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EPCE Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415

EPCE 2009: 8th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:EPCE 2009: 8th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:Volume 17 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Don Harris
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5639
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02727-7 (print), 978-3-642-02728-4 (online); hcibib: EPCE09
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Cognitive Approaches in HCI Design
  2. Interaction and Cognition
  3. Driving Safety and Support
  4. Aviation and Transport

Cognitive Approaches in HCI Design

Towards Cognitive-Aware Multimodal Presentation: The Modality Effects in High-Load HCI BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Yujia Cao; Mariët Theune; Anton Nijholt
In this study, we argue that multimodal presentations should be created in a cognitive-aware manner, especially in a high-load HCI situation where the user task challenges the full capacity of the human cognition. An experiment was conducted to investigate the cognitive effects of modalities, using a high-load task. The performance measurements and subjective reports consistently confirm a significant modality impact on cognitive workload, stress and performance. A relation between modality usage and physiological states was not found, due to the insufficient sensitivity and individual differences of the physiological measurements. The findings of this experiment can be well explained by several modality-related cognitive theories. We further integrate these theories into a suitability prediction model, which can systematically predict how suitable a certain modality usage is for this presentation task. The model demonstrates a possible approach towards cognitive-aware modality planning and can be modified for other applications.
Keywords: Cognitive-aware; multimodal presentation; modality planning; cognitive load; stress; performance; high-load HCI
Supporting Situation Awareness in Demanding Operating Environments through Wearable User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Jari Laarni; Juhani Heinilä; Jukka Häkkinen; Virpi Kalakoski; Kari Kallinen; Kristian Lukander; Paula Löppönen; Tapio Palomäki; Niklas Ravaja; Paula Savioja; Antti Väätänen
The military environment is physically and mentally extremely stressful. Tasks in the operating environment are varied, demanding and hazardous. Due to these challenges, new user interfaces (UIs) are required providing improved soldier protection and performance both in day-time and night-time conditions. The new UIs should, e.g., improve the soldier's situation awareness, i.e., perception of information, integration of pieces of information, determination of their relevance to one's goals, and projection of their status in the future. The aim of the Finnish project called "Supporting situation awareness in demanding operating environments through wearable interfaces" is to develop UIs for wearable computers that help the special force soldier carry out his/her main critical tasks, e.g., detection and identification of enemies and features of the surrounding environment, navigation and self-localization, development of tactics and communication between and within military units. The main portions of the work are task and work analysis, and conceptual design and evaluation of prototype systems. The present paper present the project and the methods that are used in the functional analysis of military tasks.
Keywords: Situation Awareness; Cognitive Task Analysis; Military Domain; Wearable User Interface; Future Soldier; Future Warrior
Development of a Technique for Predicting the Human Response to an Emergency Situation BIBAKFull-Text 22-31
  Glyn Lawson; Sarah Sharples; David Clarke; Sue Cobb
This paper presents development work on a new approach for predicting the human response to an emergency situation. The study builds upon an initial investigation in which 20 participants were asked to predict what actions they would take in the event of a domestic fire [1]. The development work involved a retest with an additional 20 participants to investigate the reliability of the approach. Furthermore, the analysis procedure was improved such that the results represented more accurately those which could be obtained from practical application of the approach. As found in the initial investigation, the frequencies and sequences of the reported acts had significant relationships with a study of behavior in real fires [2] (Spearman's rho: 0.323, N=55, p<0.05) and (Spearman's rho: 0.340, N=37, p<0.05), respectively. Further development work is required, but the results indicate that the approach may have use for predicting human behavior in emergencies.
Keywords: human response; behavior; emergency; reliability; predict
A Dynamic Task Representation Method for a Virtual Reality Application BIBAKFull-Text 32-42
  Maria Chiara Leva; Alison Kay; Fabio Mattei; Tom Kontogiannis; Massimiliano De Ambroggi; Sam Cromie
The paper introduces an approach and a tool for representing tasks in the workplace as it emerged from a research finalized in reproducing safety critical tasks in Virtual Reality (VR) simulations. In the context of an EU research project called Virthualis. The tool, developed to address the needs of three different user groups, supports data collection and provides a structure for the interviews and for the simultaneous graphical representation of the task. It can be used as a common means of communication between the technical personnel involved in the interviews, the human factors expert and the VR expert. This aids the common understanding of a task, its main objective, challenges and criticalities whilst performing the actual analysis.
Keywords: Task analysis; Human Factors; safety procedures; troubleshooting
An Investigation of Function Based Design Considering Affordances in Conceptual Design of Mechanical Movement BIBAKFull-Text 43-51
  Ying-Chieh Liu; Su-Ju Lu
Using the concept of affordances could lead the designer to consider the user's possible actions during design activities, which is increasingly important in many design cases. This paper proposes a model that attempts to incorporate the concept of affordances to function based design in conceptual design of mechanical movement. The role of affordances in the initial design process considers the user's possible actions to the solution in the environment. A simple example of door latch design is demonstrated to see how affordances can support in the divergent and convergent design activities.
Keywords: function based design; affordances; mechanical movement; conceptual design; engineering design process
CWE: Assistance Environment for the Evaluation Operating a Set of Variations of the Cognitive Walkthrough Ergonomic Inspection Method BIBAKFull-Text 52-61
  Thomas Mahatody; Christophe Kolski; Mouldi Sagar
In spite of the existence of several usability inspection methods, they are still insufficiently used because of various constraints, such as the absence of software environments to facilitate their use and the inexistence of guides to choose the best method to be used. This article describes the design of CWE (Cognitive Walkthrough Environment) which is an evaluation assistance environment exploiting the Cognitive Walkthrough inspection method. This environment is intended to facilitate the use of the CW method as well as several of its versions and extensions.
Keywords: Cognitive Walkthrough; Inspection; Evaluation; Usability
The Use of Multimodal Representation in Icon Interpretation BIBAFull-Text 62-70
  Siné McDougall; Alexandra Forsythe; Sarah Isherwood; Agnes Petocz; Irene Reppa; Catherine Stevens
Identifying icon functions differs from naming pictures in that strong semantic links between pictures and their names have been formed over a long period of time whereas the meaning of icons has often to be learned. This paper examines roles of icon characteristics such as complexity, concreteness, familiarity and aesthetic appeal in determining how easily icons can be learned and identified. The role of these characteristics is seen as dynamic, changing as the user learns the icon set. It is argued that the way in which users learn icon meanings is similar to the processes involved in language learning. Icon meanings are learned by drawing on rich multimodal representations which are the result of our world experience. This approach could lead to a better understanding of how multimodal information can be most usefully presented on interfaces.
Beyond Emoticons: Combining Affect and Cognition in Icon Design BIBAKFull-Text 71-80
  Siné McDougall; Irene Reppa; Gary Smith; David Playfoot
Recently there has been a shift in emphasis from interface usability to interface appeal. Very few studies, however, have examined the link between usability and appeal and evidence regarding the direction of the relationship between the two remains equivocal. This paper examines the nature of the relationships between the usability and aesthetic appeal of icons. The findings from three studies presented here show evidence, not only for the symbiotic relationship between aesthetic preference and performance, but also for the possible causal links between the two. The implications of these findings for interface design and theoretical explanations of usability are discussed.
Keywords: Icon; Affective computing; Aesthetic preference; Performance; Usability
Agency Attribution in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 81-90
  John E. McEneaney
Social psychologists have documented that people attribute a human-like agency to computers. Work in human motor cognition has identified a related effect known as "intentional binding" that may help explain this phenomenon. Briefly, intentional binding refers to an unconscious attribution of agency to sufficiently complex entities in our environments that influences how we perceive and interact with those entities. Two studies are presented that examine whether intentional binding, an agency effect observed when people interact with physical objects, also applies in virtual environments typical of human-computer interaction (HCI). Results of the studies indicate that agency effects are observed in human-computer interaction but these effects differ from those reported in physical environments. Results of the studies suggest that human perception and action may operate differently in virtual environments than in physical interactions.
Keywords: social interface theory; intentional binding; cognition; perception; agency attribution
Human-UAV Co-operation Based on Artificial Cognition BIBAKFull-Text 91-100
  Claudia Meitinger; Axel Schulte
In the future, Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) will be part of both civil and military aviation. This includes co-operative mission accomplishment of manned and unmanned assets with little manpower being available for UAV guidance. So, UAVs need to be able to accomplish tasks with a minimum of human intervention and possibly in co-operation with other UAVs or manned aircraft. This paper presents artificial cognition as approach to co-operative capabilities of UAVs. They are guided by so-called Artificial Cognitive Units (ACUs) being capable of goal-directed behavior on the basis of understanding the current situation. Prototype evaluation results show the capability of suchlike co-operative ACUs to yield human-like rationality and the ability to act as peers in a human-ACU team.
Keywords: cognitive automation; artificial cognition; multiple UAV guidance; human-machine co-operation; UAV co-operation
Development of an Evaluation Method for Office Work Productivity BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Kazune Miyagi; Hiroshi Shimoda; Hirotake Ishii; Kenji Enomoto; Mikio Iwakawa; Masaaki Terano
The authors have developed a performance test, CPTOP2 (Cognitive Performance Test of Productivity), which consists of four task tests to evaluate cognitive abilities of office workers in order to quantitatively and objectively evaluate their productivity by controlling office environment. In addition, the testing time of CPTOP2 becomes shorter than conventional CPTOP2 in order to introduce it in evaluation of actual office environment. In this study, two subject experiments were conducted to verify its function and accuracy. The function of CPTOP2 was verified by measuring brain activity by fNIRS when conducting CPTOP2 test. The accuracy of CPTOP2 was verified by comparing improvement of performance indexes of CPTOP2 with that of simulated office work.
Keywords: office environment; performance test; fNIRS; cognitive ability
Supporting Cognitive Collage Creation for Pedestrian Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 111-119
  Augustinus H. J. Oomes; Miroslav Bojic; Gideon Bazen
How can we assist people in efficiently finding their way around a novel area? We tested a prototype navigation support system with 10 elderly pedestrians and found that adding landmark information considerably helped them in learning the structure of an unknown residential environment. We conclude that providing explicit landmark information in the learning phase seems beneficial for the creation of a rich "cognitive collage" that is fully functional in later phases when navigation support is not available.
Keywords: human spatial navigation; cognitive map; cognitive collage; path integration; landmark recognition; reorientation; navigation support systems
Development of a Novel Platform for Greater Situational Awareness in the Urban Military Terrain BIBAKFull-Text 120-125
  Stephen D. Prior; Siu-Tsen Shen; Anthony S. White; Siddharth Odedra; Mehmet Karamanoglu; Mehmet Ali Erbil; Tom Foran
The conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq and the more recent war in the Gaza Strip have emphasized the need for novel platforms which provide for greater situational awareness in the urban terrain. Without intelligent systems, which can accurately provide real-time information, collateral damage to property will result, together with unnecessary civilian deaths. This situation is exacerbated by the fact that within the next decade 75% of the world's population will be living in urban areas. This paper outlines the current state of unmanned aerial vehicles throughout the world and presents a novel design of a multiple rotary wing platform which has great potential for both military and civilian application areas.
Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; situational awareness; military operations; urban terrain
The User Knows: Considering the Cognitive Contribution of the User in the Design of Auditory Warnings BIBAKFull-Text 126-135
  Catherine Stevens; Agnes Petocz
An experiment that investigated effects of modality, warning type, and task demand on warning recognition speed and accuracy is reported. Using the experiment as a specific example, we argue for the importance of considering the cognitive contribution of the user (viz. prior learned associations) in the warning design process. Drawing on semiotics and cognitive psychology, we highlight the indexical nature of so-called auditory icons or natural indicators and argue that the cogniser is an indispensable element in the tripartite nature of signification.
Keywords: Auditory warnings; Workload; Modality; Icons; Semiotics
Note: Best Paper Award

Interaction and Cognition

The Influence of Gender and Age on the Visual Codes Working Memory and the Display Duration -- A Case Study of Fencers BIBAKFull-Text 139-148
  Chih-Lin Chang; Kai-Way Li; Yung-Tsan Jou; Hsu-Chang Pan; Tai-Yen Hsu
This research discusses the influence of code colors and duration of display to the corrective rate of visual codes working memory and the Critical Fusion Frequency (CFF) value in different gender and two age groups (high school and university). The results showed that gender has a certain effect upon the corrective rate of the visual codes working memory and on the CFF ratios. Moreover, female fencers' CFF ratios were higher than the male fencers'. The high school participants' CFF ratios were obviously higher than the college participants'. The color of display has a significant effect on the corrective rate of visual codes working memory. Evidence showed that the duration time of display affected the corrective rate of the visual codes working memory. The code duration of display of 0.3 second had the highest corrective rate of visual codes working memory.
Keywords: duration of display; visual codes working memory; Critical Fusion Frequency (CFF) value; color of display
Comparison of Mobile Device Navigation Information Display Alternatives from the Cognitive Load Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 149-157
  Murat Can Cobanoglu; Ahmet Alp Kindiroglu; Selim Balcisoy
In-vehicle information systems (IVIS) should minimize the cognitive load on the drivers to reduce any risk of accidents. For that purpose we built an experiment in which two alternatives for information display are compared. One alternative is the traditional information display method of showing a map with the target route highlighted in red. This is compared against a proposed alternative for information display in which prior to a junction a ground-level photo is displayed with a large red arrow pointing at the correct route the driver must take. The photo-enhanced information display method required 39% more time spent while gazing at the screen but provided a 10% reduction in the total number of headturns. Based on the participant comments, 80% of whom opted for the non-photo enhanced method, we concluded that the cognitive load brought on by the photo-enhancement is not worth the return.
Keywords: Cognitive load; information display; navigation; time-based comparison
Visual Complexity: Is That All There Is? BIBAKFull-Text 158-166
  Alexandra Forsythe
Visual complexity is conventionally defined as the level of detail or intricacy contained within an image. This paper evaluates different measures of complexity and the extent to which they may be compromised by a familiarity bias. It considers the implications with reference to measures of visual complexity based on users' subjective judgments and explores other metrics which may provide a better basis for evaluating visual complexity in icons and displays. The interaction between shading and complexity is considered as a future direction for the empirical study of visual complexity.
Keywords: Icons; Visual complexity; Familiarity; Metrics
Operational Decision Making in Aluminium Smelters BIBAKFull-Text 167-178
  Yashuang Gao; Mark P. Taylor; John J. J. Chen; Michael J. Hautus
Many computer systems incorporating artificial intelligence have been introduced for use in industry to assist in making decisions and controlling processes. However, decision making in a complex industrial plant, such as an aluminium smelter, involves psychologically related factors such as intuitive reasonings, operator response characteristics, perception of risk, and implication of rewards. While a significant body of work does exist on decision science, research concerning human interaction with process control systems is still at the development stage. The work reported here aims to meet the needs of the process industry by incorporating human factors and decision making strategies into computer programs such as a supervisory control system for aluminium smelters. A case study on the control of the level of the liquid electrolyte was carried out to firstly facilitate an understanding of the variables, including human factors, on process control. It was found that the availability of crushed solidified electrolyte material had a significant impact on the level of the liquid electrolyte, while the implementation of a supervisory control system had a certain impact, management and leadership styles also had a significant influence.
Keywords: Supervisory control system; decision making; human and system interaction; process control
Designers of Different Cognitive Styles Editing E-Learning Materials Studied by Monitoring Physiological and Other Data Simultaneously BIBAKFull-Text 179-186
  Károly Hercegfi; Olga Csillik; Éva Bodnár; Judit Sass; Lajos Izsó
At the Corvinus University of Budapest, a series of experiments was performed, applying the INTERFACE testing methodology developed by researchers of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics. This methodology is capable of recording data characterizing the user's current mental effort derived from Heart Period Variability (HPV) and the user's emotional state indicated by Skin Conductance (SC) parameters simultaneously and synchronized with other characteristics of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). The current experiments aim to study how the teachers (electronic curriculum designers, developers) themselves use the e-learning development tools to design and edit a new piece of e-learning material.
Keywords: Cognitive styles; analytic and holistic types; e-learning; Learning Management System (LMS); Moodle; usability testing and evaluation; empirical methods; Heart Period Variability (HPV); Skin Conductance (SC)
Analyzing Control-Display Movement Compatibility: A Neuroimaging Study BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  S. M. Hadi Hosseini; Maryam Rostami; Makoto Takahashi; Naoki Miura; Motoaki Sugiura; Ryuta Kawashima
Despite the huge number of studies on control-display compatibility conducted over the past fifty years, there are still debates concerning the efficacy of conventional measures such as subjective evaluation and performance measures for discriminating between compatible and incompatible control-display mappings. Since compatibility refers to the control-display relationship corresponding to mental model of the users, we tried to apply functional neuroimaging technique as a direct objective measure for analyzing cognitive factors involved in human-machine interaction (HMI). Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was applied in order to analyze rotary control-linear display movement compatibility for horizontal and vertical linear displays. Although the results of behavioral measures were not significantly different for incompatible and compatible control-display mappings, neuroimaging results were quite successful in discriminating between them. Moreover, the fMRI results showed significantly greater brain activity for the incompatible condition than for the compatible one in the left posterior cingulate and the right inferior temporal gyrus that reveals the involvement of a greater cognitive load in terms of attention and visuomotor transformation in the incompatible condition. The results of this study suggest that neuroimaging method is a good complement to conventional measures and is quite helpful to acquire a better understanding of the cognitive processes involved in HMI.
Graphics and Semantics: The Relationship between What Is Seen and What Is Meant in Icon Design BIBAKFull-Text 197-205
  Sarah Isherwood
Visual icons can be considered as a means for designers to convey messages to end-users via the interface of a computer system. This paper explores the relationship between the users' interpretation of icons and the meaning that designers intend icons to convey. Focussing on interface users' understanding of icons, recent research has shown that it is the closeness of the relationship between icon and function, known as the semantic distance, that is of prime importance in determining the success of icon usability. This contrasts with previous research which has suggested that the concreteness, or pictorialness, of icons is the key to good design. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Keywords: Icons; Semantic distance; Concreteness; Semiotics
The Effect of Object Features on Multiple Object Tracking and Identification BIBAFull-Text 206-212
  Tianwei Liu; Wenfeng Chen; Yuming Xuan; Xiaolan Fu
Tracking of multiple objects is challenging for computer vision system under certain circumstance. We investigated this problem with human observers. In our experiment, observers were asked to track multiple moving items as well as to maintain their identities. We found that the capacity of maintaining multiple moving object identities of human is about three to four items, and uniqueness improves the general tracking and ID performance. It also showed that observers' capacity of ID task was dependent on feature type, and suggests that a less resource-demanding process of identity-related feature would lead to more effective improvement on tracking. These results provide some indications for the design of computer vision system which involves human monitoring, and suggest that creating a featural space to map the identity of multiple objects may aid the automatic object tracking.
Organizing Smart Networks and Humans into Augmented Teams BIBAFull-Text 213-222
  Martijn Neef; Martin van Rijn; Danielle Keus; Jan-Willem Marck
This paper discusses the challenge of turning networks of sensors, computers, agents and humans into hybrid teams that are capable, effective and adaptive. We propose a functional model and illustrate how such a model can be put into practice, and augment the capabilities of the human organization. We specifically focus on the interaction between the human and artificial part of the system, with specific attention to task delegation, role adjustment and adaptive autonomy. In this paper, we introduce the main concepts and report on observations from initial experiments.
Quantitative Evaluation of Mental Workload by Using Model of Involuntary Eye Movement BIBAFull-Text 223-232
  Goro Obinata; Satoru Tokuda; Katsuyuki Fukuda; Hiroto Hamada
This study considers a new method to quantify mental workloads (MWL) by using mathematical models for reflex movement of eye. Several mathematical models of reflex movements have been proposed and experimentally verified by physiologists. In those models, some models of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have sufficient accuracy to predict eye movements of individuals. The engagement of brain function to VOR is known in the learning process or in the adaptation process. This leads to the assumption that metal workloads appears in the change of characteristics of VOR. So as to confirm the assumption, we have designed an experimental setup and carried out several experiments. In the experiments, subject's VOR responses have be accurately predicted by the mathematical model which is a dynamical model with the input of head movements and the output of eye movements. The model dynamics have changed while the subject was engaging in a higher cognitive activity. The coherence between the predicted VOR from the identified model of the particular subject and the observed VOR was as high as 0.92 when there was no additional mental demands. However, the changing MWL over five different n-back tasks revealed the clear correlation between the predicted VOR coherences and the MWL demands. This shows that MWL can be objectively quantified by measuring the error between observed VOR responses and the predicted VOR ones from the identified model.
Spatial Tasks on a Large, High-Resolution Tiled Display: Females Mentally Rotate Large Objects Faster Than Men BIBAKFull-Text 233-242
  Bernt Ivar Olsen; Bruno Laeng; Kari-Ann Kristiansen; Gunnar Hartvigsen
In order to assess the qualitative properties of large displays, compared to smaller displays we conducted an experiment using a mental rotation task and a large, 230 inches, tiled display and compared it to performance on a 14.1 inches laptop computer. We also investigated the effect of expectation about the novel technology among the participants. We found that females rotated objects faster than men on the large display with wider field of view. Furthermore, we found that females were influenced by the expectation that the large display should give better performance, since such a positive expectation yielded a faster performance only among females, with no apparent sacrifice of accuracy.
Keywords: Tiled display; Spatial Tasks; Mental Rotation; Gender differences
Neurocognitive Workload Assessment Using the Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  Thomas D. Parsons; Louise Cosand; Christopher G. Courtney; Arvind Iyer; Albert A. Rizzo
The traditional approach to assessing neurocognitive performance makes use of paper and pencil neuropsychological assessments. This received approach has been criticized as limited in the area of ecological validity. While virtual reality environments provide increased ecological validity, they are often done without taking seriously the demands of rigorous research design and control for potentially confounding variables. The newly developed Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test (VRCPAT) focuses upon enhanced ecological validity using virtual environment scenarios to assess neurocognitive processing. After an assessment for potential confounds (i.e. appropriate level of immersion and performance on neuropsychological measures), the VRCPAT battery's Attention Module (i.e. Humvee scenario) was administered to a sample of healthy adults. Findings suggest that increase in stimulus complexity and stimulus intensity can manipulate attention performance within the Attention Module.
Keywords: Neuropsychological assessment; neurocognitive; ecological validity; virtual environment
Sensing Directionality in Tangential Haptic Stimulation BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Greg Placencia; Mansour Rahimi; Behrokh Khoshnevis
Few studies have explored haptic sensing on a finger pad as a means of transferring complex directional information. Stimuli presentation using Braille or tactile vibrators use binary ("on/off") signals which require large areas to adequately represent data. Our research seems to support that tangential motion on a finger pad is a promising means of transmitting tactile information more compactly at equal or better rates than current methods. The index fingertips of 62 subjects were stimulated using random pattern of tangential motion in eight directions over two distances. An ANOVA found that distance was statistically significant, and direction was significant for 0.5 mm displacements, but not at 1.5 mm. Age also significantly affected perception of tangential motion. These results suggest tangential motion could transmit certain type of haptic information effectively; but its effectiveness may decrease with user age.
Keywords: tangential motion; directional haptic sense
Effects of Design Elements in Magazine Advertisements BIBAKFull-Text 262-268
  Young Sam Ryu; Taewon Suh; Sean Dozier
In this study, unlike previous studies where participants were instructed to pay attention to the advertisements, we set up a more naturalistic situation of reading magazine. Five major design elements (body text, head text, brand logo, product image, and human model image) were investigated and our results showed pictorial elements captured more looking time and fixations than textual elements in general and textual elements received more looking time and fixations per unit size than pictorial elements. Also, a comparative data analysis of two different but very similar advertisements of competing products provided design implications regarding the use of human model image and head text.
Keywords: print advertisement; eye tracking
The Influence of Shared-Representation on Shared Mental Models in Virtual Teams BIBAKFull-Text 269-278
  Rose Saikayasit; Sarah Sharples
This paper reports a laboratory experiment investigating the influence and effects of shared-representation facilities on collaboration and shared mental models development in virtual teams. The experiment has two experimental conditions; with or without shared-representation facilities. Participants were asked to work in pairs on a 'house hunting' scenario. The results showed no significant difference in the overall performance between the two conditions, however shared mental models development was significantly higher where partners were able to use shared-representation facilities.
Keywords: shared mental models; shared-representation; collaboration; virtual teams
Harnessing the Power of Multiple Tools to Predict and Mitigate Mental Overload BIBAKFull-Text 279-288
  Charneta Samms; David Jones; Kelly S. Hale; Diane Mitchell
Predicting the effect of system design decisions on operator performance is challenging, particularly when a system is in the early stages of development. Tools such as the Improved Performance Research Integration Tool (IMPRINT) have been used successfully to predict operator performance by identifying task/design combinations leading to potential mental overload. Another human performance modeling tool, the Multimodal Interface Design Support (MIDS) tool, allows system designers to input their system specifications into the tool to identify points of mental overload and provide multi-modal design guidelines that could help mitigate the overload identified. The complementary nature of the two tools was recognized by Army Research Laboratory (ARL) analysts. The ability of IMPRINT to stochastically identify task combinations leading to overload combined with the power of MIDS to address overload conditions with workload mitigation strategies led to ARL sponsorship of a proof of concept integration between the two tools. This paper aims to demonstrate the utility of performing low-cost prototyping to combine associated technologies to amplify the utility of both systems. The added capabilities of the integrated IMPRINT/MIDS system are presented with future development plans for the system.
Keywords: mental workload; overload; IMPRINT; MIDS; command and control; multimodal; integrated toolset
Acceptance of E-Invoicing in SMEs BIBAKFull-Text 289-296
  Karl W. Sandberg; Olof Wahlberg; Yan Pan
Electronic invoicing (e-invoicing) refers to the sending and receiving of invoices by electronic means. Small and media sized enterprises (SMEs) have not accepted e-invoicing to the same extent as large companies and the public sector in Sweden. The purpose of present study was to gain a better understanding of the acceptance of e-invoicing in SMEs, particularly small business, by describing the factors that affect e-invoicing in SMEs in rural area. The study is a part of a going on project "The Digital Age in Rural and Remote Areas" DARRA. We proposed a research model that found significant in prior research and grouped them into four different factors; organisational readiness, external pressure, owner/manager characteristics, and perceived benefit in the perception of e-invoicing in SMEs. To validate the model we collected data from owners/managers of SMEs by using a survey. The main results from present study indicate that SMEs are ready for acceptance of e-invoicing. Pressure from customers is considered to be an important factor for e-invoicing acceptance in SMEs. Furthermore, the SMEs perceive that acceptance of e-invoicing can be beneficial, and lead to increased internal efficiency as well as impact on business processes and relationships. The innovativeness of the owner/manager was also found to influence acceptance of e-invoicing.
Keywords: Acceptance of e-invoicing; SMEs
Mental Models in Process Visualization -- Could They Indicate the Effectiveness of an Operator's Training? BIBAFull-Text 297-306
  Karin Schweizer; Denise Gramß; Susi Mühlhausen; Birgit Vogel-Heuser
Nowadays process plant visualizations and operations take place without the operator's physical presence at the technical device. As a consequence a lot of complex systems must be visualized simultaneously on one or more monitors. Conventional two-dimensional man machine interfaces hardly meet the requirements of those increasing complexity of production processes. One approach to deal with the increasing number of faults during process plant monitoring is the creation and implementation of 3D visualizations. We examined the development of mental models with 2D and 3D visualizations and different forms of training (freeze image vs. slider vs. slider with interaction) regarding completeness and structure as well as the relation of the quality of problem solving and the accurate recognizing of critical situations. Additionally, we investigated the mental demand in different groups of visualization and training.
Effects of Report Order on Identification on Multidimensional Stimulus: Color and Shape BIBAKFull-Text 307-316
  I-Hsuan Shen; Kong-King Shieh
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of order of report on multidimensional stimuli under between-subject and within-subject designs. The two orders of report were Order Color/Shape and Order Shape/Color. Eighteen participants responded according to the instructed one of the two orders of report in between-subject study. Results showed that response time for Order Color/Shape was significantly shorter than Order Shape/Color. Order Color/Shape, fit the Chinese "adjective then noun" grammar, is more appropriate if people report stimulus attributes in ways consistent with their long-standing language habits. However, another group of eleven participants were required to respond according to task cue alternately in within-subject study. Results showed that switch cost as indicated by response times increase was greater for Order Color/Shape than Order Shape/Color (97 msec. vs. 41 msec. for response time for the first stimulus dimension; 95 msec. vs. 28 msec. for response time total). Such results didn't support the hypothesis that the switch cost would be greater for Order Shape/Color than for Order Color/Shape. The order in which the color attribute should be considered very clearly.
Keywords: report order; multidimensional stimulus identification; task switch; color coding
Confidence Bias in Situation Awareness BIBAKFull-Text 317-325
  Ketut Sulistyawati; Yoon Ping Chui
In this paper, we explore the concept of confidence bias in Situation Awareness (SA), i.e., the perception of own situational knowledge, a meta-cognition aspect of SA. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the nature of confidence bias across the present and future status, and across individual and team missions, as well as its relation with performance outcome. The results from both studies were consistent. Participants' confidence bias was higher in the future than present status, but did not differ significantly across individual and team missions. Participants who had lower confidence bias were found to have better performance.
Keywords: situation awareness; confidence bias; meta-cognition
Tactical Reconnaissance Using Groups of Partly Autonomous UGVs BIBAKFull-Text 326-335
  Peter Svenmarck; Dennis Andersson; Björn Lindahl; Johan Hedström; Patrik Lif
This paper investigates how one operator can control a multi-robot system for tactical reconnaissance using partly autonomous UGVs. Instead of controlling individual UGVs, the operator uses supervisory control to allocate partly autonomous UGVs into suitable groups and define areas for search. A state-of-the-art pursuit-evasion algorithm then performed the detailed control of available UGVs. The supervisory control was evaluated by allowing subjects to control either six or twelve UGVs for tactical reconnaissance along the route of advance for a convoy traveling through an urban environment with mobile threats. The results show that increasing the number of UGVs improve the subjects situation awareness, increase the number of threats that are detected, and reduce the number of hits on the convoy. More importantly, these benefits were achieved without any increase in mental workload. The results support the common belief in autonomous functions as an approach to reduce the operator-to-vehicle ratio in military applications.
Keywords: Supervisory Control; UGV; Operator-to-Vehicle Ratio; Reconnaissance; Multi-Robot Systems

Driving Safety and Support

Use of High-Fidelity Simulation to Evaluate Driver Performance with Vehicle Automation Systems BIBAFull-Text 339-348
  Timothy L. Brown; Jane Moeckli; Dawn C. Marshall
Automation is an important tool for improving driver safety over the coming decades. Vehicle automation will tend to be implemented in stages with the intent of incrementally increasing the overall safety of driving through the reduction in crashes related to driver error. Driving simulators play a critical role in assessing the effectiveness of these new technologies. This paper discusses vehicle automation and provides several examples of the use of high fidelity simulators to evaluate new automation technologies in several different forms.
Applying the "Team Player" Approach on Car Design BIBAFull-Text 349-357
  Staffan Davidsson; Håkan Alm
Automation can cause problems with 'the human factor'. One approach is to make automation become a team player. A team player agrees on a common ground, they show intention, they show reasoning, express their limits of performance and so on. This approach has been applied to adaptive driver information in the present study. Ten experts on different in-vehicle systems were interviewed. The experts found the team play approach both challenging and interesting. However, the experts also found a difficulty in combining the increased visual workload required to "be a team player" with car driving, that is already visually, manually and cognitively challenging. The experts believed that the approach described by the researchers rather described agents before they become team players than being team players. What is needed is "teambuilding"; the solution suggested is a compromise and could be described as a separate view for the above mentioned information.
New HMI Concept for Motorcycles-The Saferider Approach BIBAKFull-Text 358-366
  J. P. Frederik Diederichs; Marco Fontana; Giacomo Bencini; Stella Nikolaou; Roberto Montanari; Andrea Spadoni; Harald Widlroither; Niccolò Baldanzini
For more than one decade the European Commission has been focusing on the enhancement of road safety by funding research on Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) and Intelligent Vehicle Information Systems (IVIS) in the field of automotive. However, the application of such technologies in Powered-Two-Wheelers (PTW) is currently lacking behind. While in the automotive sector extended knowledge has been generated also on the Human-Machine Interface (HMI) for ADAS and IVIS this does by far not apply for the PTW sector. This paper presents the SAFERIDER (Advanced telematics for enhancing the safety and comfort of motorcycle riders) project outline and focuses on the new HMI concept and haptic interface devices that are developed within the project.
Keywords: SAFERIDER; haptic Human-Machine Interface; Powered Two Wheelers; Motorcycle; Advanced Driver Assistance System; Advanced Rider Assistance System; Intelligent Vehicle Information System
Night Vision -- Reduced Driver Distraction, Improved Safety and Satisfaction BIBAKFull-Text 367-375
  Klaus Fuchs; Bettina Abendroth; Ralph Bruder
Accidents in the dark in non-urban areas result in disproportionately high rates of pedestrians injuries (Hülsen 2003).
   This paper describes the methods and results of test drives with 39 test persons for the assessment of driver behavior in interacting with different Human-Machine-Interfaces (HMI) for Night Vision systems which inform drivers about the presence of pedestrians.
   Data of driver eye movements was analyzed to evaluate the different HMI designs of pedestrian alerts, in a passenger vehicle with Head-up-Display (HUD), regarding the ergonomic suitability and safety benefit.
   All systems were compared in field tests on public roads and on a test track.
Keywords: night-vision; head-up display; eye tracking; driver distraction
Measurement of Depth Attention of Driver in Frontal Scene BIBAKFull-Text 376-385
  Mamiko Fukuoka; Shun'ichi Doi; Takahiko Kimura; Toshiaki Miura
Safety driving has been maintained by suitable watching for frontal scene. The delay of reaction has been found to be the major cause of vehicle accidents. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate depth attention characteristic of drivers when drivers are in the traffic environment by the use of a semi-realistic setting a three-dimension (3-D) attention measurement system. The experiments were conducted in order to clarify the effect of the individual characteristic of driver and traffic environment on the characteristic of depth attention by studying various aspects of the effect of aging, illuminance and display color on characteristic of driver's depth attention from three elements of traffic.
Keywords: display color; three-dimensional space; shift of attention; depth; allocation of attention; driver
Understanding the Opinion Forming Processes of Experts and Customers During Evaluations of Automotive Sounds BIBAFull-Text 386-395
  Louise Humphreys; Sebastiano Giudice; Paul Jennings; Rebecca Cain; Garry Dunne; Mark Allman-Ward
A challenge in automotive engineering is to understand the subjective reactions of individuals to vehicle sounds; this is necessary in order to improve decision making during product design. We can use "structured evaluations" to achieve this, but we need to ensure that 1) we understand the reasons behind such evaluations i.e. the opinion forming process and 2) that such evaluations are analogous to appraisals of vehicles on the road. Hence for structured evaluations to be effective, it is important that we understand the opinion forming process in real-life situations. Since there is a lack of knowledge on how people form perceptions about vehicles in reality, an appraisals framework is described in this paper. Moreover, this paper discusses a pilot study that investigated how experts assess vehicle sounds on-road, as well as planned future studies to examine how customers evaluate automotive sounds.
HR Changes in Driving Scenes with Danger and Difficulties Using Driving Simulator BIBAFull-Text 396-403
  Yukiyo Kuriyagawa; Mieko Ohsuga; Ichiro Kageyama
To provide a safe and comfortable driving environment, extracting a variety of stress scenes experienced by drivers and utilizing them for investigating actual causes and ways to assist drivers is effective. To find scenes that could be investigated efficiently in this way, we proposed a method based on changes in a driver's physiological indices that emotional changes may have caused. In this paper, we examined the possibility of applying this method to experimental situations using a driving simulator (DS). An experiment using a DS has an advantage over one done in a real life situation in that the experimental parameters can be controlled. This paper examines the relationship between a driver's emotional changes and physiological changes during driving. As a result, we suggest that whether an event is recognized and how much emotion it caused can be estimated by combining measurements of changes in heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and respiration.
Driver Measurement: Methods and Applications BIBAKFull-Text 404-413
  Shane McLaughlin; Jonathan M. Hankey; Thomas A. Dingus
This paper presents an overview of methods used when measuring driver behavior and performance. Simulators, test-track, on-road, field-operational-trials, and naturalisitic methods are described. Useful driver measures are described. Three examples are provided of the application of driver measurement in product design and evaluation.
Keywords: driver; behavior; performance; measurement
The Assessment of Driver's Arousal States from the Classification of Eye-Blink Patterns BIBAKFull-Text 414-423
  Yoshihiro Noguchi; Keiji Shimada; Mieko Ohsuga; Yoshiyuki Kamakura; Yumiko Inoue
To realize the real-time assessment of driver's arousal states, we propose the assessment method based on the analysis of eye-blink characteristics form image sequences. The driver's arousal level while driving is not monotonous falling from high to low. We proposed the two-dimensional arousal states transition model which was taken into account the fact that a driver usually held out against sleepiness. The eye-blink pattern categories were classified from image sequence using HMM (Hidden Markov Model), then the driver's arousal states were finally assessed using HMM by histogram distribution of those typical eye-blink categories. The arousal assessment results are also verified against the rating results by trained raters.
Keywords: arousal states; drowsiness; blink; image; EOG; HMM; driver
Guiding a Driver's Visual Attention Using Graphical and Auditory Animations BIBAFull-Text 424-433
  Tony Poitschke; Florian Laquai; Gerhard Rigoll
This contribution presents our work towards a system that autonomously guides the user's visual attention on important information (e.g., traffic situation or in-car system status signal, etc.) in error prone situations while driving a car. Therefore we use a highly accurate head-mounted eye-tracking system to estimate the driver's current focus of visual attention. Based on this data, we present our strategies to guide the driver's attention to where he should focus his attention. These strategies use both graphical animations in form of a guiding point on the Graphical User Interface as well as auditory animation that are present via headphones using a Virtual Acoustics system. In the end of this contribution, we present the results from a usability study.
Fundamental Study for Relationship between Cognitive Task and Brain Activity During Car Driving BIBAKFull-Text 434-440
  Shunji Shimizu; Nobuhide Hirai; Fumikazu Miwakeichi; Senichiro Kikuchi; Yasuhito Yoshizawa; Masanao Sato; Hiroshi Murata; Eiju Watanabe; Satoshi Kato
For a long period, many researches about the human spatial recognition are being carried on. They are needed to make robot and automatic driving system for a car or wheelchair and with functions as high as those of humans: spatial perception, decision-making, and determining direction. The final goal of our measuring brain activity research is to contribute to developing of welfare robots with functions that are responsive like human. In this paper, the hemoglobin density change of human frontal lobe is measured. First, to analyze human spatial perception, experiments using a driving movie were designed. In the experiments NIRS (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy) was used.
Keywords: Drawing circle line; Frontal lobe; Prefrontal cortex; Premotor area
A Study on a Method to Call Drivers' Attention to Hazard BIBAKFull-Text 441-450
  Hiroshi Takahashi
This paper presents a new warning method for increasing drivers' sensitivity for recognizing hazardous factors in the driving environment. The method is based on a subliminal effect. The results of many experiments performed with six subjects show that the response time for detecting a flashing mark tended to decrease when a subliminal mark was shown in advance. This paper also proposes a scenario for implementing this method in real vehicles.
Keywords: Driving Assistant System; Subliminal Information; Attention
An Analysis of Saccadic Eye Movements and Facial Images for Assessing Vigilance Levels During Simulated Driving BIBAKFull-Text 451-460
  Akinori Ueno; Shoyo Tei; Tomohide Nonomura; Yuichi Inoue
The authors analyzed facial video recordings and saccadic eye movements during 1-hour simulated driving in 10 subjects. Mean cross-correlation coefficient between the visually determined facial sleepiness and the proposed index of saccade (i.e. PV/D) for 9 subjects was -0.56 and the maximum coefficient of inverse cross-correlation was 0.83. Mean cross-correlation coefficient for 6 repetitive measurements for another subject was -0.72, and the maximum was 0.84. Variation in PV/D preceded that in facial sleepiness in 13 of 15 measurements and synchronized with it in other 2 measurements. From these results, we confirmed a fair potential of the PV/D to detect decline in vigilance levels earlier than facial sleepiness. We also revealed that narrow fluctuations throughout the measurement could lead to low inverse cross-correlation below 0.60 between the two indices. Therefore experimenter should pay attention to designing the experimental procedure to ensure broad fluctuations of the subject's vigilance levels in the measurement.
Keywords: doze prevention; saccade; facial sleepiness; advanced safety vehicle
Implementing Human Factors within the Design Process of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) BIBAKFull-Text 461-470
  Boris van Waterschoot; Mascha van der Voort
This paper introduces our research which aims to develop a design approach for ADAS applications in which human factors (including stakeholder feedback and objective performance measures) are explicitly accounted for. Since driving is part of a complex (traffic) system, with a large number of interacting components, ADAS design is confronted with choices for which the influence on the system, and the driving performance in particular, is not immediately manifested. Therefore, providing designers with relevant feedback during the design process, about the consequences of specific choices, will increase the efficiency and safety of driver assistance systems.
Keywords: Advanced driver assistance systems; driving task; human factors engineering; interaction design; design support; automation
A Survey Study of Chinese Drivers' Inconsistent Risk Perception BIBAKFull-Text 471-476
  Pei Wang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
It is important to identify factors contributing to drivers' risk taking behaviors in order to reduce traffic accidents and fatalities. This study conducted a survey to investigate drivers' risk perception towards different risks encountered in daily life. Totally 438 subjects responded to the survey and indicated their likelihood of engaging in risk activities in different domains. The mean of likelihood to lend friend money is the highest and to shoplift is the lowest. It was found that respondents were most likely to engage in financial risks. Then it was social risks, safety risks, recreational risks and ethical risks. Respondents were least likely to engage in health risks. Male drivers were more likely to engage in the risks than female drivers in some factors.
Keywords: Chineses driver; risk perception; risk domains
Design for Smart Driving: A Tale of Two Interfaces BIBAFull-Text 477-485
  Mark S. Young; Stewart A. Birrell; Neville A. Stanton
The environmental and financial costs of road transport are a key issue for governments, car manufacturers and consumers. Alongside these issues remain longstanding concerns about road safety. The 'Foot-LITE' project is aimed at designing a 'smart' driving advisor to improve safe and eco-driving behaviours. This paper presents part of the human-centred design process to devise an in-car human-machine interface which will facilitate the desired behaviours while avoiding negative consequences of distraction. Two rapid prototyping studies are presented, and the results of feedback from potential users as well as subject matter experts are discussed with respect to implications for the future interface design.

Aviation and Transport

Supervision of Autonomous Vehicles: Mutual Modeling and Interaction Management BIBAKFull-Text 489-497
  Gilles Coppin; François Legras; Sylvie Saget
As the capabilities of Unmanned Vehicle Systems increase, the tasks of their operators become more and more complex and diverse. Accordingly, the interfaces of these UVSs must become smarter in order to support these tasks and assist the operator. In this paper, we discuss how an Operator Support System can leverage dynamic interaction strategies to modulate the workload of the operator and how it could impact trust in automation.
Keywords: unmanned vehicles systems; interaction; dialogue; trust in automation
Conflicts in Human Operator -- Unmanned Vehicles Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 498-507
  Frédéric Dehais; Stéphane Mercier; Catherine Tessier
In the context of the supervision of one or several unmanned vehicles by a human operator, the definition and the dynamics of the shared authority among these agents is a major challenge. Indeed, lessons learned from modern aviation reveals that authority sharing issues between aircrews and on-board processes are remarkable precursors of air accidents (twenty accidents in the last twenty years). The analysis of these events highlights that the authority of the on-board processes is designed a priori and fails to adapt in case of conflict with the aircrew's actions. Moreover the poor design of the HMIs (e.g.: there is no dialogue between artificial and human agents) and the complexity of the interactions may lead the aircrews to lose situation awareness and to enter a perseveration syndrome. We present the basic concepts of an approach aiming at dynamically adjusting the autonomy of an agent in a mission relatively to its operator, based on formal detection of conflict. An experimental set-up is under construction to assess our hypotheses.
Keywords: human automation conflicts; adaptive autonomy; authority sharing
Ergonomic Analysis of Different Computer Tools to Support the German Air Traffic Controllers BIBAKFull-Text 508-517
  Muriel Didier; Margeritta von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff; Ralph Bruder
The Institute of Ergonomics of the Darmstadt University of Technology supported the German Air Traffic Control in analyzing how the implementation of new tools influences the work procedures of the air traffic controllers and if a modification of the work structures is necessary. New tools, such as "Data link" (contact with the pilot via an electronic connection), the Problem Display Window and the Main Data Window that replaces the former flight strips, were tested in simulations. The goals of the study were to select the most appropriate investigation method to be used, taking into account the specific features of the controllers' work, to test different tools in a simulated environment and to analyze the impact of the new tools on the air traffic controllers.
Keywords: ergonomic analysis; air traffic controller; eye movements
Behavior Model Based Recognition of Critical Pilot Workload as Trigger for Cognitive Operator Assistance BIBAKFull-Text 518-528
  Diana Donath; Axel Schulte
Knowledge-based assistant systems are an approach to support operators in complex task situations, especially in vehicle guidance and control. The central idea is to introduce automation functions working in parallel to the human operator instead of replacing him. Like a human team member, an assistant system should be able to support a human operator according to his actual needs. Therefore, it needs capabilities to identify situations in which the human operator is overtaxed in order to transfer such situations into situations which can be handled normally by the assisted human operator. This paper will present a concept for a human behavior model based approach to subjective workload identification which uses a recognizable modification of human behavior occurring prior to severe performance decrements or errors. Therefore, behavior models of the operator, previously gathered within simulator trials, shall continuously compared with the actually observed behavior patterns in the same situational context. First results will be presented showing a modification of operator visual scanning behavior.
Keywords: subjective workload; assistant system; eye movements; flight guidance; adaptive automation; behavior model
A Design and Training Agenda for the Next Generation of Commercial Aircraft Flight Deck BIBAKFull-Text 529-536
  Don Harris
To maximize cost efficiencies the design of the modern commercial airliner flight deck must change quite radically. However, these efficiencies cannot be realized unless there are concomitant changes in the rest of the system, and in particular, the training aspect. This paper proposes a radical design agenda for the flight deck and outlines how efficiencies can be gained through a careful re-alignment and re-appraisal of the training requirements to operate this aircraft.
Keywords: Flight Deck Design; Human Factors Integration; Training
Future Ability Requirements for Human Operators in Aviation BIBAKFull-Text 537-546
  Catrin Hasse; Carmen Bruder; Dietrich Grasshoff; Hinnerk Eißfeldt
The present study addresses the optimal fit between technical innovations in aviation and aircraft operators. Because of the increase in computerization, an accurate and efficient monitoring of the automation poses a key challenge to future operators. As the German Aerospace Center's Department of Aviation and Space Psychology is responsible for personnel selection of pilots and air traffic controllers, our objective for the selection of future personnel is to distinguish good monitoring operators from bad operators. In order to identify good monitoring behavior we developed a simulation tool that represents tasks of pilots and controllers within a dynamic air traffic flow. Participants have either to monitor the automatic process or to control the dynamic traffic manually. Monitoring behavior is measured by recording eye movement parameters. The identification of accurate monitoring behavior enables us to adapt selection profiles to future ability requirements.
Keywords: automation; monitoring behavior; human performance; personnel selection; eye tracking; future ATM
The Application of Human Error Template (HET) for Redesigning Standard Operational Procedures in Aviation Operations BIBAKFull-Text 547-553
  Wen-Chin Li; Don Harris; Yueh-Ling Hsu; Lon-Wen Li
Human Error Template (HET) is a checklist style approach to predict human errors in the cockpit for developing accident prevention strategies. It is applied to each bottom level task step in a hierarchical task analysis (HTA) of the task in question. This research applies the latest technique for human error prediction -- Human Error Template to predict the potential design-induced human errors in the IDF during the landing phase of flight and provide a basis for improving software design and hardware equipment to enhance flight safety. In military operations emphasis is on the fulfillment of SOPs in an attempt to prevent incidents/accidents resulting from human factors. By the use of the scientific approach of HTA to evaluate current SOPs together with formal error analysis of the pilot's, interface design and procedures, the air force's combat effectiveness will be improved and a user-friendly cockpit interface can be developed.
Keywords: Aviation Safety; Hierarchical Task Analysis; Human Error Template; Standard Operation Procedure
Effect of Aircraft Datablock Complexity and Exposure Time on Performance of Change Detection Task BIBAKFull-Text 554-563
  Chen Ling; Lesheng Hua
Air traffic controllers constantly perform tasks of monitoring traffic situation and searching for conflict between aircrafts. One requirement for these tasks is being able to detect any changes in the aircraft status presented by aircraft datablock. In this study, we investigated the effects of aircraft datablock complexity and exposure time on the change detection task performance. Two types of datablock, six field datablock (6F-DB) and nine field datablock (9F-DB), were artificially designed. Ten participants learned the change detection task with aircraft datablocks for four days. Our results showed that datablock complexity and exposure time in the change detection task had direct impacts on task performance. In particular, participants had higher detection accuracy with the less complex 6F-DB than the more complex 9F-DB. The longer DB exposure time of 1 second and 3 second also led to higher detection accuracy than 0.5 second. The pattern fields in the datablock were associated with better detection performance than the alphanumeric fields. To optimize the performance of change detection task in air traffic control system, we need to consider both factors of datablock complexity and exposure time. For the more complex datablock, longer exposure time should be provided.
Keywords: Air traffic control display; change detection task; complexity of datablock; exposure time
A Regulatory-Based Approach to Safety Analysis of Unmanned Aircraft Systems BIBAFull-Text 564-573
  James T. Luxhøj; Ahmet Öztekin
Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the new frontier in civil aviation, add another dimension to the ever-increasing complexity of the current National Airspace System (NAS) in the United States. The future inclusion of private and commercial operations of the UAS into the NAS, unavoidably, raises safety concerns. As the NAS becomes increasingly more complex and constrained, the associated hazard and safety risk modeling must also mature in sophistication. Thus, there is a need for advanced studies focusing on risk-based system safety analysis of emergent UAS operations. This paper presents a regulatory-based integrated approach to system safety and risk analysis of the UAS operations and their interaction with the current NAS and the future Next Generation (NextGen) Airspace.
Using Acoustic Sensor Technologies to Create a More Terrain Capable Unmanned Ground Vehicle BIBAKFull-Text 574-579
  Siddharth Odedra; Stephen D. Prior; Mehmet Karamanoglu; Mehmet Ali Erbil; Siu-Tsen Shen
Unmanned Ground Vehicle's (UGV) have to cope with the most complex range of dynamic and variable obstacles and therefore need to be highly intelligent in order to cope with navigating in such a cluttered environment. When traversing over different terrains (whether it is a UGV or a commercial manned vehicle) different drive styles and configuration settings need to be selected in order to travel successfully over each terrain type. These settings are usually selected by a human operator in manned systems on what they assume the ground conditions to be, but how can an autonomous UGV 'sense' these changes in terrain or ground conditions? This paper will investigate noncontact acoustic sensor technologies and how they can be used to detect different terrain types by listening to the interaction between the wheel and the terrain. The results can then be used to create a terrain classification list for the system so in future missions it can use the sensor technology to identify the terrain type it is trying to traverse, which creating a more autonomous and terrain capable vehicle. The technology would also benefit commercial driver assistive technologies.
Keywords: Unmanned Ground Vehicles; Terrain Sensing; Situational Awareness; Tyre Noise
Critical Interaction Analysis in the Flight Deck BIBAKFull-Text 580-589
  Chiara Santamaria Maurizio; Patrizia Marti; Simone Pozzi
The paper describes an experimental work conducted within the HILAS (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems -- http://www.hilas.info/mambo/) project. The objective of HILAS is to develop a model of good practices for the Human Factors (HF) integration throughout the life-cycle of aviation systems. The project developed a toolkit of HF tools for the evaluation of new technologies for the flight deck. CRIA (Critical Interaction Analysis) is one of the HF tools included in HILAS toolkit. This paper reports the results of a real time simulation, held at NLR in Grace Simulator, where CRIA was applied to assess the HF issues implied in the replacement within the flight deck of the current radio panel with an Interseat Touch Screen (ITS), implemented by GE Aviation.
Keywords: Human Factors; flight deck; real time simulation; aviations; system evaluation; systemic approach
Understanding the Impact of Rail Automation BIBAKFull-Text 590-599
  Sarah Sharples; Nora Balfe; David Golightly; Laura Millen
Over the past ten a number of studies have been conducted to understand the way in which rail signalling operations are completed. This paper reviews some of the themes that have emerged from this body of work and considers two principal questions -- firstly, how should we apply human factors methods to develop our understanding of the impact of automation and secondly, how can we link the data we have collected from the rail work to theoretical concepts that will help us to design future automation systems?
Keywords: automation; rail; workload; observation; simulation; performance
Cognitive Workload as a Predictor of Student Pilot Performance BIBAKFull-Text 600-605
  Nathan F. Tilton; Ronald Mellado Miller
This study examined the relationship between cognitive task load and performance in pilot training in a civilian pilot training program. It was found that the NASA task load index was indicative of training success, with the most successful pilot trainees showing the most cognitive task load and vice versa for those performing poorly. The implications for this finding are discussed as is their relation to possible advantages to military pilot trainees over their civilian counterparts.
Keywords: task load; cognition; TLX; aviation; training; civilian; military
Direct Perception Displays for Military Radar-Based Air Surveillance BIBAKFull-Text 606-615
  Oliver Witt; Morten Grandt; Heinz Küttelwesch
Air surveillance is among the time-critical and highly prioritized tasks of naval ships, in which the human operator will stay the decision maker in the future as well. User-oriented human-systems integration requires the provision of ergonomically optimized user interfaces. Based on functional system descriptions in the form of abstraction hierarchies, perceptive displays were developed for air surveillance that constitute an advancement with respect to so far principally alphanumerical displays supporting the operator with an improved situation awareness in his decision-making processes. It concerns, in detail, displays for the tactical situation picture, the explicit information about airborne contacts as well as the condition and the configuration of system state especially regarding the radar equipment.
Keywords: Abstraction hierarchy; user interface; polar diagram; military combat direction systems
A Selection of Human Factors Tools: Measuring HCI Aspects of Flight Deck Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 616-624
  Rolf Zon; Henk van Dijk
Within the HILAS project two experiments in high fidelity flight simulators were performed. In the current paper results from one of those experiments are discussed. Focus of that discussion is on the added value of using a set of HF tools rather than individual tools and on a number of lessons that were identified from this experiment. The set of Human Factors tools that was applied in this experiment might be helpful for manufacturers of flight deck technologies or aviation authorities to establish whether new technologies should receive the predicate "Human factors certified".
Keywords: HILAS; Human Factors; HF; flight deck; experiment; flight simulation; HF tools registry; certification