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EPCE Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415

EPCE 2015: 12th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:EPCE 2015: 12th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:Volume 6 of HCI International 2015
Editors:Don Harris
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9174
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20373-7 hcibib: EPCE15; ISBN: 978-3-319-20372-0 (print), 978-3-319-20373-7 (online)
Papers:49
Pages:524
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Cognitive Aspects of Display and Information Design
  2. Applied Cognitive Psychology
  3. Safety, Risk and Human Reliability
  4. Aviation and Space Safety

Cognitive Aspects of Display and Information Design

The Development of a Method to Assess the Effects of Traffic Situation and Time Pressure on Driver Information Preferences BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Alexander Eriksson; Ignacio Solis Marcos; Katja Kircher; Daniel Västfjäll; Neville A. Stanton
Contemporary Driving Automation (DA) is quickly approaching a level where partial autonomy will be available, relying on transferring control back to the driver when the operational limits of DA is reached. To explore what type of information drivers might prefer in control transitions an online test was constructed. The participants are faced with a set of still pictures of traffic situations of varying complexity levels and with different time constraints as situations and time available is likely to vary in real world scenarios. The choices drivers made were then assessed with regards to the contextual and temporal information available to participants. The results indicate that information preferences are dependent both on the complexity of the situation presented as well as the temporal constraints. The results also show that the different temporal and contextual conditions had an effect on decision-making time, where participants orient themselves quicker in the low complexity situations or when the available time is restricted. Furthermore, the method seem to identify changes in behaviour caused by varying the traffic situation and external time pressure. If the results can be validated against a more realistic setting, this particular method may prove to be a cost effective, easily disseminated tool which has potential to gather valuable insights about what information drivers prioritize when confronted with different situations.
Keywords: Adaptation to task demands; Driving automation; Online survey; Decision making
Distraction and Driving Behavior by Presenting Information on an "Emissive Projection" Display Compared to a Head-up Display BIBAKFull-Text 13-23
  Verena C. Knott; Stefan Demmelmair; Klaus Bengler
A study in the static driving simulator examines whether the use of an Emissive Projection Display (EPD) causes significant effects on attention and cognitive load in addition to the driving task. Moreover, a comparison with a conventional Head-Up Display (HUD) is drawn. Conclusions regarding the driver's stress resulting parallel to the driving task are objectively determined by reaction times that are needed to perform a visual secondary task. The results of the analysis of objective data show significant extensions in the response times the performing the secondary task for the EPD, compared to HUD. Also data for the subjective assessments of workload during the different test runs are discussed.
Keywords: Driver assistance system; Emissive projection display (EPD); Head-up display (HUD); Reaction time; Distraction; Workload
Modeling Situation Awareness on Alarm Displays in Nuclear Power Plants BIBAKFull-Text 24-33
  Sheau-Farn Max Liang; Chih-Wei Chen
Human factors engineering is important and has been brought into the regulations for the operation of nuclear power plants. However, there is still a discrepancy between the regulations and the practices. In this study, the SEEV model was used as a framework to construct an analytical model for predicting situation awareness in terms of the gaze distribution percentage on alarm displays in nuclear power plants. Two similar multiple linear regression models were constructed and validated based on the data of eye-tracking from 40 participants. Results showed that these two models were consistent with the SEEV framework. The values of R-square for these two models were 0.78 and 0.83, whereas the values of predicted R-square were 0.77 and 0.72. The analytical model developed in this study should be a necessary complement to current practice of situation awareness measurement. In addition, through the model, the improvement of alarm display design can be achieved in a resource-effective manner.
Keywords: Situation Awareness; Alarm display; Nuclear power plant; Eye tracking
A Study of Multi-target Visual Search by Eye Movement Behavior BIBAKFull-Text 34-44
  Zhongqi Liu; Zhaofang Xu; Qianxiang Zhou; Fang Xie; Shihua Zhou
The purpose of this study is to probe the characteristics of search time and eye movement behavior to the multi-objective search. Ten subjects participated in the experiment and they were asked to search three target characters at the same similarity degree among the distraction characters which displayed on a 24 in. computer display. The results of search time showed that the first target character was the longest and the second target character was the shortest when the similarity degree between target characters and distraction characters was smaller; The search time to the third target character was the longest and the second target character was the shortest while the similarity degree between target characters and distraction characters was larger; It could been seen from the eye movement data that the search time was longer of the group of the higher similarity degree. It also could be found from the video playback of eye movement data that there were three kinds of visual search patterns for the subjects that they were parallel search, serial search, and parallel-serial search. The subjects who used parallel-serial search pattern made shorter time in founding the target. Conclusions can be made from the results: the order that the targets presented can significantly affect the search time; the similarity degree between target characters and distraction characters also has significant effect to the search time; the parallel-serial search pattern has the best search efficiency among three search patterns.
Keywords: Multi-target; Visual search; Eye movement; Cognition; Ergonomic
Effects of Auditory and Tactile Warning on Drivers' Response to Hazard Under Noisy Environment BIBAKFull-Text 45-53
  Atsuo Murata; Takashi Kuroda
If the warning signal is presented via visual or auditory stimulus, the auditory or visual interference with other information might arise. On the other hand, if vibrotactile cue is used, such interference would be surely reduced. Therefore, it is expected that a vibrotactile signal would be very promising as a warning signal especially under noisy environment. In order to clarify the most suitable modality of cue (warning) to a visual hazard under noisy environment, the following two cues were used in the experiment: (1) auditory cue and (2) vibrotactile cue. The condition of SOA (Stimulus Onset Asynchrony) was set to 0 s, 0.5 s, and 1 s. The outside noise under the real-driving environment was recorded and edited for the experiment. The noise level inside the experimental chamber was 60 dB(A), 70 dB(A), 80 dB(A), and 90 dB(A). As a result, it was verified that the vibrotactile warning was more effective than the auditory warning. When the outside noise under the real-driving environment was used as the noise inside the experimental chamber, the reaction time to the auditory warning was not affected by the noise level.
Keywords: Auditory warning; Vibrotactile warning; Automotive warning system; Outside noise under the real-driving environment; SOA
Study on Event-Related Potential of Information Alarm in Monitoring Interface BIBAKFull-Text 54-65
  Jiang Shao; Chengqi Xue; Haiyan Wang; Wencheng Tang; Yafeng Niu
Conduct research on the problems caused by the improper design of alarm modes in the digital interface of monitoring system. Based on the behavior data and physiological data obtained by the event-related potential brain electrical experiment, compare the influences of the two alarm modes of interface elements size change and color change on the visual cognition of users, analyze the key elements that cause these reasons and lay the foundation for the improvement of alarm modes of monitoring interface. In the brain electrical components of color change and size change, N100, P200 and P300 are more obvious, and they are focused on the top region, the central left top region and the central right top region. As for the present of digital interface alarm information, in the present method with the same channel, participants is more sensitive to the color code change, although the activation degree of size change on human brain is higher. The data analysis and conclusion of this thesis can provide reference for the design of the digital interface alarm mode in the future, so as to effectively avoid the users' misjudgment and omission on the interface information and improve the use efficiency of system in reality.
Keywords: Information identification; ERP; Human computer interaction
Effect of Icon Density and Color Contrast on Users' Visual Perception in Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 66-76
  Zhangfan Shen; Chengqi Xue; Jing Li; Xiaozhou Zhou
One of the challenges today in human-computer interaction is to design user interfaces that are not only appealing to users but also efficiency. Our general objective in this present study was to investigate the effects of the icon density, color contrast and luminance difference on the interaction between users and user interfaces. We conducted two experimental studies, focusing on one specific perceptual feature: user interface design. The first study investigated the effects of the icon density on users' visual identification. Based on the results of the study, we believed that the number of the icons should not be more than 25 in one area, and for small number of the icons, the inter-element spacing should be more than 1/2 icon, which would make users easier to identify them. The second study investigated the effects of chromaticity contrast and luminance contrast on icon perception. Based on the results, we proposed that high color contrast could enhance the efficiency of icon identification and the value of icon-background Michelson contrast should be more than 0.3, but less than 0.5.
Keywords: User interface; Icon density; Color contrast; Luminance difference; Michelson contrast
Prevalence Effects in X-Ray Screening Tasks with a Static or Dynamic Visual Display: Is There Any Difference? BIBAKFull-Text 77-83
  Lingyu Wang; Xianghong Sun
Visual search researches have demonstrated target prevalence affected the search performance. However, almost all studies were conducted in static searches. The aim of present study is, using more ecologically valid dynamic visual search, to examine whether different static and dynamic displays affect prevalence effects in screening tasks. Three display patterns were deployed by manipulating the display movement velocity. The results showed that the low prevalence effect existed both in static search and more ecologically valid dynamic visual search. The disciplines of prevalence effects partially applied in dynamic visual search.
Keywords: Dynamic visual search; Low prevalence effect; Signal detection theory; X-ray screening; Motion
Visual Comfort and Fatigue Between Watching Linear Polarized and Circular Polarized LCD TVs as Measured by Eye Tracking BIBAKFull-Text 84-91
  Yunhong Zhang; Chaoyi Zhao; Xin Zhang
An eye movement study was conducted to make clear whether the new technique of circular polarized LCD display would help to relieve the visual fatigue after long duration viewing films. 60 undergraduates and ordinary researchers were measured to assess and compare the difference of blink frequency and duration time between viewing linear polarized and circular polarized LCD displays by Eye-tracking. 60 participants were divided into two groups after matching, and the two matched groups were separately arranged to viewing linear polarized and circular polarized LCD displays. They watch the same video content (scenery video and a film), while recording the eye movement data. The results shows that the blink frequency of the two group participants which viewed linear polarized and circular polarized LCD displays first decreases and then increases in the overall trend with prolonging of the viewing time, and there is remarkable difference between the participants of viewing linear polarized and circular polarized LCD displays in blink frequency and duration time indexes. As a conclusion, circular polarized LCD causes less visual fatigue.
Keywords: Visual fatigue; Eye-tracking; Circular polarized; Linear polarized; LCD display

Applied Cognitive Psychology

Visual Behavior Analysis of Human Performance in Precision Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 95-106
  Nitesh Bhatia; Dibakar Sen; Anand V. Pathak
In this paper we have presented a pilot study done on seven subjects for analyzing the variation of human task performance on precision manual tasks by changing the visual distance. A trivial screw fastening task was performed at sitting and standing posture. It was observed that as long as components remained properly visible and within hand reach, the subjects were able to perform faster at a longer visual distance. We performed two additional laboratory experiments that consisted of tasks comprising of block duplication and visual peg-hole search and observed the same results. For recording the visual activity, a head-mounted binocular eye-tracker was used that captures first person view of scene along with gaze vector and fixation time. The data generated was analyzed for all three tasks and results are shown that justify our observations.
Keywords: Vision analysis; Eye tracking; Precision tasks; Human performance; Visual behavior
The Effect of Simulated Threat on Task Performance During Emotion Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 107-116
  Tibor Bosse; Koen Schnitfink
Being able to de-escalate aggressive behavior during face-to-face interactions is an important skill for employees in a variety of domains. To do this effectively, employees should learn to recognize the emotional state of their conversation partner. However, this task can be seriously hindered by the stress triggered by the aggressive encounter. To gain more insight in the impact of threat on task performance during emotion recognition, 30 participants were asked to perform an emotion recognition task using pictures of virtual characters. Each participant performed the task two times, once under normal circumstances, and once in a 'stress' condition in which threatening stimuli were presented whenever a wrong answer was given. Additionally, all 30 participants performed a second, mathematical task, also under a normal and a 'stress' condition. Counterbalancing was used to control for order effects. The results indicate that there was a negative impact of the (simulated) threat on performance in the emotion recognition task, but not in the mathematical task. In follow-up research, these results will be used to develop an adaptive serious game for public service workers, with which they can train their aggression de-escalation skills in a personalized manner.
Keywords: Emotion recognition; Threatening stimuli; Task performance
It's Dark in There: Using Systems Analysis to Investigate Trust and Engagement in Dark Web Forums BIBAFull-Text 117-128
  David Lacey; Paul M. Salmon
The dark web is a layer of the Internet that exists to preserve the anonymity of its users. Features of the dark web include websites, discussion forums, and marketplaces that trade in legitimate and illicit products and services. Common examples that have gained public notoriety include Silk Road, Agora and Taobao5, generating hundreds of thousands of users worldwide. One of the major features of the dark web is obscuring the originating Internet Protocol (IP) address of its users. Perhaps this may explain why little research exists on participant trust and engagement within this environment. This research paper contributes to this gap in two ways. First it explores the application of the Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork (EAST) methodology to the dark web context, and specifically, the tasks and interactions associated with enrolling as a first-time participant within an illicit marketplace. The second contribution, is a compelling view on the nature of trust establishment within a dark web system of relevance to participants, hosts, and law enforcement stakeholders alike. The research is novel in its approach and application of sociotechnical systems methodologies within a highly under-researched but popular environment. The implications for future research and practice in this area are discussed.
A CMF Database Framework Design -- A Case of Application of User Mental Model BIBAKFull-Text 129-139
  Jikun Liu; Chenyu Zhao; Hengfeng Zuo
In this paper, we take the project of CMF network database framework design as an example to explore how to effectively apply the mental model approach to the User-Centered Design process. We firstly build a user mental model to collect user needs by interviewing and observing the target user representatives. Then, we compare the user needs against the capabilities of the competitors' products to get some key design opportunities. And finally, using those key opportunities as an important guidance, we construct a new framework for the CMF database. We hope the design process based on the mental model approach discussed here can set a reference to the User-Centered Design.
Keywords: CMF database framework; Mental model approach; User-centered design
Gamification Design Based Research on Speech Training System for Hearing-Impaired Children BIBAKFull-Text 140-151
  Qiang Liu; Fengjiao Cai; Ying Yang; Ting Han
There are about 137,000 hearing-impaired children in 0-6 years old in China. Unfortunately, it has about 23,000 newborn hearing-impaired children each year. The number is far larger in the world. As a result of hearing impairment, children lost the ability to speak. The society should pay more attention to them. A number of methods and products have been developed. However, these products are more like laboratory instruments and lack of humane and fun. As a result, it has no appeal to children. Parents has a great influence to the training. So it requires time and effort from the parents and many parents may have to take time off from work [1]. Economic pressures increases the misfortune of each family. In the age of advocating the user experience, it is essential to understand the products from the perspective of hearing-impaired children and their families to increase interest of the product. Gamification design is a great solution that increases the interest of the speech training system. In this paper, we focus on the influence of different game mechanics of speech training system for hearing-impaired children combined with the theories of immersion, flow experience and performance. A self-service training system has been developed.
Keywords: Hearing-impaired children; Speech training; Gamification design; Serious game; User experience
Military Vehicle Dashboard Design Using Semantics Method in Cognitive Ergonomics Framework BIBAKFull-Text 152-163
  Billy Muhamad Iqbal; Amalia Suzianti; Boy Nurtjahyo
Indonesia requires innovation and revitalization for the military vehicles that match the performance of the Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI) in securing the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia. Based on this fact, the need for good vehicle use, effective and efficient is necessary, by the fact the Indonesian military vehicles is commonly old that have limited function and ergonomics. The new vehicle purchased from abroad is also less fit for the soldier's ergonomic profile. The study aimed to design one of the main parts that are considered most representative of a military vehicle to fit between the vehicle function and the profile of soldiers. This study aims to design an instrument Human-Machine Interface in the form of a dashboard with semantic methods and evaluated on a military vehicle with a virtual method in order to maximize the functions of the Human-Machine Interaction in the vehicle in order to improve the performance of the military vehicles that will maximize the ability of the military in using their main combat tools.
Keywords: Cognitive ergonomics; Product design; Military vehicle; Semantics design; Human machine interface
Seeing Officiating as a Sociotechnical System -- The Case for Applying Distributed Situation Awareness to Officials in Sport BIBAFull-Text 164-175
  Timothy J. Neville; Paul M. Salmon
Systems thinking, the notion that the unit of analysis should be the overall sociotechnical system, is a popular contemporary paradigm within cognitive ergonomics. Despite this, systems thinking applications have not yet emerged in the sporting context. We argue that systems thinking applications are required in sport, especially since sports systems are becoming more complex and technology dependent. Further, Officials in Sport (OiS), the controllers of the game, represent a critical but neglected research area. In this paper we explore whether the cognitive ergonomics model of Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA) can be applied to OiS systems and if DSA provides appropriate theoretical and methodological approaches to support future studies of Situation Awareness in OiS systems. The implications for future sport and OiS research applications are discussed and a research agenda designed to facilitate these applications is proposed.
Towards a Continuous Method for Mental Workload Registration BIBAKFull-Text 176-187
  Thea Radüntz; Gabriele Freude
Continuous mental workload registration is a key technology for evaluating and optimizing work conditions in human-machine systems. Despite the urgent need for this technology, its technical measurement is still lacking. The long-term goal of this work is the establishment of precisely such an objective method. The article describes the development of a continuous method for neuronal mental workload registration during the execution of cognitive tasks. The sample consists of 54 people in paid work. The electroencephalogram as well as further workload relevant biosignal data and the NASA-TLX as a subjective questionnaire method are registered. Results from the workload classification of the EEG segments are presented. They are in concordance with the results expected from different task requirements on the executive functions. Findings from the subjective ratings, accuracy rates, and cardiovascular parameters underscore this fact.
Keywords: Mental workload; Electroencephalogram (EEG); Signal processing; Pattern recognition
Black or White? Influence of Robot Arm Contrast on Distraction in Human-Robot Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 188-199
  Jonas Schmidtler; Asuman Sezgin; Thomas Illa; Klaus Bengler
The conducted study is concerned with the visual appearance of a common industrial robot and the influence on the human worker while acting in the same workplace at the very same time. Sixteen volunteers, eight novices and eight experts participated in the study. Equipped with an eye-tracking-system glance chains while revealing the robot and number of glances influenced by different contrast conditions of the robot arm while working on a primary and an interactive secondary task where measured. The results of the first part are that human operators perceive a common six-axis industrial robot in a comparable way from bottom up to the tool-center-point and over the arm-kinematic back. The second part revealed that higher robot-arm contrasts lead to higher distraction caused by a higher number of glances to the moving robot.
Keywords: Human-Robot Interaction; Robot arm contrast; Influencing factors; Robot appearance; Distraction; Acceptance; Well-being; Eye tracking
New Knowledge for Built Environments: Exploring Urban Design from Socio-technical System Perspectives BIBAKFull-Text 200-211
  Nicholas J. Stevens; Paul M. Salmon
This paper details the value in exploring, applying and disseminating Human Factors methods in Urban Planning and Design. This innovative research recognises that from a paradigm perspective there are similarities between the challenges faced in both disciplines. The authors have applied Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) to explore a range of built environment issues. The findings have allowed for a clearer interpretation of the systems relationships within urban design contexts -- from the functional purposes, to the important objects contained within them. This paper highlights the applications, and discusses the implications for future research and practice. It is concluded that the research contributes to a better understanding of the interdependencies between the designs, user experience and engineering requirements of key urban design projects.
Keywords: Human factors; Sociotechnical systems; Urban planning; Urban design; Sociotechnical urbanism

Safety, Risk and Human Reliability

Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Validity of a Software Tool Designed to Support Systemic Accident Analysis by Risk Managers BIBAKFull-Text 215-225
  Natassia Goode; Paul M. Salmon; Natalie Z. Taylor; Michael G. Lenné; Caroline F. Finch
Despite the proposed advantages of systems accident analysis (SAA) methods for understanding incident-causation, these approaches have not been widely adopted by practitioners. This represents a significant gap between research and practice in accident analysis. The Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Accidents Data System (UPLOADS) provides a series of tools to address this gap. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of UPLOADS by comparing analyses generated by risk managers and researchers experienced in SAA. Twenty-three risk managers used UPLOADS to collect and analyse incident data from their organization over a three month period. The reports were then analyzed by two researchers experienced in SAA, and compared to those generated by participants. Participants identified half the number of factors identified by researchers, and tended to focus on only one or two factors as the causes of each incident. The potential consequences for practitioners' understanding of incident-causation and countermeasure development are discussed, as well as ways of improving the system.
Keywords: Systems thinking; Accident analysis; Research translation
"How Do I Save It?" Usability Evaluation of a Systems Theory-Based Incident Reporting Software Prototype by Novice End Users BIBAFull-Text 226-236
  Eryn Grant; Natassia Goode; Paul M. Salmon; Michael G. Lenné; Bridie Scott-Parker; Caroline F. Finch
The level of usability achieved by software tools is a key factor that determines their success and indeed uptake by end users. This paper describes a study that was undertaken to evaluate the usability of a prototype incident reporting software tool. The study involved novice end users completing a series of tasks using the software tool and then completing Ravden and Johnson's Human Computer Interaction (HCI) checklist. The findings identify aspects of the system that pose particular challenges for participants. Participants appeared to lack a clear understanding of the relationship between the information required from them, and the underpinning accident analysis method of the software tool. This is perhaps unsurprising, considering that most incident reporting systems do not include these functions. The findings indicate that the tool requires better levels of intuitiveness to assist users in complex tasks so the focus is on awareness of accident causation methods rather than task instructions. The implications for the design of incident reporting software tools are discussed.
Sorry, I'm Late; I'm Not in the Mood: Negative Emotions Lengthen Driving Time BIBAKFull-Text 237-244
  Myounghoon Jeon; Jayde Croschere
A considerable amount of research has shown that anger degenerates driving performance [e.g., 1, 2, 3], but little research has empirically shown other affective effects on driving. To investigate angry and sad effects on driving, we conducted a driving simulation study with induced affective states. In cognitive psychology, there is the "sadder but wiser" phenomenon, but given that driving is a complex, dynamic task that engages not only basic cognitive processes, but also other critical elements such as decision making, action selection, and motor control, it might result in different outcomes. Thirty-two participants were induced into sad, angry, or neutral affective states and asked to complete a driving task using a medium fidelity driving simulator. Measures included driving performance, subjective mood ratings, and a NASA-TLX workload index. Results showed that participants in the angry and sad conditions took significantly more time to complete the driving task compared to the neutral condition.
Keywords: Aggressive driving; Anger; Driving simulation research; Emotions; Road rage; Sadder but wiser
Primacy of Immediate Reward Underlying Violation BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
  Atsuo Murata; Yukio Ohta; Makoto Moriwaka
We generally tend to discount the satisfaction induced by the consumption in the future relative to the satisfaction at present. We feel more attractive to the immediate reward even if it is not a great amount of money. This is called primacy of immediate reward. Therefore, it is possible that this property forces us to put immediate profits or rewards before those in the future especially when the incentive to immediate awards or profits is stronger. It is speculated that such a property leads to cognitive biases to commit violation, and at the worst case causes a crucial accident such as the critical mass accident at the uranium processing plant of JCO Tokai Works Test Facility. As the basis for the prevention of violation-based human error, the primacy of immediate reward was explored in detail and an attempt was made to identify the condition under which the primacy of immediate reward is dominant. The primacy of immediate reward did not always arise, and it readily occurred under the following situation: (1) very uncertain situation under which a promise is not necessarily observed, and (2) situation under which one feels much starved and need money to eat something with. It was found that the urged to gain an immediate reward readily led to time discount.
Keywords: Time discount; Loss aversion; Irrationality; Primacy of immediate reward; Violation; Pursuit of immediate profit
An Attempt to Predict Driver's Drowsiness Using Trend Analysis of Behavioral Measures BIBAKFull-Text 255-264
  Atsuo Murata; Kohei Fukuda; Koh Yoshida
The behavioral measures such as neck vending angle and tracking error in steering maneuvering during the simulated driving task was recorded under the low arousal condition of all participants who stayed up all night without sleeping. We conducted trend analysis where time and the behavioral measure of drowsiness corresponded to an independent variable and a dependent variable, respectively. Applying the trend analysis technique to the experimental data of participants from whom the point in time when the participant would have encountered a crucial accident if he or she continued driving a vehicle (virtual accident), we proposed a method to predict in advance (before virtual accident occurs) the point in time with high risk of crash By applying the proposed trend analysis method to behavioral measures, we found that the proposed approach could identify the point in time with high risk of crash and eventually predict in advance the symptom of the occurrence of point in time of virtual accident.
Keywords: Drowsiness prediction; Behavioral measure; Virtual accident; Crash; Trend analysis
An Attempt to Predict Point in Time with High Risk of Crash Using Psychological Rating on Drowsiness and X-Bar Chart of Behavioral Measures BIBAKFull-Text 265-274
  Atsuo Murata; Kensuke Naitoh
A procedure for predicting the point in time with high risk of crash before the point in time of virtual accident was proposed using X-bar chart of the behavioral measures during a simulated driving task. The tracking error, the back pressure, the sitting pressure (COP movement on the sitting surface), the horizontal neck bending angle, and the vertical neck bending angle were measured during a driving task on the driving simulator. As a result of applying the proposed method to these data, we could identify the point in time with high risk of crash before the point in time of virtual accident occurred for nine participants out of ten. The time interval between the point in time with high risk of crash and the point in time of virtual accident ranged from 136 s to 526 s. As for the other one participant, the point in time with high risk of crash was identified 9 s after the point in time of virtual accident. In such a way, it has been verified that the proposed procedure for predicting the point in time with high risk of crash is effective and promising for warning drivers of the high risky state of crash.
Keywords: Point in time with high risk of crash; Behavioral measures; X-bar chart; Virtual accident; Psychological rating on drowsiness
The Elephant in the Room: Normal Performance and Accident Analysis BIBAFull-Text 275-285
  Paul M. Salmon; Natassia Goode; Erin Stevens; Guy Walker; Neville A. Stanton
Accidents, accident causation, and accident prevention remain key themes within human factors and ergonomics research efforts worldwide. Accordingly, there are a range of well-developed models of accident causation and various methodologies to support accident analysis efforts. State of the art models propose a number of features of accident causation that go beyond operator errors and failed defenses. Once such feature now widely accepted is the notion that 'normal performance' plays a role in accidents; that is everyday behaviors not deemed to be errors or failures at the time of occurrence, are implicated in causal networks. Despite this, it is questionable whether our accident analysis methodologies are equipped to identify normal performance and its role in accidents. This paper examines this, reviewing current state of the art accident analysis methods along with their previous applications. It is concluded that, of the three methods reviewed, only one (Accimap) is currently capable of considering normal performance (at least without reclassifying it as a failure or error of some sort). The implications for accident analysis methodologies and practice are discussed and future methodological requirements are articulated.
Inverting Traditional Views on Human Task-Processing Behavior by Focusing on Abilities Instead of Disabilities -- A Discussion on the Functional Situation Management of Drivers to Solve Demanding Situations BIBAKFull-Text 286-296
  Maximilian Schwalm; Gudrun Mechthild Irmgard Voß; Stefan Ladwig
Due to the well-elaborated limitations of cognitive processing, humans can process only a certain number of tasks in parallel. Notably in the context of driving this poses a serious problem when performing additional tasks while driving. Statistically, drivers perform other tasks while driving in over 50% of the time but drive approximately 3.8 million kilometers before experiencing a severe accident. Hence, besides the undoubted negative influence of non-driving related tasks on driving, appropriate abilities are required to succeed even in most critical driving situations. Until today, little is known about these abilities. To gain further insight, the present paper dwells on the development of a framework based on elaborated cognitive models. Its central claim concerns proactive functional situation management based on situation assessment and task prioritization. A driving simulation study is reported to support the framework. Further, it is discussed how this approach could be applied to fields of HMI.
Keywords: Information processing; Driver abilities; Task load/workload; Multi-tasking
What the Death Star Can Tell Us About System Safety BIBAKFull-Text 297-306
  Guy Walker; Paul Salmon; Neville A. Stanton
Resilience engineering requires that organizations review their own systems to proactively identify weaknesses. Imagine, then, having to identify a critical flaw in a highly complex planetoid sized orbital battle station, under extreme time pressure, and with no clear idea at the outset where the vulnerability will lie? This was the challenge faced by the Rebel Alliance in the film Star Wars. One of the belligerents, the Imperial Empire, considered it highly unlikely a weakness would be found even if the other belligerent were in possession of a full technical readout of the Station. How could it be done? The first option presented in this paper is to employ traditional error identification methods. The findings show the limitations of this component-based approach because it did not predict the actual vulnerability exploited. The second option is to use a systems-based method to model the Death Star's functional constraints and affordances. This method did detect the film ending, and several others. It also provides a compelling narrative around the use of reductionist methods for systems problems, and some wider implications for method selection in more earth-bound settings.
Keywords: Resilience; Scale; Variety; Predictive efficiency

Aviation and Space Safety

How 3D-Displays in ATC Permit Direct Event Perception BIBAKFull-Text 309-316
  Andreas Baier; Alf Zimmer
Three different stereoscopic 3D visualizations are compared with regard to the quality of the event representation to the 2D reference currently used at air-traffic-control controller working positions. Both air-traffic-controllers and pilots judge safety critical air-traffic events showing two converging aircrafts. The level of cognitive demand that arises in peak-traffic situations is simulated by an additional auditory task that has to be conducted in parallel to the conflict assessment. The results indicate that 3D visualizations represent the event structure best, and enhance the efficacy of the air-traffic-controllers in detecting conflicts without compensating this advantage at the cost of efficiency due to a higher number of false alarms. The increase of this advantage with increased cognitive demand indicates benefits of 3D visualizations regarding mental workload and situation-awareness. These displays furthermore proof advantageous for judging vertical distances and the acquisition of conflict assessment skills, therewith indicating their usefulness for controlling areas with strong vertical aircraft movements as well as training decision skills.
Keywords: Air-traffic-control; Conflict detection; Judgment certainty; Expertise; Three-dimensional display
How Automation Effect Mental Workload of Novice Operators in Space Rendezvous and Docking BIBAKFull-Text 317-326
  Xiaoping Du; Yijing Zhang; Bin Wu; Meng Wang; Jiayi Cai; Weifen Huang
The present study investigated the effect of automation on the mental workload of novice operators in manual rendezvous and docking (RVD). One within-subject experiment was designed and fifteen participants participated in the experiment. All participants were required to finish six RVD tasks of two automation levels: manual RVD and the automation-aided manual RVD. Workload of the participant during RVD tasks were assessed with subjective and physiological indicators. Subjective workload was measured by NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). Physiological workload indicators included mean heart rate, the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), the low frequency (LFNU, 0.04 to 0.15 Hz) and high frequency (HFNU, 0.15 to 0.4 Hz) power spectrum component of heart rate variability (HRV, both in normalization form), the LF/HF ratio, and the total power (TP). The results showed that subjective workload rating were significantly lower in the automation-aided RVD as compared to that of manual RVD task. However cardiovascular measures showed different pattern. Mean heart rates, RMSSD and TP of participants did not change significantly with the change of automation level, LFNU was significantly higher, and HFNU was significantly lower in automation-aided RVD task as compared to that in manual RVD task. The results showed that despite a perceived workload reduction in automation-aided RVD, the objective measures of HRV reflected a workload increment. A possible reason is that novice operators were not familiar with automated system, thus it was difficult for them to understand and anticipate the intention and action of automation. The results inferred that application of automation to such complex and dynamic tasks for novice operators should be cautious; novice participants need more training to build deeper understanding of automation system.
Keywords: Automation; Workload; Heart rate variability; Rendezvous and docking
Evaluating Operator Performance in Teleoperated Manipulator System Factored by Camera Configurations BIBAKFull-Text 327-334
  Yan Fu; Wei Chen; Shiqi Li; Zhang Jiao
Tele-operated manipulator has been used in a variety of occupational situations, ranging from space exploration, undersea operations, special search and rescue activities to robotic surgery. It is a challenging task, due to the difficulty with maintaining awareness of the robotic arm's configuration and arm location in the task environment. Operators sometimes fail to understand the relative position posture in task scenario as well as arm configuration such as joint limits or singularities due to multi-channel visual display and poor ability in integrating all channels of visual information. The present study served to understand how operators build up situation awareness of location and arm configuration in the task scenario with multi-channels of visual information. The paper mainly discusses the nature of spatial ability with handle controller in time delay condition, and concerns with the development of routines for making task allocation and sequences adaptable. The findings from experiments indicated the best camera configuration and how automated routine allocation does not help too much improve the performance.
Keywords: Space cognition; Teleoperation; Human performance; Camera configuration
On the Development of a Monitoring Test for the Selection of Aviation Operators BIBAFull-Text 335-344
  Dietrich Grasshoff; Catrin Hasse; Carmen Bruder; Hinnerk Eißfeldt
In future ATM systems aviation operators will have to work with highly automated systems. According to prior research operational monitoring will become a prominent aspect of task performance [1]. Thus, operators monitoring appropriately will be needed, being able to detect system errors in time and to take over control if automation fails. To monitor appropriately, different monitoring phases (orientation, anticipation, detection, and recheck) have to be performed by the subjects. Within these phases, the relevant information should be gathered to enable taking over full control, once automation should fail. Based on this model of appropriate monitoring behavior [2, 3], the present study focuses on the development of a monitoring test for the selection of future operators in the field of aviation.
Supporting Fighter Pilot Decision Making Through Team Option Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 345-355
  Tove Helldin; Tina Erlandsson
Fighter pilots must often make decisions fast, under time-pressure and based on uncertain or incomplete data. Thus, decision-making in this environment poses several challenges on the pilots such as how to fulfil the goal of the mission, while at the same time limit the potential costs and risks taken to fulfil this goal. Another challenge involves the dynamic coordination of actions within the team of pilots needed to succeed with the mission efficiently. This paper discusses challenges and opportunities of introducing a decision-support tool in the fighter aircraft, aiding the pilots determine the best course(s) of action with regard to the team's resources, opportunities and the possible risks involved. To do so, we apply the concept of option awareness, guiding the future development of decision support in the fighter aircraft domain.
Keywords: Decision support; Option awareness; Fighter pilots; Team decision making
Visual Movement and Mental-Workload for Pilot Performance Assessment BIBAKFull-Text 356-364
  Chen-Kai Hsu; Shu-Chiang Lin; Wen-Chin Li
Flight activities are highly dynamic operating processes. When pilots carry out missions, the information is primarily obtained through visual search. This study applied an eye-tracking system to collect empirical and objective data of 18 qualified and in-service F-16 flight aircraft pilots executing air-to-surface tasks. The results indicate that pilots with superior flight performance exhibited a longer fixation duration and more fixation counts with more stable scanpaths and a shorter distance compared with those with inferior performance when executing air-to-surface tasks. Additionally, pilots process messages through a top-down and bottom-up composite pattern during executing tasks. Regardless of the flight experience and performance, the pilots' pupil size exhibited an identical tendency of variation. We suggest adding the eye-tracking system to the flight-simulator platform and providing immediate feedback to pilots and the pilot's attention allocation and cognitive abilities should be considered in training courses to enhance flight safety and improve training performance.
Keywords: Eye movement; Pilot performance; Flight safety; Attention allocation
Dual Pilot and Single Pilot Operations -- Hierarchical Task Decomposition Analysis of Doing More with Less BIBAKFull-Text 365-376
  John Huddlestone; Don Harris; Dale Richards; Steve Scott; Rod Sears
An operational concept for single pilot operations is being developed as part of the work of the Future Flight Deck Technologies project. The underpinning construct is that multiple single-pilot aircraft will be supported by a ground-based team using one or more ground stations to interact with the pilots and their aircraft. Concept development required detailed analysis of two-pilot operations to identify the functions and interactions that the second pilot engages in, to facilitate their reallocation or adaptation within the new system architecture. The application of Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) in this context revealed a number of issues related to the representation and interpretation of sequencing information in plans in HTAs presented in graphical form. This paper identifies these issues and presents a new graphical notation, derived from software design notations, for presenting hierarchical task decompositions. The use of the notation is illustrated with analysis examples from different phases of flight.
Keywords: Hierarchical task decomposition; Hierarchical task analysis; Sub-goal hierarchy; Plans; Single-pilot operations
Flight Safety Margin Theory -- A Theory for the Engineering Analysis of Flight Safety BIBAKFull-Text 377-387
  Hung-Sying Jing; Chia-Sheng Sheng; Yu-Feng Lin
Flight Safety Margin, based on the situation of flight and from an operation point of view, provides a new tool whereby flight safety can be analyzed numerically. The flight operation is viewed moving on a virtual terrain in the abstract situation space. Any normal real flight will thus be delineated by a time-varying continuous curve around the centerline defined by the standard flight condition. The flight safety margin describing how far the present flight situation is from the accident boundary is de-fined as the inverse of the needed performance of the crew to recover the present situation back to the standard condition and scaled from zero to one. A questionnaire is designed to measure the perceived needed performance. With the chosen situation parameters as the inputs, the surveyed results are then converted to the flight safety margin, representing the outputs of the training examples. The expert system using neural network can thus provide the quantitative flight safety margin given situation parameters from real flight condition. The present methodology has been tested with the FOQA data from final approach in real cases including the Nagoya and Da-Yuang accidents. Meaningful results are obtained although there is still much room for improvement.
Keywords: Flight safety margin theory; Flight safety; Engineering analysis
Visualization and Analysis of Controllers' Working Processes in En Route Air Traffic Control BIBAKFull-Text 388-398
  Daisuke Karikawa; Hisae Aoyama
In order to meet increasing air traffic demands in recent years, skilled air traffic controllers are definitely required. Thus, effective and efficient controller training is a key issue in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) domain. However, the transfer of skills from experienced controllers to ATC trainees is difficult because the working processes of the experienced controllers are based on their implicit knowledge acquired through their working experiences. Toward resolving this difficulty in ATC training, the present research attempts to visualize and analyze a couple of controllers' working processes for establishing in-trail separations between arrival flights using our process visualization tool of ATC tasks. The analysis results illustrate the performance differences of those working processes and their probable causal factors. This fact strongly implies the practical applicability of the visualization tool for supporting the debriefing and discussion concerning the training results of ATC trainees.
Keywords: Visualization; Working process; Air traffic controller; Education and training; Human factors
The Efficiency of New Audio Alerts in the COOPANS Eurocat System BIBAKFull-Text 399-407
  Peter Kearney; Wen-Chin Li
The Air Traffic Control System in Ireland, known as COOPANS, has been developed in conjunction with an industry partner Thales Group, is deployed in five European countries -- Austria, Croatia, Denmark, Ireland, Sweden, is unique as all countries operate the same software version and by 2020 will be responsible for 3,559,000 flights within European airspace. These systems are designed to detect and alert critical situations such as conflict between aircraft, between aircraft and terrain and between aircraft and areas where there is a risk to flight within that airspace. COOPANS provides three different safety alerts to warn Air Traffic Controllers of system safety events, including Short Term Conflict Alert (STCA) which indicates potential for a loss in either required lateral or vertical separation between aircraft; Minimum Safe Altitude Warning (MSAW) which indicates that an aircraft is operating at an altitude which may not be terrain safe; and Area Proximity Warning (APW) which indicates that an aircraft is projected to enter airspace which is segregated due to military or security operations. 77 participants out of a total Air Traffic Control cadre of 375 rated Air Traffic Controllers took part in the trial. 38 participants completed Trial A -- traditional audio alert and 39 participants completed Trial B enhanced audio alert. The results demonstrate that the enhanced audio alert improved air traffic controller performance and efficiency across all three critical incident situations STCA, MSAW, APW regardless of air traffic controller experience. This improved performance resulted in faster response times by the air traffic controllers to the critical alerts presented. Training for air traffic controllers in the use of these new audio alert presentations can be harmonized and no distinctions need be made between experts and novices. This represents substantial benefit to air navigation service providers in avoiding increased costs in designing separate training programs for expert and novice air traffic controllers.
Keywords: Air traffic control; Area proximity warning; Minimum safe altitude warning; Short term conflict alert; Training
Interface Design and Pilot Attention Distribution Whilst Pursuing a Dynamic Target BIBAKFull-Text 408-415
  Wen-Chin Li; Chung-san Yu; Graham Braithwaite; Matthew Greaves
The purpose of this study is to analyse the impact of the cockpit interface design on pilots' attention distribution during flight operations. Two different fighter jet simulators, Fighter-A and Fighter-B, with different interface designs were used in this research. Both Fighter-A and Fighter-B simulators are dynamic, high-fidelity trainers that replicate actual aircraft performance, navigation and weapon systems. Sixty-nine qualified mission-ready pilots (39 Fighter-A pilots, 30 Fighter-B pilots) participated in this research. Fighter-A pilots had: ages between 26 and 45 years old (M = 34, SD = 5); total flying hours between 372 and 3,200 h (M = 1294, SD = 753); and type flying hours between 89 and 2,270 h (M = 815, SD = 524). Fighter-B pilots had: ages between 26 and 51 years old (M = 30, SD = 6); total flying hours between 310 and 2,920 h (M = 845, SD = 720); and type flying hours between 63 and 2,000 h (M = 461, SD = 487). Eye movement data were collected by a head-mounted ASL (Applied Science Laboratory) Mobile Eye, which is 76 g in weight. Eye movements at five areas of interest (AOIs) were analyzed, since those AOIs provide pilots with the required flight information to accomplish the mission. The AOIs are: Head-up Display (HUD); Integrated Control Panel (ICP); Right Multiple Function Display (RMFD); Left Multiple Function Display (LMFD); and Outside of Cockpit (OC). The findings indicate that differences in interface design might impact pilots' visual scanning patterns, which is associated closely with attention distribution. This research demonstrated that interface designs of HUD, ICP, RMFD and LMFD of Fighter-A attract a higher percentage of fixation and longer average fixation duration compared with Fighter-B. Furthermore, Fighter-A pilots' perceived workloads were lower, but their situational awareness performance was better than Fighter-B pilots. The application of an eye-tracking device during flight operations is not only beneficial to understand the pilot's attention distribution, but also to understand the interaction performance between the pilot and the interface. The findings of this research have potential benefits for improving interface design and the efficiency of aviation training.
Keywords: Aviation safety; Eye movement; Attention distribution; Interface design
Effectiveness of Advanced Collaboration Tools on Crew Communication in Reduced Crew Operations BIBAKFull-Text 416-427
  Sarah V. Ligda; Ute Fischer; Kathleen Mosier; Michael Matessa; Vernol Battiste; Walter W. Johnson
The present research examines operational performance and verbal communication in airline flight crews under reduced crew operations (RCO). Eighteen two-pilot crews flew six scenarios under three conditions; one condition involved current-day operations while two involved RCO. In RCO flights, the Captain initially operated the simulated aircraft alone but could request remote crewmember support as off-nominal events occurred and workload was expected to increase. In one of the two RCO conditions, crewmembers were provided with advanced prototype collaboration tools designed to alleviate difficulties in crew coordination. Crews successfully solved all challenging events without accident and analyses of operational performance did not reveal any differences among the three conditions. In RCO flights, crew communication increased when tools were available relative to flights in which they were not; specifically, there were more acknowledgements and decision-making communications. These results suggest the collaboration tools enable higher degrees of crewmember awareness and/or coordination during distributed operations.
Keywords: NextGen; Reduced crew operations; Single pilot operations; Distributed teams; Crew resource management; CRM tools
The Analysis of Human Error Prevention Strategies in Military Aviation BIBAKFull-Text 428-435
  Shu-Chiang Lin; Jeng-Chung Chen; Wen-Chin Li
The study applied Human Factors Intervention Matrix (HFIX) framework and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to analyze human errors intervention strategy. Our questionnaire, designed based on 15 significant accidents of Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF), was distributed to ROCAF related personnel and was completed by eight commanders of flight unit and 14 subordinators consisted of ten pilots and four maintenance staffs. Questionnaire results specified that each approach in HFIX framework possesses its unique characteristics. This study has demonstrated that the HFIX framework can serve as a tool to develop human errors intervention strategies in military aviation, and AHP can be applied to assist decision makers to evaluate these diversified strategies. The study suggests that each flight unit of air force selects appropriate intervention strategies in accordance with its own demands and resource limitations.
Keywords: Accident prevention; Human errors; Human factors intervention matrix; Military aviation
An Integrated Framework for Crew -- Centric Flight Operations BIBAKFull-Text 436-447
  Nick McDonald; Alison Kay; Paul Liston; Rabea Morrison; Margaret Ryan
This paper presents an integrated framework for crew-centric flight-deck operations within the FP7-EU funded ACROSS project. ACROSS is developing, integrating and testing new solutions to reduce pilots' peak workload and stress, supporting them when dealing with difficult situations, thus enhancing safety and performance. ACROSS presented a number of human factors challenges: (1) diverse technologies being designed simultaneously and in parallel, (2) multiple partners throughout Europe with different needs and design philosophies (3) production of multiple technologies relating to different parts of the flight operations process. The global human factors challenge was to produce an integrated human factors approach that would facilitate the best outcome for ACROSS. To meet this challenge a crew-centric framework for flight operations was designed. This paper presents the framework itself, the development process and an illustration of the concepts behind it.
Keywords: Crew workload; Crew resource management; Evaluation; Integrated design; Distributed team working; Automation; Delegation
Improving Target Acquisition Performance by Integrating Human Behavior Models and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control Automation BIBAKFull-Text 448-459
  Sara Naderer; Michael Patzek; Clayton Rothwell; Krishna Kalyanam
In pursuit of adaptive automation methods, the objective of this research was to develop a reliable Integrated Human Behavioral Model and Stochastic Controller (IHBMSC) that could be coupled to the vehicle assignment, scheduling and path planning automation. The effort developed a human operator model that represents an individual's performance tendencies and biases across a range of target acquisition and workload situations (e.g., arrival rate at POIs, dwell time over POIs, etc.). The idiographic-based model was integrated with the stochastic controller (SC) and cooperative control algorithm, leading to a more "closed-loop" form of problem-solving that not only accounts for the vehicles' capabilities but also the individual operator's behavior and performance in the uncertain environment.
Keywords: Adaptable automation; Adaptive automation; Stochastic control; Human behavioral modeling
Bridging the Gap Between Desktop Research and Full Flight Simulators for Human Factors Research BIBAKFull-Text 460-471
  Matthias Oberhauser; Daniel Dreyer; Sebastien Mamessier; Thomas Convard; Daniel Bandow; Axel Hillebrand
This research presents a Virtual Reality Flight Simulator (VRFS) that combines the advantages of desktop simulations and hardware mock-ups, i.e. the flexibility of a desktop flight simulation with the level of immersion close to a full flight simulator. In contrast to similar existing VR flight simulators, the presented system focuses on Human Factors (HF) research and is used for evaluating flight decks already in an early phase of the design process. In this paper, four user studies are presented that demonstrate the application of integrated HF methods and the usability of the system. The scope of the VRFS lies in between desktop simulations and a full hardware mock-up and cannot replace either of these. However, it is a reliable low-cost addition in the early development process of flight decks when it comes to HF evaluations.
Keywords: Virtual reality; Flight simulation; Human factors evaluation
Understanding Team Effectiveness in a Tactical Air Unit BIBAKFull-Text 472-479
  Ulrika Ohlander; Jens Alfredson; Maria Riveiro; Göran Falkman
Effective team work is regarded as a key factor for success in missions performed by fighter aircraft in a Tactical Air Unit (TAU). Many factors contribute to how a team will succeed in their mission. From the existing literature on teamwork, Salas, Sims and Burke [1], suggested five main factors and three supporting mechanisms for effective team work. These were proposed as the "Big Five" of teamwork. This article investigates if the model offered by Salas et al. is applicable to a TAU of fighter aircraft. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with six fighter pilots. The results of these interviews imply that the model has relevance for the teamwork in a TAU. Moreover, this paper discusses implications for the design of future decision-support systems that support team effectiveness.
Keywords: Team effectiveness; Fighter aircraft; Tactical air unit
How to Make the Most of Your Human: Design Considerations for Single Pilot Operations BIBAKFull-Text 480-491
  Paul C. Schutte
Reconsidering the function allocation between automation and the pilot in the flight deck is the next step in improving aviation safety. The current allocation, based on who does what best, makes poor use of the pilot's resources and abilities. In some cases it may actually handicap pilots from performing their role. Improving pilot performance first lies in defining the role of the pilot -- why a human is needed in the first place. The next step is allocating functions based on the needs of that role (rather than fitness), then using automation to target specific human weaknesses in performing that role. Examples are provided (some of which could be implemented in conventional cockpits now). Along the way, the definition of human error and the idea that eliminating/automating the pilot will reduce instances of human error will be challenged.
Keywords: Function allocation; Automation; Aviation; Safety; Human error; Flight crew; Autoflight
Research on Error Proofing Design of Boeing and Airbus Cockpit from Pilots Survey BIBAKFull-Text 492-504
  Ruishan Sun; Kang Zhao; Xin Zhang
Human errors are main causes of most aircraft accidents. Fighting on human errors is important mission of aircraft designer as well as pilot and air traffic controller. Error proofing design for controls in aircraft cockpit is one of the design goals of ergonomics. According to human error management for flight crew, the error proofing design methods are established. A questionnaire which was composed of 25 closed-ended questions were designed for collecting the pilot view. The questionnaire was tested from two respects of reliability and validity. 125 valid questionnaires were collected altogether. The analysis is divided into two parts: the degree of safety support and the frequency. Then by analyzing data from each question, including mean and variance of Boeing and Airbus, the paper studies on the differences and similarities between Boeing and Airbus aircraft in error proofing design. It studies the reasons for the different efforts of error proofing design between Boeing and Airbus aircraft. The paper also considers the effects of pilots' age on every question. Regression analysis is used for analyzing the variation tendency with age. The result is that pilots consider that the design in Boeing cockpit has superior maneuverability while design in Airbus cockpit do better in logical protection than Boeing. The paper provides a reference for the study of error proofing design in the cockpit.
Keywords: Human error; Error proofing design; Reliability; Validity
Comfort Evaluation Method of Commercial Pilot Posture BIBAFull-Text 505-512
  Xiaoyan Zhang; Hongjun Xue; Xiaoheng Su; Yunteng Hou
Comfortable pilot posture is the important guideline for flight deck design and evaluation. The present evaluation methods used to evaluate the whole posture comfort only consider the manikin geometry performance such as joint angles' but the biomechanical performance. A joint load model was built considering the mechanical performance based on the comfort analysis of the usable joints torque. Through the experiment on the flight deck simulator the data of joint torque and angles were collected. The comfort analysis of pilot posture was executed both by load model and the general analysis by joint angles' fuzzy evaluation. The results show that the two methods have the identical evaluation conclusion, but the load model is more objective and avoid the subjective of fuzzy evaluation. The load model based on the usable torque of joints can discover the design problem of the whole layout of flight deck and furthermore, the model can be used to solve the problems of manipulation efficiency of local operation such as press, pull/push and so on which is always the important aspects of ergonomic design.
Relational Complexity Network and Air Traffic Controllers' Workload and Performance BIBAKFull-Text 513-522
  Jingyu Zhang; Feng Du
This paper makes a review on current workload models of air traffic controllers. Lack of proper aggregation method and ecological validity were identified as major inadequacies. We introduce the relational complexity network (RCN) framework which is formed on two ideas: (1) using a network approach to represent the aircraft pattern matches the information structure and action space of controllers; (2) controllers will proactively utilize this structure to perform their task. As a theory-driven computational model, the RCN framework can be used to (1) add extra predictive power to the controllers' workload models based on aircraft-level or pair-level information; (2) predict controllers' overt operational behaviors; and (3) understand various effects from visual grouping to operational constraints.
Keywords: Air traffic control; Mental workload; Relational complexity network; Conflict resolution; Naturalistic decision making