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DUX Tables of Contents: 030507

Proceedings of DUX'03: Designing for User eXperiences 2003-06-06

Fullname:Proceedings of the 2003 Conference on Designing for User Experiences
Editors:Richard Anderson; John Zapolski
Location:San Francisco, California
Dates:2003-Jun-06 to 2003-Jun-07
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-728-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DUX03
  1. DUX in practice I
  2. Informing DUX
  3. Focusing on user-to-product relationships
  4. DUX in practice II
  5. Dealing with constraints
  6. Organizational/business issues

DUX in practice I

From ethnography to design in a vineyard BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Tim Brooke; Jenna Burrell
This paper summarizes the process from ethnographic study of a vineyard to concept development and interaction design for a ubiquitous computing solution. It provides examples of vineyard interfaces and the lessons learned that could be generally applied to the interaction design of ubiquitous systems. These are: design for multiple perspectives on data, design for multiple access points, and design for varying levels of attention.
Making an iMpact: redesigning a business school Web site around performance metrics BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  Tom Brinck; Seunghee S. Ha; Nick Pritula; Kara Lock; Alfred Speredelozzi; Mike Monan
The University of Michigan Business School went through a substantial redesign in 2002-2003 of their site of over 3,000 pages, with a focus on increased ease of use, clean, professional design, improved branding, reduction of Web sprawl, and integration of their public site with their intranet, called "iMpact." The site serves a range of users with varying needs, including faculty, students, staff, alumni, prospective students, media, and recruiters.
   Our redesign process was grounded in a metrics-based user testing approach that set targets for various measurements, such as task completion rate, and compared these to users' performance on their previous site and the sites of their competitors. Task completion rate, for instance, went from 61.7% on their former site to 92.5% on the final redesigned site. Continuous testing provided detailed feedback, and measurement enabled us to reduce project risks while demonstrating substantial improvements versus competitors' web sites.
A user-centered drowsy-driver detection and warning system BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Ellen M. Ayoob; Richard Grace; Aaron Steinfeld
This work is a culmination of years of research to develop an effective in-vehicle countermeasure to drowsy driving. Previous work resulted in an independently validated measure of drowsiness that was then incorporated into a drowsy-driver prototype monitor. The goal of this project was to develop an associated drowsy-driver interface that enabled effective, user-centered interactions with the underlying system.
   A multidisciplinary team designed a new drowsy-driver interface and introduced smart user interactions through a careful participatory design process that included both design experts and commercial motor vehicle drivers. It is hoped that this effort and subsequent field trials will result in a reliable, smart system that convinces drivers that they are driving in an unsafe condition and to make a wise choice -- stop and rest.
Designing the handheld maritime communicator BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Jan Stage
We present the process of designing the first prototype of the Handheld Maritime Communicator: a mobile computer system supporting communication and coordination of safety-critical work activities on large container vessels. Designing the user experience of the Handheld Maritime Communicator was a particular challenge because it targets a highly specialized context of use and because poor design could potentially become a safety hazard. Meeting this challenge, ethnographic field studies on board container vessels were conducted, detailed analyses were carried out, and iterative design was performed. The design produced replaces a large amount of present spoken communication with predefined textual messages on a handheld device. This facilitates persistency, partial automation, and possible integration with other computer-based data. Evaluating the prototype in a high-fidelity ship simulator, prospective users validated the overall design, but also identified a number of usability problems that need to be addressed.
Connexus: a communal interface BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Eric Paulos
Human communication and interaction comprise a wide range of verbal and nonverbal cues. Further adoption of novel telecommunication methods such as e-mail, chat, instant messaging (IM), mobile phone SMS text messaging, and videoconferencing; have augmented our mediated interaction abilities. However, a significant (and important) amount of human expression and interaction information is never captured, transmitted, or expressed with current computer mediated communication (CMC) tools. We also lack ambient methods of maintaining contact when not co-located with family and friends. Communal Interfaces is a new research effort aimed at the study of nonverbal human cues: their intent, motion, meaning, subtleties, and importance in communication. In this paper we address issues involved in the design, construction, and evaluation of Connexus, one such communal interface.

Informing DUX

Personas: practice and theory BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  John Pruitt; Jonathan Grudin
"Personas" is an interaction design technique with considerable potential for software product development. In three years of use, our colleagues and we have extended Alan Cooper's technique to make Personas a powerful complement to other usability methods. After describing and illustrating our approach, we outline the psychological theory that explains why Personas are more engaging than design based primarily on scenarios. As Cooper and others have observed, Personas can engage team members very effectively. They also provide a conduit for conveying a broad range of qualitative and quantitative data, and focus attention on aspects of design and use that other methods do not.
Universal model of a user interface BIBAFull-Text 1-14
  Bob Baxley
This article describes a model of a user interface that can be applied to any interactive medium or product. Building on the established model of structure-behavior-presentation, this model adds levels of granularity and specificity.
   It also describes the importance and utility of such a model, both in regard to cross-discipline communication and the allocation and prioritization of tasks and resources.
   The article illustrates the model in practice by applying it to a single, detailed example as well as to four well-known interfaces drawn from different mediums. By demonstrating how the model can be used to evaluate the relative complexity and sophistication of an interface and its constituent parts, the examples serve to illustrate the model's utility as both a communication device and a diagnostic tool.
Vacations or groceries?: purchase modeling and loyalty programs BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Daniel Makoski
Experience design studio texture|media undertakes a focused qualitative research project to inform the design of a pilot customer loyalty program for financial services company Wells Fargo.
   Using card-sorting (cognitive mapping) and an informal one-on-one interview protocol, 15 "participatory interviews" provided surprising insight into how people approach purchasing. For example, contrary to how current loyalty programs focus on luxuries, participants also wanted offers around everyday necessities.
   This and other insights helped to fundamentally shape the design of the program. Based on this research, texture|media is currently in the process of designing Internet, extranet, and intranet sites to support the customer, partner, and client experiences which will enable this innovative loyalty program.
UCPCD: user-centered product concept design BIBAFull-Text 1-13
  Anu Kankainen
Traditional user-centered methodologies have been developed for system-level and detailed-level design and not for concept-level design. This paper discusses thinking models and user-centered practices useful in the earliest phase of product development-product concept design.
Interaction design case: VasSol CANVAS BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  Brian Herzfeldt; Marc Rettig
CANVAS is a software product from VasSol, Inc., which uses input from MRI scanners to create 3-D models of a patient's vasculature and accurately calculate blood flow. This case study reports on a nine-month effort to turn a prototype into a commercial product.
   The authors derived high value from small amounts of field research, by using a series of semiformal analysis techniques. One key concept was that of "alignment" clearly connecting functionality with interface, and these in turn with the needs at each step of the task. This is a basic idea, but difficult to achieve for a complex feature set and complicated task.
   The final product is built around a small set of views, around which all controls are grouped. It makes the task and work flow explicit in the interface, and provides a "complexity gradient," in which more complicated controls are revealed as the user faces more difficult challenges.
Improving the effectiveness of election workers in the polling place BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Bob Zeni
Design for Democracy seeks to improve the election experience for voters by working with multidisciplinary teams to discover problems and develop solutions. One of Design for Democracy-component groups' team from Sapient examined an election in Cook County, Illinois and discovered four phases in the voting process: registering, getting information, voting and monitoring choices; and five voter types: avid, issue, civic, excluded, and apathetic. The team also found that polling place workers are critical to the voter experience.
   Another component group, a team at Studio/lab Chicago, worked with the Cook County Clerk's Office to design the pollworkers' manual the key training and reference tool used by the workers in helping voters. A structured approach that emphasized legible typography, consistent illustration and easy-to-understand symbols created a manual that election officials regarded as innovative and valuable.
Designing TramMatena Context-aware mobile system supporting use of public transportation BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Jesper Kjeldskov; Steve Howard; John Murphy; Jennie Carroll; Frank Vetere; Connor Graham
We describe the design of a mobile information service that provides users with a route-planning tool for the tram-based public transport system of Melbourne, Australia. The design sketches for TramMate represent early iterations of an ongoing design process based on data from field studies on the use of transportation by business employees who, during a typical workday, have to attend appointments at different physical locations. TramMate supports this activity by keeping track of contextual factors such as the user's physical location, upcoming appointments, and real-time travel information. The design is integrated with an electronic calendar and alerts the user when it is necessary to commence the journey.

Focusing on user-to-product relationships

Visualizing health: imagery in diabetes education BIBAFull-Text 1-14
  Jeana Frost; Brian K. Smith
In this paper, we describe research designed to impact diabetes education programs. We have tried to connect medical facts and information about diabetes to personal experiences by introducing photography as a tool for data collection. Diabetics typically measure their blood sugar levels to understand their physiological state, but these data cannot explain the causal factors leading to anomalous health. We have introduced additional qualitative data into the diabetes portfolio by having patients photograph their eating, exercise, and stress management habits. We discuss two related projects in the paper: a new approach to diabetes education courses and visualization software that allows photographs of behavior to be synchronized with glucose data. In both cases, our goal is to help diabetics reflect on their health practices, and to use personal imagery as data to explain their conditions.
Beyond "puree": reinventing the blender BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Aaron Oppenheimer; Heather Reavey
From its invention in the 1920s to today, the humble blender has been a fixture in American homes. However, since its heyday in the 40s and 50s, the blender has descended in status from important food preparation tool to seldom used drink mixer. In February 2000, Sunbeam challenged Design Continuum to reinvigorate the Oster Blender.
   Continuum's process for design strategy, which serves as a roadmap and conceptual platform for product development, includes extensive research, analysis, and envisioning. Once a strategy is developed, designers bring it to life by creating products that deliver on the strategic promise.
   Multidisciplinary teams visited homes across the country, speaking with and observing blender users to understand what they do and why. Analysis of these observations formed the basis for the development of a new model for blender use, delivering benefits that encourage consumers to rediscover the blender as a useful food preparation instrument.
How do users evaluate the credibility of Web sites?: a study with over 2,500 participants BIBAFull-Text 1-15
  B. J. Fogg; Cathy Soohoo; David R. Danielson; Leslie Marable; Julianne Stanford; Ellen R. Tauber
In this study 2,684 people evaluated the credibility of two live Web sites on a similar topic (such as health sites). We gathered the comments people wrote about each site's credibility and analyzed the comments to find out what features of a Web site get noticed when people evaluate credibility. We found that the "design look" of the site was mentioned most frequently, being present in 46.1% of the comments. Next most common were comments about information structure and information focus. In this paper we share sample participant comments in the top 18 areas that people noticed when evaluating Web site credibility. We discuss reasons for the prominence of design look, point out how future studies can build on what we have learned in this new line of research, and outline six design implications for human-computer interaction professionals.
Girls as space game designers: extreme baseline research BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Carrie Heeter; Brian Winn; Rhonda Egidio; Punya Mishra; Norm Lownds
This NSF-funded two-year research project explores gender and age differences in attitudes toward technology, space exploration, game design, and learning from games. In addition to rigorously testing the proposition that all-girl design teams will envision substantively different education game experiences than all-boy design teams, this project will provide extremely elaborate baseline research to inform future design of highly entertaining learning games.
   By June 2003, we will have spent five months preparing our two-week Space Pioneer Adventures summer camp (offered to 10 fifth grade girls, 10 fifth grade boys, 10 eighth grade girls, and 10 eighth grade boys). Working in same-sex, same-age teams of five, in Week 1 they will experience a wide range of technologically delivered space-learning activities. In Week 2 they will envision their ideal space-learning game.
   Conference participants will see and provide feedback about our baseline participatory learning game-design research plan.
GMS: preserving multiple expert voices in scientific knowledge management BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Adria H. Liszka; William A. Stubblefield; Stephen D. Kleban
Computer archives of scientific and engineering knowledge must insure the accuracy, completeness, and validity of their contents. Unfortunately, designers of these sites often overlook the social and cognitive context of scientific activity in favor of highly distilled collections of theoretical findings and technical data, divorcing scientific information from its human origins.
   Contextual aspects of knowledge seldom find their way into journals and other scientific forums, yet they often reveal the broader strategies behind the development and application of that knowledge. In implementing a GMS (Glass-Metal Seals) knowledge-management system, we found such contextual aspects as the structure of expert communities, the patterns of communication across disciplines, and the informal representations, sketches, and stories experts use in casual discussion to be essential to our efforts. Preserving these "extra-technical" features in the system's content and organization gives users an implicit experience of the subtle interpretations, viewpoints, and strategies that define engineering expertise.
The development of mobile applications for patient education BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Jane Wood; Alison Keen; Niren Basu; Simon Robertshaw
The International Centre for Digital Content explores the relationship of technology to society through present and emerging applications. This paper outlines ICDC's rapid application development methodology, focusing specifically on a current project partnership with Healthcare Services. The aim of this project is to provide the Primary Care Group (PCG) healthcare specialists with a suite of interoperable devices that can provide breast cancer patients with personalized educational information at any point throughout the course of their treatment. The first phase of the project focuses on the development of a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) prototype. The patient will have access to educational multimedia content relating to their condition at any time and in any context.

DUX in practice II

The Hug: a new form for communication BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Francine Gemperle; Carl DiSalvo; Jodi Forlizzi; Willy Yonkers
Recent advances in telecommunication and wireless networking technology have exploded the possibilities for remote communication between people.
   We present a product called the Hug as a challenge to familiar telecommunication products. A visionary design born out of research with elders, the Hug addresses a very human need for physical closeness in remote communications. It uses the same network infrastructure as many appliances today, but places a new face on human product interaction.
Customer portal research and design BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Michael Kronthal
The goal of this project is to improve the online experience of frequent and experienced users of PeopleSoft customer extranet by designing and implementing a useful, usable, and satisfying Customer Portal.
   PeopleSoft.com's User Experience Specialist designed and executed a seven-week research program over a four-month period. The research process was split into a user-requirements gathering phase and a user-centered design phase. The project utilized a rigorous research approach consisting of a combination of market research and user-centered design methods; specifically, contextual interviews, focus groups, an online survey, paper prototype tests, a usage study, and usability tests of a functional prototype.
   This design research process saved significant time and development costs in delivering a quality product that will address user requirements through a simple and elegant experience. This project also established PeopleSoft.com's user-experience expertise throughout the company.
Wells Fargo online banking redesign BIBAFull-Text 1-4
  Chuck Moore; Robin Beers
The tight interrelationship between user research and design during Wells Fargo's online banking site redesign is discussed. User research, visual design, and information architecture comprised an interdisciplinary design team within a larger team and worked in tandem to create a solution that met business goals and created a positive user experience.
   Our 4-phase design process:
  • 1. Requirements gathering and scenario development
  • 2. Concept exploration
  • 3. Storyboarding and paper prototype testing
  • 4. User-interface prototype development and usability testing Each phase represented a key milestone and opportunity to communicate with stakeholders, gather feedback, create internal buy-in, and iterate the design.
       This sketch describes our human-centered design process. Specifically, we will discuss how the View/Do Loop experience model allowed us to identify obstacles to usability and business-goal achievement. Solving the View/Do Loop provided a focusing point for the team and led to a design that calibrated both user and business objectives.
  • Capturing the invisible: designing context-aware photography BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Maria Hakansson; Sara Ljungblad; Lars Erik Holmquist
    Taking a photograph using a digital camera is today still basically the same as using the analog counterpart. We are designing a digital camera that senses its context to explore new possibilities for digital photography. The sensor data produces real-time visual effects on the image displayed in the viewfinder and enables the user to take unique pictures, whose visual qualities reflect the context. Our first prototype is based on a digital camera mounted on a handheld computer. Our development process involves participatory design sessions with possible end users, including a panel of enthusiastic amateur photographers.
    Designing tomorrow's smart products' experience with the Smart-Itsxs platform BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Lars Erik Holmquist; Ramia Maze; Sara Ljungblad
    Designers will increasingly be facing the challenge of creating context-aware or "smart-products" every day objects that have embedded computation, sensing, and communication capabilities. Smart-Its is a prototyping platform for creating such objects, that is being developed in a European Union research project. A Smart-It is a very small computer equipped with wireless communication and a set of sensors. We describe how we approached the design of future user experiences and interactions based on the Smart-Its platform. Using scenario-based methods to support collaboration within a multi-disciplinary working group, we developed innovative demonstrators of how "smart" objects support dynamic usage situations and new interactions in a restaurant setting. A group of designers were invited to provide feedback on design aspects of prototyping with Smart-Its. We found that our prototypes and design materials stimulated creative speculation about future interactive products.

    Dealing with constraints

    More for less: a novel hybrid method to maximize the impact of research BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Sheryl Ehrlich; Wilson Chan; Karen Cross; Darcey Imm
    Over the past year, Adobe User Research Team undertook a large research initiative exploring a new business domain within the realm of our professional software products. We approached this domain by exploring and documenting user workflows spanning across numerous people, applications, and business verticals.
       Due to impracticalities of using standard methods, compounded by resource limitations imposed by the tightening economy, we developed a novel, multi-stage hybrid method to maximize our efforts. We found this method to be highly successful in many situations, including cross-product planning of features and designs, gaining consensus in product teams, assessing product interoperability issues, and documenting knowledge distributed across the company.
       This hybrid approach allowed us to collect a large volume of cross-product data rather than focusing directly on one design within a particular application. The data is currently providing a background upon which the User Interface Team is designing applications across several divisions within Adobe.
    The LIGA traveler: the use of technical and social invariants in software design BIBAFull-Text 1-15
      William A. Stubblefield; Karen S. Rogers; Deborah S. Ingram
    It is not enough for software to support individual interactions well. Everyone involved in the program's use, maintenance, and management must experience it and its designers as behaving meaningfully and responsively across the life cycle's short, as situated in their community. Achieving this requires that designers understand the community's deeper invariant structure: inherently stable patterns of activity, technology, information, and communication.
       The LIGA Traveler is an information-management tool for a micro-mechanical systems-fabrication process. It serves a specialized R&D group at Sandia National Laboratories. Supporting this community required that we understand both the pressures for change within it, and the technical and social invariants that counter those pressures. This paper discusses the process of interpreting field data to discover these invariants, and their use as a foundation for the design of the system. It also presents a set of software components we have built specifically to support our design process.
    Kawaii: adventures in a parallel universe BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Steve Portigal; Lynn Shade
    Japan is full of surprises and challenges for user researchers. This paper describes our experiences conducting research in Japan: why it's worth going there; communicating through interpreters from both sides of the fence; looking beyond the data to cultural cues; and a brief sidebar discussion of the crucial importance of "Kawaii," that keen Japanese appreciation for all that is loveable and cute. Real-life examples highlight areas to consider when planning overseas research.
    Sprint: Agile specifications in Shockwave and Flash BIBAFull-Text 1-14
      Jack Hakim; Tom Spitzer; John Armitage
    Digital product development teams have trouble coordinating specification assets, both in the effort to represent a stable design in multiple specification forms, and particularly when a changing context causes requirement changes. The Agile process movement avoids cumbersome specifications by prescribing faster release cycles, more parallel development, and greater requirement flexibility.
       Sprint is both a method and a tool designed to allow an Agile approach to product development while supporting best practices for user-centered design. Unlike more comprehensive modeling and configuration management products, Sprint is for smaller teams to use for design and specification, and allows designers to stay synchronized with customers, analysts, and developers.
       Driven by Shockwave or Flash prototypes, Sprint links project assets, such as personas, scenarios, screen designs, storyboards, requirements, and use cases, to form interactive specifications. By eliminating asset redundancies and supporting multiple asset fidelities, Sprint reduced our administrative documentation tasks, accelerated client/user feedback, and improved team coordination.
    "And another thing...the current site is in German": the final project in an international digital business consultancy BIBAFull-Text 1-15
      John Armitage
    Between 1996 and 2001, large international Internet consulting firms built many Web sites and applications. These firms combined the disciplines of business strategy, technology and design into one service offering, capable of creating businesses and launching business initiatives using the Internet.
       This paper portrays a project completed by one of these companies, Viant Corporation, in 2001, at a time when they were starting to suffer from a severe economic downturn. It portrays the project's design process in detail, and how it was affected both by Viant's culture and business model, and the project's economic context.
       A team of mostly non-designer consultants adopted new roles, design processes, tools, and work environments to fulfill the role of interaction designers. The case serves both as a vivid example of adapting design processes and standards to adverse circumstances, and as a historical snapshot of a business context that may never reappear.

    Organizational/business issues

    Using a change-management approach to promote customer-centered design BIBAFull-Text 1-11
      Stephen Sato; Andrew Panton
    Future business success is strongly linked to establishing and sustaining a superior customer experience. Through an internal company wide initiative called "Total Customer Experience," Hewlett-Packard (HP) has focused on the delivery of a superior customer experience as a differentiating advantage. Using a proven change-management framework, the authors promoted a customer-centered approach to product development in designing tape drive products. This paper discusses the approach taken within the HP Tape Storage Division in Bristol, UK to introduce and successfully institutionalize customer-centered design within the tape drive development function. Compared to designing the customer-centered approach, the change-management process accounted for a major part of the authors' time and energy. Introducing the customer-centered design approach at the appropriate phase in the change-management process was crucial to its adoption.
    Developing best practices for distributed networks of sites: heuristics, design, and politics BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Jeffrey Veen; Carolyn Gibson Smith
    As broadcast media continues to converge with digital experiences, PBS finds itself in a dilemma. PBS.org is one of the most trafficked not-for-profit sites on the Web, but most end users have affinity for their local station. And, as funding became scarce, many member stations turned to the national organization for help with their online efforts. Based on earlier work with National Public Radio, PBS turned to Adaptive Path to launch a national survey to document the best practices at its member stations. But this wasn't a style guide that could be enforced on all Web properties. Since PBS couldn't enforce standards across their network of independent stations, recommendations had to capture what was working, as well as deliver it in the context of delicate politics. With all of this in mind, this research and design project was more successful that we could have imagined.
    Creating imaginable futures: using human-centered design strategies as a foresight tool BIBAFull-Text 1-14
      Silvia Gabrielli; Jan-Christoph Zoels
    Corporations as well as private or public institutions all need to plan for the future, but the difficulty of anticipating the long-term effects of current decisions is well known.
       This paper explores how design research methods and strategic design can strengthen a foresight and innovation process by enhancing scenarios of the future with the visual, the spatial, and the experiential.
       The case study is based on two recent design foresight initiatives, Macrowave and Project F, that Whirlpool Europe, a leading manufacturer and marketer of major domestic appliances, carried out as a multidisciplinary effort to use design strategy and user experience research in shaping its business policy for the next ten years.
       Results from these projects show that by using design to create tangible representations of future product solutions, the company was able to stimulate interest, buy-in, and support internally, as well as to open up a more sustainable dialogue with all the stakeholders involved in its foresight strategy and decision-making.
    Four strategies for promoting common UI guidelines within Adobe BIBAFull-Text 1-4
      Bill Bachman; Dave Valiulis; Frederick Aliaga; Marissa Treinen
    When a single company develops multiple software applications, it can be very challenging "or downright impossible" to create a consistent cross-product user experience: a designer may forget to follow an existing implementation, an engineer might not have an eye for layout, and a quality assurance person may have no clue what to test.
       To minimize these risks and increase compliance with the cross-product Common UI Guidelines, the Adobe User Interface Design Team uses a variety of techniques when documenting design decisions and promoting companywide awareness. This paper highlights our creation process and details the final results for four of our most recent innovations: a Version 1.0 Document, a Quick Reference, Report Cards, and UI Trivia contests.
    Webtop: realities in designing a Web-application platform BIBAFull-Text 1-15
      David Heller; Lisa Krenzelok; Julian Orr
    This case study focuses on the design process for a thin-client in a real world enterprise software environment, created for our own internal sales and marketing directives. This project became the basis of our biggest upgrade migration in four years. The project increased sales and earned our product industry awards, but was most successful for the paradigm shift in corporate culture; specifically, user experience has become a fundamental part of our development process, a challenge in most organizations. Developing this client as an interaction platform facilitated the design of applications based on the Documentum platform and increased client consistency throughout the Documentum product line.