capability that integrates both the latest and emerging technologies to build an extended "virtual one-roof" allowing multidisciplinary collaboration among CASL staff at all sites. The paper describes the VOCC collaboration system.
Keywords: User Centered Systems Design; Collaboration; Collaborative Virtual Environments; Collaborative Computing; Human Computer Interaction; Energy Science Hub
One of Industrial Design Case to Share Tacit Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 435-439
  Hisashi Shima
The objective of this research is to study the sharing of tacit knowledge, especially, in industrial design development teams. Nowadays, in-house design teams have to be more productive and efficient than they were previously even if inexperienced designers are working on the project. An important challenge in industrial design is to determine a suitable solution or compromise when many factors are involved. We tried to list the important factors involved in finalizing a design and shared these factors with an industrial design team. Experienced and inexperienced designers were made to assign AHP (analytic hierarchy process) scores based on this list according to their personal understanding. First product was not enough same score of AHP, but three times more closed, it is assumed the more and more shared tacit knowledge, with this process.
Keywords: tacit design knowledge; product development; brand design; tacit dimension; empathy development; usability
Task Analysis for Behavioral Factors Evaluation in Work System Design BIBAKFull-Text 440-448
  Lingyan Wang; Henry Y. K. Lau
This paper deals with the application and development of a systematic methodology called Task Analysis which is based on the analytical investigation of the task allocation processes and bottlenecks in terms of work system goals, in order to evaluate synergy between worker's essential motions and mental activities of different functional levels which contributes to conduct worker's adaptive behavioral performances during the execution of production operation. A comprehensive consideration of adopting this approach to analyze some key behavioral factors in work system design is expanded to acquire consecutive work performance feedback, determine the instructional work goals, describe the detailed work flowchart, structure the clear interaction assessment, improve the standard procedures, and supply the useful criteria.
Keywords: Hierarchical Task Analysis; Cognitive Work Analysis; Behavioral Factors; Work System Design
Understanding the Business Realities: An Interview Technique Which Can Visualize the Job Problems BIBAKFull-Text 449-457
  Ayako Yajima; Yuji Shiino; Toshiki Yamaoka
We have developed the Customer Satisfaction (CS) Gap interview and analysis method. This method is based on ethno-cognitive interview and analysis method which is a method to grasp the business reality. For using this method, we tried that it was applicable in visualization in gap and an analysis of consciousness of customer satisfaction between receiving services and offering services. We interviewed six people and the time required about per 1 person for 1.5 hours. We carried out it both Service recipient side that felt law customer satisfaction and service provided (that is ourselves). As a result there is a clear difference in the value of the CS, we are able to catch CS gap structurally.
Keywords: Customer satisfaction; qualitative and quantitative method; CS gap; framework; Cognitive psychology; ethnography; ethno-cognitive interview

Applications of Human Centered Design

Nonspeech Sound Design for a Hierarchical Information System BIBAFull-Text 461-470
  Rafa Absar; Catherine Guastavino
This research describes a human-centered design methodology for creating nonspeech sounds to enhance navigation in a visual user interface. This paper describes how the sound design methodology proposed in [10][11] was extended to sonify a novel 3D-visualized information system for sighted users navigating a hierarchical structure. The method ensures that the sounds designed are not based on personal or ad hoc choices, and instead exploits the creativity of a user group as an application of participatory design in sound. Recommendations are derived from this case study on how to design auditory cues for familiar or novel user interfaces to convey structural information in an informative and intuitive way.
Social Networking Applications: Smarter Product Design for Complex Human Behaviour Modeling BIBAKFull-Text 471-480
  Tareq Z. Ahram; Waldemar Karwowski
The advent and adoption of internet-based social networking has significantly altered our daily lives. The educational community has taken notice of the positive aspects of social networking such as creation of blogs and to support groups of system designers going through the same challenges and difficulties. This paper introduces a social networking framework for collaborative education, design and modeling of the next generation of smarter products and services. Human behaviour modeling in social networking application aims to ensure that human considerations for learners and designers have a prominent place in the integrated design and development of sustainable, smarter products throughout the total system lifecycle. Social networks blend self-directed learning and prescribed, existing information. The self-directed element creates interest within a learner and the ability to access existing information facilitates its transfer, and eventual retention of knowledge acquired.
Keywords: Smart Products; service systems; Systems Engineering; Social Networking
Usability Tests for Improvement of 3D Navigation in Multiscale Environments BIBAKFull-Text 481-490
  Tathiane Mendonça Andrade; Daniel Ribeiro Trindade; Eduardo Ribeiro Silva; Alberto Barbosa Raposo; Simone Diniz Junqueira Barbosa
The interest in virtual 3D environments has increased in the past years due to the popularization of the technology and the huge human ability to visually convey and grasp information. However, unlike the real world, 3D navigation, especially in multiscale environments, is no longer natural to humans, becoming confusing and resulting in unpleasant experiences. To improve the quality of the users' navigation in and across multiscale 3D environments, three techniques were developed, based on a structure called cubemap. The 3D application chosen to apply these techniques was the Petrobras 3D System for Integrated Visualization in Exploration and Production (SiVIEP). This paper describes and reports the evaluation of these three techniques, using usability tests, which were performed to validate the more adaptable solution, ensuring the efficiency of the proposed techniques in assisting and facilitating the task of 3D navigation.
Keywords: 3D Navigation; Multiscale Environments; Usability; Cubemap
SemaZoom: Semantics Exploration by Using a Layer-Based Focus and Context Metaphor BIBAKFull-Text 491-499
  Dirk Burkhardt; Kawa Nazemi; Matthias Breyer; Christian Stab; Arjan Kuijper
The Semantic Web is a powerful technology for organizing the data in our information based society. The collection and organization of information is an important step for showing important information to interested people. But the usage of such semantic-based data sources depends on effective and efficient information visualizations. Currently different kinds of visualizations in general and visualization metaphors do exist. Many of them are also applied for semantic data source, but often they are designed for semantic web experts and neglecting the normal user and his perception of an easy useable visualization. This kind of user needs less information, but rather a reduced qualitative view on the data. These two aspects of large amount of existing data and one for normal users easy to understand visualization is often not reconcilable. In this paper we create a concept for a visualization to show a bigger set of information to such normal users without overstraining them, because of layer-based data visualization, next to an integration of a Focus and Context metaphor.
Keywords: Human-Computer-Interfaces; Semantics Visualization; Information Visualization; Semantic Web
Scientometric Analysis of Research in Smart Clothing: State of the Art and Future Direction BIBAKFull-Text 500-508
  Kyeyoun Choi; Huiju Park; Eui-Seob Jeong; Semra Peksoz
The purposes of this study were to investigate research trends on smart textile and clothing and to suggest future research directions on smart textile and clothing by using scientometrics approach. The research of smart clothing was divided into five categories: technology, human factors, application, manufacturing, and consumer demands and retailing. Technology emerged as the dominant category suggesting technological development of smart materials and wearable input devices have been intensively studied and have provided a solid foundation for smart clothing research. The number of research on output devices and data and power transportation showed a gradually increasing trend since 2000. Analysis on technical collaboration among each research field showed a high correlation between input technology and the three main categories: smart materials, functional application and, manufacturing. Material sciences, electronic engineering and computer sciences were shown to be major research disciplines to lead smart clothing research based on quantity of publications.
Keywords: Smart Clothing; Scientometrics; Technology; Research
An Experimental Study of Home Page Design on Green Electronic Products Web Site BIBAKFull-Text 509-518
  Fei-Hui Huang
The objective of this study is to understand users' electronic commerce needs and expectations in order to elicit the design requirements of a useful Web home page interface centered on green electronic products (GEP). In this study, an experiment was conducted to investigate the user needs captured by their external and mental patterns in order to apply them to the user-oriented Web home page design. The importance of Web site and home page design including gender differences have been found in this experiment and from the experimental results. Finally, consideration for designing a useful home page for a Web site are summarized as follows: (1) the home page design should be easy-to-use, easy-to-understand, and easy-to-digest and clearly show the Web structure and site purpose to users; (2) the home page should be streamlined to show information more efficiently; (3) gender differences should be considered in Web site and page design to meet different types of users' needs.
Keywords: User-centered interface design; green electronic products; user-Web interaction; Web pages design
Attribute Description Service for Large-Scale Networks BIBAKFull-Text 519-528
  Donald Kline; John Quan
An analysis of requesting resources from large-scale networks reveals a fundamental challenge. As the network grows, more and more resources become available, and so finding resources that fit experimental test criteria becomes difficult and time consuming. For example, the National Science Foundation sponsors GENI -- an experimental network with a goal to gain enough resources to model the Internet at scale. Currently, GENI contains relatively few contributed resources donated from businesses and academia, and so matching resources to tests is rather simple. However, experimenters plan to conduct network experiments that are very complex and difficult to accurately model by using the vast numbers of resources expected in GENI. When GENI reaches its final state, finding the right resources that fit experimental test criteria out of many thousands of donated resources may be as difficult as conducting the experiment itself. This dilemma underscores the importance of establishing an attribute description service that promotes a standardized language for all interactions between the end users and the large-scale network.
Keywords: Database; Data dictionary; Design; Human Factors; Standardization; Languages; Attribute; control framework; component; GENI; Large-Scale Network; resource; classification
Study of Honest Signal: Bringing Unconscious Channel of Communication into Awareness through Interactive Prototype BIBAKFull-Text 529-536
  YounJung Kwak; Tiia Suomalainen; Jussi Mikkonen
Efforts are made to understand people in the context of their social network; especially in unconsciously carried communication channel which Alex S. Pentland coined as 'honest signal'. This project explored 'optimizing honest signals to lessen gap between intended expression and received impression' through designed technology device. Experiment setting was controlled into 'presentation-speech situation', developed in three phases. Phase 1 was basic research, testing impressions given by postures and finding significant body-part for honest signal. In phase 2 'where and how person will be given feedback through designed device to aware his/her unconscious movement' was progressed. In Phase 3, finalized prototype-headset and shoes evaluation test was made to check if prototype helped user to control honest signal during presentation by notifying such movement. This study has tested that if people have more awareness to honest signals they are sending, they are capable of enhancing control over signals. It will enable people to optimize signals, collecting more of wanted impression than not. In communication aspect, it offers new potentials interactive device or interaction can do for people, by making what was not cognitive into realizable signals or by making certain messages stronger.
Keywords: Communication channel; honest signal; unconscious movement; interactive prototype; psychology reflexive; behavior feedback; behavior control
Designing of an Effective Monitor Partitioning System with Adjustable Virtual Bezel BIBAKFull-Text 537-546
  Sang-Su Lee; Hyunjeong Kim; Yong-Ki Lee; Minseok Sim; Kun-Pyo Lee
We suggested a new monitor environment with an adjustable virtual partition in order to incorporate advantages from both the multiple monitor and single monitor. We conducted a user study by making a prototype. Results showed that the prototypes enhanced the user work performance while it reduced the temporal demand. We believe that our design suggestion and the user study results can make a contribution to future single large monitor distributions from the user's need of a bigger screen which provides a more immersive experience, as well as to a new computing environment such as laptops and tabletop computing that does not allow multiple monitor establishments.
Keywords: Window management; Interface design; Multiple monitor; large monitor; partitioning
Bridging the Social Media Usage Gap from Old to New: An Elderly Media Interpersonal and Social Research in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 547-555
  Shih-Hsun Lin; Wen Huei Chou
Understanding the media usage and interpersonal communication that the elderly have been familiar with is valuable for designing social media for the elderly. We conducted interviews for acquiring the data about attitudes and behaviors of the elderly, and then analyzed the transcripts to discover the patterns of the elderly in media usage and social life. The findings show that in media usage our subjects prefer watching TV and contacting people with phone/mobile phone in their leisure time. Also they prefer the habitually daily routine of watching TV in the living room although they appreciate the flexible selectivity of using a computer, but have difficulties with these new media. Activities such as weddings and funerals remain the important chances to retrieve relatives, and physical contact still remains the primary interaction for elders. Fitting in with the elderly habits in daily life to design is discussed.
Keywords: elderly; social media; media usage; media communication; interpersonal communication
Research in the Use of Product Semantics to Communicate Product Design Information BIBAKFull-Text 556-565
  Chung-Hung Lin
In the past twenty years, following the transformation of industrial technology and structure, needs created by modern life, issues regarding environment protection, and simply new ways of thinking have revolutionized the core value of product design. There is more to be considered than just the convenience that a product can bring. Consumers nowadays also want to learn how to use a new product in the most efficient way, and many industrial designers see that as one of their goals. The use of Product Semantics in product design is a proper means to communicate the information that consumers need in order to improve their overall experience using the product. Recent research focuses on the application of product design semantics, in order to discover how designers convey messages through the use of semantics, i.e. styles, colors, functions and textures, etc. It seeks to determine how the best way for the designer to communicate all that information to the consumer. A designer want the user to be able to operate his product under "zero obstacle" conditions, to understand the message the product carries, and to enhance the consumer's pleasure and comfort during its operation. From the perspective of industrial design, there are two summarized main points:
   1. Product design is now defined as a system to communicate product information based mainly on product use circumstances.
   2. The message that a product carries has become the most important factor throughout the design process.
Keywords: Product design; product semantics; message communication; designer
Adapting User Interfaces by Analyzing Data Characteristics for Determining Adequate Visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 566-575
  Kawa Nazemi; Dirk Burkhardt; Alexander Praetorius; Matthias Breyer; Arjan Kuijper
Today the information visualization takes in an important position, because it is required in nearly every context where large databases have to be visualized. For this challenge new approaches are needed to allow the user an adequate access to these data. Static visualizations are only able to show the data without any support to the users, which is the reason for the accomplished researches to adaptive user-interfaces, in particular for adaptive visualizations. By these approaches the visualizations were adapted to the users' behavior, so that graphical primitives were change to support a user e.g. by highlighting user-specific entities, which seems relevant for a user. This approach is commonly used, but it is limited on changes for just a single visualization. Modern heterogeneous data providing different kinds of aspects, which modern visualizations try to regard, but therefore a user often needs more than a single visualization for making an information retrieval. In this paper we describe a concept for adapting the user-interface by selecting visualizations in dependence to automatically generated data characteristics. So visualizations will be chosen, which are fitting well to the generated characteristics. Finally the user gets an aquatically arranged set of visualizations as initial point of his interaction through the data.
Keywords: Adaptive Visualizations; Human-Centered Interfaces; Human-Computer-Interfaces; Semantics Visualization
User-Oriented Graph Visualization Taxonomy: A Data-Oriented Examination of Visual Features BIBAKFull-Text 576-585
  Kawa Nazemi; Matthias Breyer; Arjan Kuijper
Presenting information in a user-oriented way has a significant impact on the success and comprehensibility of data visualizations. In order to correctly and comprehensibly visualize data in a user-oriented way data specific aspects have to be considered. Furthermore, user-oriented perception characteristics are decisive for the fast and proper interpretation of the visualized data. In this paper we present a taxonomy for graph visualization techniques. On the one hand it provides the user-oriented identification of applicable visual features for given data to be visualized. On the other hand the set of visualization techniques is enclosed which supports these identified visual features. Thus, the taxonomy supports the development of user-oriented visualizations by examination of data to obtain a beneficial association of data to visual features.
Keywords: graph visualization taxonomy; user-oriented visualization; visual features
Towards Compositional Design and Evaluation of Preference Elicitation Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 586-596
  Alina Pommeranz; Pascal Wiggers; Catholijn M. Jonker
Creating user preference models has become an important endeavor for HCI. Forming a preference profile is a constructive process in the user's mind depending on use context as well as a user's thinking and information processing style. We believe a one-style-fits-all approach to the design of these interfaces is not sufficient in supporting users in constructing an accurate profile. We present work towards a compositional design approach that will lead designers in the creation of preference elicitation interfaces. The core of the approach is a set of elements created based on design principles and cognitive styles of the user. Given the use context of the preference elicitation suitable elements can be identified and strategically combined into interfaces. The interfaces will be evaluated in an iterative, compositional way by target users to reach a desired outcome interface.
Keywords: Compositional Design; Preference Elicitation; Interface Design
Secure Online Game Play with Token: A Case Study in the Design of Multi-factor Authentication Device BIBAFull-Text 597-605
  Shinji R. Yamane
Online game security is often discussed, but, in game development, security factors are tend to be an afterthought. It is helpful to consider the unique perspectives of the game designer, security engineer, and game player all together in the game development process. In this paper, we present a framework for a formal approach to understand the security interface. We also try to integrate different perspectives when analyzing cases which use a hardware security token for online games. This interface-level analysis of security attempts to achieve two goals: Firstly, to make the security in online gaming not merely an add-on feature but an integrated part of game development. Secondly, to bridge the gap between game design and security technology and allow the game designer and security engineer to collaborate toward their particular goals.