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EHAWC Tables of Contents: 070911

EHAWC 2009: Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers 2009-07-19

Fullname:EHAWC 2009: Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers
Note:Volume 15 of HCI International 2009
Editors:Ben-Tzion Karsh
Location:San Diego, California
Dates:2009-Jul-19 to 2009-Jul-24
Publisher:Springer-Verlag
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5624
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-642-02730-7 (print), 978-3-642-02731-4 (online); hcibib: EHAWC09
Papers:33
Pages:285
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Ergonomics and Health in the Workplace
  2. New Trends in Ergonomics
  3. Interaction Devices and Environments

Ergonomics and Health in the Workplace

Effects of the Workplace Game: A Case-Study into Anticipating Future Behavior of Office Workers BIBAKFull-Text 3-12
  Annelise de Jong; Merlijn Kouprie; Evi De Bruyne
This paper describes the evaluation of the Workplace Game regarding the type of information that it provides. The Workplace Game is intended to make employees aware of the changes in the office and the implications thereof on their behaviour and way of working. The game might also be helpful for designers or architects of future flexible offices. To find out what type of information the game provides and if the information can be of use for designers the game was evaluated in an observational study of two playing sessions. The study showed that the Workplace Game stimulates employees to talk about their behaviour. The game makes players talk about their future work behaviour by eliciting information about their present work behaviour. However, the game needs adaptation to provide directions for designing future flexible offices. Recommendations how the game can be made helpful to designers of future flexible offices are discussed.
Keywords: flexible office; participatory design game; empathic design; user experience; office layout; innovative office design; office behaviour
Management Support and Worksite Health Promotion Program Effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 13-22
  David M. DeJoy; Heather M. Bowen; Kristin M. Baker; Bethany H. Bynum; Mark G. Wilson; Ron Z. Goetzel; Rod K. Dishman
The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and use of management support measures in two worksite health promotion intervention trials. Results from the two intervention trials suggest that management support for health promotion can be assessed and tracked over time using both perceptual and observational measures. These results also provide initial evidence that an increase in management support can contribute to positive changes in health related behaviors and outcomes. Specifically, longitudinal results from the two studies suggest that interventions designed to increase management support for health promotion resulted in changes in perceptions of management support, actual changes in the work and organizational environment. Preliminary results in these studies also suggest that increased management support is important in weight loss.
Keywords: health promotion; management support; organizational climate; workplace; worksite
Usage of Office Chair Adjustments and Controls by Workers Having Shared and Owned Work Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 23-28
  Liesbeth Groenesteijn; Merle Blok; Margriet Formanoy; Elsbeth de Korte; Peter Vink
In this study two seats were used by workers having shared and workers having owned work spaces. 51 subjects (22 female, 29 male) participated in a six week experiment in a naturalistic setting. The chairs were different with respect to adjustability options, design of controls and external design. Most of the subjects adjusted the office chairs the first time for seat height, arm rest height and back rest inclination. Adjustment times of seat height and armrest height were shorter for chair A. Back rest pressure adjustment takes much time and it is difficult to adjust this without instruction. The workers having shared desks adjust their chair more often and are faster in the adjustment of the backrest pressure compared with workers with an owned work space. The quality of adjustments of seat height, arm rest and back rest pressure was improved by an instruction for 32% of the subjects.
Keywords: office chair; shared workspace; chair controls; adjustment time
Health Promoting Leadership: The Mediating Role of an Organizational Health Culture BIBAFull-Text 29-38
  Jochen Gurt; Gabriele Elke
Drawing from the findings within the safety literature, the present study identifies the effects of leadership on an organizational health culture and strain. The importance of leadership for the development of a corporate health culture is demonstrated as well as the positive effect of health culture on employee strain level. Empirical data from a longitudinal study in the German tax administration is presented. Leadership has a positive impact on the development of a corporate health culture, which in turn reduces employees' strain level. Discussion addresses the similarities of health and safety leadership regarding effects and mediating processes.
Increasing Information Worker Productivity through Information Work Infrastructure BIBAKFull-Text 39-48
  Udo-Ernst Haner; Jörg Kelter; Wilhelm Bauer; Stefan Rief
Deploying high-quality information work infrastructure leads to higher productivity levels of information workers, findings from empirical research show. Different types of information workers use different sets of technologies and devices. Knowledge workers with a high degree of autonomy depend on mobile and flexible work infrastructure. The OFFICE21® Information Worker's Workplace supports productive information work.
Keywords: information work; knowledge work; productivity; workplace; work infrastructure; technology profile; information and communication technology
Merging Virtual and Real Worlds -- Holistic Concepts for the Office of the Future BIBAKFull-Text 49-55
  Hermann Hartenthaler
Information, communication, media, building and security technologies are growing together. The key to the integration of all infrastructure systems is the use of IP in all technical systems. The real and the virtual worlds are merging. This means that the real world around us and the world of IT systems are connected to one another. This paper shows how these concepts can be implemented in an innovative office infrastructure to increase the efficiency in the office.
Keywords: Virtual and Real World; All-IP; Office of the Future; Location-based Services; Building Automation
The Relationship between Working Conditions and Musculoskeletal/Ergonomic Disorders in a Manufacturing Facility -- A Longitudinal Research Study BIBAKFull-Text 56-60
  Dennis R. Jones
I have done research on the relationship between working conditions and musculoskeletal/ergonomic disorders in a manufacturing facility. I believe that the biomechanical and psychosocial aspects of work have a significant influence on the individual worker's health and well-being. The work organization at which I have evaluated the employee's health and well-being and collected a large amount of data; which I have analyzed; is at a large manufacturing facility. This research is based upon the Balance Theory Model of Smith & Carayon-Sainfort [2], [3]. This model specifies that the working conditions and other factors outside of work can create a stress on the individual. That stress can have physiological and psychological consequences. If the stress exceeds the individual's capacity, the stress can produce a negative effect on the individual which could result in a strain. This is a bad fit between the individual resources and the work demands. If the stressful exposure continues for a prolonged time period, then this can result in serious musculoskeletal disorders.
Keywords: Human Factors; Ergonomics; Musculoskeletal Disorders; Psychosocial; Balance Theory Model; Applied Field Research; Manufacturing; Assembly; Production Processes
Measuring Support for Health in Offshore Environments BIBAKFull-Text 61-69
  Kathryn Mearns; Tom Reader
Health and safety are often discussed in the same breath but the relationships between them are not clearly articulated. The current study was conducted in the UK offshore oil and gas industry -- a physically and mentally challenging work environment -- where the well-being of personnel is important for their performance. This paper will describe the development of scales for measuring support for health offshore and report the results obtained from a sample of 703 workers from 18 installations regarding the relationship between perceived support for health and health and organizational outcome measures.
Keywords: Support for health; organizational commitment; organizational citizenship behaviour; health activities
Understanding Patient User Experience in Obstetric Work Systems BIBAKFull-Text 70-77
  Enid N. H. Montague
Patient user experiences with medical technology may be important predictors of patient ratings of satisfaction with health care systems and of acceptance of technologies used in their care. The purpose of this study was to understand how patients experience medical technology during medical events as passive users. 25 women were interviewed after the birth of their child about the technologies that were used to provide them care. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and reduced to codes in the qualitative data analysis tradition. Results show that patients have user experiences with technologies as passive users.
Keywords: Patients; Technology; User Experience; Health Care
Unique Stressors of Cross-Cultural Collaboration through ICTs in Virtual Teams BIBAKFull-Text 78-87
  Niina Nurmi
Geographically distributed virtual teams are increasingly prevalent in global organizations. Despite the growing attention to virtual teams, there is limited understanding of how cross-cultural collaboration and electronic dependence in communication affect virtual workers' psychological reactions and well-being. This qualitative multi-case study aims at understanding the different causes of stress in cross-cultural collaboration. An overarching analysis across seven case studies revealed that globally distributed team members experienced job stressors such as language challenges in English, or lingua franca, misunderstandings, and conflicts due to different mindsets, communication and behavior styles, and work-leisure orientations. Without adequate skills in lingua franca, or proper cultural and local awareness of distant team sites, coping was not successful, thereby stressors lead to distress.
Keywords: Virtual Teams; Cross-Cultural Collaboration; Stress; Coping
Examining the Effects of Workstation Design Satisfaction, Computer Usage, Supervisory and Co-worker Support on Perceived Physical Discomfort and Psychosocial Factors BIBAKFull-Text 88-94
  Michelle Robertson; Emily Huang; Nancy Larson
This study examined the factors of computer use, job tasks, musculoskeletal and visual discomfort and organizational support to better understand the magnitude of their impact on the safety and health of computer work employees. A cross-sectional survey was administered to a large manufacturing company to investigate these relationships. Associations between these study variables were tested along with moderating effects framed within a conceptual model. Significant relationships were found between discomfort, computer use and psychosocial factors including supervisory relations moderating the relationships between workstation satisfaction and visual and musculoskeletal discomfort. This study provides guidance for developing recommendations in designing office ergonomic interventions with the goal of reducing musculoskeletal and visual discomforts while enhancing worker performance and their quality of worklife.
Keywords: Office ergonomics; computer workers; psychosocial factors; discomfort
Defeating Back Pain at the Workplace: Results of the "Healthy Back" Program BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Christian Schwennen; Bernhard Zimolong
A holistic occupational health management system was implemented at the German tax administration. It integrates a multi-component health program that focuses on back pain prevention. The present study reports results from the evaluation of the program. It consists of a health screening (N =1043) which measured 13 risk factors followed by tailored interventions. One half of the participants exhibit moderate to high risk for future back pain. Participation-rate of the program is 48.46%. Results reveal a significant increase in physical activity. Results of the pre-post-test evaluation show moderate changes in the psychological variables, except for a decrease in catastrophising. In addition, a substantial decrease in back pain frequency, -intensity and impairment through back pain could be observed. The results of the interventions are discussed with regard to participation issues of work site health programs.
Keywords: worksite health promotion program; multilevel program; back pain; health management
Using the 'Balance Model' for Occupational Safety and Health Promotion BIBAKFull-Text 105-114
  Michael J. Smith; Pascale Carayon
The 'balance model' of job design was introduced in 1989 [1] and expanded to the enterprise level later [2-7]. The main idea of this model is that various components of the workplace interact to increase and decrease workplace safety and health risk, and that careful 'balancing' of the components can produce reduced risk and improved employee safety and health. In this paper we discuss how the 'balance model' can be used to promote occupational safety and health.
Keywords: balance; design; hazard; health; risk; safety; system; wellness
Varying the Office Work Posture between Standing, Half-Standing and Sitting Results in Less Discomfort BIBAKFull-Text 115-120
  Peter Vink; Ineke Konijn; Ben Jongejan; Monique Berger
In this study 10 subjects worked two weeks in their rather new normal work station and two weeks in another work station. These VDU workers were trained and received a table making standing work possible. They also received a chair making half sitting possible. The effects on experienced variation in posture and discomfort were studied. It appeared that most of the time people work in the normal sitting situation (69% in the new and 90% in the old work station). Sometimes the half sitting and standing posture was used in the new situation. This new situation had a significant lower discomfort in the back, neck and shoulder region compared with the old situation.
Keywords: variation in posture; VDU work; sitting; discomfort; standing work
A Person-Centered Measurement System for Quantification of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure at Workplaces BIBAKFull-Text 121-130
  Britta Weber; Ingo Hermanns; Rolf P. Ellegast; Jens Kleinert
Accurate quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) is a basic prerequisite to evaluate activity promoting measures. A novel approach for determining EE by a person-centered measurement system which operates with motion sensors is presented. The new EE prediction model combines information on the type and intensity of PA as well as personal characteristics. For model calibration eight subjects performed standardized office and locomotion tasks while wearing the measurement system and an indirect calorimeter simultaneously. Via multiple regression analyses different EE prediction equations for sitting, standing, walking, climbing downstairs and climbing upstairs are developed. Model fit statistics revealed good results (adjusted R2 = 0.51-0.90). The developed model seems promising for precise EE prediction during the investigated activities.
Keywords: physical activity; inactivity; office tasks; energy expenditure; prediction equation; motion sensors; CUELA Activity System; MetaMax 3B
Management of Work Site Health-Promotion Programs: A Review BIBAKFull-Text 131-140
  Bernhard Zimolong; Gabriele Elke
The review starts with the assessment of needs for health promotion, particularly drawing upon the aging of the workforce in Europe and U.S. Basic intervention models for work site health promotion programs (WHP) are outlined. Recent findings of WHP outcomes underscore the requirement to integrate health promotion into the management system of the organization. Based on the framework of healthy work organization and of Health Management Systems the research project INOPE is described. The objective is the development, implementation, evaluation and transfer of a holistic health management system within the German tax administration.
Keywords: Review; occupational health promotion; healthy work organization; health and safety management; tax administration

New Trends in Ergonomics

Development of Portable Robotic Operation Terminals to Achieve Increased Safety and Usability and a Study on the Effectiveness of Wireless Terminals BIBAKFull-Text 143-152
  Hidetoshi Fukui; Satoshi Yonejima; Masatake Yamano; Masao Dohi; Tomonori Nishiki; Mariko Yamada; Toshihiro Fujita
In factory automation (FA) industry, it is essential for the working environment using industrial robots to be provided with measures that assure operator's safety and good usability of machines. We have studied the operator's safety and usability of portable robotic operation terminals, and have developed the standardized terminals for one-hand operation suitable to many types of applications. The findings and knowledge we obtained through the development materialized recently as the new two-hand portable robotic operation terminal which is designed ergonomically. In this paper, we report on the new operation terminal which provides excellent operational safety and usability, and also a study on the effectiveness of wireless terminals for improving the usability of entire system.
Keywords: Teach pendant; enabling switch; robot; HMI environment; wireless; safety; usability
Note: Best Paper Award
Participatory Ergonomics as a Method of Quality Improvement in Maintenance BIBAKFull-Text 153-161
  Malgorzata Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek
Modern enterprises are forced to constantly improve ways of management and to introduce changes. One of the changes is a alteration of organizational culture and acceptance of participation of employees in designing and implementing new solutions. Striving for general improvement of system efficiency involves joint design of technical and social systems to achieve the best fitness to goals and requirements of system and its parts possible. Not only technical objects, but also workers and workplaces (work environment) require keeping in good condition. Such approach to maintenance stresses human importance and workers place in systems they work in. It also stresses necessity for not engineers, but also quality and ergonomics experts as well as technical objects users to involve into maintenance actions and processes. The paper presents potential of participatory ergonomics to maintenance quality improvement use.
Keywords: maintenance; participation; participatory ergonomics; stakeholders
What Is Prospective Ergonomics? A Reflection and a Position on the Future of Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 162-169
  Jean-Marc Robert; Eric Brangier
This paper presents a reflection on the future of ergonomics and a clear position for the use of prospective in this discipline. We propose to structure ergonomic activities around corrective, preventive (design) and prospective ergonomics, where the latter looks forward in time to defining human needs and activities so as to create human-centered artifacts that are useful and provide a positive user experience. The place of prospective ergonomics is upstream of projects, before a problem or request is raised by a client, and before projects exist. We describe several characteristics of prospective ergonomics and compare them with those of corrective and preventive ergonomics. We show that prospective ergonomics has major impacts on education and practice, since ergonomists should not only be trained as human factor experts but also as strategists to reflect on the future and as project managers. Prospective ergonomics requires the "intelligence analysis" of a lot of data and experts' opinions, as well as perspicacity, intuition, creativity, motivation and initiative. It represents a huge potential for the advancement and evolution of ergonomics and for the achievement of its full maturity.
Keywords: Corrective ergonomics; Preventive ergonomics; Prospective ergonomics; Design; Human-centered projects
Improving in-Vehicle Display and Control Design for Older Drivers BIBAKFull-Text 170-176
  Jaeheok Ryu; Gyohyeon Song; Seongil Lee; Yoonhyung Cho; Gyouhyung Kyung; Hyungkee Kim; Kyungkuk Baek
Guidelines for older driver-friendly automobile interior design have been determined by taking into account older people's physical and cognitive characteristics. Twenty three older people (aged from 54 to 78) and five younger people (from 20 to 29) performed several tasks in actual driving conditions, in which their reaction times and performance errors were recorded. Some design factors were found to be related to older drivers' visibility and controllability. Several design guidelines were proposed in terms of cluster color and font, display location, and HVAC control type. Proposed guidelines are expected to satisfy a wider range of older drivers as these will facilitate automobile interior designs which are fitter to older drivers' visual, cognitive, and manual capabilities.
Keywords: older driver; automobile interior; automotive ergonomics; visibility; controllability
Relationship between Emotional State and Pupil Diameter Variability under Various Types of Workload Stress BIBAKFull-Text 177-185
  Kiyomi Sakamoto; Shoichi Aoyama; Shigeo Asahara; Haruki Mizushina; Hirohiko Kaneko
We carried out two experiments to explore the relationship between the frequency characteristic of pupil diameter variability and emotional state under various types of workload. The workload required the subjects to listen to spoken words and categorize them. The difficulty of the task was adjusted by changing the time interval of the stimulus presentation in Experiment 1 (time-based task) and the number of categories in Experiment 2 (cognitive-based task). Pupil diameter was monitored and recorded using an infrared video camera while observers were performing the tasks. In both experiments, a significant correlation was observed between the frequency characteristic of pupil diameter variability and emotional state. Our results indicated the frequency characteristic of pupil diameter variability to be a potentially useful index for evaluating mental stress.
Keywords: Pupil diameter; audio stimuli; psychological state; variability in pupil diameter
Combined Measurement System for the Evaluation of Multi Causal Strain BIBAKFull-Text 186-194
  Holger Steiner; Dietmar Reinert; Norbert Jung
This work addresses the problem of measuring psychological strain in humans by the use of physiological data. The aim of the work is the research, development and evaluation of a measurement system for the acquisition of such data from humans and the differentiation of psychological and physical strain with the help of machine learning algorithms. The developed system records and analyzes the ECG, the EMG, as well as the skin conductance, and combines these physiological parameters with the subject's physical activity. The main purpose of this measurement system is to assess both types of strain in employees at their workplaces.
Keywords: multi causal strain; stress; strain; ambulatory monitoring; physiological monitoring; physical activity; decision tree learning; machine learning
Development of Non-contact Monitoring System of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) -- An Approach of Remote Sensing for Ubiquitous Technology -- BIBAKFull-Text 195-203
  Satoshi Suzuki; Takemi Matsui; Shinji Gotoh; Yasutaka Mori; Bonpei Takase; Masayuki Ishihara
The aim of this study was to develop a prototype system to monitor cardiac activity using microwave Doppler radar (24.05 GHz frequency, 7 mW output power in average) without making contact with the body and without removing clothing; namely, a completely noncontact, remote monitoring system. In addition, heart rate and changes in heart rate variability (HRV) during simple mental arithmetic and computer input tasks were observed with the prototype system. The experiment was conducted with seven subjects (23.00 ± 0.82 years old). We found that the prototype system captured heart rate and HRV precisely. The strong relationship between the heart rates during tasks (r = 0.963), LF (cross-correlation = 0.76) and LF/HF (cross-correlation = 0.73) of HRV calculated from the microwave radar data and from electrocardiograph (ECG) measurements were confirmed.
Keywords: noncontact monitoring; microwave radar; heart rate variability
PC-Based Rehabilitation System with Biofeedback BIBAKFull-Text 204-211
  Chih-Fu Wu; Jeih-Jang Liou
The purpose of this research is to emphasize on the concept of integrating computer and interactive technologies to the rehabilitation robotic with biofeedback. First, the robot is actuated with pneumatic muscle actuator which have interesting characteristics that can be exploited for upper limbed machines. The rehabilitation robotic system is using measurement which has two channels to detect and collect the rehabilitation robotic system from electromyography and the rotary encoder. Through PCI interface transferring the rehabilitation robotic system to personal computer, we can use our algorithms to attain real-time the force and/or contraction velocity of the muscle detection and other common information like the frequency of under muscle curve of user. Finally, the human-computer interface for rehabilitation system is designed. In this human computer interface consists of three main parts: detect the signal; a control scheme of robotic system combined with multimodal environment based biofeedback system; clinical database.
Keywords: rehabilitation robotic; biofeedback; human computer interface

Interaction Devices and Environments

LED Backlight for Better Accuracy in Medical Imaging BIBAKFull-Text 215-222
  Silvio Bonfiglio; Luigi Albani
In clinical tasks the display is often the natural interface between the medical system and the medical professionals and in the current image-centric healthcare the accuracy of the visualized images represents a key requirement; ideally no compromise would be acceptable. In the recent past LED backlights for liquid-crystal displays have been intensively investigated for their use in displays addressed to the mainstream markets (mobile and portable displays, computer displays and TV). Accordingly adapted, they could offer new opportunities also to the displays used in healthcare by allowing better accuracy and consistency of the medical images. In this respect they could make possible a new, important advance towards a better quality of care. In this paper we will describe a novel LED backlight solution suitable for medical imaging.
Keywords: BLU; backlight; backlight unit; color gamut; display; healthcare; LCD; LED; imaging; image accuracy; medical imaging
Human Factors in Lighting BIBAKFull-Text 223-230
  Martin Braun; Oliver Stefani; Achim Pross; Matthias Bues; Dieter Spath
This paper addresses current research activities on the interaction between light and humans, including visual perception as well as cognitive, biological, and emotional factors. We focus on issues which can be deployed at office workplaces and describe how we adopt these findings at the "nLightened Workplace" at the Fraunhofer Institute for Industrial Engineering. The nLightenend Workplace integrates illumination and information displays in offices. We present our latest developments such as "Heliosity". We will give an outlook on our future research work on human factors in lighting.
Keywords: Lighting; Office Work; Human Factors; Performance and Health
Lighting as Support for Enhancing Well-Being, Health and Mental Fitness of an Ageing Population -- The FP6 EU Funded ALADIN Project BIBAKFull-Text 231-240
  Inge Gavat; Ovidiu Grigore; Marius Cotescu; Markus Canazei; Hermann Atz; Klaus Becker; Lajos Izsó; Guido Kempter; Herbert Plischke; Wilfried Pohl
The paper presents the ALADIN prototype for adaptive lighting control designed to assist elderly in achieving a state of well-being, developed as a FP6 EU funded project. It uses psycho-physiological features extracted from Electro-Dermal Activity (EDA) and Pulse signals to determine the subject's mental state and adapts the lighting parameters in order to achieve a certain desired state. One of the controller implementations was done using Simulated Annealing. Field test evaluations of this implementation are discussed.
Keywords: adaptive lighting; psycho-physiological parameters; optimization algorithms
The Evaluation of Operating Posture in Typing the QWERTY Keyboard on PDA BIBAKFull-Text 241-249
  Han-Chi Hsiao; Fong-Gong Wu; Ronald Hsi; Chih-I Ho; Wen-Zhou Shi; Chien-Hsu Chen
In this research, we observed the user's posture while using PDA. 30 participants typed the keys with standard QWERTY keyboard on the PDA. At the end of the experiments the participants who have professional background in design were asked to complete an open-ended questionnaire, which is in order to evaluate the usability of the PDA. In the final, we presented the suggestion of design criterion for keyboard, as to provide the references for future PDA design. The statistical result of the posture while using the PDA revealed that the most users held PDA with both hands and pressed keys with both thumbs. The findings in this research suggest that when we design small input devices such as PDA in the future, the stability of the keyboard usage should be taken into considerations to enhance its input performance and improve user experience.
Keywords: Letters Key Design; PDA Typing Posture
Vector Keyboard for Touch Screen Devices BIBAKFull-Text 250-256
  Martin Klíma; Vaclav Slovacek
Paper introduces a vector keyboard for touch screen devices. Characters are typed by drawing a vector starting from a dedicated area. The typing area is divided into three clusters, each containing 9 characters. Measurement of typing speed and of number of typos reveals that the keyboard is comparable to ABCDEF virtual keyboard.
Keywords: vector keyboard; virtual keyboard; touch screen; PDA; QWERTY
Evaluation of a Functional Film Attached on Top of a Tablet PC BIBAKFull-Text 257-263
  Yugo Kobayashi; Tatsuya Terada; Toshiyuki Kondo; Masaki Nakagawa
This paper presents usability evaluation of a functional film named PenFit attached on top of a tablet PC. We compared a tablet PC with PenFit and that without PenFit from the viewpoint of the ease of writing. We considered several measures to evaluate the ease of writing. We propose "how people can write letters neatly (neatness)", "how people can write quickly (speed)" and "how people can write without fatigue (fatigue)" as the measures to evaluate the ease of writing. As a result, it is suggested that the functional film provides the ease of writing.
Keywords: pen interface; functional film; ease of writing; electromyogram
Interaction between Dynamic LED-Light and Color Surfaces BIBAFull-Text 264-267
  Ralf Michel
The many different interactions between light and colours represent a very important research topic at the Zurich University of the Arts. This is why the Zurich ColourLight-Center was set up at the Institute for Design und Technology, idt. For more than 15 years, we have been investigating the potential of interactions of light and colour and asking fundamental questions about the relevance of the subject to the development of design education and practice. In the ColourLight-Lab, the research project, which we present from the Zurich ColourLight-Center, products and methods of presentation were created, which describe the sensory perception of light and colour as a phenomenon of seeing. The LED-ColourLab research project specially takes as its theme, the interaction of dynamic LED light and colour surfaces.
Color Model for Human Visual Environment and Physical Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 268-275
  Tsutomu Mutoh; Kazuo Ohno
The authors explored a method to control dynamic RGB light source in accordance with human visual environment and possibilities of physical interaction with light source of full color capabilities. We developed a color model composed of hue, grayscale, brightness components and an algorithm to transform RGB values into the color space of the model. We implemented the color model using full color light emitting diode (LED) in a light source device designed for people to interact with color physically. We set up an experimental environment for human color perception to prove visual and physical interaction effect of dynamic light source and object with color composition governed by the color model and the device.
Keywords: color model; visual interaction; physical interaction; full color LED
Improvement of the Design Quality of 3D-Input Devices Using Motion Analyses and Biomechanical Comparisons BIBAKFull-Text 276-285
  Tobias Nowack; Stefan Lutherdt; Manuel Möller; Peter Kurtz; Hartmut Witte
Due to the lack of investigations and standards describing the design of real 3D input devices a real 3D input device was develop. To compare several devices a test task was created and performed with combination of a motion capturing system. During the experiment 19 attendees with different levels of experience performed the test with this setup. Several intra-individual motion patterns and using strategies belonging to different input devices could be observed.
Keywords: User-centred design; 3D-input; evaluation software; reachable space of motion; ergonomically motivated equipment; motion analyses of input tasks