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EHAWC Tables of Contents: 070911

EHAWC 2007: Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers 2007-07-22

Fullname:EHAWC 2007: Ergonomics and Health Aspects of Work with Computers
Note:Volume 17 of HCI International 2007
Editors:Marvin J. Dainoff
Location:Beijing, China
Dates:2007-Jul-22 to 2007-Jul-27
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4566
Standard No:ISBN: 978-3-540-73332-4 (print), 978-3-540-73333-1 (online); hcibib: EHAWC07
Links:Online Proceedings | Publisher Book Page
  1. Part I: Health and Well Being in the Working Environment
  2. Part II: Ergonomics and Design

Part I: Health and Well Being in the Working Environment

Can Visual Discomfort Influence on Muscle Pain and Muscle Load for Visual Display Unit (VDU) Workers? BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Arne Aarås; Gunnar Horgen; Magne Helland
In three different prospective epidemiological studies, correlation between visual discomfort and average pain intensity in the neck and shoulder, were 0.30<r<0.72 for VDU workers. In the first study, correlation between visual discomfort and pain in the neck and shoulder was 0.30<r<0.40. In the second study, visual discomfort was related to neck pain, (r=0.40, p=0.003). In the third study, visual discomfort correlated to neck pain (r=0.69, p=0.000) and shoulder pain (r=0.72, p=0.000). In order to study more in detail the correlation between visual stress and muscle load, a laboratory study was carried out. Visual stress was induced by the size of characters on the screen (8 points and 12 points Times New Roman) and the luminance levels in the surroundings of the screen (between 1500 and 2300 cd/m2) versus (between70 and 100 cd/m2). The results showed that the smallest characters 8 points and the highest luminance levels had no significant influence on the muscle load in neck and shoulder regions. However, the productivity was significant lower when using the 8 points characters compared with 12 points. There was also a tendency to an increase in the number of errors made.
Keywords: VDU workplaces; Lighting conditions; Visual conditions; Visual discomfort; Musculoskeletal illness; Eye blinking
Neuromuscular Principles in the Visual System and Their Potential Role in Visual Discomfort BIBAKFull-Text 10-18
  J. Richard Bruenech; Inga-Britt Kjellevold Haugen
The aim of this study was to analyse the neuromuscular arrangement in the human extraocular muscles in order to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms behind visual discomfort associated with reading and VDU (visual display unit) work. Histological evaluation of muscle samples from 10 subjects revealed fibrous extensions from the distal insertions of rectus muscles to the orbital wall. The number of neural elements found embedded in these collagenous extensions suggests that nociceptors are present in large numbers, capable of creating pain during movements of the eye. It is reasonable to assume that these structures and other parameters described in this study can contribute to visual discomfort associated with demanding visual tasks.
Keywords: VDU-work; extraocular muscles; muscle pulleys; muscle sleeves; visual discomfort
Forget About Aesthetics in Chair Design: Ergonomics Should Provide the Basis for Comfort BIBAKFull-Text 19-25
  Marvin J. Dainoff; Leonard S. Mark; Lin Ye; Milena Petrovic
Helander and deLooze have proposed a model of seated comfort in which comfort and discomfort are conceptually separate. They argue that ergonomic chairs tend to be over-designed with insufficient attention paid to aesthetics. This argument is critiqued on both methodological and conceptual grounds. The methodological critique is based on psychometric criteria. The conceptual critique is based on the need for an integrated (ecological) approach in which work context and user characteristics are explicitly considered. An alternative model for an ecological ergonomics is presented.
Keywords: seated comfort; ecological ergonomics
Effects of the Office Environment on Health and Productivity 1: Auditory and Visual Distraction BIBAKFull-Text 26-33
  Elsbeth de Korte; Lottie Kuijt-Evers; Peter Vink
A pilot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of visual or auditory distraction in an office environment on productivity, concentration and emotion. Ten subjects performed a simple, standardized computer task in five conditions (undisturbed, 3 variations of auditory distraction and visual distraction). Results showed no effects of visual and auditory distraction on productivity, concentration and emotion. This implies that typical problems of open office environments, like noise and other types of distraction, are of no influence on productivity while performing simple computer tasks. However, it is possible that the used method and factors like habituation, type of distraction and type of task were of influence on the results.
Keywords: health; productivity; office; distraction
Effects of Using Dynamic Office Chairs on Posture and EMG in Standardized Office Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 34-42
  Rolf P. Ellegast; Rene Hamburger; Kathrin Keller; Frank Krause; Liesbeth Groenesteijn; Peter Vink; Helmut Berger
In the paper a measuring system for the comparative posture and EMG analysis of office chairs is presented. With the system four specific dynamic office chairs that promote dynamic sitting and therefore aim to prevent musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), were analyzed in comparison to a reference chair in two different standardized tasks (intensive mouse use and sorting files). Exemplary results of the ongoing study suggest that postures and the electrical activities of the erector spinae and trapezius muscles depend more on the tasks performed than on the use of a particular type of office chair. This still has to be proved by statistical analysis.
Keywords: office chair; EMG; posture; measuring device; dynamic sitting
Video Display Terminals and Neck Pain: When Ophthalmology Explains the Failure of Biomechanical Intervention BIBAKFull-Text 43-47
  Elvio Ferreira; Karina dos Santos Rocha Ferreira; Graziela dos Santos Rocha Ferreira
This case report presents a video display terminal (VDT) user complaining of neck pain. It was suggested that her complains would be due to the low position of her computer display. However, raising the monitor actually worsened the discomfort. Being presbyopic and wearing varifocal lenses, she actually was under-corrected -- wearing new lenses (with higher reading addition) improved her symptoms. The role of refraction errors as a cause of neck pain and the importance of eye examinations for VDT users are discussed.
Keywords: neck pain; video display terminals; refractive errors; ergonomics
Performance Monitoring, Supervisory Support, and Job Characteristics and Their Impact on Employee Well-Being Amongst Four Samples of Call Centre Agents in South Africa BIBAKFull-Text 48-56
  James Fisher; Karen Miller; Andrew Thatcher
This paper reports a descriptive comparison of selected aspects of work experience reflected by four groups of employees drawn from four contrasting call center environments based in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The call centers were selected as representing distinct business and management practices in terms of the envisioned market and the service model enacted within each call center. Participants were call center agents who completed a questionnaire survey of aspects of their work life experiences and context free life satisfaction. In addition, interviews were conducted with supervisors in each call center to assess supervisory practice, and some follow up interviews were conducted with call centre agents. Findings do not fit neatly into a Tayloristic-Empowerment continuum, but rather point to a more complex balance between the unfavorable work demands experienced and wider feelings of self worth. Implications for job design and enhanced well being are summarized.
Keywords: Call Centers; Job Design; Electronic Performance Monitoring; Well-Being
Mechanisms for Work Related Disorders Among Computer Workers BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Mikael Forsman; Stefan Thorn
Work related musculoskeletal disorders are common among computer workers, especially in the neck/shoulder region and the upper extremities. The relation between physical and psychosocial work load and generation of pain is still unclear. In this paper we describe five models. According to the often addressed Cinderella hypothesis, the pain is due to an overuse of low threshold muscle fibres. In a series of studies including intramuscular electromyography from the trapezius muscle, we have found several motor units that were active throughout coarse arm movements, during prolonged computer work tasks, and in both voluntary and stress induced contractions. Furthermore we have seen that motor unit statistics varies significantly between repeated measurements in one individual, hence the method would be inappropriate for group comparisons. Finally, we discuss a model based on a general model, literature studies, and own research.
Keywords: Mechanisms; chronic pain; Cinderella hypothesis; intramuscular electromyography; motor units; trapezius muscle
Do Background Luminance Levels or Character Size Effect the Eye Blink Rate During Visual Display Unit (VDU) Work -- Comparing Young Adults with Presbyopes? BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Magne Helland; Gunnar Horgen; Tor Martin Kvikstad; Arne Aarås
Eye blink rate for 19 healthy young adult volunteers (non-presbyopic) (15 females, 4 males; mean age 21.1, SD 5.9 years, range 19 to 29 years) were measured while working at an optimised VDU work station with two different character sizes (8 and 12 points Times New Roman). Two background luminance levels (approx. 100 cd/m2 and 6000 cd/m2) were used as glare sources. A marked reduction in eye blink rate from approx. 24 blinks per minute during easy conversation in between VDU work sessions to approx. 5 blinks per minute during active visually demanding VDU work was found. The results were compared with the results from a previous similar study on 16 healthy presbyopic volunteers (8 females, 8 males; mean age 57.1 SD 7.2 years, range 46 to 67 years) [1]. For both groups a marked reduction in eye blink rate was found for VDU work compared with a rest situation. This was true whether the character size on the screen was "normal" (12 points) or fairly small (8 points), or whether the work was done under good and recommended visual conditions, or under a glare situation.
Keywords: VDU-work; eye blink rate; luminance levels; character size
Do the Luminance Levels of the Surroundings of Visual Display Units (VDU) and the Size of the Characters on the Screen Effect the Accommodation, the Muscle Load and Productivity During VDU Work? BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Gunnar Horgen; Magne Helland; Tor Martin Kvikstad; Arne Aarås
This study aims at quantifying how much a background glare situation of a VDU, and different text sizes influence muscle load and production. Production was evaluated both as quantity of work, and number of errors that were made. The results showed no significant changes in the postural load in terms of electromyographic (EMG) measurements of m. trapezius and m. infraspinatus. However, a significant decrease in working speed and productivity was seen. There were no significant changes in the number of errors that was done. The transient myopic shifts (TMS) observed in an earlier study among presbyopic users [1] were not as clear in this study.
Keywords: VDU-work; Luminance; Muscle load; Myopia; Optometric corrections; Lighting
Complexity and Workload Factors in Virtual Work Environments of Mobile Work BIBAKFull-Text 85-94
  Ursula Hyrkkänen; Ari Putkonen; Matti Vartiainen
This article concentrates on describing the complexity and work load factors of mobile work done in virtual environments. A qualitative multi case study was carried out. Six mobile employee groups were examined. The data was collected by interviews and questionnaires. A model of complexity factors was used in analyzing the data. The complexity factors interrelated with different types of workload components, i.e. physical, mental and social and, furthermore, they induced distinct workload factors. To reduce the manifestation of the workload factors and to enhance well-being, fundamental requirements for the virtual environment can be presented. At the levels of connection, device and application the issue lies in the transfer capability of communication. Compared to this at the levels of cognitive and cultural factors of the virtual space the question is in the ability of semantic transfer of the message.
Keywords: Mobile work; virtual work environment; work load factor; well-being
A Study of Personal Space in Communicating Information BIBAKFull-Text 95-104
  Shigeyoshi Iizuka; Yusuke Goto; Katsuhiko Ogawa
Technologies to ensure information transfer security are being developed, but risks remain when people enter highly confidential information like personal data into systems in public areas. To provide complete security, we need both communication security and physical security. Accordingly, we conducted a fundamental study of environments designed for secure handling of personal information in public spaces. We studied people's personal space when they are using a PC in a public work environment. First, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the degree of reassurance a user feels while inputting personal information into a PC in a public work environment. Using the results, we grouped the degrees of reassurance into four levels of "personal space in communicating information", each for a different type of information. That is, different types of information had different safe sizes. This confirms results from our previous research.
Keywords: Personal Space; Reassurance; Public Space
Musculoskeletal and Performance Effects of Monocular Display Augmented, Articulated Arm Based Laser Digitizing BIBAKFull-Text 105-112
  Neil Littell; Kari Babski-Reeves; Gary McFadyen; John McGinley
Processes of capturing solid geometry features as three-dimensional data for analysis, simulation, or reverse engineering require the use of laser-based reverse engineering hardware, commonly known as digitizers. The most common digitizers used within manufacturing contexts are articulated arm-based coordinate measuring machines, which have been augmented with a laser-head probe. Typical usage times for the digitizing equipment can range into the hours, thereby placing operators at risk for the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), though exact load magnitudes of exposure to risk factors for MSDs during object digitization are unknown. Further, other technologies (such as monocular/heads-up displays) may be combined with laser digitizers that may reduce load magnitudes. This paper explores the possibility of an occluded monocular display augmentation, results and discussion are presented.
Keywords: Monocular Display; Head Mounted Display; HMD; Augmented Reality Interface; Laser Digitizing
Work Environment and Health Effects of Operators at Light-on-Test Process in TFT-LCD Plants BIBAKFull-Text 113-117
  Chih-Wei Lu; Jiunn-Woei Sheen; Shin-Bin Su; Shu-Chun Kuo; Yu-Ting Yang; Chein-Wen Kuo
TFT-LCD (thin film transistor liquid crystal display) industries have been grown-up in Taiwan. Many workers are at light-on test workstations in TFT-LCD factories. At the light-on test station, the operator has been exposed to the lower ambient illumination (105.10 lx) for a long time (12hour/1day). There are few researches discussed about health effect of workers of TFT-LCD workers. The aim of this research is to measure the illumination of the light-on test station and to collect the work environmental data for exposure assessment. The work environment information of test workstations has been measured such as ambient illumination and illumination of the five types of test color of LCD (red, green, blue, white, gray), visual angle, and visual distance between worker and LCD test board. The results shows that: 1) the light-on test was a long-term operation of lower ambient illumination (4.00 lx to 105.1 lx) and shorter visual distance (28.04 cm to 34.43cm); 2) the means of illumination of LCD board of different test color are 10.90 lx in red, 41.20 lx in green, 18.00 lx in blue, 67.30lx in white, and 13.80 in gray. Light-on test is a task of low ambient illumination, short visual distance and long-term job in TFT-LCD factories. Some workers complained about visual fatigues. Under this working environment, the more working duration workers have the more visual discomfort they complain. Some administration controls have been suggested such as more time of rest, lubrication of eyes by appropriate solution and job rotation.
Keywords: work environment; Light-on-test; TFT-LCD; health effects
Techno Stress: A Study Among Academic and Non Academic Staff BIBAKFull-Text 118-124
  Raja Ibrahim Raja Zirwatul Aida; Abu Bakar Azlina; Md Nor Siti Balqis
In the 21st century, the technological momentum has increased far beyond our expectations. Thus, there is a growing perception that rapid advancements in technology are responsible for inducing stress into our lives. Reuters Business Information Services conducted a study of 1300 managers throughout United States, England, Australia, Hong Kong and Singapore, and found out that 33% reported ill-health as a result of information overload and 66% reported increased tension with work colleagues and diminished job satisfaction caused by information overload. The literature suggests that while new technologies may offer many benefits, they may also contribute to increased job stress and strain. Information overloads and multitasking, both associated with ICT (Paoli [1]), may create stress by contributing to work overload. The adoption, rapid diffusion and evolution of ICT have introduced a number of new demands into workplace that leads to job stress. Technology stress (Techno Stress) can be defined as a modern disease of adaptation caused by an inability to cope with new computer technologies in a healthy manner. Clear symptoms of Techno Stress include inability to concentrate on a single issue, increased irritability and feeling of loss of control. The study was conducted among academic and non academic staff in order to measure the level of their stress. Besides, it aims to identify the difference of stress level between academic and non academic staff, and the difference of gender in term of stress. Looking at the negative impact of ICT, this study is very important that enables the researcher to identify the stress related its usage. Furthermore, findings might be used to guide psychologist, counselor and other professional to outline strategic planning dealing with Techno Stress. 80 respondents from Pulau Pinang and Terengganu completed questionnaires comprises demographic section (8 items) and 47 items on Personnel Techno Stress Inventory (PTSI) previously used by Weil & Rosen [2] with reliability 0.71. Domains of Techno Stress can be classified as learning, border, communication, time, family, workplace and community. The instrument was revised, simplified and finalized according to the result of pilot test. The result reliability using Cronbach's reliability was 0.61. Result shows a moderate level of stress among the respondents. There is no significant difference of stress in term of gender and occupation (academic and non academic staff). Limitations of the study and suggestions for further research are discussed.
Keywords: Technology; Stress; Academic; Non Academic; Staff
Call Centres in the Domain of Telecommunications: Ergonomic Issues for Well-Being Improvement BIBAKFull-Text 125-134
  Alessandra Re; Enrica Fubini
The present work examines the ergonomic issues of a larger interdisciplinary research on well-being, conducted with a systemic approach in a call-centre pertaining to the domain of telecommunications. The research aimed to define the concept of well-being along three lines of investigation: psychological, medical, and ergonomic and, on this basis, to provide an analysis for improving operators' well-being and performance. The paper analyzes the ergonomic issues, which have been investigated in relation to the aforementioned lines, and, in the final phase of the research, included in a common tool of quantitative survey submitted to 421 operators.
Keywords: call centres; well-being; ergonomic work analysis
Health and Performance Consequences of Office Ergonomic Interventions Among Computer Workers BIBAKFull-Text 135-143
  Michelle M. Robertson
An investigation of the effects of office ergonomics interventions on musculoskeletal health and group performance among computer knowledge workers was conducted. A flexible workspace and office ergonomics training program were designed and created. It was hypothesized that the training and workplace intervention would allow the worker to more effectively use their workspace through increased office ergonomics knowledge and skills. Following the intervention, there was a significant decrease in self-reported musculoskeletal disorders for the experimental group who had a workplace change and received ergonomic training relative to a workplace change-only group and a control group. Business process efficiency analyses revealed that both the workspace and training interventions significantly contributed to reductions in the time required to complete the business processes that were tracked.
Keywords: office ergonomics intervention; performance; musculoskeletal discomfort
Splint Effect on the Range of Wrist Motion and Typing Performance BIBAKFull-Text 144-150
  Yuh-Chuan Shih; Bi-Fen Tsai
This study examined the splint effect on both maximal range of wrist motion (MROWM) and typing performance (typing speed and error rate). Three types of splints were evaluated, and bare-hand condition was included for comparison. The ANOVA results indicated that wearing splints reduced the MROWM in radial deviation, extension, and flexion, as well as the typing speed. Wearing splints did not change the MROWM in ulnar deviation or typing error rate. Additionally, participants reported subjectively that wearing splints increased the difficulty to type.
Keywords: Splint; Typing; Range of wrist motion
The Impact of VDU Tasks and Continuous Feedback on Arousal and Well-Being: Preliminary Findings BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Michel Varkevisser; David V. Keyson
In the present study the impact of VDU tasks differing in mental load and feedback were investigated in relation to physiological arousal and well-being. Healthy students (N= 37, age 18-30 years) were included in the study. The subjects were divided in two groups starting with either a standard/feedback version of the Dual task (high task load), or a standard/feedback version of the Stroop task (moderate task load). Presently, we report the preliminary outcomes of this study. Overall, well-being gradually decreased and arousal increased while performing the consecutive VDU tasks. Furthermore, in HRA, mental effort, and subjective arousal a differentiation could be made between the two groups. When subjects commenced with a task with a high mental load (dual task), it had a higher impact on arousal and well-being as a function of time. Feedback did not appear to play an important role on a subjective and physical level.
Effects of the Office Environment on Health and Productivity 1: Effects of Coffee Corner Position BIBAKFull-Text 157-162
  Peter Vink; Elsbeth de Korte; Merle Blok; Liesbeth Groenesteijn
New technology will make it possible to have access to information everywhere. As a result "face to face" communication with colleagues could reduce and creativity and health could be influenced negatively. In this paper a coffee corner is changed and the effect on communication is tested by measuring the number of conversations at the coffee corner. A coffee corner with screens, tables and a possibility to sit, resulted in more conversation than a coffee corner that is open and had no seats. In both coffee corners more than 4 out of 5, were conversations about work. These informal discussions could contribute to productivity as many informal conversations increase creativity. It could also contribute to a better health as social support could reduce stress.
Keywords: health; productivity; creativity; office interior; coffee corner
Guerilla Ergonomics: Perceiving the Affordances for Workplace Design BIBAKFull-Text 163-168
  Lin Ye; Milena Petrovic; Marvin J. Dainoff; Leonard S. Mark
A successful ergonomic intervention involves creating affordances that support safe, effective, productive and comfortable working conditions. Guerilla ergonomics entails creating the requisite affordances using objects that are readily available in the workplace. This often means using objects in ways not intended in their original design. As such this has the advantage of creating viable working conditions quickly and cheaply. Workers learn how to adapt quickly to new problems or changes in the work environment. Our research has shown that the perception of the affordance for an object's intended use can interfere with a person's ability to see other uses for the object. Practice in perceiving new uses for objects as well as compiling a directory of possible solutions may help overcome these limitations.
Keywords: Affordance; workplace ergonomics; ergonomic intervention

Part II: Ergonomics and Design

Constraints on Demarcating Left and Right Areas in Designing of a Performance-Based Workstation BIBAKFull-Text 171-179
  Hyeg Joo Choi; Leonard S. Mark; Marvin J. Dainoff; Lin Ye
The purpose of this study was to show the constraints that demarcate right and left areas in designing a performance-based workstation. As a part of the larger project, the current experiment was designed to determine the directional location at which people change from using their right hand to using their left hand when reaching for a pen to write their name. The results from 21 right-handed participants showed that their left hand was not used significantly in any azimuth lines. Although right-handed participants used their left hand more often as the target location approached their contralateral side of their body, the frequencies of left hand use were not significantly dominant even beyond the left shoulder plane used in this experiment. Along with findings from previous work, we conclude that for this particular task the hand-use transition occurs beyond 20 degrees left of left shoulder plane. The location of this boundary is markedly farther to the left than identified in other research, thereby demonstrating the importance of task constraint in describing work area.
Keywords: Lab study; constraints; reach; handedness; performance-based approach; workstation design
Design of an Adaptive Feedback Based Steering Wheel BIBAKFull-Text 180-188
  Mauro Dell'Amico; Stefano Marzani; Luca Minin; Roberto Montanari; Francesco Tesauri; Michele Mariani; Cristina Iani; Fabio Tango
This paper aims at describing the architectural model of an adaptive force-feedback for a By Wire steering wheel system. This solution uses a steering wheel to replicate the reactive torque law which allows the driver to complete a precise driving scenario or a task with the higher performances. Then, the steering wheel adapts the reactive torque to the driving scenario. Since the design of this system considers the driver performances, it is called Ergonomic Steer-By-Wire. Now a prototype version of the ESBW is connected on a professional driving simulator and several tests are going to be conducted in order to tune the system components. Adapting the force feedback to the driving scenario could be a solution for improving driver's safety and vehicle control.
Keywords: HMI; steer-by-wire; driver performances
Virtual Reality in the Study of Warnings Effectiveness BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  M. Emília C. Duarte; Francisco Rebelo
Warnings are a very important method to control hazards and to promote safety. Despite its importance, warnings have important gaps that limit their validity and make its design so difficult. In this sense, warnings effectiveness evaluation is crucial to guarantee effective people safety. However, warnings traditional evaluation methodologies have several limitations. To this extent, the main purpose of this work is to determine Virtual Reality (VR) ecological validity as a warnings evaluation technique. We describe a methodology that uses VR as a technique to evaluate safety signs. The main advantages of VR use, associated with the interaction level, are discussed.
Keywords: Warnings; Behaviour; Effectiveness; Virtual Reality; Interaction
An Interactive System to Measure the Human Behaviour: An Analysis Model for the Human-Product-Environment Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 199-206
  Ernesto Filgueiras; Francisco Rebelo
The analysis of Mans' interaction with the elements of a system has a fundamental purpose in the ergonomic analysis of work situations, as well as, in the design of new tasks and products. This analysis involves the collection of Human activity's information, in specific conditions, in a usable format to be used in the following stages, particularly in ergonomic intervention. In this work a systematic method is presented for observation of the behavior of workers' interaction in a real work situation.
Keywords: Ergonomic analysis; Video analysis; Behavior
Computer, Television and PlayStation Use in Developmental Age: Friends or Enemies of Growth and Health? Study on a Northern Italy Sample 6-14 Year Old BIBAKFull-Text 207-215
  Enrica Fubini; Margherita Micheletti Cremasco; Elisabetta Toscano
The indiscriminate use of new technologies can compromise a correct and harmonic physical development of children because of inadequate workstations and maintenance of wrong postures, and moreover because of the immoderate time dedicated to sedentary activities instead of physical ones. The paper examines the children's excessive use of computer, TV and PlayStation at home, and the physical problems they feel after their use. Furthermore it analyses the ergonomic suitability of students' workplaces and environment. It emphasizes also the importance of knowledge dissemination of ergonomic principles among teachers and families, in order to reduce children's risk of musculoskeletal disorders and damages to their visual system.
Keywords: computer; television; PlayStation; children's health
Ergonomic Requirements for Input Devices BIBAKFull-Text 216-224
  Ulrike M. Hoehne-Hueckstaedt; Sandra Keller Chandra; Rolf P. Ellegast
The aim of this literature research was to gather information on ergonomic requirements for input devices that are provided by investigations applying biomechanical criteria. Firstly, international and national standards, guidelines as well as checklist of this topic had been looked for and their propositions were summarised. Secondly, a query on Internet search engines and databases had been conducted. A ranking system for the selected articles had been installed in order to comprehensibly rate the information obtained from each study. For every regarded input device, i.e. keyboard, mouse, trackball, graphic tablet/stylus and additionally forearm/wrist support, biomechanically based assessment parameters were deducted and outlined. Finally, these findings were discussed with respect to the recommendations of the standards and an overall ergonomic design of office workplaces with VDTs. In conclusion, this will lead to the development of a checklist for keyboards and mice that should be evaluated by occupational health practitioner.
Keywords: office ergonomics; input devices; musculoskeletal disorders; biomechanical criteria
Factors Relating to Computer Use for People with Mental Illness BIBAKFull-Text 225-230
  Yan-hua Huang; Ching-yi Wu; Tzyh-chyang Chang; Yen-ju Lai; Wen-shuan Lee
People with metal illness, especially schizophrenia, usually experience obstacles in computer and internet access. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors relating to computer use among Taiwanese adults with mental illness. Individual and semi-structured interviews were used during data collection. Grounded theory data analysis method was used in data analysis. There were one male and six females who live in the community that participated in this research. Results showed that information access, information literacy, information application, family information agency, and personal clinical characteristics were related to computer use. The results of this study may assist computer, education and health professionals in their work with people with mental illness to reduce the digital divide and to experience a better life by expanding their choice of activities through computer and internet access.
Keywords: Computer Access; Digital Divide; Occupational Therapy; Rehabilitation; Schizophrenia; Special Education
A Biomechanical Analysis System to Evaluate Physical Usability of Kimchi Refrigerator BIBAKFull-Text 231-236
  Inseok Lee; Jae Hee Park; Tae-Joo Park; Jae Hyun Choi
A biomechanical analysis system, consisting of measurement and analysis subsystems, were developed and applied in evaluating the physical usability of a kimchi refrigerator. In the system, 3D motion measurement system and force platform system were used in measuring joint positions, ground reaction forces and moments. The systems also includes 3 analysis modules: kinematic, kinetic, and 3DSSPP analyses. Kimchi refrigerator, which is very popular as a specific refrigerator for kimchi, a Korean traditional dish, was evaluated using the system. The refrigerator is designed as a top-cover that makes the users feel uncomfortable in using it, though most people think it is a very useful product. The result showed it is possible to evaluate the physical usability of the refrigerator using the system effectively and reliably.
Keywords: biomechanical analysis; 3D motion analysis; physical usability; kimchi refrigerator
An Experimental Study on Physiological Parameters Toward Driver Emotion Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 237-246
  H. Leng; Y. Lin; L. A. Zanzi
Although many emotion recognition methods have been developed, monitoring a driver's emotions during driving is still a challenge because some special requirements must be met. This study begins with the classification of emotion, and then proceeds to emotion recognition. In particular, this study presents the applications of blood volume pressure, skin conductance, skin temperature, gripping force, respiration rate, and facial expression in emotion recognition. Experiments are designed and carried out to find the mapping relation among heart rate, skin conductance, and skin temperature to two kinds of emotions: fear and amusement. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of using the selected physiological parameters to monitor drivers' emotions.
Keywords: physiological signal; emotion recognition; multimodality; driving
A Kinematic Analysis of Directional Effects on Trackball Mouse Control in Novel Normal Users: An Alternating Treatments Single Subject Design BIBAFull-Text 247-256
  Ling Fu Meng; Ming-Chung Chen; Chi Nung Chu; Chiu-Ping Lu; Ting-Fang Wu; Ching-Ying Yang; Jing-Yeah Lo
To know the directional efficiency of cursor moving is important for the purpose of guiding the rearrangement of icons and toolbars in the window environment. This rearrangement resolution can achieve better computer access especially in the clients with quadriplegia. However, the information about the directional efficiency of cursor movement is not clear even in the typical persons. Therefore, before surveying the quadriplegics, typical persons were researched in this study. Four typical persons simulated quadriplegics to operate trackball with their right dorsal hand and the kinematic parameters of cursor moving were measured. The single subject experimental research (SSER) with alternating treatments design was used to compare the effects of four cursor moving direction (right to left, down to up, left to right, and up to down) on the kinematic variables. The prior auto-correlation coefficients and Bartlett's ratio values were computed to make sure there was no any series dependence between measuring points before conducting parametric one-way repeated measures ANOVAs. From analyzing the parameter of deviation from the straight line, velocity, movement unit and execution time, the efficiency to move on the horizontal direction (left to right or right to left) was better than move on the vertical direction (up to down or down to up). To further know the cursor kinematic performances in patients with quadriplegics will be important.
An Evaluation Study for a 3D Input Device Based on Ergonomic Design Criteria BIBAKFull-Text 257-266
  Tobias Nowack; Stefan Lutherdt; Torsten Gramsch; Peter Kurtz
To compare traditionally established 3D-input-devices with a new ergonomically motivated equipment, an evaluation software is needed. With this software the control of different 3D-input-devices has to be applicable. The main attention of the evaluation is to determine the advantages of the new developed HAPTOR-device. The HAPTOR is an user-centred table based 3D-input-device. Intuitively used paths of the hand should be the basics of that device. To evaluate the users comfort additionally to the log parameters of the software, questionnaires and observation are necessary.
Keywords: User-centred design; 3D-input; evaluation software; reachable space of motion; ergonomically motivated equipment
Investigation and Implementation of the Advanced Wireless Medical Registration Solution in China BIBAKFull-Text 267-273
  Yue Ouyang; Shanghong Li; Xiupeng Chen; Guixia Kang
Compared with the huge number of Chinese population, the medical treatment resource is very scarce. A universal and serious phenomenon emerges, that is, the registration becomes more and more difficult especially in some famous hospitals. There is always a long queue for registration and time is wasted. Is there not a technique to make the registration process more efficient? In this paper, we provide a new application, a WAP-based wireless registration solution, which aims to solve the medical registration problem in China. It will bring advantages in both healthcare service domain and WAP industry link.
Keywords: wireless medical registration; WAP; WML; PUSH
Effectiveness of Multimedia Systems in Children's Education BIBAKFull-Text 274-283
  Francisco Rebelo; Ernesto Filgueiras
Presently multimedia has become part of youngsters' daily life, although the quality is not always satisfactory. Sadly, many multimedia resources are not used as tools for socializing, transmitting knowledge and know-how for improving society. This paper presents methodological features for the development of a multimedia tool that combines Participative Design and User Centred Design methodologies, to improve knowledge in the Ergonomics and Occupational Safety and Health for children domain.
Keywords: Multimedia Systems; User Centred Design; Participative Design; Usability
An Expert System to Support Clothing Design Process BIBAKFull-Text 284-289
  Michele Santos; Francisco Rebelo
In the context of expert systems technologies and human computer interaction, the goal of this project is to construct an interactive design support to fashion designers when designing work-wear or corporate-wear clothes. This system will be fed by a semantic database that describes the relations between function and clothes specific context of use under the user's perspective. This application will contain relevant information for clothes designers and producers, alerting them to the user's clothes preferences adequate to a certain task, and hopeful, an added value to be included in the beginning of the design process. To gather all this information it will be studied the user's real work situation and preferences under Kansei Engineering and Rough Set methodology. The outcomes of this study could help clothing designers to suggest effective user centred design clothes.
Keywords: Expert system; Clothing design; Design process; Kansei; Rough Sets; Uniform / Work-wear clothes
Interaction and Ergonomics Issues in the Development of a Mixed Reality Construction Machinery Simulator for Safety Training BIBAKFull-Text 290-299
  Alvaro Segura; Aitor Moreno; Gino Brunetti; Thomas Henn
We present the work on a simulator of construction machinery developed to train workers in their safe use. The simulation setup consists of a real versatile cabin placed on a motion platform in order to provide a realistic interaction with the system and a stereoscopic augmented reality system for visualization. We present some insights into the mixed reality setup we used for complex construction machines and discuss the interaction and usability problems that have arisen during its development and testing. Visualization has been implemented as a chroma-key-based mixed reality system, which combines the 3D virtual environment, the real cabin interior, and some superimposed messages to the user. As a result of our experience, we describe the main problems encountered from a usability and ergonomics point of view.
Keywords: Interaction; Ergonomics; Mixed Reality; Construction Machinery; Simulator; Safety; Training
Performance Improvement of Pulse Oximetry-Based Respiration Detection by Selective Mode Bandpass Filtering BIBAKFull-Text 300-308
  Hojune Seo; Sangbae Jeong; Jinha Kim; Seunghun Park; Minsoo Hahn
In this paper, an improved method to detect respirations by pulse oximetry during exercise is proposed. As a method for robust respiration detection, fixed bandpass filtering to block the heart beat signals is commonly utilized. But the fixed bandpass filtering cannot guarantee reasonable performances when the HR (Heart Rate) is varied highly. Therefore, the respiration detection performance is degraded. In the proposed algorithm, the HR information is used to estimate the RR (Respiration Rate). Using the RR, the corresponding bandpass filter (BPF) is selected to detect respiration points. The selection of the passband makes the proposed algorithm possible to guarantee the performance during exercise. Our test results show that the overall estimation error of the proposed algorithm was 20.32% during exercise.
Keywords: pulse oximetry; SpO2; health care system; biometric signal processing algorithm; respiration detection
Development of Electric Wheelchair with Operational Force Detecting Interface for Persons with Becker's Muscular Dystrophy BIBAKFull-Text 309-318
  Motoki Shino; Takenobu Inoue; Minoru Kamata
Even if some adjustment is provided, it is still harder for disabled people to use the joystick to operate the wheelchair although they can move their bodies. There is considerable difference in disabled characteristics among individuals. To deal with this difficulty, clarifying each person's characteristics and understanding one's individual characteristics are important issues for the proposal of their operation systems. This paper aims to propose the new operation interface, which generates no stress in operation, considering the physical characteristics among those who feel difficulty in operating with joystick. The subject for system validation is set to be a man who has Becker's muscular dystrophy as patient.
Keywords: Human Interface; Electric Wheelchair; Operation; Severely Disabled; Becker's Muscular Dystrophy
How Users with RSI Review the Usability of Notebook Input Devices BIBAKFull-Text 319-328
  Christine Sutter
Musculoskeletal problems are increasingly occurring and are predominately attributed to a frequent and highly repetitive use of input devices. Earlier studies [e.g. 1, 2, 3] showed that the exposure to input devices cause health risks. Even young and healthy users reported severe discomfort in finger and hand after executing cursor control tasks over 2-4 hours. For motion-impaired users also a distinct increase of discomfort was observed, but combined with longer work and rest periods compared to healthy users [4]. The present survey aims at RSI-impaired users. Three RSI-case studies were reported. Compared to healthy users RSI-impaired users were distinctly more sensitive towards exposure [cp. 3]. In can be concluded that RSI-impaired computer users limit the usefulness of notebook input devices as found for keyboard and mouse [4]. They face great barriers in terms of effort and highly rely on low demanding, low repetitive input tasks, and on adequate rest periods.
Keywords: RSI; Musculoskeletal Discomfort; Exposure; Notebook Input Device
Dynamic Mouse Speed Scheme Design Based on Trajectory Analysis BIBAKFull-Text 329-338
  Kuo-Hao Tang; Yueh-Hua Lee
Windows GUI allows user to define pointer speed and precision, however, the settings are fixed and not adaptive to different pointing tasks in real time. This study proposes a dynamic mouse speed (DMP) scheme that dynamically changes the pointer speed by calling SPI_SETMOUSESPEED. Results show that DMP setting, on average, outperformed some commonly used Windows built-in settings. However, the advantage of DMP setting occurred more significantly for longer moving distance. For short moving distance, the advantage was not clear. In addition, the advantage of DMP was not on all directions. For some directions, especially when moving distance was short, Windows built-in settings outperformed DMP setting.
Keywords: Mouse; Cursor trajectory; Overshooting; Dynamic mouse speed; Control-response ratio
Problematic Internet Use in South African Information Technology Workers BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Andrew Thatcher; Gisela Wretschko; James Fisher
The majority of studies that have looked at Internet addiction and problematic Internet use have focused either on university students or high school pupils as groups at high risk of experiencing problems as a result of their Internet use. This study adopts the approach that within the context of limited access to the Internet, those with access are obviously more at risk than those without access. With this in mind, this paper looks at the prevalence and correlates of problematic Internet use in a sample of 1399 information technology workers. The results indicate that the prevalence of problematic Internet use in this sample was 3.22%, significantly lower than in other studies. Information technology workers were more likely to display symptoms of problematic Internet use if they were younger and male, if they spent a large amount of time online, but not if they had only recently started using the Internet. The best predictors of problematic Internet use were procrastination, using online chat, spending a long period of time online in a single session, and going online more frequently per week. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies of problematic Internet use from around the world.
Keywords: Problematic Internet use; information technology workers; online procrastination; Internet addiction
A Novel Design for an Ultra-Large Screen Display for Industrial Process Control BIBAKFull-Text 349-358
  Øystein Veland; Malvin Eikås
While large screen display technology has been used in process control rooms for many years, it still remains an immature area where there are few examples of successful utilization of its potential benefits in providing essential support to control room crews. We present a solution claimed to represent a major breakthrough in the transfer of modern Human System Interface concepts for process control from the research community to large-scale industrial application. The design principles and approaches that have emerged from this interaction between research and real-life problems are presented, including the novel design challenges imposed by the use of a new type of ultra-large screen technology.
Keywords: Human-computer interface display design; large screen; industrial applications; human-centered design; visual constraints; information design; ecological interface design
Methodology to Apply a Usability Testing by Non Specialized People: Evaluation of the European Platform "e-Exhibitions" BIBAKFull-Text 359-367
  Elisângela Vilar; Ernesto Filgueiras; Francisco Rebelo
This paper presents a methodology developed to the Usability analysis of a platform to create and publish virtual exhibitions (e-Exhibitions Platform). This methodology was developed considering its application by anybody without large experience in usability testing. The methodology was applied with success in Portugal, Italy and Germany with a sample of 18 subjects. This methodology intends to fill the gap related to the long-distance usability testing applied by people without experience in this kind of test.
Keywords: Usability Testing; Methodology; Usability tools; Protocol
Evaluation of Guiard's Theory of Bimanual Control for Navigation and Selection BIBAKFull-Text 368-377
  Xu Xia; Pourang Irani; Jing Wang
Two-handed interaction is a very common paradigm that is gaining popularity in the fields of medical tele-operation, gaming, and large-scale design. In this paper, we validate Guiard's theory of bimanual control for the tasks of navigation and selection. We present the related literature and the theoretical models that motivate the research, in particular Guiard's theory of bimanual control. Two experiments are designed to verify and establish the relationship between navigation and selection in bimanual interaction based on Guiard's theory. The contributions assist interaction designers in developing adequate tools for bimanual operation.
Keywords: Unimanual; Bimanual; Navigation; Selection; Dominant Hand; Non-dominant Hand; Guiard's model
Evaluation Approach for Post-stroke Rehabilitation Via Virtual Reality Aided Motor Training BIBAKFull-Text 378-387
  Shih-Ching Yeh; Jill Stewart; Margaret McLaughlin; Thomas D. Parsons; Carolee J. Winstein; Albert A. Rizzo
This paper introduces an evaluation approach that was applied to clinical data collected from a virtual reality aided motor training program for post-stroke rehabilitation. The goal of the proposed evaluation approach is to diagnose the patient's current status (performance) and detect change in status over time (progression). Three measures, performance time, movement efficiency, and movement speed, were defined to represent kinematic features of reaching. 3-D performance maps and progression maps were generated based on each kinematic measure to visualize a single patient's behavior. The case study revealed the patient's current status as to direction and range of upper extremity reach ability, composed of pitch, yaw and arm length. Further, progression was found and visualized quantitatively over a series of practice sessions.
Keywords: Virtual reality; rehabilitation; evaluation approach; human computer interaction