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HCD Tables of Contents: 0911

HCD 2009: 1st International Conference on Human Centered Design

Fullname:HCD 2009: 1st International Conference on Human Centered Design
Note:Volume 10 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Masaaki Kurosu
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5619
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02805-2 (print), 978-3-642-02806-9 (online); hcibib: HCD09
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Usability and User Experience
  2. Methods and Techniques for HCD
  3. Understanding Diverse Human Needs and Requirements
  4. HCD in Industry
  5. HCD for Web-Based Applications and Services
  6. User Involvement and Participatory Methods
  7. HCD at Work

Usability and User Experience

Performance-Based Usability Testing: Metrics That Have the Greatest Impact for Improving a System's Usability BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Robert W. Bailey; Cari A. Wolfson; Janice Nall; Sanjay Koyani
Usability testing methods and results have evolved over the last 35 years. With new advancements being introduced every year, it is important to understand the present state of the field and opportunities for further improvement. This paper will detail the research-based methods and metrics which are being used to ensure that usability recommendations are data-driven and performance-based. By focusing on the types of usability metrics being captured during usability tests, we will attempt to illustrate how usability researchers can quantifiably measure the performance of a system, use these measurements to make meaningful changes, and subsequently illustrate the improvements in user effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.
Keywords: Usability testing; Usability metrics; Effectiveness; Efficiency; Satisfaction; FirstClick; Usability methods
Extending Quality in Use to Provide a Framework for Usability Measurement BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Nigel Bevan
ISO has recently developed a new more comprehensive definition of quality in use, which has usability, flexibility and safety as subcharacteristics that can be quantified from the perspectives of different stakeholders, including users, managers and maintainers. While this provides a more complete set of requirements for operational use of a product, it also presents new challenges for measurement.
Keywords: Standards; usability; quality in use; requirements; measurement; safety
Combining Fast-Paced Usability and Scientific Testing to Improve the Lunar Quest Physics Game BIBAKFull-Text 23-26
  Holly Blasko-Drabik; James Bohnsack; Clint A. Bowers
This study focuses on conducting fast-paced in-house testing in combination with user comments and scores on the Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction (QUIS) to provide a better educational game. The standard QUIS was shortened and focused to be more sensitive to aspects of our educational game. The game, Lunar Quest, was created at the University of Central Florida as a supplemental instruction tool that would provide students with examples of several different Physics concepts while being an enjoyable and fun game. Overall the modified version of the QUIS was not successful in determining which categories of the game should be targeted, although the open ended questions did help our researchers focus the game redesign and showed improvement throughout the testing period.
Keywords: Usability; QUIS; Serious Games; Learning
Considering User Knowledge in the Evaluation of Training System Usability BIBAKFull-Text 27-30
  Clint A. Bowers; Janis A. Cannon-Bowers; Talib S. Hussain
A variety of software-based systems are being used as training media. There is not, however, an accepted approach to evaluating the usability of these systems. Traditional usability approaches can be employed with some effectiveness, but they may lack appropriate specificity for use in training. In this paper, we evaluate whether assessing, and remediating, gaps in learner knowledge might be an important addition to training system evaluation. The results suggest that remediating knowledge gaps might lead to more accurate usability conclusions.
Keywords: Learner-centered design; usability; training
Engaging Experience: A New Perspective of User Experience with Physical Products BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Chun-Juei Chou; Chris Conley
Engaging experience is a specific kind of experience that a user acquires when and after using a product frequently, intensively, actively, vividly, and completely, etc. For example, if the appearance of a toaster is completely transparent, a user can see how the bread changes from white to brown. The transparent sides stage the toasting process as a visually engaging performance. To expand on engaging experience, this paper presents the definition of engaging experience, example products that engage users, the classification and instinctiveness of engaging experience, and product properties that foster engaging experience.
Keywords: Engaging experience; user experience; product experience; user-product interaction; user-product relationship
User-Centered Mouse Access Evaluation Design: Windows-Based Simulation Technology BIBAKFull-Text 41-45
  Chi Nung Chu
This paper introduces a Windows-Based Simulation Technology (WBST) to monitor user's interaction with computer through a mouse. This design could evaluate a client's pointing and selecting proficiency by measuring the cursor movement and motion control. The simulated Windows-based task operations require the client synthesize four basic types of mouse operating skills, including clicking, cursor moving, cursor moving and clicking, and dragging. The WBST can record the positions and responses of a mouse during any specific task. It can also rebuild the recorded results of cursor moving and motion control on the screen. The WBST not only provides the clinical professionals with more detailed information to evaluate the specific difficulties of manipulating mouse for a client, but also allows engineers to design adaptive input device for the people with special needs.
Keywords: Windows-Based Simulation Technology
Engaging and Adaptive: Going beyond Ease of Use BIBAFull-Text 46-54
  Kevin A. Clark
Making products and services easier to use is a durable goal, yet will likely be insufficient to meet the expectations of a new generation of customers. This paper suggests "ease-of-use" be augmented with the goal of being "engaging and adaptive" for products, services, and the overall experience people have with organizations that provide them. Being intentional and using design thinking can be used to deliver engaging and adaptive experiences to customers around the world.
Usability Evaluation of Mp3/CD Players: A Multi-Criteria Decision Making Approach BIBAKFull-Text 55-64
  Ergün Eraslan
Globalization and the competition obliged the user-oriented design today. In the last years, usability has become a highly important research subject. Usability, considering user satisfaction along with the user performance, is one of the key factors in determining the success of a product in today's competitive market. Product usability is a prerequisite for high customer satisfaction and future sales of companies. Mp3 players and portable CD players are selected for this study since usability is highly important for them. Designing a usable mp3 or CD player is extremely important for users who have close interaction with them. In this study, 14 different mp3/CD players are selected and their usability is analyzed. The usability criteria used in the mp3/CD players' evaluation are divided into two major categories: performance and emotional expectations. The best alternative is determined with three different multi-criteria decision making methods which are TOPSIS, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), and Fuzzy Axiomatic Design Theory (FADT). Although the same data obtained from semantic differential experiment are used for all multi-criteria decision making methods, different rankings are obtained from each method.
Keywords: Usability; TOPSIS; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP); Fuzzy Axiomatic Design Theory (FADT); Semantic Differential Scale
From Usability to Playability: Introduction to Player-Centred Video Game Development Process BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  José Luis González Sánchez; Natalia Padilla Zea; Francisco L. Gutiérrez
While video games have traditionally been considered simple entertainment devices, nowadays they occupy a privileged position in the leisure and entertainment market, representing the fastest-growing industry globally. We regard the video game as a special type of interactive system whose principal aim is to provide the player with fun and entertainment. In this paper we will analyse how, in Video Games context, Usability alone is not sufficient to achieve the optimum Player Experience. It needs broadening and deepening, to embrace further attributes and properties that identify and describe the Player Experience. We present our proposed means of defining Playability. We also introduce the notion of Facets of Playability. Each facet will allow us to characterize the Playability easily, and associate them with the different elements of a video game. To guarantee the optimal Player Experience, Playability needs to be assessed throughout the entire video game development process, taking a Player-Centred Video Game Design approach.
Keywords: Video Games; Playability; Usability; Interactive Systems; User Experience
Mapping of Usability Guidelines onto User's Temporal Viewpoint Matrix BIBAKFull-Text 75-83
  Tadashi Kobayashi; Hiromasa Nakatani
There are many sets of usability guidelines that could be used to quantitatively evaluate products or systems. There were, however, no quantitative means so far to evaluate a set of usability guidelines by comparing with another set of usability guidelines of an established reputation. In this paper, a new evaluation method of usability guidelines is introduced and verified as an applicable evaluation method to all kinds of usability guidelines. Our method has characteristics of employing two temporal scales, forming a user's temporal viewpoint matrix with a scale of utilization timeline and a scale of applied principles, as the means of improving the comparison accuracy. By comparing the graph patterns for each scale, we can provide a means of qualitative evaluation of the targeted guidelines; by comparing the computed similarity value of user's temporal viewpoint matrix, we can provide a means of quantitative evaluation of the targeted guidelines.
Keywords: Usability guidelines; quantitative evaluation; temporal viewpoint; usability principles; utilization pattern
A Study on User Centered Game Evaluation Guideline Based on the MIPA Framework BIBAKFull-Text 84-93
  Jinah Lee; Chang-Young Im
The purpose of this experiment was to identify the relative benefits of the usability checklist and to investigate how the identified usability problems varied by groups. From our experience, there are no structured game frameworks for user interface design. This is why evaluation methods are important in the game development process. The MIPA framework can perform efficient evaluations and correctly identify as many usability defects as possible. Also, accurate evaluations earlier in the design phase can save money and time. Therefore the result is an effective task-oriented usability evaluation checklist that is easy to learn and apply for not only experts but also non experts.
Keywords: MIPA framework; user interface; game design
The Factor Structure of the System Usability Scale BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
  James R. Lewis; Jeff Sauro
Since its introduction in 1986, the 10-item System Usability Scale (SUS) has been assumed to be unidimensional. Factor analysis of two independent SUS data sets reveals that the SUS actually has two factors -- Usable (8 items) and Learnable (2 items -- specifically, Items 4 and 10). These new scales have reasonable reliability (coefficient alpha of .91 and .70, respectively). They correlate highly with the overall SUS (r = .985 and .784, respectively) and correlate significantly with one another (r = .664), but at a low enough level to use as separate scales. A sensitivity analysis using data from 19 tests had a significant Test by Scale interaction, providing additional evidence of the differential utility of the new scales. Practitioners can continue to use the current SUS as is, but, at no extra cost, can also take advantage of these new scales to extract additional information from their SUS data. The data support the use of "awkward" rather than "cumbersome" in Item 8.
Keywords: System Usability Scale; SUS; factor analysis; psychometric evaluation; subjective usability measurement; usability; learnability; usable; learnable
Validating a Standardized Usability/User-Experience Maturity Model: A Progress Report BIBAKFull-Text 104-109
  Aaron Marcus; Richard Gunther; Randy Sieffert
The authors report on ongoing work in developing a usability/user-experience maturity model, in particular, the results of a workshop about this subject held at the Usability Professionals Association 2009 national conference.
Keywords: Business; design; experience; maturity; model; usability; user
Defining Expected Behavior for Usability Testing BIBAKFull-Text 110-119
  Stefan Propp; Peter Forbrig
Within HCI task models are widely used for development and evaluation of interactive systems. Current evaluation approaches provide support for capturing performed tasks and for analyzing them in comparison to a usability experts' captured behavior. Analyzing the amount of data works fine for the evaluation of smaller systems, but becomes cumbersome and time-consuming for larger systems. Our developed method aims at making the implicitly existing expectations of a usability expert explicit to pave the way for automatically identifying candidates for usability issues. We have enhanced a CTT-like task modeling notation with a language to express expected behavior of test users. We present tool support to graphically compose expectations and to integrate them into the usability evaluation process.
Keywords: Usability Evaluation; Task Models
Interaction Techniques for Binding Smartphones: A Desirability Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 120-128
  Umar Rashid; Aaron J. Quigley
This paper reports on the use of guided interviews to evaluate the desirability of different interaction techniques for binding smartphones. We demonstrate five interaction techniques using storyboard sketches and cardboard prototypes of iPhones. The participants highlight five words from a list of adjectives that best describe their experience with each technique. For comparative evaluation, we group the highlighted adjectives for all techniques into a list of nouns and let the participants rank each technique on a 5-point Lickert scale with respect to these nouns. We discuss the implications of these results for the design of interaction techniques for smartphones.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing; spontaneous connection; smartphone; co-located collaboration; desirability evaluation
A Usability Inspection of Medication Management in Three Personal Health Applications BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Katie A. Siek; Danish Ullah Khan; Stephen E. Ross
We present the findings of a cognitive walkthrough inspection on three Personal Health Applications (PHAs). Two of the PHAs, Google Health and Microsoft HealthVault, are general purpose PHAs that are freely available to the general public. The last PHA, Colorado Care Tablet, is a prototype PHA that was designed specifically for older adults to manage their medication information. Older adults need a way to manage medications and share this information with their caregivers and healthcare providers to avoid complications during transitions of care. PHAs provide people with the ability to collect and share health information. However, given the problems older adults have with navigating applications and web pages, we needed to inspect currently available PHAs and identify problems older adults may have when using them for medication management before conducting user studies. Based on our findings, we encourage the design community to place more of an emphasis on interface consistency and tightly coupling information with links.
Keywords: Usability Inspection Methods; Cognitive Walkthrough; Personal Health Applications; Personal Health Records
Designing a Lighting with Pleasure BIBAKFull-Text 139-146
  Tyan-Yu Wu; Wen-Chih Chang; Yuan-Hao Hsu
Lighting plays an important role in the enhancement of atmosphere in a house. It provides not only a luminous function, but also experiencing pleasure in the space. This study investigated the type of pleasure and its factors towards lighting. An interview was conducted to collect the responses of pleasurable feelings from 10 participants. From 250 images, 10 were extracted as stimuli for the interviews. Data analysis was used to group key sentences obtained from the responses and the results produced 7 factors which could be categorized into four types of pleasure: Appearance, Interactive, Reflective, and Novelty Pleasure. Among them, the responses related to appearance pleasure were mentioned most frequently and could elicit a consumer's pleasure, which also confirm Creusen's theory. The four pleasures can associate with Jordan and Norman's pleasure/ emotion. Particularly mentioned, novelty pleasure is distinguished from other two theories. Designer can utilize four types of pleasure in designing a lighting with pleasure as possible.
Keywords: Pleasure; Lighting design; Pleasurable product
Plugging the Holes: Increasing the Impact of User Experience Evaluations BIBAKFull-Text 147-156
  Sachin S. Yambal; Sushmita Munshi
The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the APRICOT methodology that aims to streamline and increase the effectiveness of user experience initiatives within a development project and in the final solution. User Experience (UE) evaluations, both heuristic based and usability testing based are important skills and a crucial part of a practitioner's tool kit. They showcase the inadequacies in an application or system. Close inspection of projects which have used User Experience evaluations reveal that only a small percentage of User Experience recommendations actually make it into the final product. This substantially reduces the ROI for User Experience contribution. The APRICOT concept is work in progress and aims to make User Experience evaluation more effective by better integrating UE practitioners and aligning the processes and methodology with one used by development teams.
Keywords: ROI of Usability; User Experience Reviews; Institutionalizing Usability

Methods and Techniques for HCD

Elicitation of User Requirements for Mobile Interaction with Visual and RFID Tags: A Prototype-Based Exploratory Study BIBAKFull-Text 159-166
  Margarita Anastassova; Oscar Mayora-Ibarra
This paper presents a preliminary prototype-based elicitation of user requirements for mobile interaction with a public display using visual and RFID-tags. The study is based on the use of a demonstration and two applications scenarios as means for encouraging user requirements elicitation. The results show that the prototype, its demonstration and the examples of possible applications are very useful for the users: they express a large number of requirements, which, are furthermore, quite original.
Keywords: Emerging Technologies; Innovation; Mobile Interaction; Prototype Evaluation; User Requirements; Visual Tags
The Physiological User's Response as a Clue to Assess Visual Variables Effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 167-176
  Mickaël Causse; Christophe Hurter
The paper deals with the introduction of Bertin's visual variables in an ATC context. The ranking of the efficiency of these variables has been experimentally verified by Cleveland, however, no studies highlight the physiological correlates of this ranking. We analyzed behavioral, physiological and subjective data recorded on 7 healthy subjects facing a visual comparison task witch involve 5 selected visual characterizations (angle, text, surface, framed rectangles and luminosity). Results showed that the observed accuracy was coherent with Mackinlay ranking of visual variables. Psychophysiological and subjective measurements are also discussed.
Keywords: Bertin's visual variables; Emotion; Mental load; Psychophysiological response
A Photo Correlation Map Using Mobile AP II for Scenario-Based Design BIBAKFull-Text 177-183
  Yu-Li Chuang; Makoto Okamoto
We aim to explore a potentially valuable tool for scenario writing, focusing on the collection of user experiences organized around photos. We have developed a tool, Mobile AP II, to produce a comprehensive context classification based on a sample scenario to demonstrate how the context of photos and their relationships can be integrated to assist with scenario-based design. An efficient scenario-building technique for concept development and design leads to a simple user-modeling framework whereby the Mobile AP II system can learn to display query results based on photo relationships provided by the designer. The resulting retrieval, browsing and visualization can adapt to the user's selection of content, context and preferences in style and interactive navigation. Our purpose is to develop rich and flexible methods and concepts that can incorporate users' descriptions and their current and potential use of a scenario into the very design reasoning about such a system.
Keywords: Activity probes; Scenario-based design; Photo category
Accelerating the Knowledge Innovation Process BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Guillermo Cortes Robles; Giner Alor-Hernández; Alberto A. Aguilar-Lasserre; Rubén Posada-Gómez
The generation of ideas or new concepts is the steppingstone of the innovation process. Nevertheless the transformation of those ideas in new or improved products, services or processes demands the mobilization of a huge diversity of knowledge. In this document is proposed the integration of the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) and the Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) process in order to conceive a solving process capable to guide creativity while generating innovative solutions and also to store, index and reuse knowledge with the aim to accelerate the innovation process.
Keywords: Innovation; TRIZ; CBR; Knowledge; Problem Solving Process
What Properties Make Scenarios Useful in Design for Usability? BIBAKFull-Text 193-201
  Kentaro Go
As described herein, we propose heuristics of scenario for designing usable products. From a structural viewpoint, a similarity exists between the definition of usability in ISO 9241-11 and the concept of scenario for designing a product, which suggests what elements a scenario should include and how designers should incorporate it into a human-centered design process. Particularly, this paper presents the argument that a scenario should include what a user accomplishes, sees, hears, and thinks, and how the user does them so that designers become capable of evaluating the effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction of goal achievement from a usability perspective.
Keywords: Guideline; heuristics; human-centered design; scenario; scenario-based design; usability
A Method for Consistent Design of User Interaction with Multifunction Devices BIBAKFull-Text 202-211
  Dong San Kim; Wan Chul Yoon
Over the last decade, feature creep and the convergence of multiple devices have increased the complexity of both design and use. One way to reduce the complexity of a device without sacrificing its features is to design the UI consistently. However, designing consistent user interface of a multifunction device often becomes a formidable task, especially when the logical interaction is concerned. This paper presents a systematic method for consistent design of user interaction, called CUID (Consistent User Interaction Design), and validates its usefulness through a case study. CUID, focusing on ensuring consistency of logical interaction rather than physical or visual interfaces, employs a constraint-based interactive approach. It strives for consistency as the main goal, but also considers efficiency and safety of use. CUID will reduce the cognitive complexity of the task of interaction design to help produce devices that are easier to learn and use.
Keywords: Interaction design method; consistency; constraint-based design
A Mobile Application for Survey Reports: An Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 212-220
  Daniel Kohlsdorf; Michael Lawo; Michael Boronowsky
In manufacturing processes damages occur caused by humans or machines. These damages have to be reported and documented, e.g. to enable a manufacturer to react in quality circles. The first part of this paper describes the process of creating survey reports. Furthermore a customized solution designed for mobile survey reports is introduced. In the second part this paper describes and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of this mobile solution in an automotive industry setting.
Keywords: Smart phone; survey reports; automobile manufacturer
Integrating User Experience into a Software Development Company -- A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 221-229
  Tobias Komischke
Establishing an user experience (UX) practice is an endeavor that more and more companies engage in to increase their market success. While there is a rich knowledge base on UX processes and methods, practical tips and tricks for starting up a corporate UX culture are harder to find. This paper summarizes best practices, recommendations and experiences from other companies and traces our own efforts and thoughts while integrating UX into our company.
Keywords: Usability; User Experience; Case Study; Organizational Aspects
Full Description Persona vs. Trait List Persona in the Persona-Based sHEM Approach BIBAKFull-Text 230-238
  Masaaki Kurosu
Instead of the usual persona method (full description persona), a new type of persona (trait list persona) was proposed for the purpose of covering the wide variety of possible users. These two persona methods were then used to anticipate problems that might occur by applying sHEM (structured heuristic evaluation method) that is one of the inspection methods. In other words, it was not necessary to create the full descriptive scenario but just the possible lists of problems that are similar to the pMS (problem micro scenario) of micro scenario method were described.
Keywords: Full description persona; trait list persona; scenario; sHEM; pMS
Organized Reframing Process with Video Ethnography: A Case Study of Students' Design Project for New Interface Concept from Research to Visualization BIBAKFull-Text 239-246
  Katsuhiko Kushi
Ethnographical research is a recent trend in design profession field, but its open-ended approach does not always bring effective solutions, especially when a novice design student executes it. Inspired by Jacob Buur's video ethnography, the author revised the approach and applied it to a design project sponsored by a corporation. The project goal set by the company was vague enough for students to lose a consistent direction, however, with this method they could find underlying needs and created a set of attractive solution ideas to the client company.
   This report will describe how the project went and generate results, and finally, discuss the possibility of design with video ethnography.
Keywords: Video ethnography; interface design; GUI; user need
Animated Demonstrations: Evidence of Improved Performance Efficiency and the Worked Example Effect BIBAKFull-Text 247-255
  David Lewis; Ann Barron
The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of animated demonstrations, to determine if those using animated demonstrations would exhibit the worked example effect [1], and a delayed performance decrement, described as Palmiter's animation deficit [2], [3]. The study measured relative condition efficiency (RCE) [4] and developed a construct called performance efficiency (PE). Results revealed the animated demonstration groups assembled the week one problem in significantly less time than the practice group, providing evidence for the worked example effect with animated demonstrations. In addition, subjects from the demonstration groups were significantly more efficient (given performance efficiency) than those from the practice group. Finally, group performance did not differ a week later, providing no evidence of Palmiter's animation deficit.
Keywords: Animation; cognitive load; performance efficiency
Personas Layering: A Cost Effective Model for Service Design in Medium-Long Term Telco Research Projects BIBAKFull-Text 256-265
  Alessandro Marcengo; Elena Guercio; Amon Rapp
Creating a set of Personas requires a considerable effort. Socio-psychological characteristic must be very punctually defined, needs and goals must also be well investigated and related to the service that will be designed. The accurate collection and processing of this large amount of qualitative and quantitative data represents often a huge cost. In our research area, which deals mainly with medium to long term telco projects, we developed a Personas layering model that allows us to adapt them over different contexts. The model consists in two main elements; the basic "Persona" and the "external" layer. In this paper we gave a practical application of our model within different projects developed in our research area. The benefits that arise from this model are the "durability" of Personas, their re-use in different contexts, the modularity of components and their possible recombination, thus reducing costs while maintaining excellent design insights.
Keywords: Personas; User Centred Design; Focus Groups; Ethnography
Bridging Software Evolution's Gap: The Multilayer Concept BIBAKFull-Text 266-275
  Bruno Merlin; Christophe Hurter; Mathieu Raynal
The multilayer interface concept is used to promote the universal usability, to smooth the transition to new systems and working methods and to help the user optimize his interface for the management of contextual situations. In this article, we will explain how this concept can help to tackle a serious issue for R&D projects: the integration of the innovative concepts into the operational environment. To illustrate this, we will explain how we used a multilayer interface to promote a way to integrate different concepts currently in maturation in the R&D sphere.
Keywords: Multi-layer interface; direct manipulation; working method evolution
A Proposal of XB-Method, an Idea Generation System for New Services Using User Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 276-283
  Naoka Misawa; Mitsuru Fujita
These days, due to diversifying standards of living, people seek such a sense of impression in products and services. We therefore developed XB-method, an idea generation system, in order to inspire the affecting experience, and that have been difficult through the conventional process in the current product planning. XB-method is a method which enables us to generate the affecting experience with multiplying the database of keywords statistically-extracted from user experiences by images of commodities in order to inspire the new product and services with the affecting experience effectively in user's perspective.
Keywords: Idea generation; Experience; Requirement definition; Emotion
Integrating Human-Computer Interaction Artifacts into System Development BIBAKFull-Text 284-291
  Megan Moundalexis; Janet Deery; Kendal Roberts
This paper introduces a methodology for developing and leveraging Human Computer Interaction (HCI) artifacts into systems design within the Antisubmarine Warfare (ASW) domain. The method is structured with four integrated steps: Scenario Development, Personas, Operational Concept Documentation, and Usability. Explicit links are made between the artifacts to allow a more efficient use of design resources including legacy documentation for developers while improving the quality of design. As with current systems engineering practices this approach relies upon requirement analysis, prototyping, design iteration, and test and evaluation. Unlike current practice, however, this approach can improve the process of iteration as well as feedback on additional unanticipated requirements. Often overlooked, this process also yielded effective design team interaction. These improvements are made possible by the structured methodology that makes the HCI products attractive to systems developers: the artifacts are well organized, adaptable, and inspectable.
Keywords: Systems Design; Decision Support Systems; Human Computer Interaction
"How Do I Evaluate THAT?" Experiences from a Systems-Level Evaluation Effort BIBAKFull-Text 292-301
  Pardha S. Pyla; H. Rex Hartson; Manuel A. Pérez-Quiñones; James D. Arthur; Tonya L. Smith-Jackson; Deborah Hix
In this paper we describe our experience deriving evaluation metrics for a systems-level framework called Ripple that connects software engineering and usability engineering life cycles. This evaluation was conducted with eight teams of graduate students (falling under four types of development models) competing in a joint software engineering and usability engineering course to create a software solution for a real world client. We describe the challenges of evaluating systems-level frameworks and the approach we used to derive metrics given our evaluation context. We conclude with the outcome of this evaluation and the effectiveness of the metrics we employed.
Keywords: Systems-level evaluation; evaluation metrics; goal-question metric
Changes of HCI Methods towards the Development Process of Wearable Computing Solutions BIBAKFull-Text 302-311
  Ingrid Rügge; Carmen Ruthenbeck; Bernd Scholz-Reiter
Logistics is a dynamic and heterogeneous application area for wearable computing. In this paper, wearable computing technologies are examined as basis for a support system for mobile workers at an automobile terminal under the new paradigm of autonomous controlled logistics. An appropriate wearable computing system has to fulfil different system requirements with respect to the mobile work process and the bodily conditions of the user. Therefore the requirements of wearable computing systems were defined in a participatory process with the users.
Keywords: Autonomous Control; Logistics; Mobile Usability; Mobile Work Process; Requirement-Monitoring; User-Centred Design; Wearable Computing
Combining Activity Theory and Grounded Theory for the Design of Collaborative Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 312-321
  Christine Rivers; Janko Calic; Amy Tan
In remote tabletop collaboration multiple users interact with the system and with each other. Thus, two levels of interaction human-computer interaction and human-human interaction exist in parallel. In order to improve remote tabletop systems for multiple users both levels have to be taken into account. This requires an in-depth analysis achieved by qualitative methods. This paper illustrates how a combination of Activity Theory and Grounded Theory can help researchers and designers to improve and develop better collaborative interfaces. Findings reported here are based on three video recordings that have been collected during a quasi-experiment.
Keywords: Activity theory; Grounded Theory; remote tabletop collaboration; methodological-design approach
User Behavior Patterns: Gathering, Analysis, Simulation and Prediction BIBAKFull-Text 322-331
  Lucas Stephane
This paper presents methods and tools for gathering, analyzing and predicting behavior patterns. Considered both for a single user and for groups of users, behavior patterns may impact at a local and/or global level. The first part explains how to gather behaviors in various situations and how to drill from overt behaviors into deeper cognitive processes. The rationale of cognitive modeling and guidelines to perform it are provided. The second part deals with analysis methods that enable to detect behavior patterns. Bottom-up analysis based on existing data is augmented with top-down analysis based on conceptual design choices and hypotheses. The last part emphasizes the needs of data storage and data sharing in the organization. Beyond data storage and sharing, it presents the benefits of using Adaptive Business Intelligence in order to simulate and predict possible situations as well as the appropriated behavior patterns that enable to adapt.
Keywords: Behavior patterns; modeling; Ontology systems; Multi-Agent Systems; Agent Oriented Programming; Adaptive Business Intelligence
Scenarios in the Heuristic Evaluation of Mobile Devices: Emphasizing the Context of Use BIBAKFull-Text 332-341
  Jari Varsaluoma
Varying contexts of use make the usability studies of mobile devices difficult. The existing evaluation methods, such as Heuristic Evaluation (HE), must be redesigned in order to create more awareness of the mobile context. Through the reworking of existing heuristics and use of written use scenarios, there have already been some promising results. In this study the context of use of mobile devices was examined with written scenarios. The main target was to improve the reliability of HE by increasing the number of right predictions and reducing the number of false positives produced by the evaluators. The results seem to differ from those of a previously conducted study as the scenarios did not improve the HE regarding the numbers of false positives or accurate predictions. There is a need for more research regarding the possible benefits of different scenarios and other factors that affect the outcomes of HE.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation; scenario; context of use; mobile device; false positive
The Proposal of Quantitative Analysis Method Based on the Method of Observation Engineering BIBAKFull-Text 342-350
  Tomoki Wada; Toshiki Yamaoka
Observation Engineering is the logical method to obtain product's requirements. We propose the method to analyze user's behavior by Formal Concept Analysis. User's behavior was converted to category data, and peculiarity of user's behavior was obtained by FCA. Requirements were got from peculiarity. Finally, Requirements were obtained from their peculiarity, and there were verified by questionnaire.
Keywords: Observation; Formal Concept Analysis; requirement
Translating Subjective Data to Objective Measures to Drive Product Design and Experience BIBAKFull-Text 351-356
  Erin K. Walline; Bradley Lawrence
To successfully drive best-in-class human factors into product design, it is sometimes necessary to adopt more non-traditional experimental methods and reporting techniques. Within the PC industry, a traditional usability study is usually comprised of running eight to twelve participants through a set of tasks in a two-hour time period, collecting and reporting ease-of-use, success rate, time-on-task, and preference data. This traditional method is great at identifying potential usability pitfalls, but not necessarily equipped to focus on a product's visual appeal or quality perception. Two case studies are described that introduce non-traditional methods which: (1) focus on the perceived quality of specific product designs; (2) relate subjective data to concrete mechanical terms such that engineers have clear direction on how to build the products; and (3) report findings in a concise, graphical manner that is easily and quickly understood by executives and colleague functions lacking a human factors background.
Keywords: Product design; experience; usability
Towards an Holistic Understanding of Tasks, Objects and Location in Collaborative Environments BIBAKFull-Text 357-366
  Maik Wurdel
In this paper a task modeling approach is presented which tackles the integration of different kinds of models by a generic framework. The application of the framework is shown for collaborative environments, a certain sub set of ubiquitous computing environments. In these environments tasks have a close bond to the location of the executing actor as well the state of the involved objects. Therefore a location specification and a domain model are used to constrain the task execution. The language is supported by a tool, the CTML editor and simulator, which covers all steps of development from creation, editing, testing and verification. Such a model is particularly from interest for the intention recognition module of our experimental infrastructure of a collaborative environment.
Keywords: Collaborative Task Modeling; Domain Modeling; Collaborative Environments; Location Modeling
Approach to Human Centered Design Innovation by Utilized Paper Prototyping BIBAKFull-Text 367-373
  Kazuhiko Yamazaki
The purpose of this study is to discover a design methodology for User Centered Design (UCD) Innovation. This paper focuses on paper prototype method for user evaluation and design. After proposing an approach to utilize paper prototype method, author proposed detail approach based on UCD process. In case study, author utilized this method for design education of design course on university. As a result, author received several innovative ideas from UCD view point.
Keywords: UCD; innovation; prototyping; design
Structured Scenario-Based Design Method BIBAKFull-Text 374-380
  Koji Yanagida; Yoshihiro Ueda; Kentaro Go; Katsumi Takahashi; Seiji Hayakawa; Kazuhiko Yamazaki
This paper introduces "The Structured Scenario-based Design Method", a design approach where a vision is proposed from an HCD (Human-Centered Design) perspective for use with ubiquitous computing. This method utilizes structured scenarios that are created in order to appropriately incorporate users' intrinsic needs and values into systems/products specifications at an early stage of designing. This paper discusses the method, articulating characteristics, a design process and a few case examples using a tool developed for this particular method.
Keywords: Scenario; persona
Facilitating Idea Generation Using Personas BIBAKFull-Text 381-388
  Der-Jang Yu; Wen-Chi Lin
Persona and scenario are important design tools for new concept development. Usually, scenario is used to generate ideas, and persona is for evaluation. This article proposes a new approach that embeds persona data in scenario-based design for idea generation. It includes a persona dataset, a facilitation process, and a working field. The persona dataset is a user profile collected in ethnographic research and categorized by subjects, motives, activities, goals and behaviors. The facilitation process helps designer create new ideas via re-matching the elements in the persona dataset. The working fields allow the freedom of implementing with different sizes of the designer team and persona dataset. This new approach provides a direct and effective way that materializes designers' internal experiences and persona data to create new ideas and scenarios.
Keywords: Persona; scenario-based design; ethnographic

Understanding Diverse Human Needs and Requirements

Auditory and Visual Guidance for Reducing Cognitive Load BIBAKFull-Text 391-397
  Hiroko Akatsu; Akinori Komatsubara
Auditory and visual guidance are often used as means to make IT equipment easier to use and decrease cognitive load. However, the effective use of the guidance is not yet clarified. Accordingly, there is a case that the guidance disturbs user operation because of inappropriate use of guidance. This paper discusses the effective use of auditory and visual guidance to reduce user's cognitive loads through experiments with simulated ATM systems.
Keywords: Auditory and visual guidance; cognitive load; usability
Tailoring Interface for Spanish Language: A Case Study with CHICA System BIBAFull-Text 398-407
  Vibha Anand; Paul G. Biondich; Aaron E. Carroll; Stephen M. Downs
We developed a clinical decision support system (CDSS) -- Child Health Improvement through Computer Automation (CHICA) -- to deliver patient specific guidance at the point of clinical care. CHICA captures structured data from families, physicians, and nursing, staff using a scannable paper user interface -- Adaptive Turnaround Documents (ATD) while remaining sensitive to the workflow constraints of a busy outpatient pediatric practice. The system was deployed in November 2004 with an English language only user interface. In July 2005, we enhanced the user interface with a Spanish version of the pre-screening questionnaire to capture information from Spanish speaking families in our clinic. Subsequently, our results show an increase in rate of family responses to the pre-screening questionnaire by 36% (51% vs. 87%) in a four month time period before and after the Spanish interface deployment and up to 32% (51% vs. 83%) since November 2004. Furthermore, our results show that Spanish speaking families, on average, respond to the questionnaire more than English speaking families (85% vs. 49%). This paper describes the design, implementation challenges and our measure of success when trying to adapt a computer scannable paper interface to another language.
A Personal Assistant for Autonomous Life BIBAFull-Text 408-415
  Alessandro Andreadis; Giuliano Benelli; Pasquale Fedele
This paper presents a design of an innovative framework to support continuous monitoring and assistance for ageing people affected by disabilities or chronic diseases during their stay in a structured environment such as home or hospital.
Towards a Theory of Cultural Usability: A Comparison of ADA and CM-U Theory BIBAKFull-Text 416-425
  Torkil Clemmensen
Cultural models in terms of the characteristics and content of folk theories and folk psychology have been important to social scientists for centuries. From Wilhelm Wundt's Volkerpsychologie to the distributed and situated cognition theorists in the global world of today, thinkers have seen human action as being controlled by cultural models. The study of cultural models for humans interacting with computers should thus be at the heart of the scientific study of human-computer interaction (HCI). This paper presents a theory of cultural usability that builds on the concept of Cultural Models of Use (CM-U theory). The theory is compared to existing Artifact Development Analysis (ADA) theory to identify its sensitivity to explain cultural usability phenomena. The conclusion is that a) the theory can account for empirical findings on cultural usability, and b) CM-U and ADA theories seem to fit different user populations' perception of usability.
Keywords: Cultural models; HCI; culture; usability
Note: Best Paper Award
Regional Difference in the Use of Cell Phone and Other Communication Media among Senior Users BIBAKFull-Text 426-435
  Ayako Hashizume; Masaaki Kurosu; Toshimasa Yamanaka
In this paper, authors focused on the use of the cell phone by senior people living in the urban area and the rural area in Japan. The result of the questionnaire research showed that there are differences in the use of the cell phone and other communication media between two areas. These differences are related to the difference in the life pattern and the environmental factors in both areas.
Keywords: Communication media; usability; cell phone; senior user; regional difference
Grouping Preferences of Americans and Koreans in Interfaces for Smart Home Control BIBAKFull-Text 436-445
  Kyeong-Ah Jeong; Robert W. Proctor; Gavriel Salvendy
The purpose of the current study was to find the grouping principle for smart home interfaces that most closely matches the thinking styles of Americans and Koreans. The independent variables were grouping method (NO: no grouping other than alphabetical order, FS: functional and then spatial grouping, SF: spatial and then functional grouping), culture and gender. 40 American and 40 Korean students' perceptions of the interfaces and their performance times with the interfaces were measured. Both female and male Koreans preferred the SF grouping, consistent with a cognitive style favoring thematic organization and field dependence. For Americans, females preferred SF grouping but males preferred FS grouping. Thus, only American males' preferences conformed to a cognitive style favoring functional organization and field independence. Cultural differences in grouping preferences need to be taken into account in design of smart home interfaces.
Keywords: Culture; grouping; interface design; smart home
User Needs of Mobile Phone Wireless Search: Focusing on Search Result Pages BIBAKFull-Text 446-451
  Yeon Ji Kim; Sun Ju Jeon; Min Jeong Kim
Based on understanding differences between wired and wireless search, we analyzed user needs for mobile phone wireless search. According to this research, heavy wireless search users produce more traffic searching for information than searching for downloadable contents. Through several usability tests, we can get some design guidelines for wireless search result page. Users require different results and presentation for the results of general information keyword searches to media contents keyword searches. Users preferred representative labelling of categories. In addition, it is essential to minimize navigation of the search results.
Keywords: Wireless search; wireless internet; mobile phone; usability; user satisfaction; design guidelines
Why Taking Medicine Is a Chore -- An Analysis of Routine and Contextual Factors in the Home BIBAKFull-Text 452-461
  Wei Kiat Koh; Jamie Ng; Odelia Yiling Tan; Zelia Tay; Alvin Wong; Martin G. Helander
Medication adherence is an important concern for many people. This is especially so in the older adults population where non-adherence can have serious consequences and may lead to higher healthcare cost. Non-adherence is a problem that afflicts the younger and older adults and there are many factors affecting one's medication adherence (Social/economic factors, provider-patient/health care system factors, condition-related factors, therapy-related factors, patient-related factors [1]). In this paper, we focus on patient-related factors and investigate how these factors (mainly routines in patients' daily life, their surrounding environment and their self-made systems) affect their medicine taking behaviour and their abilities to adhere to their treatment regimens. Results presented in this paper are gathered from in-depth interviews with patients during house visits and from observing how they go about handling their medication in their living space. This knowledge of how patients are currently coping with their medication will be useful for the design of an effective medication support system.
Keywords: Medication; medical adherence; reminders; older adults
Social Robot Design BIBAKFull-Text 462-467
  Seita Koike; Masayuki Sugawara; Yuki Kutsukake; Sayaka Yamanouchi; Kie Sato; Yoshihiro Fujita; Junichi Osada
The purpose of this study is to describe the network of human and non human as the personal robot in the community. We designed an original program for the personal robot and took it to the nursery school. We participated in the community of the nursery school and supported the new play group that the children's mothers set up. They used the robot for their play actively. We made new users of the robot and changed the activity of the nursery school. As a result, the design of the interface for controlling robot changed.
Keywords: Robot; society; interface; design
Culture and Communication Behavior: A Research Based on the Artifact Development Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 468-475
  Masaaki Kurosu; Ayako Hashizume
Authors focused on the use of the cell phone by senior people and young people living in the urban area and the rural area in Japan and in the US. The result of the questionnaire research showed that there are differences in the use of the cell phone and other communication media depending on the situation. These differences are related to the difference of the culture: nation culture, region culture, and generation culture.
Keywords: Communication; media; usability; cell phone; senior user; culture
Exploring the Interface Design of Mobile Phone for the Elderly BIBAKFull-Text 476-481
  Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Tsung-Ling Hsieh; Wei-Jung Shiang
This study evaluated the influences of mobile phone interface design on the operating performance of aged people. To achieve the objective, the present research adopted a 2x2 within subject experimental design to develop different experimental treatments based on two types of software interfaces and two types of hardware interfaces. A total of 20 subjects including 10 younger participants (15-30 years old) and 10 older participants (over 40 years old) were tested in this experiment. Three dependent variables were under study. One measure refers to the operating time of subjects who were requested to perform several tasks in the experiment. The second measure refers to the error frequency, defined by the number of incorrect steps that subjects make when they perform the tasks. The third variable was the subjective convenience that was measured by a seven-point Likert scale. Finally, this study discussed design directions in cell phone design for the aged people. The conclusions from this study provided a useful reference for the mobile phone designer.
Keywords: Elderly people; Mobile phone; Interface design
Design for China Migrant Workers: A Case of User Research and Mobile Product Concepts Development BIBAKFull-Text 482-491
  Xin Liu; Jikun Liu; Jun Cai; Ying Liu; Xia Wang
The mobile user experience in China is far from optimal. The language styles, interactive modes and interfaces for most of the mobile communication products in Chinese marketplaces are just copies of those developed for Western users, which are difficult and not suitable for Asian people's thinking habits and usage customs. This especially applies to the needs of the poorly educated and users who are challenged by digital products. They are almost totally ignored by the mainstream of mobile product makers, even though a huge consumptive potential exists in those segments of consumers in the future years. This joint project of Tsinghua and Nokia, targeting the market segment of Chinese migrant workers, concentrates on user research and conceptual design for proper mobile communication products or service systems, with hopes to contribute to the corporate future design strategies and market development plans.
Keywords: Migrant workers; mobile products; user research; conceptual design
User Value Based Product Adaptation: A Case of Mobile Products for Chinese Urban Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 492-500
  Jikun Liu; Xin Liu
Mobile user experience in Asia is far from optimal. User interfaces and interactions are just copies of those for Western users. Product designers are not clear about the needs of many user segments in Asia. Products lack creative solutions specific for the Asian market, driving researchers to study users in Asia and create new concepts to improve the mobile user experience. Based upon the Industrial Design Value Innovation Theory developed in the Industrial Design Department of Tsinghua University, this project sponsored by the Nokia Research Center targets the market segment of urban elderly people in China, conducts the user research and concept design for proper mobile products or service systems, and hopes to contribute to the corporate future design strategies and market development plans.
Keywords: User value; product development; mobile communication; elderly people
From Novice to Expert -- User's Search Approaches for Design Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 501-510
  Ding-Bang Luh; Chia-Ling Chang
As the arrival of the individual creativity era, innovation needs user creativity from the general public, nowadays, the enterprise provides the components or tools of products for users to utilize their creativity, and thus, users can be viewed as another form of designers. This research is based on the concept, "user is innovator", using LEGO bricks and its players with high design capability as the research subjects, proposes a qualitative method on users' design knowledge, the procedure includes five steps: user subject identification, status attribute classification, design knowledge categorization, search approach analysis, and knowledge model construction. This article proposed the design knowledge connotation and search approaches of four statuses of highly-involved users (junior expert, exhibition participator, business manager, award winner). When users possess the needed design knowledge and search approaches, it does not only fulfill individual creativity, also indirectly expands the creativity origin of the enterprise and increases its economic value.
Keywords: User as innovator; Design knowledge; Information search; Knowledge management
Leveraging User Search Behavior to Design Personalized Browsing Interfaces for Healthcare Web Sites BIBAKFull-Text 511-520
  Malika Mahoui; Josette F. Jones; Derek Zollinger; Kanitha Andersen
Understanding and leveraging user search behavior is increasingly becoming a key component towards improving web sites functionality for the health care consumer and provider. Hence, the development and improvement of any interactive browser-based information system, such as those used by digital libraries, requires consideration of the type of individuals utilizing the system, an understanding of available content and inclusion of a way to measure user interactivity. Information systems not only need to provide useful content, they must also present content in a way that results in an efficient, effective and satisfying user experience. Functional interface design is assumed to take in consideration the overall environment of the user to support users in their search tasks. Web logs -- access logs and search logs -- record user interactions with the interface, and as thus provide insight in user search behavior in a natural environment. The present study measures the usability of a digital library through an in depth analysis of the web logs. The study also leverages user interaction with the digital library to propose a use driven browsing interface to improve user interaction with the system.
Keywords: Log data analysis; web usage mining; search term clustering
Multimodal Corpus Analysis as a Method for Ensuring Cultural Usability of Embodied Conversational Agents BIBAKFull-Text 521-530
  Yukiko I. Nakano; Matthias Rehm
In this paper we propose the method of multimodal corpus analysis to collect enough empirical data for modeling the behavior of embodied conversational agents. This is a prerequisite to ensure the usability of such complex interactive systems. So far, the development of embodied agents suffers from a lack of explicit usability methods. In most cases, the consideration of usability aspects is constrained to preliminary user tests at the end of the development process.
Keywords: Multimodal Corpora; Embodied Conversational Agents; Cultural Usability
Support Method for Improving the Ability of People with Cerebral Palsy to Efficiently Point a Mouse at Objects on a GUI Screen BIBAKFull-Text 531-537
  Hiromi Nishiguchi
Many people with cerebral palsy work in social welfare companies as data entry operators etc. Because of spastic reactions and involuntary motion, they find it difficult to use their upper limbs for movement and positioning tasks such as pointing a mouse at an object on a GUI screen. It would be of great benefit to secure the movement distance and the target size which are appropriate for people with cerebral palsy on a GUI screen, so they can perform pointing device operation effectively. However, it is not possible to increase the screen size beyond a certain limit. Therefore, ideal conditions may not be achieved. In such a situation, an effective environment for positioning tasks can be created by controlling the D/C gain, which is calculated by dividing the movement distance of the pointer by that of the input device. This study investigated the effect of changes in the D/C gain on motion time (MT) for pointing tasks and attempted to determine the D/C gain for minimizing the MT. It was found that the D/C gain for minimizing the MT could be obtained by using an appropriate combination of the target distance and target size. Further, the relation between the D/C gain and the positioning time is found to be linear or second-order curvilinear, depending on the target distance and target size.
Keywords: GUI; Mouse operation; D/C gain; User interface
A Study of Design That Understands the Influences on the Changes of Information Processing Ability of Users BIBAKFull-Text 538-547
  Ji Hyun Park
The main goal of this study is to research new design approaches for creating interactive products by designers that take into consideration the positive long-term influence a product has on users. In recent years, users are more and more interested in products that can have a good influence on them, for example, how much of a positive change can occur to their emotional or physical health through using a product. With the further advancement of technology, a wide range of effects frequently occur between new devices and users. These effects can be considered a new experience by users. In the future, users will take into consideration the positive influences a product has on them, and the long-term experience of using a technology device. Because of these compelling reasons, research is necessary to study the factors and characteristics of influences that products have on users through objective and utility methods.
Keywords: Design factors; Users; Interaction; Information processing abilities
Common Understanding of Graphic Image Enhance "Emotional Design" BIBAKFull-Text 548-551
  Hisashi Shima
The object of this research is to investigate the empathy of the brand design attribute to development of the product design, software screen and web site design. At early phase of the development "Empathy" is one of the important matters of emotional design. To share of the target verbal and image help to common understanding of the product characteristic, it can assume height efficiency of the development.
Keywords: Emotional design; development procedure; brand design; Tacit dimension; empathy development
Older Drivers and New In-Vehicle Technologies: Adaptation and Long-Term Effects BIBAKFull-Text 552-561
  Anabela Simões; Marta Pereira
The introduction of new technologies into vehicles has been imposing new forms of interaction, being a challenge to drivers but also to HMI research. The multiplicity of on-board systems in the market has been changing the driving task, being the consequences of such interaction a concern especially to older drivers. Several studies have been conducted to report the natural functional declines of older drivers and the way they cope with additional sources of information and additional tasks in specific moments. However, the evolution of these equipments, their frequent presence in the automotive market and also the increased acceptability and familiarization of older drivers with such technologies, compel researchers to consider other aspects of these interactions: from adaptation to the long term effects of using any in-vehicle technologies.
Keywords: In-Vehicle Technologies; Older Drivers; Behavioral Adaptation; Human-Machine Cooperation
Frequency of Usage and Feelings of Connectedness in Instant Messaging by Age, Sex, and Civil Status BIBAKFull-Text 562-569
  Michael E. Stiso
A questionnaire was administered to determine (1) the frequency with which participants use various IM features, and (2) whether and to whom they feel more connected as a result of IM usage. Younger participants IMed more frequently than older ones, and males and younger participants were the more frequent users of the more esoteric IM activities, particularly video sharing and video chatting. Singles 25-34 were most likely to report feeling increased connections overall to people via IM. The youngest and the single ones were much more likely to feel a greater connectedness with friends than with family. In the later 20s, that focus on friends shifts to family and coworkers, resulting in relatively equivalent percentages reporting greater connectedness with each of the three categories. The suggestion is that younger, single people are using IM to fulfill a need for social interaction that would be otherwise difficult to meet.
Keywords: Age; sex; gender; civil status; instant messaging; connectedness
Examining Individual Differences Effects: An Experimental Approach BIBAKFull-Text 570-575
  Wan Adilah Wan Adnan; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Nik Ghazali Nik Daud
Role of individual differences has been emphasized for system success. Many researchers claim about the need for a better understanding of individual differences as empirical evidence is still very limited. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which individual differences affects one's decision performance and decision processes. This study focuses on decision making style and gender as the dimensions of individual differences characteristics. Their potential effects are investigated using experimental approach. Empirical findings from this study support for the user-centered approach that emphasize on user in the design of an information system.
Keywords: Individual differences; decision making style; gender effects; human factor

HCD in Industry

Usability Maturity: A Case Study in Planning and Designing an Enterprise Application Suite BIBAFull-Text 579-584
  Jeremy Ashley; Kristin Desmond
Although user experience professionals look to the user-centered design process (UCD) as the overarching set of principles for the research, design, and testing of usable products that meet customer needs, the application of these principles varies significantly depending on the type and scale of design challenges to be solved and the level of usability maturity that a company practices. This paper describes a case study of how one organization went from a Usability Maturity Model level of Implemented to a level of Integrated while it worked through a design cycle for a large enterprise application suite. This paper also discusses lessons learned along the way.
Developing a Scenario Database for Product Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 585-593
  Shang Hwa Hsu; Jen Wei Chang
Introducing new product is vital for a company's survival. Scenarios have been demonstrated as a valid tool to generate product ideas from user's perspective. The purpose of this study is to develop a scenario data base for product emergence and a novel method for product idea generation. The proposed scenario database is based on a product innovation database approach that emphasizes on discovering user needs and requirements from scenarios and incorporating them into product development. It draws on the primacy of the idea itself as a driving force toward new product success.
Keywords: Scenario-based design; Database; Activity Theory; Product Idea Generation; Innovation
Practice of Promoting HCD Education by a Consumer-Electronics Manufacturer BIBAKFull-Text 594-600
  Jun Ito; Akiyoshi Ikegami; Tomoshi Hirayama
We conducted an internal e-learning course on the basics of HCD, starting in February 2008. E-learning is convenient in that any employee can take the course whenever they like. The e-learning course described in this report aims at preventing miscommunication regarding user interfaces. What we expect to achieve by realizing that purpose is, (1) to enable to memorization of the defined common terms, and (2) to encourage daily use of the common terms when talking about user interfaces in the workplace. Then we decided to select seven key words and three methods that make up the ten common terms.
Keywords: E-Learning; HCD; grouping; mapping; feedback; constraints; consistency; fail-safe; affordance; persona; scenarios; paper-prototyping
A Survey of User-Experience Development at Enterprise Software Companies BIBAKFull-Text 601-610
  Aaron Marcus; Jeremy Ashley; Claus Knapheide; Arnie Lund; Dan Rosenberg; Karel Vredenburg
Developers worldwide wish to understand what major companies are doing in user-experience development (UXD). UXD comprises activities in user-centered design of user experience, specifically user-interface development (metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, and appearance) that is useful for planning, research, analysis, design, implementation, evaluation, and documentation of products/services across a wide number of platforms. This paper reports the results of a survey conducted with six enterprise software companies.
Keywords: Design; development; management; user interface; user experience
User-Experience Development BIBAKFull-Text 611-617
  Aaron Marcus
Developers worldwide wish to understand user-experience development (UXD). UXD comprises activities in user-centered design of user experience, specifically user-interface development (metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, and appearance) that are useful for planning, research, analysis, design, implementation, evaluation, and documentation of products/services across a wide number of platforms. This paper summarizes some key concepts and terms.
Keywords: Design; development; management; user interface; user experience
Measurements and Concepts of Usability and User Experience: Differences between Industry and Academia BIBAFull-Text 618-626
  Anja Naumann; Ina Wechsung; Robert Schleicher
Usability and User experience are two central terms in the discipline of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The relevant literature provides a wide range of definitions and measuring methods for both concepts. This paper presents results of a survey asking usability researchers and practitioners about their views and practice on Usability and User Experience aiming to investigate the current state of the art regarding both concepts.
Proactive Ergonomics in Refrigerator Concept Development BIBAFull-Text 627-634
  Maximiliano Romero; Fiammetta Costa; Giuseppe Andreoni; Marco Mazzola; Juan Vargas; Luigi Conenna
Proactive Ergonomics means to pre-test the human factors features of a product in an early step of development (design or prototyping), modifying it, re-performing the test and so on. The goal is to apply an iterative process to reach a final definitive solution. This work presents a case study on refrigerator concepts development based on a Design for All approach. The first design concept was created through a participatory workshop supported by reference literature data about arthropometrical and functional parameters and by results from ethnographic observation. This also led to the design of a dedicated experimental protocol for evaluating the physical ergonomics characteristics of products and mock up through a comparative analysis. Using a bestseller's refrigerator as reference, we evaluated comparatively, our new concepts. The results were very significant and demonstrated a consistent improvement of the ergonomic quality of the concepts with respect to the standard product. The quantitative ergonomic evaluation has been validated by subjective methods.
Corporate User-Experience Maturity Model BIBAKFull-Text 635-639
  Sean Van Tyne
User experience encompasses all aspect of a persons experience with an organization's services and products [1]. Organizations may or may not be aware of their customers' experience with their services or products and give different degrees of attention to developing and managing their customers' experiences. These degrees of attentions given to their customer experience can be measured and charted by phases or stages along a continuum of dedication or maturity. Based on the Capability Maturity Model Integration [2] and the Corporate Usability Maturity [3], this paper presents a model of user experience maturity by level based on an organizations dedication of resources, budget, and process integration.
Keywords: Corporate; experience; maturity; model; user

HCD for Web-Based Applications and Services

Website Affective Evaluation: Analysis of Differences in Evaluations Result by Data Population BIBAKFull-Text 643-652
  Anitawati Mohd Lokman; Afdallyna Fathiyah Harun; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Mitsuo Nagamachi
Studies involving consumer studies have suggested different mechanisms of subject selections. The paper elaborates results of subject's responses by the methodology adopted from Kansei Engineering. In the research, evaluation of subject's Kansei towards website interface design was performed, targeting to measure affective quality in website design. Principal Component Analysis was performed to identify semantic structure of Kansei Words. The analyses were based on the average of evaluation results obtained from subjects. Results of PC Loadings were analyzed to see differences of determinants by size of data population. It is evident from the study that population size does not affect determinants of affective web interface design. The study makes decent contribution in determining appropriate population size in designing research instruments for future studies involving website affective evaluations.
Keywords: Consumer science; website affective evaluation; Kansei; Population size; Principal Component Analysis
Evaluating E-Commerce User Interfaces: Challenges and Lessons Learned BIBAKFull-Text 653-660
  Rainer Blum; Karim Khakzar
This paper presents lessons learned from a user interface evaluation -- concerning the applied methodical approach. Four alternative implementations of product catalogue navigation and presentation components for online clothing shops were evaluated in a comparative study. The resulting rather complex experimentation setting revealed interesting issues for the design of similar experiments. After describing the study's methodical setup the paper analysis relevant aspects of the applied approach. Finally, lessons learned are derived that are of relevance for user interface testing methodology in related contexts.
Keywords: E-Commerce; User Interface Evaluation; Rapid Prototyping; Evaluation Methodology
Caring and Curing by Mixing Information and Emotions in Orphan Diseases Websites: A Twofold Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 661-670
  Maria Cristina Caratozzolo; Enrica Marchigiani; Oronzo Parlangeli; Marcella Zaccariello
The study reported in this article was structured as a first step in planning guidelines to design effective internet sites for Associations dealing with rare diseases. The Authors used a two-stage analysis: first, they carried out an analysis of the websites of a sample of Italian Associations on rare diseases and then they did an interview survey to identify the objectives and needs of those organizations. Results indicate that two different kinds of organizations do exist and suggest possibilities for developing guidelines aimed at improving their websites.
Keywords: Rare and orphan diseases; affective communication; patients' associations; website; usability
Eye Tracking Method to Compare the Usability of University Web Sites: A Case Study BIBAKFull-Text 671-678
  M. Oya Çinar
Web sites are one of the main source which enables human computer interaction, also widely used for receiving and transmitting information. University web sites are frequently visit by their students to get some information. In today's fast life cycle these web sites has great usage, many people prefer to use them. University web sites are extremely important for the students of that institution. In the last years, usability has become a highly important research subject. Designing usable web sites is considerably important factor for the user satisfaction in our case for university students.
   In this study, a new design is proposed for the engineering faculty web page and eye tracking method is used to compare the usability of it with the original design. Participants were observed while trying to finish specified tasks. In evaluation period, fixation count, fixation length and heatmaps of each website are taken into the consideration. At the end of the study showed that proposed design is more effective and efficient. Participants required fewer fixations and less time to complete the given tasks.
Keywords: Eye tracking; HCI; usability; computer interface design; design evaluation
User Centered Design of a Learning Object Repository BIBAKFull-Text 679-688
  Núria Ferran; Ana-Elena Guerrero-Roldán; Enric Mor; Julià Minguillón
This work outlines the design process of a user centered learning object repository. A repository should foster the development and acquisition of both generic and specific informational competencies. The results of the first stage of the user centered design process are presented which provide a clear understanding of user and task requirements and the context of use. A user study was conducted using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. A qualitative approach was performed through the content analysis of 24 in-depth interviews achieved through a random stratified sampling method. Regarding the quantitative approach, more than 5 million student navigation sessions were processed in order to know the real information behavior accomplished in the virtual campus and more specifically all the services and resources used and the search actions carried out by users. Our aim is to achieve a thorough informational behavior analysis that involves access, treatment, integration, evaluation, creation and communication of information for learning purposes which will be useful for integrating learning object repositories in virtual learning environments.
Keywords: Learning Object Repository (LOR); user centered design; log analysis; content analysis; e-learning; information-related competencies
Web Orchestration: Customization and Sharing Tool for Web Information BIBAKFull-Text 689-696
  Lei Fu; Terunobu Kume; Fumihito Nishino
In this paper, we present a tool, Web Orchestration, which allows people to customize and share the web information in a simple way. Our work is based on the web annotation and web scraping technique. It adopts B/S architecture, and has a user-friendly interface. It can be used in many aspects, such as web information monitoring, web information sharing, web information integration, recombination and so on. As an application of web 2.0 technique, it's easy to use, simple but powerful; it can enhance collaboration of each other, and make web information sharing and personalized web information customization much easier to use.
Keywords: Web annotation; web scraping; information sharing; information customization
Using Google Analytics to Evaluate the Usability of E-Commerce Sites BIBAKFull-Text 697-706
  Layla Hasan; Anne Morris; Steve G. Probets
The success of an e-commerce site is, in part, related to how easy it is to use. This research investigated whether advanced web metrics, calculated using Google Analytics software, could be used to evaluate the overall usability of e-commerce sites, and also to identify potential usability problem areas. Web metric data are easy to collect but analysis and interpretation are time-consuming. E-commerce site managers therefore need to be sure that employing web analytics can effectively improve the usability of their websites. The research suggested specific web metrics that are useful for quickly indicating general usability problem areas and specific pages in an e-commerce site that have usability problems. However, what they cannot do is provide in-depth detail about specific problems that might be present on a page.
Keywords: Web Analytics; Google Analytics; usability; e-commerce web sites
Site-it!: An Information Architecture Prototyping Tool BIBAKFull-Text 707-711
  Atsushi Hasegawa
Site-it! is a simple, powerful and cheap prototyping tool for site structure and user experience flow. This tool is a set of sticky notes printed abstract appearance of web pages. It contains 7 types of templates that express most of web pages. IAs can use it for brainstorming and discussion with clients. By using this tool, you can focus on IA discussion and cultivate understandings of user experience in the sites with team members and clients.
Keywords: Information Architecture; Workshop; Prototyping; User Experience
A Theoretical Model for Cross-Cultural Web Design BIBAKFull-Text 712-721
  Hsiu Ching Hsieh; Ray Holland; Mark Young
People from different cultures use web interfaces in different ways; they hold different mental models for visual representations, navigation, interaction, and layouts, and have different communication patterns and expectations. In the context of globalisation, web developers and designers have to make adaptations to fit the needs of people from different cultures, but most previous research lacks an appropriate way to apply culture factors into the web development. It is noted that no single model can support all cross-cultural web communication but a new model is needed to bridge the gap and improve the limitations. Thus, in this paper, a thorough literature review is conducted to develop a theoretical cross-cultural model to facilitate effective communication (usability) for web design, in which the variable (cultural factors), the process of developing cross-cultural websites, and measurement criteria are identified, and two related testable hypotheses are generated.
Keywords: Web interface; globalization; cross-cultural web communication
An Investigation of User's Mental Models on Website BIBAKFull-Text 722-728
  Hui-Jiun Hu; Jen Yen
Since mid 1990s Internet has been developing rapidly to become the most booming and emerging media in recent history and played an important role in human livelihood. People's demands on website interface interaction have thus been increasing. How to make a website interface easy to learn and easy to use? It has thus become an important issue pertaining to Human Computer Interaction (HCI). In this paper, we use the Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA) approach to conduct a qualitative data-gathering, analysis and examination made by 9 expert participants. The result show the affinity of 11 website user is thus produce. And, we can make some suggestions such as website user is speed & efficiency-oriented and negative images of web advertiser. In addition, the affinity of User Requirement is an important affinity to keep in website user.
Keywords: Mental model; website user; Interactive Qualitative Analysis (IQA)
Using Measurements from Usability Testing, Search Log Analysis and Web Traffic Analysis to Inform Development of a Complex Web Site Used for Complex Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 729-738
  Caroline Jarrett; Whitney Quesenbery; Ian Roddis; Sarah Allen; Viki Stirling
In this case study, we describe how we use measurements taken from web analytics and search log analysis with findings from usability testing to inform the development of web site. We describe an example of triangulating data taken from all three sources to help make design decisions; an example of drawing on web analytics and search log analysis to inform our choices of tasks during a measurement usability evaluation; and an example of using search log data to decide whether a new feature was worth investigating further. The context is enquirers making decisions about whether to pursue a course of study at a distance learning university: a long-term, complex problem.
Keywords: Measurement; web analytics; usability testing; search analysis; triangulation; multi-measurement; online prospectus; university; enquirers
User-Centered Design Meets Feature-Driven Development: An Integrating Approach for Developing the Web Application myPIM BIBAKFull-Text 739-748
  Torsten Krohn; Martin Christof Kindsmüller; Michael Herczeg
In this paper we show how a user-centered design (UCD) method can be successfully combined with an agile software development approach, namely feature-driven development (FDD), to develop the web-based information management system myPIM. This system supports users' workflow requirements in research and teaching/learning contexts. It provides bookmark, file, and reference archives, as well as possibilities for exchanging information with colleagues and students. By describing the system and its development process we show how this combination of methodologies supported our development process to create a service that truly assists the target audience and is easy to use.
Keywords: World Wide Web; online community; feature-driven development; folksonomy; information management; information sharing; internet-based collaboration; social bookmarking; social software; tagging; user-centered design
The Effects of Information Architecture and Atmosphere Style on the Usability of an Ecology Education Website BIBAKFull-Text 749-757
  Chao-jen Ku; Ji-Liang Doong; Li-Chieh Chen
Ecology education is an important issue nowadays. But not everyone has equal opportunities to learn relevant topics through direct access to the great nature. In such a case, the platform of Web becomes the potential channel for people to learn ecological topics. Therefore, the key to success is to enhance the platform so that the performance is close to that of experiencing the great nature in person. In this study, expert interview was first conducted. The participants pointed out the differences in information architectures, atmosphere styles, the differences in learners' backgrounds were important factors needed to be considered while designing such a system. Therefore, several experiment websites were constructed based on different atmosphere styles. The results revealed that there were significant differences in browsing behaviors and the usability of websites between people from rural and urban. Websites with breadth architecture and natural atmosphere could reduce user's pressure and perceived workload.
Keywords: Ecology Education; World Wide Web; Information Architecture; Layout; Usability
Accommodating Real User and Organisational Requirements in the Human Centered Design Process: A Case Study from the Mobile Phone Industry BIBAFull-Text 758-764
  Steve Love; Paul Hunter; Michael Anaman
This paper reports on the results of a case study that investigated how different stakeholder needs within an organisation can be taken into consideration alongside the needs of real users in the human-centered design process to improve product and service design. The case study focuses on the mobile phone industry and in particular the design of a new service that was to be used in the retail stores of a major mobile phone service provider. The results indicated that by including various organizational stakeholders (such as sales and marketing teams) in an early stage evaluation of a prototype design provides valuable insight to problems (as well as suggestions to improve design) that may not otherwise come to light until a crucial time period in the project and could have a concomitant effect on sales and marketing timelines associated with the project launch.
Affectively Intelligent User Interfaces for Enhanced E-Learning Applications BIBAFull-Text 765-774
  Fatma Nasoz; Mehmet Bayburt
In this article we describe a new approach for electronic learning applications to interact with their users. First we discuss our motivation to build affectively intelligent user interfaces that can recognize learning related emotions and adapt to these through user modeling. In the remainder of the paper we describe the experiment we designed to elicit learning related emotions from students in order collect their physiological signals while they are experiencing those emotions and to classify those physiological signals into emotional states with pattern recognition algorithms.
Design of a Web-based Symptom Management Intervention for Cancer Patients BIBAKFull-Text 775-784
  Christine M. Newlon; Chin-Chun A. Hu; Renee M. Stratton; Anna M. McDaniel
The discipline of Human-Computer Interaction design has potential for significant benefit to the field of health informatics. This paper describes the design approach used to develop a web-based interface to help cancer patients manage their chemotherapy side effects. Previous versions of this intervention utilizing telephone technology had been efficacious, but limited. The paper discusses the design decisions made in order to leverage the potential benefits of the Internet in supporting patients while avoiding the potential pitfalls that the patients may encounter with a web-based approach.
Keywords: human-computer interaction; iterative design; cancer; web-based intervention; symptom management; evidence-based practice; reading level; continuous evaluation
A Preliminary Usability Evaluation of Hemo@Care: A Web-Based Application for Managing Clinical Information in Hemophilia Care BIBAKFull-Text 785-794
  Vasco Saavedra; Leonor Teixeira; Carlos Ferreira; Beatriz Sousa Santos
In this work, an overall description of the methods used and the results obtained in the on-going evaluation of hemo@care is presented. To help understanding the methods and results, we first give an overview of the main functionalities of hemo@care, which is a web application to manage the clinical information in hemophilia care, developed to be used by hematologists, nursing staff and patients suffering from hemophilia. Following we described the methods used in this particular evaluation, and finally we present the main results and general conclusions of these preliminary usability evaluation.
Keywords: Health information system; Hemo@care; Usability evaluation
Fundamental Studies on Effective e-Learning Using Physiology Indices BIBAKFull-Text 795-804
  Miki Shibukawa; Mariko Fujikake Funada; Yoshihide Igarashi; Satoki P. Ninomija
In order to apply individual learning methods to an e-learning system, we need some appropriate measures to know the quantitative evaluation for the learning progress of each individual. The ratio of the number of correct answers to the number of questions is a simple measure of the achievement of the learner. However, such a simple measure may not accurately reflect the real progress of the learner. Event Related Potentials (ERPs for short) are measured from electroencephalograms (EEGs for short). We consider that ERPs may contain meaningful information about the level of the learner's achievement. We had experiments measuring ERPs of subjects learning chemical formulae on an e-learning system. We try to characterize the relation among the learner's achievement, hardness of learning, and the waveforms of his ERPs. This kind of characterizations may be useful for evaluating the learner's achievement.
Keywords: EEG; event related potential; achievement; learning; chemical formulae
Culture Design of Information Architecture for B2C E-Commerce Websites BIBAKFull-Text 805-814
  Wan Abdul Rahim Wan Mohd Isa; Nor Laila Md. Noor; Shafie Mehad
Culture is widely treated as an essential factor for the success of e-commerce, yet the concept itself is still clouded in bewilderment. Furthermore, there has been little research on usage behavior in the context of developing countries; e.g., Islamic countries. By using Islamic culture as the case study, this study highlights the website information architecture practical design indication and reports the partial analysis of the investigation on how culture design of information architecture (IA) for B2C e-commerce website will has a positive affect to the user performance tasks (browsing, searching and purchasing books activities). Analyses of one-way between-groups multivariate analysis of variance (one-way MANOVA) and paired-samples t-test were performed. The result showed that the task time performance of the Middle East and the Malaysian users are different and faster when using the culture centred e-commerce website. Thus, provides empirical evidence on the positive influence of culturally design website to performance.
Keywords: Website Information Architecture; Culture Centred Website; Muslim Online User; Islamic Culture
Influence and Impact Relationship between GIS Users and GIS Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 815-824
  Hongmei Wang
A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer-based system for managing and processing geospatial data. GIS has been an important tool in science, government agencies, private agencies and the public since the 1960s. To make GIS more usable and useful to GIS users, the GIS community has paid increasing attention to GIS interfaces. This paper provides an individual level analysis of influence and impact relationship between GIS users and GIS interfaces based on the level analysis framework developed by Korpela et al. The analysis results show that, on one hand, different physical and mental characteristics of the end GIS users have influenced design of GIS interfaces; on the other hand, technologies developed in GIS interfaces have impacted how the GIS users understand and use the GIS in different ways.
Keywords: GIS; Influence; Impact; Users; Interfaces; Individual level of analysis; Level analysis framework
Investigation of Web Usability Based on the Dialogue Principles BIBAKFull-Text 825-832
  Masahiro Watanabe; Shunichi Yonemura; Yoko Asano
ISO 9241-110 standard provides user-interface design rules based on 7 dialogue principles. The priority of the principles varies depending on the characteristics of the tasks, the users, and the environments. We observed the behavior of middle-aged and older novice PC users when they performed some Web navigation tasks. We also pointed out some of the problems with usability, as discerned from the observations. We found that among the dialogue principles, self-descriptiveness is the most important. The observed problems, which were associated with the dialogue principles, suggest strategies for the enhancement of Web usability.
Keywords: Web; usability; ISO 9241-110; dialogue principles; self-descriptiveness

User Involvement and Participatory Methods

Participatory Human-Centered Design: User Involvement and Design Cross-Fertilization BIBAKFull-Text 835-843
  Guy A. Boy; Nadja Riedel
Design and development of new instruments requires much attention with respect to safety, performance and comfort. Introducing new technology is a matter of taking care of past user experience on current technology and anticipating possible user experience on prototypes incrementally developed. The intricate spiral combination of prototyping and formative evaluations provides excellent support to include end-users in the design and development process. Human-centered design is also a combination of both analytical and user-centered (experimental) approaches. We cannot get rid of analyzing human-machine interaction using methods such as GOMS for example, and neither using professional design expertise. These methods provide an envelope of usability and usefulness issues; some are directly applicable, others issues require an experimental user-centered evaluation, i.e., real professional users are needed. Usability engineering is now very much used in industry and provides good results. Crucial problems are not technical any longer; they are financial, legal, social and finally relational. The various actors who will have an influence on the product being developed should participate. Participatory design enables to improve awareness of product attributes, i.e., what the product is really for, and how it should be made and used. A running example of the design of a new flight attendant panel to be included in the cabin of commercial aircraft is presented to support methodological claims and demonstrate approach soundness.
Keywords: Human factors; HCI design; user involvement
Playful Holistic Support to HCI Requirements Using LEGO Bricks BIBAKFull-Text 844-853
  Lorenzo Cantoni; Luca Botturi; Marco Faré; Davide Bolchini
This paper presents Real Time Web (RTW), a holistic method for eliciting HCI requirements and strategic design issues of web applications based on the systematic use of LEGO bricks. Capturing, understanding and expressing the requirements for the design of complex web applications can be a daunting task. This is due both to the complex nature of the tasks, and to the biased alignment of stakeholders, who often do not have an analytical understanding of their own needs and goals, and the current, mainly analytical, requirement analysis methods. The paper presents the method, its relationship with existing requirements analysis methods, and some case studies.
Keywords: Requirements analysis; web applications; LEGO bricks; informal interactions
User Research and User Centered Design; Designing, Developing, and Commercializing Widget Service on Mobile Handset BIBAKFull-Text 854-861
  Sung Moo Hong
Mobile widget is a new paradigm for interactive idle screen service on mobile handset. Currently the standardization of widget is being discussed by W3C; Widget is globally accepted as a tiny web application. In Korea, however, mobile widget business is being expanded prior to that of web/PC widget though it has lots of issues to be solved: issues of usability, technology, and business model. In order to resolve these issues, user research and user centered design process were derived by KTF through the development of mobile widget. While using newly developed Widget, user can easily set and unset widgets by just pushing Widget key and change background images without changing one single widget. User can also personalize his/her widget adjusting its spot, size, opacity, theme, and color.
Keywords: User centered design; user research; mobile; widget
The Method of User's Requirement Analysis by Participation of the User: Constructing an Information System for Travelers BIBAKFull-Text 862-868
  Chia-Yin Lin; Makoto Okamoto
This study attempts to capture the problems discovered on a field trip and to clarify user requirements with the participation of the user. With Mobile AP II, a platform for gathering user information and communication, user and designer can discuss issues so that user requirements can be specified from the context of the situation. In addition, we use narrative factors based on user experience and activity to make modeling scenarios easy to organize. In this study, we discovered how helpful it is to share information and to communicate via Mobile AP II, and that scenarios could be built using narrative factors to analyze the context of information systematically.
Keywords: Scenario Based Design; User Requirement; Participatory Design
Concept Development with Real Users: Involving Customers in Creative Problem Solving BIBAKFull-Text 869-878
  Mika P. Nieminen; Mari Tyllinen
This paper describes idea generation activities in a user-centered concept development project when creating a new Enterprise Resource Planning system. With detailed statistics of the produced ideas we show that different creative problem solving methods are feasible to allow real end-users to generate ideas to improve their own ERP system. Our results show consistent success in using the various methods and a remarkably high percentage of new ideas were selected for further evaluation by the developers of the system.
Keywords: User-Centred Design; Concept Development; Creative Problem Solving; Idea Generation
Towards Fine-Grained Usability Testing: New Methodological Directions with Conversation Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 879-887
  Marko Nieminen; Sari Karjalainen; Sirpa Riihiaho; Petri Mannonen
We examine the possibilities of conversation analysis (CA) in usability testing. The goal is to examine how usability test setups serve as source for the CA analysis. We used video data from two earlier usability tests. Our results indicate that traditional test setup does not serve as a sufficient source for CA. The actions in the user interface were unclear, the user's facial reactions were not visible, and the user is occasionally having more conversation with the moderator than the system. CA approach can be taken towards two separate directions regarding usability tests: Analysis can be focused to the dialogue between the moderator and the user or on the user-system interaction. There is a need to fine-tune data gathering with detailed level recording of keypresses and system outputs. However, CA-enhanced usability testing allows in-depth analysis of usability problems as well as analysis of holistic interaction between user and system.
Keywords: Usability test; usability evaluation; conversation analysis; situated action; dialogue structures
Possibility of Participatory Design BIBAKFull-Text 888-893
  Makoto Okamoto
Participatory design has attracted attention as a design method in recent years. Scenario or Inclusive Design is one way to make users participate in the design process. In this paper, I report on some case studies in which the visually-impaired participated in the design process. The sighted designer worked together with the visually-impaired wearing eye masks. The visually-impaired could tell designers some problems in their lives or their demand which was difficult to express in words.
Keywords: Participatory Design; Inclusive Design; scenario based design; Information Design
The Value of Answers without Question[s]: A Qualitative Approach to User Experience and Aging BIBAKFull-Text 894-903
  Anna Elisabeth Pohlmeyer; Lucienne T. M. Blessing; Hartmut Wandke; Julia Maue
This project investigates reasons for use and non-use of interactive products by two age groups. It was motivated by the assumption that older adults, when given the chance, report more than just usability-related aspects of interactive products. In laboratory settings, older adults are oftentimes confronted with unfamiliar technology. In this case, instrumental qualities are of primary concern. However, the picture might be different, when it is up to the participant to choose the device. Twenty younger (20-33 years) and 20 older (65-80 years) adults were provided with a disposable camera and a documentation-booklet for one week in order to photograph and describe positive as well as negative examples of interactive products in their surrounding. After this week of intensive sensitization, participants named five reasons that motivated them to use technology, and five that led to avoidant behaviour. A qualitative content analysis with an inductive development of categories was conducted.
Keywords: User Experience; Aging; Motivation; Methods; Content Analysis
Shaping the Future with Users -- Futures Research Methods as Tools for User-Centered Concept Development BIBAKFull-Text 904-911
  Mikael Runonen; Petri Mannonen
We have identified four problems when developing futuristic concepts. Technologies cannot be used as boundaries for concept creation, there is a lot of room for surprises, user knowledge is bound to present day, and futuristic concepts are not easily communicable. We propose three methods from Futures Studies to tackle these problems, with the emphasis in developing futuristic product and service concepts in a business-to-business context. In this paper, we introduce the methods and discuss the possible benefits gained from their use.
Keywords: Futures studies; concept development; Delphi; user-centered design; backcasting
Empowering End Users in Design of Mobile Technology Using Role Play as a Method: Reflections on the Role-Play Conduction BIBAKFull-Text 912-921
  Gry Seland
Role play as a method has several qualities that make it a profound candidate as a technique to understand user needs for mobile devices and services. However, making role-play participants act is a recognized but little discussed problem in relation to using role-play in design. This paper focuses on the how the role-play facilitator can arrange for the necessary conditions for making role-play participants act out realistic and relevant scenarios. The paper contributes with reflections on the role-play facilitator's conduction of role plays, by applying and discussing a general framework for role-play conduction on seven role play design workshops carried out in the period 2001-2005. The framework on role play conduction originally developed by the psychologist Yardley-Matwiejczuk [1], and has previously not been applied to role-play design workshops.
Keywords: Role play; user involvement
The User's Role in the Development Process of a Clinical Information System: An Example in Hemophilia Care BIBAKFull-Text 922-931
  Leonor Teixeira; Vasco Saavedra; Carlos Ferreira; Beatriz Sousa Santos
This work describes the development process of a Web-based Information System for managing clinical information in hemophilia care, emphasizing the role of the users around a human-centered development. To help understanding all this process, we first present the relevant concepts concerning human-centered design; next we describe the web application for managing the clinical information in hemophilia care, as well as, the development process followed in its development; and finally we illustrate the importance of the user's involvement in critical phases through the demonstration of some results.
Keywords: Health information system; development process; user-centered design

HCD at Work

From Tools to Teammates: Joint Activity in Human-Agent-Robot Teams BIBAFull-Text 935-944
  Jeffrey M. Bradshaw; Paul J. Feltovich; Matthew Johnson; Maggie R. Breedy; Larry Bunch; Thomas C. Eskridge; Hyuckchul Jung; James Lott; Andrzej Uszok; Jurriaan van Diggelen
Coordination is an essential ingredient of joint activity in human-agent-robot teams. In this paper, we discuss some of the challenges and requirements for successful coordination, and briefly how we have used KAoS HART services framework to support coordination in a multi-team human-robot field exercise.
Capturing and Restoring the Context of Everyday Work: A Case Study at a Law Office BIBAKFull-Text 945-954
  Gaston R. Cangiano; James D. Hollan
Real-world activity is complex and increasingly involves use of multiple computer applications and communication devices over extended periods of time. To understand activity at the level of detail required to provide natural and comprehensive support for it necessitates appreciating both its richness and dynamically changing context. In this article, we (1) summarize field work in which we recorded the desktop activities of workers in a law office, (2) analyze interview data in detail to show the effects of context reinstatement when viewing video summaries of past desktop activity. We conclude by discussing the implications of our results for the design of software tools to assist work in office settings.
Keywords: User behavior; empirical study; screen recording; summarization
Development of CSCW Interfaces from a User-Centered Viewpoint: Extending the TOUCHE Process Model through Defeasible Argumentation BIBAFull-Text 955-964
  María Paula González; Victor M. Ruiz Penichet; Guillermo Ricardo Simari; Ricardo Tesoriero
The Task-Oriented and User-Centered Process Model for Developing Interfaces for Human-Computer-Human Environments (TOUCHE) is aimed to build up user interfaces for groupware applications under a Human-Computer Interaction perspective. It includes a large set of well known formal models like Class Diagrams, Organizational Structure Diagrams, Task Diagrams, Collaboration Diagrams and Abstract Interaction Objects among others. Most of such models, however, suffer from a number of limitations when formalizing users' commonsense. Over the last few years, Argumentation Systems have been gaining importance in several areas of Artificial Intelligence, mainly as a vehicle for facilitating rationally justifiable decision making when handling incomplete and potentially inconsistent information. This paper sketches a Proof of Concept to show how defeasible argumentation techniques can be embedded within the TOUCHE. The final goal is to enhance the capability of development process models for CSCW systems by including a rule-based approach for efficient reasoning with incomplete and inconsistent information.
Ergonomic Approach for the Conception of a Theatre Medical Regulation System BIBAKFull-Text 965-971
  William Guessard; Alain Puidupin; Richard Besses; Paul-Olivier Miloche; Aurélie Sylvain
This paper is a reflection for the conception of an overseas operations' computerised medical regulation system. After a short description of problem-solving and human error cognitive mechanisms, these concepts are used for the conception of a human centred theatre's medical regulation system.
Keywords: Medical regulation; problem-solving; human error; human reliability
Use of Nursing Management Minimum Data Set (NMMDS) for a Focused Information Retrieval BIBAKFull-Text 972-978
  Josette F. Jones; Eric T. Newsom; Connie Delaney
Evidence-based nursing (EBN) is central to the knowledge base for nursing practice, and evidence based interventions are considered as one of the best avenues to achieve maximum outcomes [1]. These interventions typically are implemented through the portals of nursing management forming the context for delivery of nursing practice [2]. Hence, understanding how to provide high quality nursing care efficiently and making management decisions based in evidence is of increasing importance. EBN management requires a research-driven approach for identifying patient, professional, and setting characteristics that affect the processes of care at micro and meso levels. Yet nurse managers cite lack of time and skills; limited access to search engines or poor understanding of research language and most importantly a paucity of management research articles as a barrier to EBN. This study explored the possibility of using the NMMDS to retrieve research related to nursing management.
Keywords: Information Retrieval; Search Queries; Terminology; Evidence-Based Practice
HCD Case Study for the Information Security Training System BIBAFull-Text 979-985
  Akira Kondo; Makoto Yoshii
We proposed organization persona as persona scenario method for business to business content creation process. This paper introduces three projects cases which were based on HCD process. We improved design process practically and enhanced persona for organization as company.
Driving and Situation Awareness: A Cognitive Model of Memory-Update Processes BIBAKFull-Text 986-994
  Josef F. Krems; Martin R. K. Baumann
Safe driving requires a mental representation of objects and situational features relevant to the driver's behavior. This includes the generation of predictions of how the situation will develop in the near future. These processes are summarized under the term "situation awareness", previously proposed in the aviation domain. By now the cognitive mechanisms underlying situation awareness are far from being understood properly. In this paper we propose a theory that is based on results from studies in language understanding [1] and attention [2] and that is applied to the driving context. Mechanisms for the construction of a situation model and for the selection of actions are outlined. Finally, predictions of the model concerning the effect of experience, relevance, and criticality on the drivers' mental representation are investigated. In a second study the effects of cognitive tasks on predicting events in traffic are focused.
Keywords: Situation awareness; driver modeling; cognitive processes
Redefining Architectural Elements by Digital Media BIBAKFull-Text 995-1002
  Kai-hsiang Liang
An architectural element is a unit of a construction. Architects and researchers can understand how to design by defining architectural elements. Design media act as helping roles between the designers' abstract concept and the concrete composition. Today, architectures designed by different media have different outcomes. This study discusses the relationship between architectural elements and design media, and treats whether digital media impact the existing architectural elements. In conclusion, digital media can not only use architectural elements from non-digital media, but also create three digital architectural elements, which are "curvy-surface", "multiple-functions" and "slit-opening."
Keywords: Digital architecture; Design media; Architectural element
Cognitive Engineering for Direct Human-Robot Cooperation in Self-optimizing Assembly Cells BIBAKFull-Text 1003-1012
  Marcel Ph. Mayer; Barbara Odenthal; Marco Faber; Jan Neuhöfer; Wolfgang Kabuß; Bernhard Kausch; Christopher M. Schlick
In a work system with direct human robot cooperation the conformity of the operator's expectation with the behavior of the robotic device is of great importance. In this contribution a novel approach for the numerical control of such a system based on human cognition and a cognitive engineered approach for the encoding of the system's a priori knowledge is introduced. The implementation using an established method in the field of design of cognitive systems is compared to a schema describing human decision making. Finally, simulation results of the implementation are compared to empirical tests with individuals.
Keywords: Cognition; HRC; Automation
Evaluating Design Concepts to Support Informal Communication in Hospitals through the Development of a Tool Based on an Iterative Evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 1013-1022
  David A. Mejia; Alberto L. Morán; Jesús Favela; Sergio F. Ochoa; José A. Pino
The evaluation of groupware systems is considered a complex activity, mainly due to the impact that this kind of tools could have in work practices, the multiples variables that influences the use and evaluation of them, as well as the expensive cost of time and resources required for an in situ evaluation. These reasons have complicated the generation of a generic guide for evaluating this type of tools. Some researchers in groupware evaluation have highlighted the need to evaluate groupware tools, according to the context and characteristics of those organizations in which these tools would be deployed. Thus, in this paper we present a process to evaluate a tool that supports informal collaboration in hospital. Due to nature of hospital work and the difficulty of performing an in situ evaluation, our proposal implies a multi-phase evaluation process through the development lifecycle of the tool.
Keywords: Groupware evaluation; design concepts; informal communication
Understanding Activity Documentation Work in Remote Mobility Environments BIBAKFull-Text 1023-1032
  Alberto L. Morán; Raúl Casillas
Activity documentation is a critical part of the work of many professionals. Documents are used as a means to store personal information, remind things to do, convey and generate new meaning, and mediate contact among people. In this paper, and based on the results of an observational study, we propose a model of how activity documentation work in remote mobility environments is performed. Further, based on this model and on some identified issues that remote mobility workers face while performing activity documentation work, we propose a set of design insights that designers and developers of support systems could use to inform their designs and developments. These results allow designers and developers not only to support a single activity documentation work phase if so desired, but also to envision the creation of comprehensive services for activity documentation work throughout its complete lifecycle in a seamless, effortless and secure manner.
Keywords: Activity documentation work; remote mobility environments; activity documentation lifecycle; design implications
Human Factor's in Telemedicine: Training Surgeons by Telementoring BIBAKFull-Text 1033-1041
  Dina Notte; Rym Mimouna; Guy-Bernard Cadiere; Jean Bruyns; Michel Degueldre; Pierre Mols
This study aim at evaluating several cases and communication options between a surgeon-mentor and a surgeon-mentoree within a telementoring context. The simulation proved that surgical telementoring was technically feasible with a satellite link simulated at 384 Kb/s, 512 Kb/s, and 768 Kb/s and with a transmission delay of 700 ms. Results show the limitations of image communication and its acceptability for telementoring and point out an important learning process for the mentoree. This seems to indicate a more efficient learning curve than with the standard training techniques (live surgical demonstration by companionship or videoconferencing), or with the use of laparoscopic simulator and surgical robots.
Keywords: Surgery; telementoring; simulation; training; usability; cognitive approach; ergonomics
User Experience in Machinery Automation: From Concepts and Context to Design Implications BIBAKFull-Text 1042-1051
  Jarmo Palviainen; Kaisa Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila
Machinery automation (MA), e.g. different agriculture machinery, has traditionally been developed by experts in automation and in machinery engineering. As the role of interactive software is increasing, the principles and methods of human centered design (HCD) are being applied. This results in better usability of the systems particularly through efficiency of work processes and user interfaces (UIs). The user experience (UX) approach extends the HCD approach with broader motivational factors of using the systems. This paper describes the elements of UX in the MA from the interaction design perspective. After introducing the UX field, we describe the context to give an overview of the major factors affecting UX. Then we present what we consider to be the key elements of UX in MA and what implications they bring to the design of such systems. Finally we discuss the benefits and challenges of applying UX in this particular field.
Keywords: Human centered design; interaction design; MA; user centered design; user experience
Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Ease-of-Use of Ambient Intelligence Applications in Office Environments BIBAKFull-Text 1052-1061
  Carsten Röcker
This paper describes a multi-national study evaluating the perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) applications in office environments. In a first step, existing usage scenarios were analyzed to identify characteristic functionalities and application domains. The identified core functionalities were integrated into a representative and coherent evaluation scenario, which was presented to a target user population in a questionnaire-based study. The results of the study indicate, that the participants regard the described Ambient Intelligence functionalities as rather useful and easy to use. Nevertheless, moderate overall ratings for both factors show, that the acceptance of AmI technologies is not as high as often argued.
Keywords: Ambient Intelligence; Ubiquitous Computing; Pervasive Computing; Technology Acceptance; Study; Perceived Usefulness; Perceived Ease-of-Use
Clinical System Design Considerations for Critical Handoffs BIBAKFull-Text 1062-1069
  Nancy Staggers; Jia-Wen Guo; Jacquelyn W. Blaz; Bonnie M. Jennings
Change of shift report (CoSR) is a nurse-to-nurse communication event (handoff) that could potentially result in missed or incomplete information, time inefficiencies and patient errors. Although technology is touted as being amenable for this process, researchers have not yet evaluated how CoSR might be supported through computerization. This paper summarizes past research on this critical transition, describes the results of a qualitative study for shift report content on medical and surgical units in the U.S. and then outlines requirements for computerized support of the process. Three potential CoSR designs are provided and discussed: a patient summary screen, a personally-tailored design for nurses, and a problem-oriented design. Benefits and disadvantages of each are proposed.
Keywords: Handoffs; user interface design; clinical systems
Looking for the 3D Picture: The Spatio-temporal Realm of Student Controllers BIBAFull-Text 1070-1079
  Monica Tavanti; Matthew Cooper
Employing three-dimensional displays in Air Traffic Control (ATC) has been the object of study and debates for numerous years. Although empirical studies have often led to mixed results, some preliminary evidence suggests that training could be a suitable domain of application for 3D interfaces. Little evidence, however, is available to fully support this claim. We attempted to fill this gap with a project that aims at studying and evaluating 3D displays for ATC training purposes. This paper describes the first steps of this project, by reporting and discussing the results of a study aiming at understanding whether ATC trainees form a three-dimensional image of air traffic and at comprehending what the nature of this '3D picture' is.
A Proposal for "Work-Effective Guidelines" for the Growth of HCD BIBAKFull-Text 1080-1089
  Haruhiko Urokohara; Tsunehisa Yamaguchi; Hiroaki Nobuta; Shuichi Kanda
These are practical guidelines for promoting HCD in the field of design development. We review the role of guidelines that are more effective than previous methods, and which are based on the principles of HCD.
Keywords: Human centered design; Guidelines; Style Manual; Effectiveness
Working in Multi-locational Office -- How Do Collaborative Working Environments Support? BIBAKFull-Text 1090-1098
  Matti Vartiainen
Multi-locational, distributed and mobile work has increased much during last years enabled by wireless connections, mobile devices and internet. This development provides possibilities to arrange work in new ways by using physical, virtual and social spaces in creative manners. There are, however, some hindrances in these very same environments that prevent achieving all of potential benefits as shown in this study. The analysis of the first phase of a developmental process shows that political decisions, organizational culture issues, costs and availability of technologies, and missing competences may slow down the implementation of the 'Multi-locational Office Model'.
Keywords: Working in multiple places; mobility; e-governance; CWE
Human Centered Design of Mobile Machines by a Virtual Environment BIBAKFull-Text 1099-1108
  Hassan Yousefi; Amir Mohssen Soleimani; Heikki Handroos
Psychomechatronics is a new holistic discipline that integrates mechatronics and cognitive science, offering innovative methods that lead to the concurrent design of human-machine systems. According to current methods, mechatronics features are designed first and human factors are considered thereafter. A problem with this approach is that it is often too late to impose significant changes in the mechatronics design at that time. Psychomechatronics, on the other hand, takes the nature of human cognition as the starting point of systems design and therefore it is a human-centered design principle. It does not adhere to the conventional sequential approach but applies simultaneously both mechatronics and cognitive science at the same conceptual stage, which optimizes the design of hybrid human-machine systems. The paper presents the key ideas of psychomechatronics design method with special reference to mobile machinery. The required virtual environment for carrying out the psychomechatronics design of mobile machines is described. The paper presents the results of applying usability test in a virtual environment for a sample mining machine.
Keywords: Human-machine systems; Human-centered design; Usability