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EHAWC Tables of Contents: 070911

EHAWC 2011: Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers 2011-07-09

Fullname:EHAWC 2011: Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers
Note:Volume 19 of HCI International 2011
Editors:Michelle M. Robertson
Location:Orlando, Florida
Dates:2011-Jul-09 to 2011-Jul-14
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 6779
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-21715-9 (print), 978-3-642-21716-6 (online); hcibib: EHAWC11
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Quality of Working Life
  2. Health and Well-Being
  3. Interactive Devices and Interfaces

Quality of Working Life

New Ways of Working: A Proposed Framework and Literature Review BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Merle Blok; Liesbeth Groenesteijn; Christiaan van den Berg; Peter Vink
The drive towards new ways of working is of great relevance to our modern world. Many companies and organizations have introduced aspects of this new approach in recent years, while many others are on the verge of doing so. The new way of working consists of a large variety of measures enabling flexibility in time and place Expectations are often high: those who embrace such innovations aim to reduce operating costs and create more productive employees. However, it is worth asking whether these expectations are realistic. To date, very little research has been done on how the introduction of new ways of working affects operational objectives. This article is aimed to provide an overview of the available knowledge of the effects of the new way of working concept through scientific research and by developing a clearly defined framework. Some of the most important findings are outlined.
Keywords: New way of working; flexible working; telecommuting; teleworking; home working; activity related work; social ICT; flexible office environment
Beyond the Technology Acceptance Model: Elements to Validate the Human-Technology Symbiosis Model BIBAKFull-Text 13-21
  Eric Brangier; Sonia Hammes-Adelé
This chapter forms part of an area of research on the Human-Technology-Organisation relationship. This research has emphasised the emergence of closely linked, intense and symbiotic forms of activity in workplaces and at home. Despite the relevance of the "Technology Acceptance Model", the use of technology doesn't always depend on "perceived usefulness" and "perceived usability", but on the level to which a process of human-machine symbiosis has developed. Based on a survey of 482 respondents we examine this technosymbiosis on three dimensions: (a) a sense of control; (b) the benefit of human-machine mutual adaptation; and (c) the perception of utility. We show that the use of a new technology is correlated with a high level of technosymbiosis, i.e. correlated with these three elements. Finally, the link between these dimensions and the use of technology is established. This validation is based on the correlation between the average score of the rating of attitudes in a questionnaire and the number of technologies the respondents reported using (r = .597, p <.0001). In addition, these three dimensions explain for 35% of the variance (adjusted R² = .355) in the use of technology.
Keywords: Technosymbiosis; Neosymbiosis; Technology Acceptance; Human-technology relationship
The Interaction Effect of Posture and Psychological Stress on Neck-Shoulder Muscle Activity in Typing: A Pilot Study BIBAKFull-Text 22-29
  Wei-Ying Chou; Bi-Hui Chen; Wen-Ko Chiou
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are common among computer users, especially involving the neck and shoulder region. Previous studies showed subjects with neck pain had altered muscle recruitment patterns that persisted throughout the sustained computing task. Moreover, some studies reported that working posture and psychological stress also influence muscle recruitment. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction effect of working posture and psychological stress on muscle activity. Fourteen subjects (7 neck pain subjects and 7 healthy subjects) were recruited in this study. This study designated two working postures (upright sitting posture/ backward sitting posture) and two levels of psychological stress (standard typing task/ stressful typing task), and used surface EMG to collect the muscle activity of the upper trapezius and cervical erector spinae during a10-min typing process. Results showed psychological stress trends to increase the muscle activity, while a backward sitting posture trends to decrease muscle activity. Considering the busy and stressful life in modern lifestyle, this study suggests subjects with neck pain should maintain a backward sitting posture during computer use.
Keywords: Neck pain; Typing task; EMG; Working posture; Psychological stress
Management Standardization Versus Quality of Working Life BIBAKFull-Text 30-39
  Przemyslaw Drozyner; Pawel Mikolajczak; Jaroslaw Szuszkiewicz; Malgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek
In the paper there was defined notion of "quality of working life", starting from the definition included in the ISO90000 norm. The results of employees' satisfaction survey carried out in the following three years in the company having the integrated management system (ISO 9k, ISO 14k, ISO 18k & SA 8000) have been presented. The statistical analysis of the obtained results was carried out and the employees' satisfaction assessment method was proposed. The global assessment coefficients, variance analysis between groups of the employees, assessments correlation analysis and trend coefficient of changes received on the basis of the regression model were taken into account.
Keywords: quality; working life; statistical analysis; management systems
Human-Computer Interaction in Office Work: Evaluation of Interaction Patterns Using Office Equipment and Software during Data Entry and Navigation BIBAKFull-Text 40-48
  Ernesto Filgueiras; Francisco Rebelo; Fernando Moreira da Silva
This paper presents a study which objective was to investigate the human interaction with the equipment of an office workstation (mouse, keyboard, monitor, paper sheets, pens and calculator) during the activities of reading, writing, data entry and navigation in a computer system for long periods of time and with ecological validation. A sample of 22800 observations, which corresponds to 760 work-hours of 30 office workers, was classified into sixteen Interaction's Categories (IC). The results show that the participants read on the monitor more than on paper and they had a larger use of the mouse instead of the keyboard. Findings of this study allow suggesting what graphical interface designers must seek for new strategies and solutions to reduce the mouse need, exploring other peripherals as keyboard or voice recognition devices; or, at least, diminishing the amplitude of movement with the mouse during the interaction with office's software like the Microsoft® Office 2003.
Keywords: Office workers product interaction; Ergonomics procedures; Observations methods; Video display terminal
Preventive and Pro-active Ergonomics Influence on Maintenance Excellence Level BIBAKFull-Text 49-58
  Malgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek; Przemyslaw Drozyner
The equipment maintenance is an indispensable function in a manufacturing enterprise [1]. The role of maintenance is to reduce business risks in a cost effective manner. Thus achieving excellence in maintenance issues has to be treated as a strategic issue for manufacturing organizations to create world-class-manufacturers (WCM) [2]. In the following papers, the examples of activities realized to achieve excellence in maintenance area in two large companies working in food industry, especially in terms of their ergonomics, safety and employees' health.
Keywords: maintenance excellence; ergonomics; safety; health of employees
Effects of Meeting Room Interior Design on Team Performance in a Creativity Task BIBAKFull-Text 59-67
  Elsbeth de Korte; Lottie Kuijt; Rick van der Kleij
This study examines the effects of spatial characteristics of meeting rooms on the divergent phase in the creativity process of a group and on the mood states arousal and psychological safety. Thirty participants (12 male and 18 female) were randomly allocated to 10 mixed-gender three-person groups. They performed two creativity tasks in three different rooms: neutral, with high arousal and with high psychological safety. Overall impression of the meeting room interiors, psychological safety, arousal and creative performance were measured with questionnaires. HRV was used as physiological measure. Results showed that physical space affected arousal and the impression of the meeting rooms. HRV appeared to be a good predictor for arousal. A relation was found between HRV and idea originality. An interaction effect between meeting room interior and task was found. It may be concluded that the meeting room interior has to be adapted to the type of creativity task to gain optimal results.
Keywords: New ways of working; meeting room; innovation spaces; team performance; creativity; mood; arousal; psychological safety; heart rate variability
LED Office Lighting to Promote Performance and Well-Being BIBAKFull-Text 68-77
  Katrin Moeller; Vincent Grote; Katharina Keller; Dieter Lorenz; Maximilian Moser; Tran Quoc Khanh
This paper aims to introduce a research project to investigate and compare the effect of dynamic lighting on people for different light sources in an office setting. Basic differences of short term effects on human between static and dynamic lighting as well as light-emitting diodes (LED) and fluorescent lamps will be investigated in a laboratory study. Two identical rooms will be set up, with the light source LED and fluorescent lamp being the only difference. Four different dynamic sequences will be compared for each light source. Therefore eight lighting situations will be investigated. Long-term effects will be investigated within a field study of one year. To study the impact of dynamic lighting on performance and well-being different methods will be used as questionnaires, tests and the collection of physical data, especially heart rate variability.
Keywords: lighting; office; dynamic; LED; heart rate variability; well-being
Is the Presence of a Companion Animal Dog Beneficial for Computer Operators? BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Rie Takeshima; Iiji Ogawa
This research was conducted to assess whether workers' social facilitation-inhibition could be evoked by introducing a companion animal dog into the workplace or not. The experiments were carried out with three kinds of work conditions: working alone, presence of a person, and presence of a dog. There were two different discrimination tasks using PC. During each task performance, participants' response times and the number of errors were measured to investigate their performance. Also, workers' Heart Rates and Oxidation-Reduction Potentials of Saliva were measured to monitor their physiological changes. Before/after each performance, their emotional states, as defined by the Profile of Mood States questionnaire, were measured. The results suggest that for complex tasks, a companion animal can produce inhibition effects. However, the results also suggest that for more complex and difficult tasks, the presence of a familiar companion animal dog might produce facilitation effects.
Keywords: companion animal dog; social facilitation and inhibition; task performance; physiological changes
Analysis on Flight Fatigue Risk and the Systematic Solution BIBAKFull-Text 88-96
  Lei Wang; Ruishan Sun
The aim of this study was trying to analyze flight fatigue risks and find out a systematic solution for risk controlling. Firstly the model of Human Information Processing was introduced to analyze fatigue manifestations and risks in flight operation. Secondly causes leading to flight fatigue were specified from the 4 aspects of personal, organizational and social factors. Thirdly a framework of controlling flight fatigue risk was put forward in the systematic perspective. The framework contains three levels which are Fatigue Contributing Factor Level, Fatigue Measurement Level and Fatigue Prevention Countermeasure Level. Then a Fatigue Measurement and Warning System was worked out as a case study. Finally it concluded that flight fatigue is an important and long-term issue in aviation transportation industry, the systematic solution proposed in this paper is effective but there is a long way to go for implementing it.
Keywords: flight fatigue; risk; fatigue measurement

Health and Well-Being

Healthcare and Security: Understanding and Evaluating the Risks BIBAKFull-Text 99-108
  Aubrey Baker; Laurian C. Vega; Tom DeHart; Steve Harrison
Part of the job of healthcare providers is to manage client information. Most is routine, but some is sensitive. For these reasons physicians' offices provide a rich environment for understanding complex, sensitive information management issues as they pertain to privacy and security. In this paper we present findings from interviews and observations of 19 physician's offices in rural-serving southwest Virginia. Our work presents examples of what might be labeled as security violations. In particular, we found that the tensions between work practice and security, and between electronic and paper records, resulted in issues that need broader discussion in relation to the role of the social in the management of patient information.
Keywords: Healthcare; security; usable security; privacy; work practice
The Disability-Simulator: Simulating the Influences of Disabilities on the Usability of Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 109-118
  Kai Breiner; Tobias Wüchner; Malte Brunnlieb
Today's software systems and especially graphical user interfaces are mostly designed to fit to the needs of an ideal target audience -- most often purely focusing on young, physically and mentally healthy persons. Not even the development of tailored (e.g. to elderly people) user interfaces but also the testing is a challenging task, because a large set of test persons suffering from specific impairments needs to be recruited which in practice often is unfeasible and the reason for statistically insignificant results. But software systems and their graphical user interfaces have to be designed to cope with the special needs of also handicapped persons. In this paper we introduce a method to support the target oriented design process and evaluation of such graphical user interfaces by simulating specific disabilities and typical impairments. Therefore we emulate the influences of such impairments on the performance while using any graphical user interfaces by applying specific filter algorithms on the target interface. This enables evaluations of the GUI under realistic conditions without being forced to actually involve real impaired participants.
Keywords: Disability Simulator; Impairment Simulator; Usability Test Tool
Advancing Critical Care in the ICU: A Human-Centered Biomedical Data Visualization Systems BIBAKFull-Text 119-128
  Anthony Faiola; Christine M. Newlon
The purpose of this research is to provide medical clinicians with a new technology for interpreting large and diverse datasets to expedite critical care decision-making in the ICU. We refer to this technology as the medical information visualization assistant (MIVA). MIVA delivers multivariate biometric (bedside) data via a visualization display by transforming and organizing it into temporal resolutions that can provide contextual knowledge to clinicians. The result is a spatial organization of multiple datasets that allows rapid analysis and interpretation of trends. Findings from the usability study of the MIVA static prototype and heuristic inspection of the dynamic prototype suggest that using MIVA can yield faster and more accurate results. Furthermore, comments from the majority of the experimental group and the heuristic inspectors indicate that MIVA can facilitate clinical task flow in context-dependent health care settings.
Keywords: Biomedical data visualization; human-computer interaction; health care; health information technology; interface design
A Comparative Study of Children's eHealth Design between East and West: A Case Study of Children's Health Websites in China, Taiwan, the UK, and the US BIBAKFull-Text 129-138
  Yah-Ling Hung; Catherine Stones
A good developing model of children's health could reduce health care costs and improve quality of life across the children life span. What are the key communication issues and technology concerns involved in the design of children's health websites? When parents evaluate a children health website, they always have some concerns: Is the health information credible? Is the interpretation clear and adequate? Is the media application suitable? Is the interface design user-friendly? With recent advances in computer technology, its impact on health communication is continually increasing. However, how to design an effective children's health website to enhance parents' cognition, to promote their active processing, and to increase their interaction frequency, is still very much a question that remains unanswered. This research was implemented in three stages. Firstly, the Chinese keywords,"兒童保健網" and the English keywords, "children's health website" were entered into Google to search for the 20 most popular Chinese and English-speaking websites. Secondly, existing literature was reviewed to ascertain the critical category and evaluation guidelines for designing children's eHealth. Thirdly and finally, a selection of these websites from China, Taiwan, the UK, and the US were evaluated by using a content analysis methodology, applying the criteria developed from the literature review. This study finds that in terms of information design, credibility is better presented in the West than in the East, whereas users' needs are better presented in the East than in the West. In terms of multimedia design, demonstrations and humanity are better presented in the West than in the East, and the segmentation of demonstrations is valued by both the East and the West. In terms of interface design, the West presents a better appearance than the East, and methodology is valued by both the East and the West.
Keywords: eHealth Evaluation; Information Design; Multimedia Design; Interface Design
Visually Exploring Multivariate Trends in Patient Cohorts Using Animated Scatter Plots BIBAKFull-Text 139-148
  Alexander Rind; Wolfgang Aigner; Silvia Miksch; Sylvia Wiltner; Margit Pohl; Felix Drexler; Barbara Neubauer; Nikolaus Suchy
The effectiveness of animation in visualization is an interesting research topic that led to contradicting results in the past. On top of that, we are facing three additional challenges when exploring patient cohorts: irregular sampling, data wear, and data sets covering different portions of time. We present TimeRider, an improved animated scatter plot for cohorts of diabetes patients that tackles these challenges along with its evaluation with physicians. Results show that animation does support physicians in their work and provide further domain-specific evidence in the discussion on the effectiveness of animation.
Keywords: Information Visualization; animation; time; medical data
Emerging Triage Support Environment for Dementia Care with Camera System BIBAKFull-Text 149-158
  Taro Sugihara; Tsutomu Fujinami
This study proposes a new concept called a Triage Support Environment based on the authors' research at three care homes. We believe that this study will help develop information and communication technology (ICT) systems for caring for people with dementia (PWD). We installed a video monitoring system for caregivers in three homes and observed the positive and negative effects of applying the system to caregiving. In terms of positive effects, the video monitoring system enabled caregivers to optimize their work and helped them concentrate on their tasks at hand, reducing both mental and physical stresses. On the other hand, some caregivers expressed concerns over being watched by other caregivers through the monitor, especially when their activities were recorded. We discuss these issues and explain how the concept of a Triage Support Environment may lead to a solution for these problems.
Keywords: triage; group home; persons with dementia; camera system
Nonvisual Effects of Led Coloured Ambient Lighting on Well-Being and Cardiac Reactivity: Preliminary Findings BIBAKFull-Text 159-167
  Michel Varkevisser; Roy J. E. M. Raymann; David V. Keyson
This study examined the immediate nonvisual effects of ambient lighting colours and illuminance on momentary wellbeing and physiology during daytime. As reported in recent literature, the effects of lighting extend beyond comfort and safety issues. Illuminance level and ambient colours appear to have differing effects on perception and to some degree on physiological parameters. In the present study, LED lighting was used in a mock-up office to expose 37 participants to two levels of illuminance, being 45 lx and 195 lx on the eye, and four ambient colour combinations, being Red-Green, Red-Blue, Green-Blue, Red-Green-Blue. Overall, the results showed interactions between lighting condition and illuminance levels on the currently investigated subjective and objective parameters. The expected arousing impact of colour combinations with a blue component was only partially observed in the current study. The results may have implications for future office design in which coloured lighting takes a central role.
Keywords: Nonvisual effects; LED; illuminance; colour lighting; well-being; cardiac reactivity
Note: Best Paper Award

Interactive Devices and Interfaces

The Effect of Vibrotactile Feedback on Novice Older Adults in Target Selection Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 171-179
  Bora Üzüm; Mehmet Göktürk
In this study, older adults are examined as computer users, their characteristics and problems they are facing with computer systems are described; utilization of vibrotactile feedback mouse in graphical user interfaces is proposed to enhance their computer usability experience. An original Fitts experiment variation with 9 participants (mean age 69.67), who are novice computer users without any health related issues which may interfere with performance, has been done and the results of 2880 trials were analyzed. Results indicated that in vibrotactile mode, subjects completed the tasks faster (60%) and increased their target selection performances measured by Fitts' index of performance (43%, p<0.05).
Keywords: Human computer interaction; older adults; Fitts' Law; vibrotactile feedback
Multi-Resolution-Display System for Virtual Reality Setups BIBAKFull-Text 180-189
  Jürgen Grüninger; Hilko Hoffmann; Uwe Kloos; Jens Krüger
Most large-area video projection systems offer only limited spacial resolution. Consequently, images of detailed scenery cannot be displayed at full fidelity. A possible but significantly more costly strategy is a tiled projection display. If this solution is not feasible then either aliasing occurs or some anti-aliasing method is used at the cost of reduced scene quality.
   In this paper we describe a novel cost effective multi-resolution display system. It allows users to select any part of a stereoscopic projection and view it in significantly higher resolution than possible with the standard projection alone. To achieve this, a pair of video projectors, which can be moved by stepper motors, project a high-resolution inset into a small portion of the low-resolution image. To avoid crosstalk between the low and high resolution projections, a mask is rendered into the low resolution scene to black out the area on the screen that is covered by the inlay.
   To demonstrate the effectiveness of our multi-resolution display setup it has been integrated into a number of real life scenarios: a virtual factory, an airplane cabin simulation, and a focus and context volume visualization application (see Figure [1]).
Keywords: projection; virtual reality; multi-resolution
Alternative Workstations May Be New But Are They Better? BIBAKFull-Text 190-198
  Alan Hedge
An ergonomics survey of 84 employees who moved to an alternative workspace with smaller workstations equipped with various ergonomic products is reported. Half of the employees received some ergonomics training. Results showed that 25-40% reported the ergonomic products were somewhat or much less comfortable to use, and around the same proportion found them somewhat or much more comfortable to use. Between 25-40% of employees reported frequent neck, shoulder, back and right wrist discomfort and many reported that these symptoms interfered with work activities. There was clear evidence that levels of discomfort increased over the course of the work day. Employees were equally split on whether the office changes helped or hindered their work productivity. Comparison of the trained versus untrained employees showed that training reduced the problems associated with their new workstations. Overall, the results suggest that ergonomic products alone may not compensate for problems associated with smaller workstations.
Keywords: ergonomics training; alternative workspaces; musculoskeletal injuries; keyboard tray; ergonomic chair; productivity
Improving the Online Video Chat Experience BIBAKFull-Text 199-208
  Asim Kadav; Chelsea Wanta; Nai-Wen Claire Yu; Kyung Lee; Enid N. H. Montague
With the recent proliferation of netbooks and tablets with webcams transforming oneself virtually is easier than ever before. However, the software used for such devices like video chat programs and online role playing do little to enhance the connectedness of the users involved. In this paper, we present Touch Live Connect (TLC), a product concept for an enhanced video chat experience that is aimed towards improving the online shared experience. TLC enhances the online experience by enabling people to do activities together in video mode. Users watch online videos together, transform to different backgrounds and also perform multi-way chat. TLC can also detect user motions and appropriately enhance the environment of the chat. This helps people emulate the face to face experience beyond just chatting and makes them feel connected. We developed three prototypes of the product concept and tested them on sets of users, and conclude that (1) Users feel more connected by sharing experiences rather than just seeing visual representation of self, (2) Amplification of human gestures over video is an important feature to improve video communication and (3) Users find a handheld tablet as most useful device for video communication and television as least useful.
Keywords: Online collaboration; sharing; virtual relationships; video chat
DeskTop: A Design Guideline to Creating a Multi-touch Desk Prototype BIBAKFull-Text 209-217
  Jerome McClendon; Joshua I. Ekandem; Austen L. Hayes; Amy Catherine Ulinski; Larry F. Hodges
In many multi-touch tables, a projector is used to project an image onto the surface and a camera is used to detect user touches. The optical paths for both the camera and projector limits the physical design of multi-touch tables. Our research focuses on the creation of a multi-touch desk that improves on the physical design of past multi-touch tables by using a combination of multiple cameras and a liquid crystal display to create a physical design that is ergonomic, mobile, collaborative/scalable and simplistic in design.
Keywords: Multi-touch tables; Ergonomic design
Changing Color over Time BIBAKFull-Text 218-225
  Dragan Sekulovski; Ingrid Vogels; Ramon Clout; Malgorzata Perz
The revolution in lighting we are experiencing goes beyond the basic capabilities of the light sources used and has enabled new ways of improving the overall experience of both lighting and displays. However, specifics of LEDs, the technical driving force behind the revolution, also introduce new challenges. One of those challenges is the temporal control of full-color light systems. In this work we explore the properties of human color vision relevant to the generation of pleasant dynamic light effects. We show that the spatial models of color are unsuitable for predicting temporal phenomena and give steps towards building a new, temporal model.
Keywords: dynamic light; color vision; smoothness perception; flicker perception; chromatic flicker; peripheral vision; preferred color path
SmartHeliosity: Emotional Ergonomics through Coloured Light BIBAKFull-Text 226-235
  Oliver Stefani; Milind Mahale; Achim Pross; Matthias Bues
In this paper we present research activities on the interaction between light and human emotion. We describe the SmartHeliosity prototype which evaluates human emotions to provide appropriate coloured light in order to enhance emotional wellbeing within the working environment. We present technical specifications, colour concepts to provoke certain emotions and user feedback to the prototype system.
Keywords: Adaptive light; coloured light; emotion; face detection
All in Hand Keyboard Designing and Researching Based on Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 236-243
  Zhenya Wang; Heshan Liu; Song Hao; Yandong Wang
Traditional keyboard can easily cause discomforts, keeping hands and arms under constant strains, especially when people have to work on computers for a long time. For that reason, some companies have introduced types of ergonomic keyboards. However the problem of straightening the wrists and arms has not been solved. Combining the ancient oriental's Buddhism Mudras and Chinese finger calculation method, we proposed a new keyboard operating mode. This kind of keyboard could be worn on fingers, and every finger prominence represents a letter input button. The information could be input by touching the special keyboard material which could transfer perceive and record press signals in position magnitude and direction. In addition, the design of number keyboard and mouse integration was also analyzed and discussed in this paper.
Keywords: keyboard design; ergonomics; input device; finger calculation method