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EPCE Tables of Contents: 07091113-113-21415

EPCE 2007: 7th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics

Fullname:EPCE 2007: 7th International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics
Note:Volume 13 of HCI International 2007
Editors:Don Harris
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4562
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73330-0 (print), 978-3-540-73331-7 (online); hcibib: EPCE07
Papers:95
Pages:876
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Part I: Cognitive and Affective Issues in User Interface Design
  2. Part II: Cognitive Workload and Human Performance
  3. Part III: Cognitive Modeling and Measuring
  4. Part IV: Safety Critical Applications and Systems

Part I: Cognitive and Affective Issues in User Interface Design

Designing Human Computer Interfaces for Command and Control Environments BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Amardeep Aujla; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Paul M. Salmon; Guy H. Walker; Mark S. Young
This paper will introduce the human factors command and control test bed developed at Brunel University. The system was developed to facilitate experiments into command and control within a military context. The purpose of the system is to support experimentation, it is not intended to represent a product that could be used in the field by the MoD. The test bed developed represents a controlled environment allowing the manipulation of individual variables. The manipulation of these variables allows researchers to address fundamental human factors questions emerging from the transition form an analogue paper based planning process to a digital network enabled process. Areas of particular interest for this system include collaborative working, distributed command centres, the flow of information as well as changes to the command hierarchy. The system consists of a number of commercial off the shelf products synthesised by a bespoke planning application.
Keywords: Command and Control; Test Bed; Experimental Environment; Software Development
Perceived Complexity and Cognitive Stability in Human-Centered Design BIBAKFull-Text 10-21
  Guy A. Boy
Perceived complexity is analyzed in conjunction with cognitive stability in the context of potential use in human-centered design. These human factors are useful in the process of understanding co-adaptation of people and technology, and consequently for the evaluation of the maturity of a product. Expertise and experience play an important role in the definition and refinement of these two concepts. This paper presents a first account of such concepts in the context of aircraft cockpit design.
Keywords: perceived complexity; cognitive stability; maturity; expertise; experience; co-adaptation; esthetics; natural versus artificial; knowledge; know-how; skills; redundancy; cognitive support; safety; performance; comfort
Computer-Supported Creativity: Evaluation of a Tabletop Mind-Map Application BIBAKFull-Text 22-31
  Stéphanie Buisine; Guillaume Besacier; Marianne Najm; Améziane Aoussat; Frédéric Vernier
The aim of this study is to investigate the usability and usefulness of interactive tabletop technologies to support group creativity. We implemented a tabletop interface enabling groups of 4 participants to build mind-maps (a tool for associative thinking). With 24 users in a within-group design, we compared its use to traditional paper-and-pencil mind-mapping sessions. The results showed no difference in idea production, but the tabletop condition significantly improved both subjective and collaborative dimensions, especially by leading to better-balanced contributions from the group members.
Keywords: Creativity; Mind-map; Tabletop device
Symbiosis: Creativity with Affective Response BIBAKFull-Text 32-41
  Ming-Luen Chang; Ji-Hyun Lee
The objective of this research is to present the symbiosis concept that integrates creativity and the recent research issues in affective response to products shapes. The major idea behind this study is systematically using affective response and design axiomatic in rational way through creativity approach that support on creativity stimulation for current highly competitive market. The practicality of the proposed methodology involved affective response measurable system that based on Semantic Differential (SD) method and interrelated computational regulation, creativity approach that based on Sensuous Association Method (SAM) and Creativity-Based Design Process (CBDP), and integrated mechanism using Axiomatic Design (AD) method.
Keywords: Affective Response; Creativity Approach; Axiomatic Design Method
Embodied Virtual Agents: An Affective and Attitudinal Approach of the Effects on Man-Machine Stickiness in a Product/Service Discovery BIBAKFull-Text 42-51
  Pablo Lambert de Diesbach; David F. Midgley
Of the objective of this paper is to develop and test a model of the effects of an embodied virtual agent (EVA) on the user of an online interface. The tested interface is a brand website -- a possible channel of purchase, but also a media of information about products or services. The process of relationship building between website and user is the focus of interest here, a perspective that is richer than what is often called "acceptability" in the literature. Instead the paper proposes a construct of "stickiness;" i.e. the capacity of the interface to retain the user and to create positive behavioral intentions towards it. An integrative model is proposed. The effects of the presence of an EVA and of its congruency with the website are measured, and two possible routes of influence to stickiness investigated. Simple effects (with no route of influence) are observed on behavioral stickiness, whereas other effects via attitudinal and via affective routes, are observed, on intentional stickiness.
Keywords: embodied virtual agent; attitude; affect; stickiness; relationship; congruency
Integrative Physiological Design: A Theoretical and Experimental Approach of Human Systems Integration BIBAKFull-Text 52-61
  Didier Fass
Human modeling in design consists of human system integration (HSI), human factors integrated with systems engineering. That involves augmenting human capabilities and improving human-in-the-loop systems global performance, robustness and safety by behavioral technologies. For such human-in-the-loop systems design, this paper proposes an integrative physiological approach based on Chauvet's mathematical theory of integrative physiology (MTIP). By applying MTIP principles as theoretical framework, the integrative physiological modeling is used to model HIS and experiment a gesture-based method for virtual environment (VE) design and human system integration assessment. To demonstrate the pertinence and practicability of the developed integrative approach, we apply it to a wearable interactive system made up of virtual environment technologies for gesture assistance. The design prototype was evaluated in weightlessness during parabolic flights and confirms the effectiveness of the integrative physiological modeling.
Keywords: human modeling design; human system integration; augmented human; virtual environment; gesture assistance; weightlessness
Chinese Color Preference in Software Design BIBAKFull-Text 62-68
  Yan Ge; Ronggang Zhou; Xi Liu; Kan Zhang
Three experiments were designed to investigate the color preference of User Interface of Chinese youth. Background color and foreground color, as well as their combinations were examined. The results showed that: 1, Blue, purple, gray-blue and cyan were the more popular background color. 2, the foreground color preference was influenced by the background color, but white, yellow series and green series were all popular foreground colors for the background color of blue, purple and gray-blue. The discrimination of participants for graphic was better than that for characters. Some mechanism and implications were discussed.
Keywords: Color preference; User interface; Background color; Foreground color
The Effect of Animation Location and Timing on Visual Search Performance and Memory BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Songmei Han
The current study investigated the effects of animation location and timing on visual search speed and accuracy and their effects on memory about the animated strings. Visual search accuracy was measured using the sensitivity measurement d' in signal detection theory (SDT) model. Results showed that black-and-white animations had no significant effect on visual search and color animations slowed down the search significantly but had no significant effect on search accuracy. The size of the effect that an animation had on the search speed did not depend on its location or timing. Nor did the ability to recognize the animated string or the preference judgment about the animated string depend on its location and timing. Animated strings were rated more preferable than new strings even in the absence of explicit memory about the animated strings.
Keywords: visual search; visual attention; animation; online advertisement; signal detection theory
Using Root Cause Data Analysis for Requirements and Knowledge Elicitation BIBAKFull-Text 79-88
  Zhao Xia Jin; John Hajdukiewicz; Geoffrey Ho; Donny Chan; Yong-Ming Kow
The purpose of this paper is to present a technique, called Knowledge FMEA, for distilling textual raw data which is useful for requirements collection and knowledge elicitation. The authors first give some insights into the diverse characteristics of textual raw data which can lead to higher complexity in analysis and may result in some gaps in interpreting the interviewees' world view. We then outline a Knowledge FMEA procedure as it applies to qualitative data and its key benefits. Examples from a case study are presented to illustrate how to use the technique. Proposed Knowledge FMEA brings many advantages such as forcing the analysts to become deeply immersed in the raw data, identifying how the information is connected in causation, classifying the data according to why, what, how formulations and quantifying the findings for further quantitative analysis.
Keywords: Root Cause Analysis; Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA); Thematic Analysis; Qualitative Research
What Stories Inform Us About the Users? BIBAKFull-Text 89-97
  Yong Ming Kow; Angela Tan; Martin Helander
Storytelling has been used to elicit subconscious schemas that were formed from user experiences. Subjects were required to construct a working model using external and internal sources of information. Known methods of performing narrative analysis included Projective Tests, Narrative Analysis, and Cognitive Tasks Analysis. Three studies using storytelling methods were done with these methods. One with older adults, two with kins of older adults, and three with refinery operators. In the case of older adults, users were asked to make up stories for a fictitious person to extract cultural norms and knowledge. For the refinery study, we can look into real stories for more reliable data. Many types of design information were extracted: (1) emotional and functional needs, (2) functional dependencies, and (3) expertise. Arguably, these information will be hard to come by if a direct interview technique is conducted. Reasons due to the richness of information embedded in stories.
Keywords: Storytelling; Projective Test; Cognitive Task Analysis; Interview Method
How Developers Anticipate User Behavior in the Design of Assistance Systems BIBAKFull-Text 98-107
  Cordula Krinner
This paper proposes a new perspective on the old problem of function allocation. Instead of analyzing a synchronous interaction between human and computer, we suggest it could be more helpful to reconceptualize function allocation as an asynchronous division of labor between developers/designers and operators/users of human-computer systems. A study with 31 teams of developers was conducted in order to determine the effect of various forms of contact with a system and user participation on the results of a development process. The implications of lacking expected effects for future research are discussed.
Keywords: Assistance systems; allocation of functions; developers; participative design
Design Perspectives: Sampling User Research for Concept Development BIBAKFull-Text 108-117
  Petri Mannonen; Mika P. Nieminen
In user-centered design user research usually produces detailed description of the users, analysis of relevant actions and the specifics of the environment and artefacts thereof. However additional step of sampling from different viewpoints is required to more efficiently kick-start user-centered product concept development. Design perspectives, abstracted cross-category samples of user research results, are introduced as means to increase the usefulness of analyzed data during user-centered product concept development. Defining additional layer of entities in addition to conventional user research results helps to migrate from the pedant data-gathering phase to the more creative concept development phase. This paper describes definitions of entities involved in constructing design perspectives in a user research method independent manner with examples from a project developing new concepts for mobile and distributed team work.
Keywords: User research; user-centered design; concept development; data analysis; process development
Method to Select the Most Suitable Software Tool for the Development of an Hmi Virtual Prototype BIBAKFull-Text 118-127
  Luca Minin; Roberto Montanari; Stefano Marzani; Francesco Tesauri; Luca Canovi
This paper proposes a method which allows user interfaces practitioners to choose the most suitable software tool for the development of a Human Machine Interface (HMI) virtual prototype. In the design process of a User Interface (UI), the prototyping activity represents an important way to detect design errors since the beginning of the development process, saving time and money. The choice has to take care of the technical features, designers' requirements and prototyping characteristics of the tool. The methodology includes four steps: 1) research on the most diffused virtual prototyping software employed in the prototyping activity; 2) benchmark on the technical and virtual prototyping features of each selected tool; 3) creation of a method to asses and classify each prototyping tool considering their specific characteristics; 4) application of the method to a case study.
Keywords: user centered design; virtual prototyping; user interface; HMI
Intuitive Use of User Interfaces: Defining a Vague Concept BIBAKFull-Text 128-136
  Anja Naumann; Jörn Hurtienne; Johann Habakuk Israel; Carsten Mohs; Martin Christof Kindsmüller; Herbert A. Meyer; Steffi Hußlein
In this paper we present a general definition of the concept 'intuitive use of user interfaces' on the basis of our current interdisciplinary work. 'Intuitive use' is regarded as a characteristic of human-machine systems. It refers to a special kind of interaction process between users and technical systems that use the users' intuition. The main part of the paper deals with central aspects of this definition in detail and discusses pre-conditions and restrictions of the use of the concept. The main aspects that we discuss are the design of technical systems, application and non-conscious use of previous knowledge, intuition as a non-conscious process, interaction, and effectiveness. We complement this discussion by addressing the relationship between aesthetics and intuitive use.
Keywords: aesthetics; effectiveness; human-machine interaction; intuition; knowledge; non-conscious; usability; user interfaces
Creation of an Ergonomic Guideline for Supervisory Control Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 137-146
  Pere Ponsa; Marta Díaz
In tasks of human supervision in industrial control room they are applied generic disciplines as the software engineering and the physical ergonomics for the design of the computing interface and the design of the control room layout. From the point of view of the human computer interaction, to these disciplines it is necessary to add the usability engineering and the cognitive ergonomics since they contribute rules for the user centered design. The main goal of this work is the creation of a cognitive ergonomic guideline for supervisory control interface design in order to improve the efficiency of the human machine systems in industrial automation.
Keywords: supervisory control; human-machine interface design
Ergonomists and Usability Engineers Encounter Test Method Dilemmas with Virtual Work Environments BIBAKFull-Text 147-156
  Ari Putkonen; Ursula Hyrkkänen
Today's ergonomists and usability engineers need a broad understanding of the characteristics and demands of complex sociotechnical systems in order to develop virtual work systems and mobile communication tools for workers. Familiarity with appropriate ergonomics tests and evaluation methods is a prerequisite of this understanding. The literature review about ergonomics methods was performed. Applicable, potential and inapplicable ergonomics test methods for virtual work systems have been identified, based on the validity analysis and case example. The large number of available methods is confusing for ergonomists and therefore a hierarchical top-down approach is needed for method selection. The issues highlighted in this paper may be useful for ergonomists and usability practitioners who are participating design processes in complex virtual work environments.
Keywords: ergonomics; work system design; human-centred design; virtual work; test methods
Interactive Style of 3D Display of Buildings on Touch Screen BIBAKFull-Text 157-163
  Weina Qu; Xianghong Sun
This study was concentrated on the effect of different building 's floor number display modes and multi-speeds of view changing, for a firefighter recognized the fire scene through the 3D interface display system using a touch screen. The result showed that: (1) Showing number on floors is the worst way. showing numbers on wall, and on two sides of building whatever fixed, or rotating with the building were better than the way of cube display.(2) It's found the condition of "automatic rotation at fixed speed" at 30s was the most helpful for the decision efficiency, "automatic rotation with optional choice" the least helpful. Some mechanism and implications were discussed.
Keywords: Fire alarm system; 3D interface display system; Floor-numbering design; 3D display; Rotation
The Role of Human Factors in Design and Implementation of Electronic Public Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 164-173
  Karl W. Sandberg; Yan Pan
Design of Electronic Public Information Systems (e-PIS) can benefit from the inclusion of guidelines that consider the needs of users. Inclusion of guidelines and prototyping practices that take into consideration the capabilities of human users make it possible to avoid errors that would otherwise significantly reduce efficiencies offered by Information Technology (IT). Design strategies that include consideration of the Human Factor (HF) within e-PIS are introduced and discussed. Argued is that without integration of design strategies that consider human capabilities the efficiencies brought about through the use of IT are significantly reduced. Through the study of intended user behaviours during the development of systems loss of efficiency is avoided.
Keywords: Human Factors (HF); Electronic Public Information Systems (e-PIS); Design and Implementation
Defining a Work Support and Training Tool for Automation Design Engineers BIBAFull-Text 174-183
  Paula Savioja; Leena Salo; Outi Laitinen; David Hästbacka; Topi Judén; Ville Valve
This paper introduces a work support and training tool (Autaki) which was developed to support automation design engineers in sharing knowledge and learning at work. The development of the application was preceded by an explorative study of automation design engineers' work. Common problems, information needs, learning, and competence factors in the work were studied with an activity-theoretical approach called core-task analysis. The application is an interactive learning environment based on web technologies and emerging standards, such as SCORM (Sharable Content Object Reference Model). Both the core-task of automation design engineers and the application will be discussed.
A Comparative Study of Multimodal Displays for Multirobot Supervisory Control BIBAKFull-Text 184-193
  Boris Trouvain; Christopher M. Schlick
The supervisory control of ground-based mobile multirobot systems requires to perform multiple concurrent tasks under high levels of time pressure resulting in heavy workload. In this paper we present the design and evaluation of multimodal displays for a particular problem associated with the supervisory control of ground-based multirobot systems: the coordination between the platform specific robot control task, e.g. navigation and obstacle avoidance, and the mission specific payload task. The coordination requires the operator to concurrently monitor and switch attention between the robot control and the payload control tasks depending on the mission requirements. Multimodal human-robot interfaces can significantly support human information processing by communicating information across multiple channels and can therefore improve concurrent task processing. An experiment was designed and carried out with 14 participants which compares four human-robot interface configurations with a simulated two-robot ground-based multirobot system. The results show that the multimodal interfaces perform significantly better across multiple variables and have the lowest workload. Based on our gaze tracking results we can conclude that our multimodal interface has an effect on the visual scanning behaviour in the peripheral regions of the camera display.
Keywords: Human-Robot-Interface; Multirobot; Multimodal
Analysis of Multilocational and Mobile Knowledge Workers' Work Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 194-203
  Matti Vartiainen
The job demands and contents of knowledge workers were explored. The data was collected in three phases: first, each member filled a self-observation diary for seven days, second, each employee was interviewed individually, and, third, a workshop was organized to validate the observations and to create ideas for the development of work. The study shows that around 40 per cent of total work time is used in solitude doing tasks requiring concentration. The social network of employees is still wide, consisting of tens of people. They are contacted virtually and face-to-face. The work is pretty virtual and mobile. The study also found that the work itself is blurred. People work both in solitude, asynchronously with others, virtually online and in face-to-face collaboration with others.
Keywords: Mobile work; multilocality; knowledge work; quasi-privacy
Are Computers Capable of Understanding Our Emotional States? BIBAKFull-Text 204-211
  Min Cheol Whang; Joa Sang Lim; Kang Ryoung Park; Yongjoo Cho; Wolfram Boucsein
As emotion provides an important clue for communication, the computer needs to be more sympathetic to users' commands in the context of their emotion. A challenging attempt has been made to develop an emotional computer, which reads such physiological signals as photoplethysmogram, electrodermal activity and skin temperature and analyzes them online with a rule base into human emotion. We adopted a two-dimensional emotion model and a number of empirical studies have been conducted to find out some valid physiological parameters and to map them with nine categories of human emotions. Some research challenges were found that need to be addressed until the emotional computer comes to the market.
Keywords: Emotion in HCI; Emotional computer; Psychophysiology; Emotional mouse
A Review of Current Human Reliability Assessment Methods Utilized in High Hazard Human-System Interface Design BIBAKFull-Text 212-221
  Chih-Wei Yang; Chiuhsiang Joe Lin; Yung-Tsan Jou; Tzu-Chung Yenn
This paper has three objectives. The first is to discuss the role that human reliability assessment implemented in human systems interface design. The second is to present significant characteristics of available HRA techniques. The third is to provide our viewpoints of the applicability of HRA methods in HIS design. Generally, HRA approaches advocate seven stages, problem definition, performances shaping factors analysis, task analysis, human error analysis, effect analysis, error reduction strategies, and evaluation of recommendations. The most difficult technique is the human error probability estimation and prediction. There are four shortcomings of past human error probability estimation and prediction methods. First, the reliable data is deficient. Second, there are insufficient criteria for choosing PSFs. Third, there is a limited capacity for evaluating cognitive behavior. Finally, possible causes are ignored. To look into the above-described problems, this study reviewed present HRA methods and proposed several aspects for future HRA method development.
Keywords: Human error; Human reliability assessment; Human-system interface; Probabilistic safety analyses
Who Is Taking over Control? A Psychological Perspective in Examining Effects of Agent-Based Negotiation Support Technologies BIBAKFull-Text 222-231
  Yin Ping Yang; John Lim; Yingqin Zhong; Xiaojia Guo; Xue Li
This paper attempts to understand the effects of agent-based negotiation mechanisms through human's psychological perspective. We argue that the impact of automated negotiation, despite its efficacy and effectiveness, may result in a shift of negotiators' beliefs on their control over the choice of negotiation tactics and decision making process; such loss of control in turn causes an increase of user anxiety towards the system. In addition, individual differences, such as negotiators' decision-making style patterns are posited to moderate the relationship of system types and users' perceptions. The study involves an experiment employing randomized block design. Findings suggest significant impact of types of negotiation support systems on perceived control, as well as a negative relationship between perceived control and system anxiety. However, the moderating effect of decision-making style patterns is not evident in our data. Discussions and implications are drawn.
Keywords: perceived control; system anxiety; negotiation support systems; intelligent agents; decision-making style
Adaptive User Interactive Sketching for Teaching Based on Pen Gesture BIBAKFull-Text 232-241
  Haiyan Yang; CuiXia Ma; Dongxing Teng; Guozhong Dai; Hongan Wang
In this paper, the pen-based adaptive interface architecture for geometric teaching is presented to facilitate natural interactive sketching for geometric graphics application. Based on user-centered design, it analyzes the intent-based manipulation in terms of context based on pen gesture. By providing adaptive constraint capture and dynamic interaction this architecture can improve operation efficiency of the interface and reduce user's mental workload. Furthermore, it provides an educational application for benefiting teaching experience by preventing users from being interrupted in class.
Keywords: sketch; pen gesture; adaptive interface; intent-based method

Part II: Cognitive Workload and Human Performance

Asymmetric Synchronous Collaboration Within Distributed Teams BIBAKFull-Text 245-255
  Mark Ashdown; M. L. Cummings
Teams performing physical tasks must often be distributed in space, and are often organized hierarchically. This means that systems to support collaboration between members must account for the asymmetry in physical environment, organizational roles, and available technology. Using urban search and rescue as an example, we first describe the factors that cause this asymmetry. We then discuss the way information should be shared, and the type of awareness that should be supported. We suggest the use of very different display and interaction devices for operators at the organizational levels, to complement their situations and needs.
Keywords: synchronous remote collaboration; computer-supported cooperative work; command and control
Situation Awareness and Secondary Task Performance While Driving BIBAKFull-Text 256-263
  Martin R. K. Baumann; Diana Rösler; Josef F. Krems
For safe driving it is necessary that the drivers perceive the relevant objects of a situation, comprehend the meaning of these objects to form a holistic understanding of the current situation, and predict the future development of the situation. A concept that aims to describe and integrate these different cognitive processes is situation awareness, for example [1]. According to this concept it is assumed that a mental representation is constructed, maintained, and updated while driving. Attentional and working memory (WM) resources are involved in these processes. If secondary tasks performed while driving impose significant load on visual attention and WM, then one can expect that situation awareness is impaired. We investigated these predictions in 2 experiments. The results show that both cognitively and visually demanding tasks interfere with the maintenance of a correct situation model in memory. Visually demanding tasks do not always seem to interfere with visual attention processes in ways that lead to degraded situation awareness.
Keywords: Visual demand; situation awareness; secondary tasks; driving
Theoretical and Methodological Considerations in the Comparison of Performance and Physiological Measures of Mental Workload BIBAKFull-Text 264-268
  Julien Cegarra; Aline Chevalier
Mental workload is a central concept to a range of disciplines (including cognitive ergonomics) and has been the subject of various debates. As a result, a number of different techniques have been used by researchers. In this study, we focus on the comparison of performance and physiological measures of mental workload. We describe a puzzle-solving experiment in which we combined multiple measures of mental workload. The results highlight a number of issues. We stress several theoretical and methodological questions that may help to reach a clearer understanding of the nature of the mental workload concept.
Keywords: mental workload; dissociation; dual-task paradigm; eye dilation
Results of a Tailored Communication Framework Through E-Health BIBAKFull-Text 269-278
  Eva del Hoyo-Barbolla; Emanuele Carisio; Marta Ortega-Portillo; María Teresa Arredondo
This paper proposes a new framework to enhance the interaction of individuals with e-health and encourage the adoption of healthy lifestyles. Achieving a lifestyle change by the use of e-health is a complex issue that can be broadly addressed by analysing, in parallel the individuals' attitude towards their health condition and their approach and readiness to monitor and change their attitude by the use of new technologies. Our work has been to conceive, develop and evaluate a novel framework that explains how to promote the acceptance of e-health in terms of the perception of healthcare and of the use of technology to perform a desired or recommended lifestyle change. In order to place the user at each dimension a set of questionnaires was designed and implemented. These questionnaires assisted us in understanding what personalised information needs to be provided according to the stage the user is at as well as to other variables (such as age, cultural background, etc). Moreover, we created a communication strategy to provide tailored information regarding promotion and prevention of healthcare by means of e-health and promote the use of technology solutions to improve individuals' habits by enhancing their interaction with technological means. The framework was finally evaluated by users and healthcare professionals.
Keywords: E-health acceptance; healthcare promotion; e-health communication strategies
Effects of Cognitive Training on Individual Differences in Attention BIBAKFull-Text 279-287
  Jing Feng; Ian Spence
Selective attention is responsible for detecting, localizing and identifying a target while neglecting distractors [1],[2]. A superior capacity in selective attention contributes to good performance in tasks that require monitoring the environment and searching for a target [2],[3],[4]. Since it is our goal to optimize work efficiency, understanding individual differences in attentional capacity and whether they are mutable is important. Our first experiment demonstrates the existence of systematic individual differences in selective attention. More remarkably, our second experiment shows that appropriate cognitive training using an action video game can alter selective attentional capacity. Furthermore, individuals with the poorest initial scores gain most from the training. We show that these gains cannot be attributed to regression effects alone. Thus we conclude that individual differences in attentional capacity can be reduced or even eliminated by training.
Keywords: engineering psychology; cognitive training; individual differences; selective attention; video games
The Effect of Traffic on Situation Awareness and Mental Workload: Simulator-Based Study BIBAKFull-Text 288-296
  Xueqin Hao; Zhiguo Wang; Fan Yang; Ying Wang; Yanru Guo; Kan Zhang
In the present study, we investigated the effects of the different traffic on the driver's situation awareness and the mental workload (MWL). The task used in this study was a medium fidelity, 3-dimensional simulation of a driving environment. The simulation required participants to drive the user's car and perform a real-world driving task. After the simulated driving, participants were asked to complete two tests which assessed their situation awareness (SA). The mental workload measures in this study consisted of the physiological measures and the subjective assessment. Every participant performed two different traffic simulated driving conditions, one was low traffic, the other was high traffic. The results showed that with the increasing of traffic, the driving performance did not worsen, however participant's mental workload increased, at the same time, the participant's situation awareness performance deteriorated. Meanwhile, our results also demonstrated that recall-based SA test and recognition-based test was heterogeneous.
Keywords: situation awareness; workload; simulated driving
Multi-window System and the Working Memory BIBAKFull-Text 297-305
  Ayako Hashizume; Masaaki Kurosu; Takao Kaneko
This paper deals with the issue of the working memory load in relation to the multi-window system and explains the reason why multi-window and multi-monitor systems are better for the window operation in accordance to the structure and the function of the working memory. In the last part of this paper, a model revised from Card, Moran and Newell is proposed to explain the working memory load.
Keywords: working memory; multi-window system; user interface; dual display; memory model
Human Performance Model for Combined Steering-Targeting Tasks BIBAFull-Text 306-315
  Seung-Kweon Hong; Seungwan Ryu
The combined steering-targeting tasks are frequently encountered within the window-type environment. For example, within a menu driven interface, the user is required to steer down a menu and then to click on a target. In this paper, human performance for these tasks was measured and a mathematical model was proposed to describe the human performance. The cursor movement in the combined steering-targeting tasks had a positive acceleration form at the starting period until about 10mm and a uniform velocity was maintained during the intermediate period and a negative acceleration was observed at the ending period. The proposed model consisted of two terms in which the first being the classical Fitts' term and the second being the steering law suggested by Drury. This model provided a good fit to the data obtained from the experiments (r2 = 0.936) as well as the data obtained by Kvalseth (r2 = 0.982).
A Mental Workload Predicator Model for the Design of Pre Alarm Systems BIBAKFull-Text 316-323
  Sheue-Ling Hwang; Yi-Jan Yau; Yu-Ting Lin; Jun Hao Chen; Tsun-Hung Huang; Tzu-Chung Yenn; Chong-Cheng Hsu
This study investigated the operator's mental workload of the fourth Nuclear Power Plant in Taiwan. An experiment including the primary and secondary tasks was designed to simulate the reactor shutdown procedure of the Nuclear Power Plant. The performance of secondary task, the subjective mental workload and seven physiological signals of participant were measured. The Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) was applied to integrate these physiological signals to develop a mental workload predictive model. The relationship between subject mental workload and the performance of secondary task is highly correlated with Pearson correlation coefficient as 0.691. The validity of the proposed model is very high with R2=0.85. The proposed model is expected to provide supervisor a reference value of operator's performance by giving physiological signals. Besides nuclear power plant, the proposed model could be applied to other fields such as aviation, air transportation control, driving and radar vigilance, etc.
Keywords: Mental workload; Physiological signal; GMDH; Predictor
Effects of Driver Fatigue Monitoring -- An Expert Survey BIBAKFull-Text 324-330
  Katja Karrer; Matthias Roetting
On long journeys under monotonous road conditions, fatigue monitoring systems might help to reduce sleep-related crashes by informing or alerting the driver, or even by taking corrective actions in the driving task. The objective of this study was to find out more about the view of experts on future driver fatigue monitoring. A questionnaire was designed to discover the objectives and the predicted effects of these systems. Evaluations of 19 researchers and 52 professional drivers were compared to each other. Researchers predict positive effects of fatigue monitoring, as the reduction of accidents, but do not deny possible hazards due to behavioral adaptation. Professional drivers claim it is particularly important to develop an affirmative attitude towards driving without fatigue and see potential in enhancing the individual responsibility of the drivers.
Keywords: driver; fatigue; sleepiness; drowsiness; monitoring; assistance system; expert survey; behavioral adaptation
Study on the Instruction Method for Plant Operator BIBAKFull-Text 331-338
  Daiji Kobayashi; Hiroaki Murata; Sakae Yamamoto
In this study, the characteristics of three training curriculums were compared from the viewpoint of the trainee's cognitive process. In the experiment, the nine participants set into three groups of three participants, and trained in each curriculum. In order to evaluate the trainee's cognitive behavior in identifying malfunctions, the concept of mental algorithm was used. As the results, the trainee's cognitive process for identifying malfunctions is estimated as a model. This model could reflect the contents of training curriculum regarding the trainee's cognitive process.
Keywords: plant; operator; instruction; thinking process
Examining the Moderating Effect of Workload on Controller Task Distribution BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Paul U. Lee; Joey Mercer; Todd J. Callantine
Efforts to characterize controller workload -- a key factor in limiting en route capacity -- have produced mixed results. Subjective workload ratings reveal significant variations in minimum/maximum workload across individuals and show a categorical jump in perceived workload with a linear increase in aircraft count, making it difficult to predict workload limits with increased traffic. In addition, workload seems to be actively moderated by the controller to reduce monitoring tasks during high traffic/workload situations. In this paper, we examine this strategy shift by associating bookkeeping tasks and route/altitude clearances with online workload ratings. Overall, the data suggest that the controllers shed peripheral tasks related to monitoring and bookkeeping as the traffic ramps up and their perceived workload transitions from low to high. Whenever workload reached a maximum, some bookkeeping tasks were delayed and performed in "groups" after the peak traffic subsided.
Keywords: workload; task load; air traffic control; non-linear; controller strategy; situation awareness
Cognitive, Perceptual, Sensory and Verbal Abilities as Predictors of PDA Text Entry Error and Instructions Across the Lifespan BIBAKFull-Text 349-358
  Hiroe Li; Peter Graf
Sixty-three participants (range from 18 to 85 years of age) completed 4 data entry tasks on an HP iPAQ 5450 via a touch-screen QWERTY keyboard, as well as a battery of neuro-cognitive tests. Entry errors and assistance required by participants were coded into categories. Multiple regression analyses revealed that episodic memory was the strongest predictor for stand-still errors and commission errors, while sensory abilities was the strongest predictor of omission errors. We suggest that raining sessions that familiarize older adults with the functions of specific keys (e.g. Spacebar and Backspace) and structure of the keyboard, complemented with visual or auditory feedback provided by the keyboard as methods to improve text entry accuracy.
Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction; PDAs; aging; text entry errors
Time Estimation as a Measure of Mental Workload BIBAKFull-Text 359-365
  Mats Lind; Henning Sundvall
Technical systems of different kinds might differ in the mental demands they put on their users while being equally usable in a more conventional sense. Several methods exist that measure mental workload. However, in the everyday practice of usability evaluations, none of these methods seems to be used. This is probably due to the amount of effort needed to use them. The study of our errors in estimation of durations show that errors increase as a function of the amount of attentional resources being needed for other concurrent tasks. This points towards a simple way of estimating mental workload. By asking people to provide estimates of elapsed time after a task, disruptions in their estimates could indicate the mental workload of the task. We conducted a first study aimed at validating this idea with the NASA TLX method. Results show that errors in time estimates correlate significantly with TLX scores.
Keywords: Mental workload; time estimation; usability
How Does Distraction Task Influence the Interaction of Working Memory and Long-Term Memory? BIBAKFull-Text 366-374
  Ye Liu; Xiaolan Fu
The present study addressed the influence of distraction task on the interaction of working memory and long-term memory by using available long-term memory tasks with or without distraction task. The results showed that: (a) Distraction task had significant effect on the availability of LTM facilitated by prior attention-driven processing in WM, and (b) the pattern of semantic priming effects observed was reversed between the condition with and without distraction task. These findings support the hypothesis that the semantic activation is implicit automatic process, and less attention resource focused on the process will benefit the semantic activation of LTM.
Keywords: working memory; availability of long-term memory; semantic activation; semantic priming
Sequential Analyses of Error Rate: A Theoretical View BIBAKFull-Text 375-378
  Ronald Mellado Miller; Richard J. Sauque
Though error rate is a ubiquitous measure of human performance, as typically measured in terms of overall error rate or percentage, there are a number of predictive variables lost by summing or averaging the errors made. In this paper, we present a sequential analysis of error rate, where the pattern of errors is analyzed. By examining such concepts as the number of transitions from incorrect responses (I) to correct responses (C) or IC transitions as well a concept called I-length, which refers to the number of incorrect responses followed by a correct response, valid ordinal predictions of persistence in the face of continuous failure can be made. This paper develops this theoretical construct in the hopes that utilizing such data will facilitate the analysis and predictive quality of error rate data.
Keywords: error rate; sequential; performance; percentage; extinction; persistence
Multidimensional Evaluation of Human Responses to the Workload BIBAKFull-Text 379-387
  Shinji Miyake; Simpei Yamada; Takuro Shoji; Yasuhiko Takae; Nobuyuki Kuge; Tomohiro Yamamura
Changes in physiological parameters during mental tasks frequently show individual differences and discrepancies among responses invoked by mental tasks. A multidimensional analysis was used in this study to investigate these variations. Fifteen male participants performed a 5-minute multi-attribute task battery three times with different levels of difficulty. Principal component analysis was used for seven autonomic nervous system parameters recorded in five blocks including before and after resting periods. The first and the second principal components were plotted on the two-dimensional plane and their patterns were investigated. The results suggest that this method may provide more information on physiological responses induced by mental tasks.
Keywords: Workload; Autonomic Nervous System; Principal Component Analysis; MATB
The Influence of Visual Angle on the Performance of Static Images Scanning BIBAKFull-Text 388-396
  Xiang Qiu; Yong Niu; Xiaolan Fu
The present study addressed to explore the influence of visual angle on the performance of static images scanning with a 2 (scanning distance) x 2 (scanning type) x 3 (visual angle) mixed design. The results demonstrated significant effects of three factors on participants' performance. Stimuli at 5.5° and 8.4° rather than 2.7° could facilitate the performance of static image scanning. However, the effect of visual angle on mental image scanning was smaller than on retinal image scanning. These findings were interpreted in terms of the theory of working memory and the theory of mental image. The implication of these findings in human-computer interface was discussed at last.
Keywords: visual angle; image scanning; mental load; working memory
Occurrence of Secondary Tasks and Quality of Lane Changes BIBAKFull-Text 397-406
  Laurence Rognin; Sophie Alidra; Clément Val; Antoine Lescaut
Methods to assess driving degradation due to driver distraction are currently discussed and defined by international standardization groups. A simulator experiment involving 17 participants was conducted to assess the reliability and relevance of one of these methods (Lane Change Test) to discriminate between secondary tasks. In addition to varying age groups, vehicles and secondary tasks, the protocol was also varied to assess the impact of the instruction occurrence and its possible conflict with primary task performance. Results show the limitations of the main parameter proposed by the method (lateral deviation) and question the reliability of the method in its current form. Additional indicators seem necessary to make sense of the respective impact of the varied conditions. Surprisingly, the impact of the instruction occurrence is very limited, apparently because individual strategies have more impact than situations differences.
Keywords: Driver distraction; driving performance; Lane Change Test; secondary tasks; simulator experiment
What Really Is Going on? Review, Critique and Extension of Situation Awareness Theory BIBAKFull-Text 407-416
  Paul M. Salmon; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Guy H. Walker; Mark S. Young; Amardeep Aujla
Theoretically, Situation Awareness (SA) remains predominantly an individual construct. The majority of the models presented in the literature focus on SA from an individual perspective and in comparison, the concept of team SA has received less attention. SA in complex, collaborative environments thus remains a challenge for the human factors community, both in terms of the development of theoretical perspectives and of valid measures, and also in the development of guidelines for system, training and procedure design. This article presents a review and critique of what is currently known about SA and team SA, including a comparison of the most prominent individual and team models presented in the literature. In conclusion, we argue that recently proposed systems level Distributed Situation Awareness (DSA) approaches are the most suited to describing and assessing SA in real world collaborative environments.
Keywords: Situation Awareness; Teams; Collaborative Systems
Stress and Managers Performance: Age-Related Changes in Psychophysiological Reactions to Cognitive Load BIBAFull-Text 417-425
  Sergei A. Schapkin; Gabriele Freude; Udo Erdmann; Heinz Ruediger
Work ability of elderly managers may decrease probably due to decreased cognitive flexibility. Moreover, cardiovascular reactivity to changing task demands might be less efficient in elderly. Younger (36-45) and elderly (49-60) German managers had to perform a switching task when they had to switch continuously between different rules of information processing or to use the same rule. Although the performance did not differ between groups, the SBP was higher and the HRV was lower in elderly. In addition, elderly showed an increased rigidity of cardiovascular functioning against changing task demands.
Monitoring Performance and Mental Workload in an Automated System BIBAKFull-Text 426-435
  Indramani L. Singh; Anju L. Singh; Proshanto K. Saha
Human performance in computer-aided system has engrossed inevitably human issues in cognitive functioning. The present endeavor focuses on the associated influence of training, automation reliability on the monitoring performance and workload in multi-task ambience. MAT battery was utilized with engine-system monitoring, two dimensional tracking, and fuel resource management tasks were the concerned elements, in which only system engine-monitoring task was automated in the training as well as in the final test sessions. A 2 x 2 x 2 x 3, mixed factorial design was employed. Monitoring performance, false alarms, reaction time and root mean square error performance were recorded as dependent measures. Results revealed that automation-induced complacency might be the feature of multi-task condition where subjects detected automation failures under high static system reliability. Results further showed that mental workload significantly reduced from pre- to post-sessions.
Keywords: Automation; Complacency Workload; Monitoring Performance
Context-Aware Notification for Mobile Police Officers BIBAKFull-Text 436-445
  Jan Willem Streefkerk; Myra P. van Esch-Bussemakers; Mark A. Neerincx
To minimize unwanted interruption and information overload during surveillance, mobile police officers need to be supported by a mobile, context-aware notification system. This system adapts message presentation to message priority and context of use. A prototype is designed and evaluated in a simulated surveillance task, requiring users to attend to videos while handling messages on a mobile device. Adaptive notification led to better performance and less intrusive messages than non-adaptive notification, especially in high workload situations. Subjective judgments showed a positive user experience with the adaptive notification system. These empirical findings are used to improve the design of mobile notification support systems for police officers.
Keywords: Mobile device; notification; context-aware computing; Wizard-of-Oz; police
A Study on the Vertical Navigation of High Rise Buildings BIBAKFull-Text 446-454
  Xianghong Sun; Thomas Plocher; Weina Qu
Scroll bar and stab touch screen controls were designed and compared to a soft keyboard to help firefighters perform vertical navigation tasks for high-rise buildings depicted on a graphical display. 18 male subjects were asked to accomplish three experimental tasks: 1) input floor number and navigate to the floor, 2) switch the current floor to another one that was two floors higher/lower, and 3) check around the floors in the high rise to find the one on fire. Task completion time and number of screen operations were recorded. Results showed that, keyboard method of floor selection was the fastest, and scroll bar the slowest. In Task 1 and Task 2, the least number of screen operations were shown with soft keyboard. But in Task 3, keyboard was slowest. The other two control methods were not sensitive to tasks. Design implications for scroll bar and stab controls are discussed.
Keywords: touch screen; vertical navigation; scroll bar; graphical displays
Mental Workload in Command and Control Teams: Musings on the Outputs of EAST and WESTT BIBAKFull-Text 455-464
  Mark S. Young; Neville A. Stanton; Guy H. Walker; Daniel P. Jenkins; Paul M. Salmon
The EAST methodology (Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork) has recently been developed as a means for analyzing command and control scenarios. Its counterpart, the WESTT computer-based analytical prototyping tool (Workload, Error, Situation awareness, Time and Teamwork) allows analysts to visualize, model and measure these command and control networks and activities. Recent studies applying EAST and WESTT to the military domain have led to simplistic inferences about the relative levels of demands during phases of task activity. The present paper takes these inferences a step further, suggesting alternative methods for evaluating mental workload based on human information processing models and network metrics such as latent semantic analysis. Whilst much development work is implied, these analyses offer the possibility not only to quantify mental workload across the network, adding further value to the EAST/WESTT toolkit.
Keywords: mental workload; command and control; teamwork; network analysis
Lightweight Collaborative Activity Patterns in Project Management BIBAKFull-Text 465-473
  Shaoke Zhang; Chen Zhao; Paul Moody; Qinying Liao; Qiang Zhang
People working with ad-hoc collaboration tools suffer from information overload and information scatter. Our five-month study of project managers found their work comprised of fragmented activities scattering in task, people and application. However, these loosely coupled collaborative activities were implicitly organized by hierarchical activity threads through intrusion and digression, and geared into work breakdown structure (WBS) in high level. Our investigation gives implications on making people's work manageable as well as flexible, by integrating lightweight collaborative activities with centralized processes.
Keywords: Fragmented activity; activity threads; project management

Part III: Cognitive Modeling and Measuring

Cognitive Model Data Analysis for the Evaluation of Human Computer Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 477-486
  Jeronimo Dzaack; Leon Urbas
In industry and consumer electronic, more and more operative tasks are changing to supervisory control and management tasks. This leads to more complex and dynamic user interfaces (e.g. integrated control interfaces, infotainment systems in cars). Because of the integrated functionality and the complex data structures, these interfaces require more cognitive information processing. Usability of such interfaces can be evaluated by using cognitive modeling to investigate cognitive processes and their underlying structures. So far the explanatory power of cognitive models is limited due to the lack of fine-grained simulation data analysis. Having realized this drawback we developed SimTrA (Simulation Trace Analyzer) to simplify the analysis of cognitive models. The tool automatically processes and analyzes data from cognitive models and allows the comparison of simulated data with empirical eye movement data. This paper describes the approach and its implementation. The practicability of SimTrA is demonstrated with an example in the domain of process control.
Keywords: Cognitive Architectures; Eye Movement Data; Analysis; Human Computer Interaction
Automatic Detection of Interaction Vulnerabilities in an Executable Specification BIBAKFull-Text 487-496
  Michael Feary
This paper presents an approach to providing designers with the means to detect Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) vulnerabilities without requiring extensive HCI expertise. The goal of the approach is to provide timely, useful analysis results early in the design process, when modifications are less expensive. The twin challenges of providing timely and useful analysis results led to the development and evaluation of computational analyses, integrated into a software prototyping toolset. The toolset, referred to as the Automation Design and Evaluation Prototyping Toolset (ADEPT) was constructed to enable the rapid development of an executable specification for automation behavior and user interaction. The term executable specification refers to the concept of a testable prototype whose purpose is to support development of a more accurate and complete requirements specification.
Keywords: automation design; automation surprise analysis
ATC CTA: Cognitive Task Analysis of Future Air Traffic Control Concepts BIBAFull-Text 497-503
  Brian Hilburn
Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) is a flight deck tool to display and help avoid proximate air traffic. Until now, TCAS information has not been presented to the air traffic controller. Attention has focused in recent years on the potential benefits of "downlinking" to the air traffic controller TCAS Resolution Advisories (RAs) in near real time, Such presentations, it is thought, could benefit situation awareness and joint decision making between controller and pilot.
   A cognitive task analysis (CTA) was recently conducted into the present-day and future RA Downlink (RAD) operational concepts. The aim was to identify the cognitive elements underlying performance in the RAD scenarios, and to hopefully identify potential error mechanisms. On the basis of a functional task description and cognitive walkthroughs, CTA proceeded to decompose the tasks imposed on the controller. The impact of various specific non-nominal events (e.g. pilot reports RA, but does not initiate an evasive maneuver) was investigated. Finally, a set of cognitive elements and potential error mechanisms was identified.
The Development of a Cognitive Work Analysis Tool BIBAKFull-Text 504-511
  Daniel P. Jenkins; Neville A. Stanton; Paul M. Salmon; Guy H. Walker; Mark S. Young; Ian Whitworth; Andy Farmilo; Geoffrey Hone
Due to their complexity, systems used within Network Centric Warfare and Command and Control are notoriously difficult to predict. These systems are often influenced by an ever increasing number of dynamic constraints. This dynamic instability causes problems for many traditional normative Human Factors techniques. Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) is a formative process that focuses on these constraints rather than prescriptive methods of working; this constraint based approach allows the model to handle the unexpected and unanticipated events common in network-centric warfare. This paper presents the development of a Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) software tool. The tool has two main purposes. The primary purpose is to assist the user in developing the large number of graphical representations that support the iterative design process. The secondary purpose is to explain CWA to novices and systematically guide them through the analysis process. The paper provides a brief introduction to CWA along with a description of the tool and its current capabilities.
Keywords: Cognitive Work Analysis; Tools; Software Development; Training
Human Activity Modeling for Systems Design: A Trans-Disciplinary and Empirical Approach BIBAKFull-Text 512-521
  Saadi Lahlou
Complex system design is about technical specifications, but also how humans act in the loop in Dissemination, Operation, Maintenance and Evolution (DOME) of the system. In system specification, we focus on distribution of work between humans and systems. In design of system's DOME, on building an ecology of individual motives, organizational rules and mediating structures to keep the system sustainable. In our participative design process itself, on how to enroll and maintain test users in realistic experiments. We adopt a complementarist approach: we use different models of human cognition and behavior for each aspect. Human behavior is determined by many factors including subject's motives and goals, constraints and affordances of the context. We list here which models we use and how.
Keywords: design; activity theory; cognitive attractors; cognition; social representation; affordances; goals; distributed cognition; situated action; ecological psychology; involvement
Empirical Evidence for a Model of Operator Reaction to Alerting Systems BIBAKFull-Text 522-530
  Steven J. Landry; Anil Divvela
A sample of aviation safety reports related to the Ground Proximity Warning System was pulled from the Aviation Safety Reporting System. These reports were used to evaluate a model of operator reaction to alerting systems, particularly focusing on cases of noncompliance. The model posited that operators try to define a causal path from the distal situation triggering the alert (which is generally unknown) to the proximal cues. The model implies that alert response behavior can be influenced by manipulating those factors that affect the ability to construct this mapping. Based on the examination of the reports, two refinements of the model are proposed. First, the ability to define a causal path is affected by time pressure; only those paths that can be verified are checked. Second, the paths are checked against preconceptions based on the task situation. These findings may have implications for the design of procedures and alerting systems.
Keywords: alerting systems; aviation; situation awareness; procedures
"Investigating the Way National Grid Controllers Visualize the Electricity Transmission Grid Using a Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) Approach" BIBAKFull-Text 531-540
  P. Lazanas
Highly skilled South African experts are responsible for controlling the voltage levels of the electrical transmission grid. This paper reports on the research methodology, which was used to identify the mental structure of their expertise. The research was multidisciplinary in nature, including, Power System Engineering, Industrial and Cognitive Psychology, and Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP). Of these, the NLP elicitation techniques used form the main body of this paper. NLP represents a body of knowledge with which human experience can be investigated and altered, by adopting a "whole-person" approach. Eight controllers of varied competence were interviewed. The main findings were that the expert controllers use sophisticated mental strategies that allow them to simplify the overwhelming quantity of data presented to them. These results will be discussed in the full paper together with the applicability of the NLP elicitation method.
Keywords: Mental Models; Naturalistic Decision Making; Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP); Human Factors; Visualization
Diagnosticity of Cardiac Modes of Autonomic Control Elicited by Simulated Driving and Verbal Working Memory Dual-Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 541-550
  John K. Lenneman; Richard W. Backs
The present study investigated the diagnosticity of autonomic space for heart rate by elucidating psychological-physiological mappings in a dual-task driving simulation. Based on the results of previous studies, we predicted patterns of cardiac autonomic activity that would be elicited by dual-task driving with a verbal working memory side-task. The results generally supported the predictions made, and indicate that cardiac autonomic modes of control can be diagnostic with regard to the attentional processing resources used during task performance in the driving domain.
Keywords: Autonomic space; cardiovascular psychophysiology; mental workload; simulated driving; dual-task
EEG Activities of Dynamic Stimulation in VR Driving Motion Simulator BIBAKFull-Text 551-560
  Chin-Teng Lin; Li-Wei Ko; Yin-Hung Lin; Tzyy-Ping Jung; Sheng-Fu Liang; Li-Sor Hsiao
The purpose of this study is to investigate Electroencephalography dynamics in response to kinesthetic stimuli during driving. We used a Virtual Reality driving simulator consisted of a hydraulic hexapod motion platform to create practical driving events. We compared the EEG dynamics in response to kinesthetic stimulus while the platform was in motion, to that while the platform was stationary. The scalp-recorded EEG channel signals were first separated into independent brain sources using Independent Component Analysis (ICA), and then studied with time-frequency analysis. Our results showed that independent brain processes near the somatomotor cortex exhibited alpha power decreases across sessions and subjects. Negative potentials phase-locked to the onsets of deviation events under motion conditions were observed in a central midline component. The results allow us to better understand different brain networks involved in driving, and provide a foundation for studying event-related EEG activities in the presence of kinesthetic stimuli.
Keywords: Kinesthetic Stimulus; EEG; ICA; Component Clustering; ERSP; ERP; Mu Rhythm; EMG
Development of a Wireless Embedded Brain -- Computer Interface and Its Application on Drowsiness Detection and Warning BIBAKFull-Text 561-567
  Chin-Teng Lin; Hung-Yi Hsieh; Sheng-Fu Liang; Yu-Chieh Chen; Li-Wei Ko
The existing bio-signal monitoring systems are mostly designed for signal recording without the capability of automatic analysis so that their applications are limited. The goal of this paper is to develop a real-time wireless embedded electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring system that includes multi-channel physiological acquisition, wireless transmission, and an embedded system. The wireless transmission can overcome the inconvenience of wire routing and the embedded multi-task scheduling for the dual-core processing system is developed to realize the real-time processing. The whole system has been applied to detect the driver's drowsiness for demonstration since drowsiness is considered as a serious cause of many traffic accidents. The electroencephalogram (EEG) features changes from wakefulness to drowsiness are extracted to detect the driver's drowsiness and an on-line warning feedback module is applied to avoid disasters caused by fatigue.
Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs); electroencephalogram (EEG); embedded systems; real-time; wireless
Modelling Cognitive and Affective Load for the Design of Human-Machine Collaboration BIBAKFull-Text 568-574
  Mark A. Neerincx
We are developing models for hybrid human-machine systems that can cope autonomously with unexpected, complex and potentially hazardous situations. The synthetic or electronic partner (ePartner) has to acquire and maintain knowledge of the (momentary) cognitive and affective load of the tasks and situation, and the capacities of the human partner (hPartner) to cope with this load. For adequate partnership, cognitive and affective load models are needed that support shared situation awareness, trust and scrutability. This paper presents two such models that are being developed and tested for military and space operations in situated cognitive engineering cycles.
Keywords: mental load; emotion; human-machine collaboration; synthetic or electronic partner; cognitive engineering
Event-Related Brain Potentials Corroborate Subjectively Optimal Delay in Computer Response to a User's Action BIBAKFull-Text 575-581
  Hiroshi Nittono
This study examined how the presentation timing of a computer response to a user operation affects attention allocated to the stimulus. Event-related brain potentials were recorded in response to auditory stimuli that were presented after a single mouse button press with three different durations of delay: 0, 150, and 300 ms. The amplitude of the P300 component, which is assumed to reflect the amount of attentional resources allocated to the eliciting event, increased when the stimuli were presented 150 ms after button press, compared with when the same stimuli were presented immediately (0 ms) or 300 ms after button press. These results are consistent with a previous psychophysical finding that the insertion of a moderate delay interval can increase the user's sense of control, and suggest that ERPs can be used as an objective tool for assessing the state of attention in a particular interface design.
Keywords: psychophysiology; P300; attention; self-paced task; interface design
Effects of Pattern Complexity on Information Integration: Evidence from Eye Movements BIBAKFull-Text 582-590
  Yanju Ren; Yuming Xuan; Xiaolan Fu
The present study employed empty cell localization paradigm and eye-tracking method to investigate the effects of memorized stimuli complexity on information integration between in visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual perception. Two arrays of dots were displayed in sequence within a grid. Between the two arrays, one cell was always empty, and the participants' task was to specify the location of this "missing dot" It was found that the accuracy decreased as dot pattern of array 1 increased in complexity, especially under long ISI condition. The analysis of eye movement behavior, especially fixation location, demonstrated that participants were more likely to try to remember the location of the empty cells of array 1 other than locations of dots. From aspect of eye movement, these results offered the first evidence supporting convert-and-compare hypothesis.
Keywords: information integration; visual short-term memory; visual perception; eye movement
Event-Related Potential as a Measure of Effects of Report Order and Compatibility on Identification on Multidimensional Stimulus BIBAKFull-Text 591-599
  I-Hsuan Shen; Kong-King Shieh; Shin-Yuan Tsai
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of order of reporting stimulus dimension in multidimensional stimulus identification using switch task paradigm. Nine healthy participants were required to identify each two-dimensional symbol by pushing the corresponding buttons on the keypad. The two orders of report were Order Color/Shape and Order Shape/Color. There was a task cue prior to each presentation of a symbol indicating the particular report order the participants should perform. The cue changed randomly. Results showed that order of report had a significant effect on response time for the first and second dimension. Analysis of behavioral data showed switch cost indicated by increase in response time was greater for Order Shape/Color, a less appropriate order of reporting dimensional values, than Order Color/Shape. It seemed plausible that participants needed more attention resource and showed more N2 inhibition for Order Shape/Color than for Order Color/Shape which fits the Chinese adjective-then-noun language habit.
Keywords: report order; multidimensional stimulus identification; task switch; event-related potential
Models of Command and Control BIBAKFull-Text 600-608
  Neville A. Stanton; Guy H. Walker; Daniel P. Jenkins; Paul M. Salmon; Mark S. Young; Amerdeep Aujla
This paper reports on four different models which may be used to investigate command and control. The models reviewed are: a process model, a contextual control model, a decision ladder model and a functional model. Each of the models are introduced and explained in turn. Of particular interest is the degree to which these models can be used to explain command and control activities. The models are compared and contrasted, and the implications for command and control research drawn.
Keywords: Command and control; process models; contextual models; decision models; functional models; activities models
Cognitive and Emotional Human Models Within a Multi-agent Framework BIBAKFull-Text 609-618
  Lucas Stephane
In the industrial field, user behavior has been mainly addressed in terms of rational thinking. High-level cognitive processes investigated by Cognitive Engineering are described as logical or rational. We already proposed a cognitive multi-agent model that provides a framework for the peer user-artifact highlighting the roles, responsibilities and resources of each pertinent entity involved in the human-machine hybrid system. This cognitive model was employed for various experiments in the cockpit that assessed Workload and Situation Awareness [10]. Techniques such as Eye Tracking were also used. Definitely, the cognitive model helps to understand user behaviors. However, we noticed behavioral differences between users that are hardly explainable only by the cognitive model. So we started to investigate the non-cognitive aspects of the users that are their emotions. This paper presents the integration of cognitive and emotional models that comprise on one hand users' Situation Awareness and on the other hand users' Self Awareness.
Keywords: Cognitive modeling; Cognitive theories of emotion; Multi-Agent systems; Situation Awareness; Workload; Self Awareness
Sociotechnical Theory and NEC System Design BIBAKFull-Text 619-628
  Guy H. Walker; Neville A. Stanton; Daniel P. Jenkins; Paul M. Salmon; Mark S. Young; Amerdeep Aujla
Abstract. The term 'Sociotechnical' is much more than merely a buzzword, it is a set of theories and concepts that seek to jointly optimize the co-evolution of organizations and technology. In this paper we show how the specification of a set of basic sociotechnical principles (responsible autonomy, adaptability and meaningfulness of tasks) could help to create the initial conditions from which shared awareness (through peer to peer interaction) and agility (through Effects Based Operations, semi-autonomous groups and increased tempo) create self-synchronization (synergy, with simple organizations undertaking more complex tasks). Sociotechnical theory has further advantage of a long legacy in theoretical and applied settings, one that future work aims to exploit in order to help realize the vision that NEC promises.
Keywords: Sociotechnical theory; sociotechnical systems; network enabled capability; agility; tempo; shared awareness; effects based operations; organizational design

Part IV: Safety Critical Applications and Systems

The Impact of Automation and FMS in Flight Safety: Results of a Survey and an Experimental Study BIBAKFull-Text 631-638
  Diyar Akay; Ergün Eraslan; Cengiz Yoldas
The main aim in the adoption of automation technologies of airplanes is to decrease the errors due to human factors whereas some applications and empirical researches showed that automation causes new type of errors in the cockpit. When the aviation accidents due to automation have been surveyed, it is seen that the automation errors related to FMS (Flight Management System) are very high. The FMS supports pilots in different tasks like flight planning, navigation, performance management and monitoring of flight progress. In this study, the effect of automation and FMS in flight safety is researched. A survey was conducted to a group of pilots of a turboprop airplane with high level automation. Following the survey, an experimental study was performed to analyze effects of last minute changes on FMS which was highlighted as the most prominent problem in the survey. Finally, based on the results of experiment, recommendations were given so as to improve design and usability of FMS.
Keywords: Automation Errors; Cockpit Automation; Flight Management System
Combining Skin Conductance and Heart Rate Variability for Adaptive Automation During Simulated IFR Flight BIBAKFull-Text 639-647
  Wolfram Boucsein; Andrea Haarmann; Florian Schaefer
Adaptive automation increases the operator's workload if there are signs of hypovigilance, and takes over more responsibility in case of workload becoming too high. We refined a closed-loop adaptive system for varying the strength of turbulence in a professional simulator. In the experimental condition, twenty-four subjects flew three blocks with ten 2-min flight sections under varying turbulences. Each of the three blocks applied different combinations of autonomic measures for adaptive automation. Physiological responses were calculated every 2 min for adjusting the turbulence strength for the next 2 min, dependent on an individual setpoint. Another twenty-four yoked control subjects flew the same sequence of turbulences as the corresponding experimental subjects without adaptive automation. By combining nonspecific skin conductance responses and heart rate variability, experimental subjects' skin conductance responses oscillated very close to the individual setpoint, indicating a constant vigilance level as a result of adaptive control compared to yoked control subjects.
Keywords: Vigilance; workload; adaptive automation; human-computer interaction; psychophysiology; aviation psychology
HILAS Flight Operations Research: Development of Risk/Safety Management, Process Improvement and Task Support Tools BIBAKFull-Text 648-657
  Joan Cahill; Nick McDonald; Pernilla Ulfvengren; Franklyn Young; Yeray Ramos; Gabriel Losa
This paper reports on flight operations research, conducted as part of the work requirements for the Flight Operations Strand of the Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems (HILAS) project. Specifically, it presents a provisional framework for a suite of integrated Flight Operations tools developed in this research. It is anticipated that these tools will be used by different airline personnel to gather integrate, analyze and communicate data in relation to risk/safety management and process improvement. Further these tools will provide customized task support for different management and operational personnel.
Keywords: Flight Operations; Safety; Performance Monitoring; Risk Management; Process Improvement; Information Flow; Task Support; Human Performance
Analyzing Constraints to Support Computational Modeling of Air Traffic Controllers BIBAKFull-Text 658-667
  Todd J. Callantine
Research toward enhancing computational models of air traffic controllers for use in assessing new air traffic management concepts is presented. Simulation data from professional air traffic controllers is analyzed using a computational method for characterizing the constraints in force when the controllers take action. The results show controllers apply strategies to proactively prevent losses of separation between aircraft. This approach has advantages for complexity reduction and workload management and implications for human roles in future air traffic management systems.
Keywords: air traffic management; cognitive work analysis; computational human performance models; constraints
Risk-Based Information Integration for Ship Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 668-677
  Boris Gauss; Matthias Rötting
The Navigational Risk Detection and Assessment System (NARIDAS) is an approach to risk-based information integration on the ship's bridge. The purpose of this novel system is to reduce data overload and to support situation awareness of the bridge team. This paper focuses on the evaluation of NARIDAS during the development process. Evaluation is performed with system prototypes and practitioners. Three levels of evaluation are addressed: risk model validity, graphical user interface (GUI) design, and system usability. In two evaluation studies, positive results were obtained on all three levels. These results suggest that NARIDAS provides a valid model for the risks of ship navigation, a well-designed GUI, and a high usability for enhancing situational risk awareness of the bridge team.
Keywords: Ship Navigation; Risk; Support System; Evaluation; Situation Awareness; Information Integration
Experimental Thermal/Moisture Mapping of Industrial Safety Helmets BIBAKFull-Text 678-686
  Z. W. Guan; A. R. Dullah; H. L. Zhou
This paper presents the research on thermal/moisture mapping of typical industrial safety helmets using match-head-sized sensors. Three types of the industrial safety helmet were tested, one without ventilation openings, one with small ventilation holes made by the researcher, and one with manufacturing ventilation openings in the top region. Up to eight subjects were tested for each type of helmets in various ambient conditions. Results give the original measurements of the in-helmet micro climate. Results also show some interested interaction between the in-helmet temperature and relative humidity.
Keywords: comfort; industrial helmet; micro climate; perception; thermal/ moisture mapping
Common Work Space or How to Support Cooperative Activities Between Human Operators and Machine: Application to Air Traffic Control BIBAKFull-Text 687-696
  Benoît Guiost; Serge Debernard
For several years, the need for air-traffic control has been continuously increasing. In order to maintain aircraft safety, different support tools have been built and tested. Our conviction is that it is necessary to conceive a more cooperative tool that would allow a "true team work" between air-traffic controllers and their support tools, by making the support tool part of the team rather than a substitute for air-traffic controllers. With a view to developing such a tool, we studied the cognitive activities of air-traffic controllers in a situation of cooperation involving two human operators. This paper presents a theory of human-human cooperation strategies based on our work, as well as our experimental protocol, analysis methods and observations.
Keywords: Air-traffic control; cognitive analysis; shared workspace; HCI; experimental protocol
Human Performance Enhancements: From Certification to HCI Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 697-704
  Peter G. A. M. Jorna
This paper addresses the need for human performance enhancements in relation to growth of air travel and keeping accident levels low. Performance can be enhanced by certifying equipment with Human factors based methodologies in order to assure compatibility of systems with human intricacies. Objective eye scan data can be used to facilitate compliance with new Flight deck certification rules. The intelligence of machines or computers cab be improved by allowing machine access to eye derived data as illustrated and discussed. With this technology it is possible for computers to become a true COMPANION for its user.
Keywords: human performance; certification; human machine interaction; HCI innovation; adaptive systems
Operator Assistance and Semi-autonomous Functions as Key Elements of Future Systems for Multiple Uav Guidance BIBAKFull-Text 705-715
  Michael Kriegel; Claudia Meitinger; Axel Schulte
This paper will discuss technologies for use in a work system comprising a single operator working in a control station being supposed to supervise several UAVs. The overall setup of a typical manned-unmanned teaming scenario will be described and analyzed using the approach of the work system as a human factors engineering framework. This approach facilitates to identify the research areas of cognitive operator assistance and semi-autonomous guidance of co-operating UAVs. Furthermore, this paper will refer to recent research activities and experimental facilities for the evaluation of the solutions.
Keywords: Cognitive automation; UAV guidance; operator assistance
Confucius in Western Cockpits: The Investigation of Long-Term Versus Short-Term Orientation Culture and Aviation Accidents BIBAKFull-Text 716-722
  Wen-Chin Li; Don Harris
This research applies the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System and Hofsted's fifth dimension of national culture (Confucian- long-term versus short-term orientation) to compare accident patterns between the US and Taiwan. Asia and Africa have higher accident rates than Europe or America. There are also fundamental differences between Chinese and Western minds. These variations suggest that there should be fundamental, underlying factors causing these differences. Several studies have investigated the relationship between culture and accidents however, no research has investigated Chinese culture and accidents. The findings clearly show different patterns in the human factors causes underlying aviation accidents in these different regions. It could even be argued that the accident analysis system itself has an implicit cultural bias within it, as HFACS was a product of Western culture. Global aviation is strongly influenced by the Western culture, however, the safety challenge is to manage the potential risks it may present.
Keywords: Accident Investigation; Confucian; Cross-culture; Human Error; Human Factors Analysis and Classification System
Voice Alarm System in Emergency Evacuation BIBAKFull-Text 723-730
  Huiyang Li; Xianghong Sun; Kan Zhang
Under emergency situations such as large fires, floods, hazardous-materials, etc., incident commander have to manage an evacuation in help of alarm systems (audible or/and visual notification). This article reviewed selected literature relevant to ergonomics of alarm systems (esp. voice alarm system) in emergency evacuation, and occupants' response behavior to the voice alarm. The literature cited is of world-wide origin, and is mainly from China, Canada and U.S. At the end of the article, future directions in the research area are recommended.
Keywords: voice alarm; alarm system; emergency evacuation
Operating Multiple Semi-autonomous UGVs: Navigation, Strategies, and Instantaneous Performance BIBAKFull-Text 731-740
  Patrik Lif; Johan Hedström; Peter Svenmarck
There is an interest in using multiple unmanned ground vehicles (UGV). The Swedish Army Combat School has evaluated an UGV called SNOOKEN II in a number of field studies. To investigate the possibility to handle multiple vehicles in a simulated setting was set up where the operator simultaneous managed one, two, or three UGVs with limited autonomy. The task was to navigate the UGVs to designated inspection points as fast as possible. The results showed that more inspections were made with multiple UGVs (p<0.05), but also that there was no difference between using two or three UGVs (p>0.05). Analysis of use of autonomous mode, route selection, and interviews also show that the subject managed to operate two vehicles with increased performance but that a third vehicle does not provide any extra benefits.
Keywords: UGV; CSE; autonomy; manned-unmanned teaming; multi-robot systems
Evaluation of the Effects of Visual Field on Road Sign Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 741-749
  Bor-Shong Liu; Chih-Hung Hsu; Hsien-Yu Tseng; Tung-Chung Chia
The objective of this study was utilized the head and eye-tracker system to examine the effects of visual field between sedan and mixed concrete truck on road sign recognition. Participants were asked to search the traffic signs on driving video and give a verbal report instantaneously for visual search. Results of ANOVA revealed that the mode of vertical direction of eye gaze were significant differences between two conditions. Lower eye gazes were found in higher visual field from mixed concrete truck than in sedan. In addition, subjects reported fast in video of mixed concrete truck than in sedan. According the fixations data, subjects search quickly on painted speed limit on road in mixed concrete truck as compared to search the post or cantilever speed limit sign in video of sedan. These findings can be used or further application on signage design, vehicle design, and driver support information system design.
Keywords: Driving behavior; Visual search; Truck; Traffic signs
Searching for Possible Threat Items to Safe Air Travel: Human Error and Training BIBAKFull-Text 750-759
  Xi Liu; Alastair G. Gale
An eye-tracking experiment is reported which investigates the underlying factors that affect training in the visual search of air passenger luggage for possible threat items so as to reduce errors and improve safe air travel. In this study, naïve observers learned to search for terrorist threat items of guns, knives and improvised explosive devices (IEDs) in airport passengers' X-ray luggage images. During training, each participant viewed the same number of learning trials of guns, knives or IEDs. Transfer performance was measured in a same search task in which each participant was more familiar with the visual appearance of half of the test targets. Detection performance and eye movement data both showed improvement in the efficiency of search and recognition with practice, while the skills were stimulus-specific so that performance was degraded when novel targets were introduced. Perceptual learning and human errors of the implications for screener training are discussed.
Keywords: visual search; perceptual learning; airport X-ray luggage image
Human Integration in the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems BIBAKFull-Text 760-769
  Nick McDonald
While Human Factors is perhaps the most critical discipline to improving aviation safety, research and development is disproportionately small-scale, fragmented and unsustained. The key issue is the delivery of Human Factors knowledge throughout the system to improve design, operation or monitoring. A systems integration approach to technology development and innovation incorporates user requirements at all stages of the system life-cycle. The goal of the HILAS project is to develop and demonstrate such an integrated model of Human Factors research, practice and integrated application, linking design and operation -- in a 'system life-cycle approach'. A central challenge is to demonstrate how to integrate models of the human operator, which demonstrate the influences on human performance, with wider system models that encompass the influences on system performance.
Keywords: aviation; Human Factors; safety; research capability; operational performance; system improvement; system life-cycle; innovation; system models
A Characteristic of a Navigator's Response to Artificial Ship's Movement by Picture and Motion Platform BIBAKFull-Text 770-778
  Koji Murai; Tadatsugi Okazaki; Yuji Hayashi
A navigator gets diverse navigational information from the ship and her environment for safe and efficient navigation, and visual information is the most important source for his judgments. We use ship's bridge simulator to do some education/training (training) of ship-handling and how to handle some navigational instruments. The navigational environment of the simulator is simulated with a picture. The visual image makes training effect improve in components of simulator's systems from the standpoint of the reality, and the realty has become more with computer high technology. Meanwhile, a real ship always moves with six kind degrees of freedom, and the ship's movement is simulated by the picture in merchant ship training, not the motion platform. A trainer doesn't evaluate the importance of the reality of the ship movement for simulator training yet. The purpose of this paper is to find characteristics of body response to artificial ship movement by the picture and the motion platform. We need to evaluate the simulation methods of the ship movement for good training.
Keywords: Ship bridge simulator; Training; Picture and Motion Platform; Body response
Classification of Blink Waveforms Towards the Assessment of Driver's Arousal Level -- An Approach for HMM Based Classification from Blinking Video Sequence BIBAKFull-Text 779-786
  Yoshihiro Noguchi; Roongroj Nopsuwanchai; Mieko Ohsuga; Yoshiyuki Kamakura
With recent advances in image recognition, the assessment of driver's arousal level using blinking image sequences has been expected. In this paper, we demonstrated the possibility of assessing driver's arousal level by analyzing blinking image sequences. We focused on some typical blink waveform patterns occurred under drowsy condition. We used the results of EOG (Electro-oculogram) waveform clustering as the baseline for HMM (Hidden Markov Model) blinking labeling due to the difficulty of defining blinking labels from blinking image sequence. The blink pattern classes were classified by using the HMMs based on blinking image sequences. The driver's arousal level was finally estimated by histogram variation per minute of those typical blink classes.
Keywords: arousal level; blink; video sequence; EOG; HMM; driver
Classification of Blink Waveforms Toward the Assessment of Driver's Arousal Levels -- An EOG Approach and the Correlation with Physiological Measures BIBAKFull-Text 787-795
  Mieko Ohsuga; Yoshiyuki Kamakura; Yumiko Inoue; Yoshihiro Noguchi; Roongroj Nopsuwanchai
The goal of this research is to develop a method to assess the arousal states using facial images of drivers. This paper refers the preparatory study on the classification of blink waveforms obtained from electo-oculogram. The transitions of the distribution of classified blinks during a simulated driving task were studied for around fifty volunteers of both genders and a wide range of generations. It was shown that the blink class ratio supposed to be under the influence of not only the subject's drowsiness levels but also by his/her behavior to battle with drowsiness. The correlation with multidimensional physiological indices was also discussed.
Keywords: arousal level; drowsiness; drivers; blinks; physiological indices
Common Work Space or How to Support Cooperative Activities Between Human Operators: Application to Fighter Aircraft BIBAKFull-Text 796-805
  Marie-Pierre Pacaux-Lemoine; Serge Debernard
In order to improve capacities and capabilities of human-machine system, interactions between agents are inclined to be more frequent and more complex. Nevertheless, these interactions can not be always developed by verbal activities and must be supported by a media. The contribution of this paper is to propose the concept of common work space which allows agents, human or artificial, to develop cooperative activities. This concept has been implemented and evaluated in the fields of the fighter aircraft.
Keywords: Human-Machine Cooperation; Common Work Space; Simulation
Culture and Communication in the Philippine Aviation Industry BIBAFull-Text 806-813
  Rosemary R. Seva; Alma Maria Jennifer Gutierrez; Henry Been-Lirn Duh
This study aims to characterize the communication patterns of Filipino pilots in the cockpit and assess its adherence to CRM principles of assertiveness, openness, conflict resolution, and communication effectiveness. A survey was administered to 88 participants who are mostly captains and first officers. Filipino captains and first officers generally have the same attitude that corresponds to the principles learned in CRM training on communication and coordination. However, a detailed comparison of the groups' responses showed significant differences in terms of assertiveness, openness, and communication effectiveness. Captains are more articulate in expressing concerns than first officers. However, in terms dealing with crewmembers, first officers are more cautious in phrasing things.
Future Trends in Flight Deck Equipment BIBAKFull-Text 814-823
  Alison Starr; Piet Hoogeboom
This paper discusses work undertaken in the HILAS (Human Integration into the Lifecycle of Aviation Systems) project which has analysed key drivers for change in aviation. The required technological developments and potential technologies that could be introduced to the flight deck to support these changes are elaborated upon, starting from a historical perspective to the development of flight deck technologies.
Keywords: Flight deck technology; trends in aviation; historically development of the flight deck
Evaluation of Process Tracing Technique to Assess Pilot Situation Awareness in Air Combat Missions BIBAKFull-Text 824-833
  Ketut Sulistyawati; Yoon Ping Chui; Yeow Min Tham; Yeow Koon Wee
This paper evaluates a process tracing technique developed to assess pilot Situation Awareness (SA) in air combat missions. Using the tool, the assessment of pilot SA and translation of pilot behavior to an observer assessment form is done through observation and analysis by Subject Matter Experts. The tool is found to impose minimal interruption to the task performance, which is desired from an assessment tool that is to be applied in a highly dynamic environment such as air combat. It is also found to be advantageous in providing comprehensive and detailed information of the dynamic changes in pilot SA and the situation assessment process, as well as the quality of SA acquired. Some problems with the tool are identified and modifications to minimize them are proposed.
Keywords: situation awareness; aviation; air combat; method; process tracing
Analysis of Human Factors Integration Aspects for Aviation Accidents and Incidents BIBAKFull-Text 834-841
  Ruishan Sun; Lei Wang; Ling Zhang
Aviation accidents have been contributed mostly by human factors since commercial flight. So it is a key of improving aviation safety to analyze accidents, incidents and other occurrence through human factors model and make preventing measure. The paper presents an analysis method named EEAM based human factors integration.
Keywords: Human Factors; Aviation Safety; SHEL; HFACS; EEAM
Development and Evaluation of a Multimodal Touchpad for Advanced In-Vehicle Systems BIBAKFull-Text 842-851
  Roman Vilimek; Alf Zimmer
Multimodal interaction can substantially improve human-computer interaction by employing multiple perceptual channels. We report on the development and evaluation of a touchpad with auditory, tactile and visual feedback for in-vehicle applications. In a simulator study, we assessed its suitability for interacting with a menu-based on-board system and investigated the effects of uni-, bi- and trimodal feedback on task and driving performance, workload and visual distraction in comparison to a conventional rotary push-button. In summary our results show that users clearly benefit from additional non-visual feedback while driving. When using the touchpad with multimodal feedback, our subjects also reached a higher level of performance compared to the rotary push-button.
Keywords: Multimodal; haptics; tactile feedback; auditory feedback; driving
An European Approach to the Integrated Management of Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance: Introducing the IMMS BIBAKFull-Text 852-859
  Marie Ward; Nick McDonald
Previous research in aviation maintenance has highlighted the need to understand normal practice in order to advance the potential impact of Human Factors and bring aviation to a new safety level. What to do with this information then is crucial. What is presented here is an approach to do this, to use this information in such a way that it becomes key to safety and process improvement. This approach is currently being developed within the European funded HILAS project.
Keywords: Aviation Maintenance; Human Factors Lifecycle; Operational Process Model
A Research of Speech Signal of Fire Information Display Interface BIBAKFull-Text 860-866
  Liang Zhang; Xianghong Sun; Thomas Plocher
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of speech rate and tune on intelligibility of fire information words and sentences under the conditions with different levels of noise. The result showed that the types of signals and noise levels affect the intelligibility significantly. The appropriate tune for fire information display interface is mezzo-soprano. The appropriate voice rate is 5 characters per second for words display, 7 characters per second for usual sentences display and 6 characters per second for the sentences with numbers display.
Keywords: fire information display interface; speech signal; tune; speech rate; noise occultation
HCI Testing in Flight Simulator: Set Up and Crew Briefing Procedures. Design and Test Cycles for the Future BIBAKFull-Text 867-876
  Rolf Zon; Mariska Roerdink
Within the HILAS flight deck strand a flight simulator experiment was performed. It was the first experiment of a series of two. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate a set of Human Factors tools (toolbox) for measurement of HCI aspects when new technologies are installed on a flight deck. This paper is an informative document that describes the tools and technologies that were applied in that first experiment. The lessons that will be identified from this experiment will be the input for a better and improved Human Factors toolbox which will be evaluated in the second experiment. Eventually this toolbox may be used by authorities and industry as a structured way of measuring HCI aspects of new technologies and applications that may be installed in future flight decks and as such may also be used as a HF certification instrument.
Keywords: HILAS; flight deck; human factors; experiment; flight simulation; HF toolbox; certification