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EICS Tables of Contents: 09101112131415

ACM SIGCHI 2009 Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems
Editors:T. C. Nicholas Graham; Gaëlle Calvary; Philip Gray
Location:Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Dates:2009-Jul-15 to 2009-Jul-17
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-600-5, 978-1-60558-600-7; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: EICS09
Papers:49
Pages:338
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote Talk
  2. Interactive systems architecture 1
  3. Evaluation tools
  4. Tutorial
  5. Support for interactive system engineering
  6. Modelling interaction
  7. Engineering mobile & ubiquitous
  8. Tutorial II
  9. Interactive systems architectures 2
  10. Evaluation in action
  11. Keynote Talk
  12. Improving interaction engineering
  13. Tutorial III
  14. Dynamic generation of interactive systems
  15. Interactive systems architectures 3
  16. Posters
  17. Doctoral consortium

Keynote Talk

Engineering more natural interactive programming systems BIBAKFull-Text 1-2
  Brad A. Myers
We are all familiar with computing systems that are used by developers to create interactive computing systems for others. This includes the languages, libraries, and interactive development environments that we use every day. The Natural Programming Project has been working on tools, techniques and methods for designing and developing these systems, using methods from the HCI and Software Engineering fields. We have performed many studies about the barriers developers face performing their tasks, and people's natural expression of algorithms for new applications. We have created a wide variety of languages, tools and techniques that take advantage of this new knowledge. User studies of these techniques often show a dramatic impact in developer productivity. For example, we studied novice and expert programmers debugging their code, and found that they continuously are asking "Why" and "Why Not" questions, so we developed the "WhyLine" debugging tool which allows programmers to directly ask these questions of their programs and get a visualization of the answers. The Whyline increases productivity by about a factor of two. We studied the usability of APIs, such as the Java SDK, and discovered some common patterns that make programmers up to 10 times slower in finding and using the appropriate methods. This talk will provide an overview of our studies and the resulting designs as part of the Natural Programming project.
Keywords: end-user software engineering

Interactive systems architecture 1

A responsibility-based pattern language for usability-supporting architectural patterns BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Bonnie E. John; Len Bass; Elspeth Golden; Pia Stoll
Usability-supporting architectural patterns (USAPs) were developed as a way to explicitly connect the needs of architecturally-sensitive usability concerns to the design of software architecture. In laboratory studies, the Cancellation USAP was shown to significantly improve the quality of architecture designs for supporting the ability to cancel a long-running command, sparking interest from a large industrial organization to develop new USAPs and apply them to their product line architecture design. The challenges of delivering the architectural information contained in USAPs to practicing software architects led to the development of a pattern language for USAPs based on software responsibilities and a web-based tool for evaluating an architecture with respect to those patterns.
Keywords: software architecture, usability
StateStream: a developer-centric approach towards unifying interaction models and architecture BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  Gerwin de Haan; Frits H. Post
Complex and dynamic interaction behaviors in applications such as Virtual Reality (VR) systems are difficult to design and develop. Reasons for this include the complexity and limitations in specification models and their integration with the underlying architecture, and lack of supporting development tools. In this paper we present our StateStream approach, which uses a dynamic programming language to bridge the gap between the behavioral model descriptions, the underlying VR architecture and customized development tools. Whereas the dynamic language allows full flexibility, the interaction model adds explicit structures for interactive behavior. A dual modeling mechanism is used to capture both discrete and continuous interaction behavior. The models are described and executed in the dynamic language itself, unifying the description of interaction, its execution and the connection with external software components.
   We will highlight the main features of StateStream, and illustrate how the tight integration of interaction model and architecture enables a flexible and open-ended development environment. We will demonstrate the use of StateStream in a prototype system for studying and adapting complex 3D interaction techniques for VR.
Keywords: 3D interaction, model-driven engineering, python, user interface description language
Ontology-based modularization of user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 23-28
  Heiko Paulheim
Modularization is almost the only feasible way of implementing large-scale applications. For user interfaces, interactions involving more than one module generate dependencies between modules. In this paper, we present a framework that uses ontologies for building UIs from independent, loosely coupled modules. In an example scenario, we show how that framework is used to build an application for emergency management.
Keywords: modularity, ontologies, user interfaces
Flexible and efficient platform modeling for distributed interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 29-34
  Xiao Feng Qiu; T. C. Nicholas Graham
Distributed interactive systems often rely on platform information, used for example when migrating a user interface to a small-screen device, or when opportunistically recruiting available peripherals. There has been to-date little work in platform modeling for distributed applications. In this paper, we demonstrate that distributed platform models are well supported by a publish and subscribe architecture accompanied by a rich filtering language. This approach allows organic construction of networks with no centralized locus of control, high scalability and fault-tolerance, and flexible customization to the needs of heterogeneous device types.
Keywords: distributed interactive applications, groupware toolkits, platform model

Evaluation tools

Interaction engineering using the IVY tool BIBAKFull-Text 35-44
  José C. Campos; Michael D. Harrison
This paper is concerned with support for the process of usability engineering. The aim is to use formal techniques to provide a systematic approach that is more traceable, and because it is systematic, repeatable. As a result of this systematic process some of the more subjective aspects of the analysis can be removed. The technique explores exhaustively those features of a specific design that fail to satisfy a set of properties. It also analyzes those aspects of the design where it is possible to quantify the cost of use. The method is illustrated using the example of a medical device. While many aspects of the approach and its tool support have already been discussed elsewhere, this paper builds on and contrasts an analysis of the same device provided by a third party and in so doing enhances the IVY tool.
Keywords: formal methods, model-based usability analysis
Interactive usability instrumentation BIBAKFull-Text 45-54
  Scott Bateman; Carl Gutwin; Nathaniel Osgood; Gordon McCalla
Usage data logged from user interactions can be extremely valuable for evaluating software usability. However, instrumenting software to collect usage data is a time-intensive task that often requires technical expertise as well as an understanding of the usability issues to be explored. We have developed a new technique for software instrumentation that removes the need for programming. Interactive Usability Instrumentation (IUI) allows usability evaluators to work directly with a system's interface to specify what components and what events should be logged. Evaluators are able to create higher-level abstractions on the events they log and are provided with real-time feedback on how events are logged. As a proof of the IUI concept, we have created the UMARA system, an instrumentation system that is enabled by recent advances in aspect-oriented programming. UMARA allows users to instrument software without the need for additional coding, and provides tools for specification, data collection, and data analysis. We report on the use of UMARA in the instrumentation of two large open-source projects; our experiences show that IUI can substantially simplify the process of log-based usability evaluation.
Keywords: aspect-oriented programming, instrumentation, software logging, usability
TnToolkit: a design and analysis tool for ambiguous, QWERTY, and on-screen keypads BIBAKFull-Text 55-60
  Steven J. Castellucci; I. Scott MacKenzie
The pervasive use of ambiguous keypads for mobile text entry necessitates examination of their performance characteristics. This paper presents TnToolkit -- a self contained tool to calculate performance measurements for ambiguous keypads. While TnToolkit's focus is ambiguous keypads, it also works with QWERTY and on screen keypads. By default, TnToolkit predicts words per minute performance based on a traditional Fitts' law model, and calculates KSPC, the average keystrokes required to enter each character of text. Existing modules are extensible to implement custom metrics. An experiment reveals that using TnToolkit to gather performance metrics is 69% faster than existing techniques, without compromising accuracy.
Keywords: ambiguous keypads, keystrokes-per-character, performance measurement, text entry, toolkit, words-per-minute
A GOMSL analysis of semi-automated data entry BIBAKFull-Text 61-66
  Craig Haimson; Justin Grossman
We used GOMSL (Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection Rules Language) to perform computational workflow analyses of two different data entry applications: a fully manual web form client used to update an enterprise-wide knowledge base (already in operational use), and an alternative prototype client that uses content extraction to semi-automate data entry. Our goal was to explore conditions that affect the speed of manual vs. semi-automated data entry, and to quantify expected difference in relative system efficiency across these conditions. We developed GOMSL models for major functionality in both systems and used GLEAN (GOMS Language Evaluation and Analysis) to simulate user interactions with representative data. Based on the results of these simulations, we quantified workflow costs, explored how costs vary across ranges of parameters, and developed overall estimates of relative system efficiency.
Keywords: content extraction, data entry, goms, knowledge base

Tutorial

Bridging the gulf between interaction engineering and human reliability assessment BIBAKFull-Text 67-68
  Michael D. Harrison
The analysis and prediction of potential failure in computer based systems is a particular concern in the development of safety critical systems in domains such as healthcare, nuclear power and aviation. These industries invest substantially to provide arguments for external regulators aimed at improving confidence that a system is reliable. There is an increasing recognition that human aspects of these systems often underlie their vulnerability to failure. Human reliability assessment techniques have therefore been a particular focus for development.
   This short tutorial describes and illustrates techniques for human reliability assessment (HRA). These techniques are compared with interaction, and usability, engineering techniques. HRA techniques are difficult to apply and serious concerns surround their validity. A focus for the tutorial is to discuss whether cross development between the HRA and EICS communities will be of mutual benefit and in particular whether there are techniques used within the EICS community capable of enriching an argument that a system is acceptably reliable. In the context of this discussion there will be a brief illustration of the role that formal techniques might play. The tutorial will finally introduce the recent resilience engineering agenda that replaces a focus on why a system fails by a focus on why a system is resilient to failure.
Keywords: human reliability assessment, interaction engineering

Support for interactive system engineering

A toolkit for peer-to-peer distributed user interfaces: concepts, implementation, and applications BIBAKFull-Text 69-78
  Jérémie Melchior; Donatien Grolaux; Jean Vanderdonckt; Peter Van Roy
In this paper we present a software toolkit for deploying peer-to-peer distributed graphical user interfaces across four dimensions: multiple displays, multiple platforms, multiple operating systems, and multiple users, either independently or concurrently. This toolkit is based on the concept of multi-purpose proxy connected to one or many rendering engines in order to render a graphical user interface in part or whole for any user, any operating system (Linux, Mac OS X and Windows XP or higher), any computing platform (ranging from a pocket PC to a wall screen), and/or any display (ranging from private to public displays). This toolkit is a genuine peer-to-peer solution in that no computing platform is used for a server or for a client: any user interface can be distributed across users, systems, and platforms independently of their location, system constraints, and platform constraints. After defining the toolkit concepts, its implementation is described, motivated, and exemplified on two non-form based user interfaces: a distributed office automation and a distributed interactive game.
Keywords: distributed user interfaces, multi-device environments, multi-platform user interfaces, multi-user user interfaces, peer-to-peer, ubiquitous computing, user interface toolkit
An infrastructure for experience centered agile prototyping of ambient intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 79-84
  José Luís Silva; José C. Campos; Michael D. Harrison
Ubiquitous computing poses new usability challenges that cut across design and development. We are particularly interested in "spaces" enhanced with sensors, public displays and personal devices. How can prototypes be used to explore the user's mobility and interaction, both explicitly and implicitly, to access services within these environments? Because of the potential cost of development and design failure, the characteristics of such systems must be explored using early versions of the system that could disrupt if used in the target environment. Being able to evaluate these systems early in the process is crucial to their successful development. This paper reports on an effort to develop a framework for the rapid prototyping and analysis of ambient intelligence systems.
Keywords: 3D virtual environments, modelling, ubiquitous and context-aware computing
Support for authoring service front-ends BIBAKFull-Text 85-90
  Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro; Lucio Davide Spano
The success of service-oriented computing has important implications on how people develop user interfaces. This paper discusses a method for supporting the development of interactive applications based on the access to services, which can be associated with user interface annotations. In particular, we show how model-based descriptions can be useful for this purpose and the design of an authoring environment for the development of interactive front-ends of applications based on Web services. A prototype of the authoring environment is presented.
Keywords: model-based design, user interface composition, web services

Modelling interaction

Social network analysis and interactive device design analysis BIBAKFull-Text 91-100
  Harold Thimbleby; Patrick Oladimeji
What methods can we use to help understand why users adopt certain use strategies, and how can we evaluate designs to anticipate and perhaps positively modify how users are likely to behave? This paper proposes taking advantage of social network analysis (SNA) to identify features of interaction. There are plausible reasons why SNA should be relevant to interaction programming and design, but we also show that SNA has promise, identifies and explains interesting use phenomena, and can be used effectively on conventionally-programmed interactive devices. Social network analysis is a very rich field, practically and theoretically, and many further forms of application and analysis beyond the promising examples explored in this paper are possible.
Keywords: graph theory, interaction programming, network center, social network analysis
A bisimulation-based approach to the analysis of human-computer interaction BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Sébastien Combéfis; Charles Pecheur
This paper discusses the use of formal methods for analysing human-computer interaction. We focus on the mode confusion problem that arises whenever the user thinks that the system is doing something while it is in fact doing another thing. We consider two kinds of models: the system model describes the actual behaviour of the system and the mental model represents the user's knowledge of the system. The user interface is modelled as a subset of system transitions that the user can control or observe. We formalize a full-control property which holds when a mental model and associated user interface are complete enough to allow proper control of the system. This property can be verified using model-checking techniques on the parallel composition of the two models. We propose a bisimulation-based equivalence relation on the states of the system and show that, if the system satisfies a determinism condition with respect to that equivalence, then minimization modulo that equivalence produces a minimal mental model that allows full-control of the system. We enrich our approach to take operating modes into account. We give experimental results obtained by applying a prototype implementation of the proposed techniques to a simple model of an air-conditioner.
Keywords: bisimulation, formal methods, human-computer interaction (HCI) modelling, mode confusion
Task-based design revisited BIBAKFull-Text 111-116
  Anke Dittmar; Peter Forbrig
This paper investigates the role of task modeling in model-based design. It is shown that task models are mainly used to support a specification-driven design process. Models about current task situations and more specific task descriptions play a marginal role. Task sketching is proposed to complement specification-driven modeling activities. The co-development of representations of current and envisioned practices is encouraged to support a shared design understanding and creativity. A detailed example illustrates basic ideas. Task models are represented in HOPS. Advantages of this specification formalism over conventional task modeling are shown with respect to task sketching. Models can be combined with illustrations, narratives or other design material at different levels of abstraction. Animations of enriched models help to explore the design space.
Keywords: development processes for interactive systems, task modeling, task-based design
Engineering crowd interaction within smart environments BIBAKFull-Text 117-122
  Michael D. Harrison; Mieke Massink; Diego Latella
Smart environments (e.g., airports, hospitals, stadiums, and other physical spaces using ubiquitous computing to empower many mobile people) provide novel challenges for usability engineers. Firstly, interaction can be implicit and therefore unintentional on the part of its users. Secondly, the impact of a smart environment can influence the collective or crowd behavior of those immersed within it. These challenges lead to requirements for complementary analyses which must be combined with the more typical focus on the interaction between user and device. The paper explores a family of stochastic models aimed at analyzing these features with a particular focus on crowd interaction.
Keywords: dynamic signage systems, formal methods, performance evaluation, process algebra, usability analysis

Engineering mobile & ubiquitous

AUGUR: providing context-aware interaction support BIBAKFull-Text 123-132
  Melanie Hartmann; Daniel Schreiber; Max Mühlhäuser
As user interfaces become more and more complex and feature laden, usability tends to decrease. One possibility to counter this effect are intelligent support mechanisms. In this paper, we present AUGUR, a system that provides context-aware interaction support for navigating and entering data in arbitrary form-based web applications. We further report the results of an initial user study we performed to evaluate the usability of such context-aware interaction support.
   AUGUR combines several novel approaches: (i) it considers various context sources for providing interaction support, and (ii) it contains a context store that mimics the user's short-term memory to keep track of the context information that currently influences the user's interactions. AUGUR thereby combines the advantages of the three main approaches for supporting the user's interactions, i.e. knowledge-based systems, learning agents, and end-user programming.
Keywords: context, intelligent user interfaces, task model
FRAP: a framework for pervasive games BIBAKFull-Text 133-142
  Jan-Peter Tutzschke; Olaf Zukunft
In this paper, we describe the design and realization of FRAP, a framework for the construction of pervasive games. With FRAP, we focus on context-aware multi-user chase games that include a strategic component. The game domain is exemplified by the "capture the flag" metaphor. The playing field supported by our framework is a combined virtual and physical world in which the player socially interacts with other players. FRAP provides components for typical tasks like players moving in the world solving challenges, updating the score based on the context of the users, and checking the rules of the game. FRAP is fully implemented on the open handset-platform a.k.a. Google Android. Based on FRAP, a pervasive game called "King of Location" has been constructed using the Android-platform. Through this application, a first evaluation of FRAP has been performed. It shows a significant reduction of time to build a game that follows the "capture the flag" metaphor.
Keywords: context-awareness, distributed systems, framework, pervasive computing, pervasive games, software architectures
Adapting ubicomp software and its evaluation BIBAKFull-Text 143-148
  Malcolm Hall; Marek Bell; Alistair Morrison; Stuart Reeves; Scott Sherwood; Matthew Chalmers
We describe work in progress on tools and infrastructure to support adaptive component-based software for mobile devices 'in our case, Apple iPhones. Our high level aim is 'design for appropriation', i.e. system design for uses and contexts that designers may not be able to fully predict or model in advance. Logs of users' system operation are streamed back in real time to evaluators' data visualisation tools, so that they can assess design problems and opportunities. Evaluators and developers can then create new software components that are sent to the mobile devices. These components are either integrated automatically on the fly, or offered as recommendations for users to accept or reject. By connecting developers, users, and evaluators, we aim to quicken the pace of iterative design so as to improve the process of creating and sustaining contextually fitting software.
Keywords: adaptive evaluation, contextual software, ubiquitous computing
Plug-and-design: embracing mobile devices as part of the design environment BIBAKFull-Text 149-154
  Jan Meskens; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Due to the large amount of mobile devices that continue to appear on the consumer market, mobile user interface design becomes increasingly important. The major issue with many existing mobile user interface design approaches is the time and effort that is needed to deploy a user interface design to the target device. In order to address this issue, we propose the plug-and-design tool that relies on a continuous multi-device mouse pointer to design user interfaces directly on the mobile target device. This will shorten iteration time since designers can continuously test and validate each design action they take. Using our approach, designers can empirically learn the specialities of a target device which will help them while creating user interfaces for devices they are not familiar with.
Keywords: GUI builder, design tools, mobile UI design

Tutorial II

The future of design specification and verification of safety critical interactive systems.: can our systems be sure (safe, usable, reliable and evolvable)? BIBAKFull-Text 155-156
  David Navarre; Philippe Palanque
Designing reliable interactive software is hard, and designing usable reliable interactive software is even harder. Experience shows that many interactive systems exhibit recurring characteristics that require in addition evolvability, assessability and certify-ability especially when safety critical systems are concerned. This tutorial projects into the future previous work we have done over the last 15 years around a Petri nets-based notation and a CASE tool supporting it, for addressing such aspects of interactive software development.
   The course covers the roles formal notations can play in the interactive systems' development process:
  • how they provide complete and unambiguous descriptions of these systems,
  • how they handle system complexity,
  • how they can fit with interactive systems development processes (highly
       iterative)
  • and how they contribute too to the implementation activities. Such elements will be addressed first by providing an historical perspective of formal descriptions techniques in the field of interactive systems and then by focusing on the Interactive Cooperative Objects notation and its CASE tool PetShop.
       The tutorial will also address the new challenges for formal description techniques for interactive systems in order to address on an equal basis various (generally conflicting) properties such as Safety, Usability, Reliability and Evolvability.
       The audience will learn on concrete examples the advantages and drawbacks of using formal description techniques for various kinds of interactive systems including WIMP, post-Wimp and multimodal interaction techniques. The examples will be taken from various industrial domains including cockpits, satellite ground segments and Air Traffic Control.
    Keywords: engineering interactive systems, formal description techniques, human-computer interaction
  • Interactive systems architectures 2

    Toward user interface virtualization: legacy applications and innovative interaction systems BIBFull-Text 157-166
      Guillaume Besacier; Frédéric Vernier
    Edit, inspect and connect your surroundings: a reference framework for meta-UIs BIBAKFull-Text 167-176
      Geert Vanderhulst; Daniel Schreiber; Kris Luyten; Max Muhlhauser; Karin Coninx
    Single-user, desktop-based computer applications are pervasive in our daily lives and work. The prospect of using these applications with innovative interaction systems, like multi-touch tabletops, tangible user interfaces, large displays or public/private displays, would enable large scale field studies of these technologies, and has the potential to significantly improve their usefulness and, in turn, their availability. This paper focuses on the architectural requirements, design, and implementation of such a technology. First, we review various software technologies for using a single-user desktop application with a different model of user inputs and graphical output. We then present a generic technique for using any closed-source or open-source application with different input and output devices. In our approach, the application is separated from the user input and graphical output subsystem. The core part of the application runs in a system-specific virtual environment. This virtual environment exposes the same API as the removed standard subsystems. This eliminates the need to rewrite the "legacy" application and provides high performances by using the application native way to communicate with the system.
    Keywords: legacy applications, novel interaction systems, toolkit

    Evaluation in action

    How usable are operational digital libraries: a usability evaluation of system interactions BIBAKFull-Text 177-186
      Xiangmin Zhang; Jinjing Liu; Yuelin Li; Ying Zhang
    This paper reports a usability evaluation of three operational digital libraries (DLs): the ACM DL, the IEEE Computer Society DL, and the IEEE Xplore DL. An experiment was conducted in a usability lab and 35 participants completed the assigned tasks. The results demonstrate that all three DLs have more or less usability problems by various measures. Searching in Xplore by inexperienced users was problematic, and browsing in IEEE CS was extremely difficult for all users. Interaction design features that caused these usability problems were identified and discussed. The study implies there is still large room for operational DLs to improve in order to provide more satisfactory services.
    Keywords: digital libraries, interaction design, usability testing
    The tradeoff between spatial jitter and latency in pointing tasks BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
      Andriy Pavlovych; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger
    Interactive computing systems frequently use pointing as an input modality, while also supporting other forms of input such as alphanumeric, voice, gesture, and force.
       We focus on pointing and investigate the effects of input device latency and spatial jitter on 2D pointing speed and accuracy. First, we characterize the latency and jitter of several common input devices. Then we present an experiment, based on ISO 9241-9, where we systematically explore combinations of latency and jitter on a desktop mouse to measure how these factors affect human performance. The results indicate that, while latency has a stronger effect on human performance compared to low amounts of spatial jitter, jitter dramatically increases the error rate, roughly inversely proportional to the target size.
       The findings can be used in the design of pointing devices for interactive systems, by providing a guideline for choosing parameters of spatial filtering to compensate for jitter, since stronger filtering typically also increases lag. We also describe target sizes at which error rates start to increase notably, as this is relevant for user interfaces where hand tremor or similar factors play a major role.
    Keywords: fitts' law, jitter, latency, pointing
    Input evaluation of an eye-gaze-guided interface: kalman filter vs. velocity threshold eye movement identification BIBAKFull-Text 197-202
      Do Hyong Koh; Sandeep A. Munikrishne Gowda; Oleg V. Komogortsev
    This paper evaluates the input performance capabilities of Velocity Threshold (I-VT) and Kalman Filter (I-KF) eye movement detection models when employed for eye-gaze-guided interface control. I-VT is a common eye movement identification model employed by the eye tracking community, but it is neither robust nor capable of handling high levels of noise present in the eye position data. Previous research implies that use of a Kalman filter reduces the noise in the eye movement signal and predicts the signal during brief eye movement failures, but the actual performance of I-KF was never evaluated. We evaluated the performance of I-VT and I-KF models using guidelines for ISO 9241 Part 9 standard, which is designed for evaluation of non keyboard/mouse input devices with emphasis on performance, comfort, and effort. Two applications were implemented for the experiment: 1) an accuracy test 2) a photo viewing application specifically designed for eye-gaze-guided control. Twenty-one subjects participated in the evaluation of both models completing a series of tasks. The results indicates that I-KF allowed participants to complete more tasks with shorter completion time while providing higher general comfort, accuracy and operation speeds with easier target selection than the I-VT model. We feel that these results are especially important to the engineers of new assistive technologies and interfaces that employ eye-tracking technology in their design.
    Keywords: eye tracker, human computer interaction, kalman filter, pointing device evaluation
    An empirical comparison of "Wiimote" gun attachments for pointing tasks BIBAKFull-Text 203-208
      Victoria McArthur; Steven J. Castellucci; I. Scott MacKenzie
    We evaluated and compared four input methods using the Nintendo Wii Remote for pointing tasks. The methods used (i) the "A" button on top of the device, (ii) the "B" button on the bottom of the device, (iii) the Intec Wii Combat Shooter attachment and (iv) the Nintendo Wii Zapper attachment. Fitts' throughput for all four input methods was calculated for both button-up and button-down events. Results indicate that the throughput of the Wii Remote using the A button is 2.85 bps for button-down events. Performance with the Intec Wii Combat Shooter attachment was significantly worse than with the other input methods, likely due to the trigger mechanism. Throughput for button-down target selection using the B button was highest at 2.93 bps.
    Keywords: fitts' law, gaming input devices, iso 9241-9, performance evaluation, remote pointing, Wiimote

    Keynote Talk

    Agile methods and interaction design: friend or foe? BIBAKFull-Text 209-210
      Frank Maurer
    Agile methods and interaction design can be seen as incompatible software development methodologies: both suggest processes for creating high-quality software -- one is arguing for quickly moving towards the source code level while the other suggests to wait with implementation activities until the design of the software is clearly laid out from a user's perspective. This apparent discrepancy is surprising given that both approaches put a strong emphasis on human aspects in software development.
       Agile methods focus on creating quality software with high business value but do not explicitly talk about how to ensure that the software is usable -- this is the realm of interaction design. The presentation discusses commonalities and differences between both approaches and points towards integration opportunities: how can agile teams use interaction design approaches to create usable software with high business value.
    Keywords: agile methods, interaction design

    Improving interaction engineering

    A formal approach supporting the comparative predictive assessment of the interruption-tolerance of interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 211-220
      Philippe Palanque; Marco Winckler; Jean-François Ladry; Maurice H. ter Beek; Giorgio Faconti; Mieke Massink
    This paper presents an approach for investigating in a predictive way potential disruptive effects of interruptions on task performance in a multitasking environment. The approach combines previous work in the field of interruption analysis, formal description techniques for interactive systems and stochastic processes to support performance analysis of user activities constrained by the occurrence of interruptions. The approach uses formal description techniques to provide a precise description of user tasks, and both system and interruptions behavior. The detailed mechanism by which systems and interruptions behave is first described using a Petri nets-based formal description technique called Interactive Cooperative Objects (ICO). The use of a formal modeling technique for the description of these three components makes it possible to compare and analyze different interaction techniques. In particular, it allows us to determine which of the system states are most affected by the occurrence of interruptions. Once composed together, models describing the system, user tasks and interruptions behavior are transformed into PEPA models (i.e. Performance Evaluation Process Algebra) that are amenable to performance analysis using the PRISM model checker. The approach is exemplified by a simple example that models two interaction techniques for manipulating icons in a desktop environment.
    Keywords: formal description techniques, human computer interaction, interruptions, model-based approaches, performance evaluation
    Contributing to safety and due diligence in safety-critical interactive systems development by generating and analyzing finite state models BIBAKFull-Text 221-230
      Harold Thimbleby
    Interaction programming bridges the gap between interaction design and programming, but it has not yet been related directly to mainstream user interface development practice. This paper presents UI model discovery tools to enable existing systems and traditional development processes to benefit from interaction programming tools and methods; in particular, to enable checking of safety-critical interaction properties, and to contribute to due diligence practices in safety-critical interactive systems design.
    Keywords: discovery tools, interaction programming, model checking
    Usability recommendations in the design of mixed interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 231-236
      Syrine Charfi; Emmanuel Dubois; Dominique L. Scapin
    Mixed Interactive Systems (MIS) are systems allowing several interaction forms resulting from the fusion between physical and digital worlds. Such systems being relatively new, the underlying design process leading to their design is not entirely defined, particularly in terms of user-centered design. The goal of this paper is to present an approach that attempts to identify, model and integrate available usability knowledge into a user-centered approach for the design of MIS. The approach consisted of: systematic review of the literature on MIS; selection and deciphering of usability recommendations under a common format; classification of the 141 usability recommendations obtained; and application of the recommendations to the design of a MIS case study (museum application).
    Keywords: interaction design, interaction modeling, mixed interactive systems, task modeling, usability recommendations, user-centered design
    User evaluation of OIDE: a rapid prototyping platform for multimodal interaction BIBAKFull-Text 237-242
      Marilyn Rose McGee-Lennon; Andrew Ramsay; David McGookin; Philip Gray
    The Open Interface Development Environment (OIDE) was developed as part of the OpenInterface (OI) platform, an open source framework for the rapid development of multimodal interactive systems. It allows the graphical manipulation of components stored in a structured and rich repository of modalities and interaction techniques. The platform is expected to act as a central tool for an iterative user centred design process for multimodal interactive system design. This paper presents a user study (N=16) designed to explore how the platform was used in practice by multimodal interaction designers and developers.
       Participants were introduced to the features and functionality of the tool via tutorials and then engaged in an open multimodal design exercise. Participants were expected to explore various multimodal solutions to the design scenario using both traditional prototyping tools and the features available to them via the OIDE prototyping tool.
       The workshops were recorded and the interaction and dialogue examined to gather feedback on how the OI tool was used or could be used to support or enhance the design stages of prototyping a multimodal application or interface. The results indicate that the OI platform could be a useful tool to support the early design stages during multimodal interaction design. The tool appeared to promote thinking about and using different modalities. The teams varied in size and composition and this appears to have an effect on how the teams approached the task and exploited the OI prototyping tool. We will offer some guidelines as to how open, rapid prototyping tools such as OIDE can be improved to better support multimodal interaction design.
    Keywords: interaction design, multimodal interaction, open interface, rapid prototyping, user evaluations

    Tutorial III

    Context-aware and mobile interactive systems: the future of user interfaces plasticity BIBAKFull-Text 243-244
      Gaëlle Calvary; Alexandre Demeure
    Mobility and integration of systems into the physical environment are key challenges for computer science. In particular, User Interfaces (UI) must accommodate variations in the context of use while preserving human-centered properties. We call this capacity UI plasticity. This tutorial begins by reviewing ideas from the last decade concerning the plasticity of user interfaces. From this starting point, it develops key ideas and perspectives for the near future. These are illustrated with a demo of a tool for prototyping plastic widgets and UIs.
       In the near future, there will be a need for elaborating a theory of adaptation to predict and explain the difficulties that users encounter when adaptation occurs. Secondly, in order to go beyond simplistic UI adaptation, there will be a need to bring together advances in several research areas including HCI (to support multimodality), Software Engineering (in particular, Model-Driven Engineering, Aspect Oriented Programming, as well as components and services, to cover both design time and run time adaptation), as well as Artificial Intelligence (to support situated information and planning). Indeed, in most current research, the user's task model is assumed as given and is used as the starting point for generating UIs on the fly. In addition, the functional core is considered to be stable rather than compliant with opportunistic discovery of services. In the coming years, we will need to confront challenges that go beyond HCI: (1) incompleteness and uncertainty of the system perception of both the context of use and of the appropriateness of the adapted UI; (2) combinatory explosion when composing a UI for sustaining emergent users goals. Finally, we will need to develop environments (or studios) for UI Plasticity to integrate partial advances, to make the theory operational and to alleviate designers and developers task.
    Keywords: context-aware user interface, plastic user interface, user interface adaptation

    Dynamic generation of interactive systems

    An open source workbench for prototyping multimodal interactions based on off-the-shelf heterogeneous components BIBAKFull-Text 245-254
      Jean-Yves Lionel Lawson; Ahmad-Amr Al-Akkad; Jean Vanderdonckt; Benoit Macq
    In this paper we present an extensible software workbench for supporting the effective and dynamic prototyping of multimodal interactive systems. We hypothesize the construction of such applications to be based on the assembly of several components, namely various and sometimes interchangeable modalities at the input, fusion-fission components, and also several modalities at the output. Successful realization of advanced interactions can benefit from early prototyping and the iterative implementation of design requires the easy integration, combination, replacement, or upgrade of components. We have designed and implemented a thin integration platform able to manage these key elements, and thus provide the research community a tool to bridge the gap of the current support for multimodal applications implementation. The platform is included within a workbench offering visual editors, non-intrusive tools, components and techniques to assemble various modalities provided in different implementation technologies, while keeping a high level of performance of the integrated system.
    Keywords: component-based architecture, multimodal interfaces, multimodal software architecture, prototyping, reusable software component
    Personalizing graphical user interfaces on flexible widget layout BIBAKFull-Text 255-264
      Takuto Yanagida; Hidetoshi Nonaka; Masahito Kurihara
    The authors propose a method for personalizing the flexible widget layout (FWL) by adjusting the desirability of widgets with a pairwise comparison method, and show its implementation and that it actually works. Personalization of graphical user interfaces (GUIs) is important from a perspective of usability, and it is a challenge in the field of model-based user interface designs. The FWL is a model- and optimization-based layout framework of GUIs offering a possibility for personalization, but it has not actually realized it with any concrete method yet. In this paper, the authors implement a method for personalization as a dialog box and incorporate it into the existing system of the FWL; thus, users can personalize layouts generated by the FWL system at run-time.
    Keywords: adaptive user interfaces, flexible widget layouts, fuzzy constraint satisfaction problems, optimization, personalization of graphical user interfaces

    Interactive systems architectures 3

    GT/SD: performance and simplicity in a groupware toolkit BIBAKFull-Text 265-274
      Brian de Alwis; Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
    Many tools exist for developing real-time distributed groupware, but most of these tools focus primarily on the performance of the resulting system, or on simplifying the development process. There is a need, however, for groupware that is both easy to build and that performs well on real-world networks. To better support this combination, we present a new toolkit called GT/SD. It combines new and existing solutions to address the problems of real-world network performance without sacrificing the simple programming approach needed for rapid prototyping. GT/SD builds on the successes of earlier groupware toolkits and game networking libraries, and implements seven ideas that help solve problems of network delay, quality of service, rapid development, flexibility, and testing.
    Keywords: extensibility, groupware, network programming, toolkits
    Fiia: user-centered development of adaptive groupware systems BIBAKFull-Text 275-284
      Christopher Wolfe; T. C. Nicholas Graham; W. Greg Phillips; Banani Roy
    Adaptive groupware systems support changes in users' locations, devices, roles and collaborative structure. Developing such systems is difficult due to the complex distributed systems programming involved. In this paper, we introduce Fiia, a novel architectural style for groupware. Fiia is user-centered, in that it allows easy specification of groupware structured around users' settings, devices and applications, and where adaptations are specified at a high level similar to scenarios. The Fiia.Net toolkit automatically maps Fiia architectures to a wide range of possible distributed systems, under control of an annotation language. Together, these allow developers to work at a high level, while retaining control over distribution choices.
    Keywords: groupware architecture, groupware development toolkit

    Posters

    MundoMonkey: customizing interaction with web applications in interactive spaces BIBAKFull-Text 285-290
      Daniel Schreiber; Melanie Hartmann; Max Mühlhäuser
    We notice an increasing usage of web applications in interactive spaces, a variant of ubiquitous computing environments. Interactive spaces feature a large and dynamically changing number of devices, e.g., an interactive TV set in the living room that is used with different input devices or an iPhone that is dynamically federated to devices in the environment. Web applications need a better way to exploit the resources in the interactive space beyond the standard input devices like mouse and keyboard, e.g., a speech recognition device. This paper presents MundoMonkey a web browser extension and programming API for interactive spaces. The API follows the event based programming paradigm for allowing web applications and end-user scripts to access the interactive space. Our approach aligns well with the commonly used programming style for web applications. We used MundoMonkey to customize the interface of web applications to user preferences and the interactive space at hand. To our knowledge our approach is the first to address adaptation of the output as well as processing of input data. With MundoMonkey the customization is performed transparently to the application developer by the end-user. Thereby, MundoMonkey is an alternative to model driven user interface development approaches.
    Keywords: dynamic generation/composition of interactive systems, end-user programming of interactive systems
    Initial evaluation of a bare-hand interaction technique for large displays using a webcam BIBAKFull-Text 291-296
      Kelvin Cheng; Masahiro Takatsuka
    dTouch is a novel 3D pointing system that allows interaction with large displays from the use of a single webcam. An initial evaluation demonstrating the feasibility of our pointing technique is presented. We compared our prototype with a popular 2D pointing technique, used in the EyeToy game for the PlayStation console, in a usability study. Result shows that the two techniques are comparable, each with its pros and cons. We concluded that it is possible to use our technique and a webcam to allow interaction with large displays. With further development, our technique can serve as a basis for the design of the next generation interactive monocular vision systems, due to the added flexibility to the user's location.
    Keywords: hand pointing, large display interaction, monocular computer vision
    A study of GUI representation based on BIFs for enhanced mobile TV BIBAKFull-Text 297-302
      Hyun-Jeong Yim; Yoon-Chul Choy; Soon-Bum Lim
    Content based interaction is a key factor when creating communications between viewers and content within enhanced mobile TV. However, it is not easy to implement enhanced content, including Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs), in mobile broadcasting environments that are based on Binary Format for Scene (BIFS). Therefore, we designed and implemented a GUI nodes library that can be used for content development and show its prototyped contents, with suggested nodes, on Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB). The results of this study make it easier to present a GUI in data content and enhance the efficiency of content development.
    Keywords: dmb, enhanced data contents, gui, mobile tv, mpeg-4 bifs, node library
    MoLIC designer: towards computational support to hci design with MoLIC BIBAKFull-Text 303-308
      Ugo Braga Sangiorgi; Simone D. J. Barbosa
    MoLIC, a modeling language for designing interaction as a metaphor of conversation, was proposed to allow designers to build a blueprint of all interaction that may take place when the application is used. With the tool presented on this paper, we are willing to address some questions regarding the use of MoLIC when designing interactive applications, while it might serve to raise the critical mass onto Semiotic Engineering among HCI practitioners and researchers. It is composed of a diagram builder, with syntactic verification based on the MoLIC language. It also allows designers to bind goals with interaction paths and helps to compare different design decisions.
    Keywords: interaction design, interaction modeling, semiotic engineering

    Doctoral consortium

    Model-based development of synchronous collaborative user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 309-312
      George Vellis
    This paper undertakes with collaborative software development taking into account requirements emerged from recent progress in technologies relevant to networks and computing devices. Considering this technological breakthrough, especially under the light of the consequently sharply growing online virtual communities, we can deduce that a new substance is given to the software supporting collaborative practices for multiple environments. In such cases, one important aspect to consider is the user interfaces (UIs) design supporting group work appropriately. The results today offer a rich insight to the desired groupware functionality and the features devised to facilitate such functionality (i.e., replication models, object sharing, floor control, etc). On the other hand, very little is known about their capability to facilitate generation of multi-user interfaces to groupware applications. With the advent of model-based user interface engineering, which signifies a move towards transformation-based approaches to generating the user interface, one challenge is bridging across these two perspectives. The current work seeks to contribute to this goal by identifying the type of models needed to capture collaborative behavior in synchronous multiple user interface settings as well as generating the collaborative user interface by making use of suitable platform-oriented architectural models.
    Keywords: model-based ui development, multi-user interfaces, synchronous groupware, user interface description languages (uidl)
    Managing non-native widgets in model-based UI engineering BIBAKFull-Text 313-316
      Dimitrios Kotsalis
    This paper sets out to describe on-going research and development activities aiming to provide new insights to building advanced user interfaces by assembling diverse widgets. To this end, we draw upon the relative merits and drawbacks of the two dominant approaches for developing interactive applications, namely toolkit programming and model-based user interface engineering. We motivate the problem by considering a simple example representative of what toolkit programming may deliver and then contrast its implications on prevailing model-based UI principles and practice. Our analysis reveals the key role of widget abstraction in developing specification-based tools to manage radically different widget sets in a uniform manner. The ultimate goal of this work is to extend MBUI engineering approaches so as to enable them to take account of richer interaction vocabularies becoming increasingly available.
    Keywords: creativity, model-based UI development, specifications, toolkits
    Helping software architects design for usability BIBAKFull-Text 317-320
      Elspeth Golden
    In spite of the goodwill and best efforts of software engineers and usability professionals, systems continue to be built and released with glaring usability flaws that are costly and difficult to fix after the system has been designed and/or built. Although user interface (UI) designers, be they usability or design experts, communicate usability requirements to software development teams, usability features often fail to be implemented as expected. If, as seems likely, software developers intend to implement what UI designers specify and simply do not know how to interpret the architectural ramifications of usability requirements, then Usability-Supporting Architectural Patterns (USAPs) will help to bridge the gap between UI designers and software engineers to produce software architecture solutions that successfully address usability requirements. USAPs achieve this goal by embedding usability concepts in templates that can be used procedurally to guide software engineers' thinking during the complex task of software architecture design. A tool design supports delivery of USAPs to software architects for use in the early stages of the design process.
    Keywords: software architecture, usability
    Semi-automatic multimodal user interface generation BIBAKFull-Text 321-324
      Dominik Ertl
    Multimodal applications are typically developed together with their user interfaces, leading to a tight coupling. Additionally, human-computer interaction is often less considered. This potentially results in a worse user interface when additional modalities have to be integrated and/or the application shall be developed for a different device. A promising way of creating multimodal user interfaces with less effort for applications running on several devices is semi-automatic generation. This work shows the generation of multimodal interfaces where a discourse model is transformed to different automatically rendered modalities. It supports loose coupling of the design of human-computer interaction and the integration of specific modalities. The presented communication platform utilizes this transformation process. It allows for high-level integration of input like speech, hand gesture and a WIMP-UI. The generation of output is possible with the modalities speech and GUI. Integration of other input and output modalities is supported as well. Furthermore, the platform is applicable for several applications as well as different devices, e.g., PDAs and PCs.
    Keywords: discourse, model transformation, multimodal ui generation
    Model-driven approach for user interface: business alignment BIBAKFull-Text 325-328
      Kênia Sousa
    Organizations that adopt Business Process (BP) modeling as a source to implement enterprise systems struggle to maintain such a link. However, not all types of organizations are structured for professionals to adequately manage processes and supporting systems. Even though there are techniques to align business processes and systems, there lacks a solution that addresses User Interfaces (UI). The negative impact of focusing only on functional aspects is that many changes on processes that affect UIs are not carefully considered. Therefore, our solution aims at aligning business processes with UIs by adopting a model-driven approach. Such support is targeted at large organizations to enable them to manage those links.
    Keywords: business process modeling, model-driven engineering, requirements engineering, user-centered design
    Adding flexibility in the model-driven engineering of user interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 329-332
      Nathalie Aquino
    Model-based user interface (UI) development environments are aimed at generating one or many UIs from a single model or a family of models. Model-driven engineering (MDE) of UIs is assumed to be superior to those environments since they make the UI design knowledge visible, explicit, and external, for instance as model-to-model transformations and model-to-code compilation rules. These transformations and rules are often considered inflexible, complex to express, and hard to develop by UI designers and developers who are not necessarily experts in MDE. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this work introduces the concept of transformation profile that consists of two definitions: model mappings, which connect source and target models in a flexible way, and transformation templates, which gather high-level parameters to apply to transformations. This work applies these concepts in a general-purpose method for MDE of information systems. Transformation profiles can be effectively and efficiently used in any circumstances in which transformation knowledge needs to be modified by non-experts, and flexibility, modifiability, and customization are required.
    Keywords: model transformation, model-driven engineering, profile, template, user interface
    High level data fusion on a multimodal interactive application platform BIBAKFull-Text 333-336
      Hildeberto Mendonça
    This research aims to propose a multimodal fusion framework for high-level data integration between two or more modalities. It takes as input extracted low level features from different system devices, analyzes and identifies intrinsic meanings in these data through dedicated processes running in parallel. Extracted meanings are mutually compared to identify complementarities, ambiguities and inconsistencies to better understand the user intention when interacting with the system. The whole fusion lifecycle will be described and evaluated in an ambient intelligence scenario, where two co-workers interact by voice and movements, demonstrating their intentions and the system gives advices according to identified needs.
    Keywords: ambient intelligence, context-sensitive interaction, multimodal fusion, speech recognition