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DOC Tables of Contents: 899091929394959697989900010203040506070809

ACM 17th International Conference on Systems Documentation

Fullname:17th International Conference on Systems Documentation
Note:Tradition and Change in Documentation
Location:New Orleans, Louisiana
Dates:1999-Sep-12 to 1999-Sep-14
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-072-4; ACM Order Number 613990; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DOC99
Papers:37
Pages:220
Complex Queries in Information Visualizations: Distributing Instruction Across Documentation and Interfaces BIBAKPDF 1-8
  Barbara Mirel
Successful visual querying requires users to understand what data selection means and how it works in interactive and dynamically linked graphics. Visually selecting data differs from writing query or search statements, and users who are new to visualizations have to learn this new paradigm of querying. A usability study that I conducted provides findings about problems that users encounter in visual selection when analyzing data for a realistic, complex business problem. These problems reveal the program-based support that users need in order to make accurate, complete, and efficient selections. I identify combined improvements in user interfaces and Help that address these problems.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Software -Software Engineering - Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): User interfaces; Software -Programming Techniques - Visual Programming (D.1.7); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Performance, Theory; documentation, human factors, human factors, usability, user interface design, user testing, visualizations
The Role of Experience and Culture in Computer Graphing and Graph Interpretive Processes BIBAKPDF 9-15
  Lee Brasseur
This paper supports critics of current approaches to the development of computer graphing and graph visualization programs which model the user as an individual problem solver reliant on perceptual skills. These critics argue that such a model of graphing is ill-suited to meet the complex needs of real users. This paper agrees with this criticism and provides conclusions from two bodies of literature on graphing practices which have not been traditionally cited in studies of computer development, graph production and human factors. These literature surveys are taken from the fields of the sociology of scientific and technical practices and of educational research in science and technology. Surveys of these literatures illustrate the importance of experience and culture in the successful practice of designing and interpreting graphs.
Keywords: Software -Programming Techniques - Visual Programming (D.1.7); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - General (I.2.0): Cognitive simulation; Mathematics of Computing -Discrete Mathematics - General (G.2.0); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Performance, Theory
Grappling with Distributed Usability: A Cultural-Historical Examination of Documentation Genres Over Four Decades BIBAKPDF 16-21
  Clay Spinuzzi
This paper describes a cultural-historical framework for investigating usability, based on activity theory and genre theory. Rather than investigating usability as the property of a single artifact or of a user-artifact dyad, the framework approaches usability as distributed across an entire activity network. The points are illustrated through a cultural-historical examination of an information system as it evolved over four decades.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8): Spatial databases and GIS; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; GIS, activity theory, distributed cognition, genre ecology, genre theory, history, information systems, software documentation, usability
Constructing Usable Documentation: A Study of Communicative Practices and the Early Uses of Mainframe Computing in industry BIBAKPDF 22-25
  Mark Zachry
This study suggests that computer documentation is a complex technical communication genre, encompassing all the texts that mediate between complex human activities and computer processes. Drawing on a historical study, it demonstrates that the varied forms given to documentation have a long history, extending back at least to the early days of commercial mainframe computing. The data suggests that (1) early forms of computer documentation were borrowed from existing genres, and (2) official and unofficial documentation existed concurrently, despite efforts to consolidate these divergent texts. The study thus provides a glimpse into the early experimental nature of documentation as writers struggled to find a meaningful way to communicate information about their organization's developing computer technology.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Design, Documentation, Performance, Theory; computer documentation, genre, information ecologies, mainframe computing
Information Technology and Organizational Change BIBAKPDF 26-35
  Patricia Carlson
My paper considers the impact of emerging, integrated information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) for a research and development organization. Background research was conducted during the period of 15 June - 28 August, as part of an Army Summer Faculty Research and Engineering Program grant. More specifically, this document discusses the interaction of corporate culture, leadership/management, human resources, and advanced networking and web-based applications (more commonly called an Intranet) for the successful integration of new IT products into an established and well-defined organization. The study concludes with a set of recommendations focusing both on policy and practice in an environment where many needs compete for the same scarce resources.
Keywords: Computer Systems Organization -Computer-Communication Networks - Local and Wide-Area Networks (C.2.5); Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Organizational Impacts (K.4.3); Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; information technology, intranet, workplace re-engineering
Technical Communications as Knowledge Management: Evolution of a Profession BIBAKPDF 36-44
  Patti Anklam
The tasks, talents, and technical capabilities of systems communications professionals have evolved over the past 30 years as the industry itself has grown and transformed the world we live in through several generations of systems. The next generation of systems will be focused on supporting the knowledge worker more effectively and efficiently by focusing on knowledge-enabling business processes. The skills, practices, and understanding of the community of systems documentation professionals are well positioned to contribute and participate in this next evolution.
Keywords: Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Milieux -The Computing Profession - Occupations (K.7.1); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; knowledge management, technical communications
SST: Using Single-Sourcing, SGML, and Teamwork for Documentation BIBAKPDF 45-52
  Carl Stieren
Suppose you don't have a fancy database-driven system to generate your documentation. How can you develop single-source documentation for output in multiple formats, without having to store your source in a specific format that will soon become obsolete? The answer is to use a combination of your own SGML or XML tags to mark up your documentation and a simple OmniMark program to create each output format and presentation style. There's also a third ingredient: teamwork. As much as any technology, you need a team that can manage itself, in which everyone is willing to take tasks from someone who's overloaded. At OmniMark Technologies, we developed documentation for a new product, SureSpeed, using an SGML system we designed and short programs we wrote in OmniMark. The teamwork came from innovative and co-operative individuals who made up the OmniMark documentation team.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): SGML; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): HTML; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Design, Documentation, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; HTML, SGML, XML, print, single-source, teamwork
Dynamically Assembled Documentation BIBAKPDF 53-57
  Michael Priestley
As online information becomes more comprehensive in its scope, the sheer wealth of information can be overwhelming. Information needs to be both browsable and searchable, and both needs are best met with a structured information approach (such as SGML or XML).
   Browsing assumes a primary sequence of all information, which is unlikely to be appropriate for all readers. Searching assumes no primary sequence: information is sorted by relevance for a particular query, creating any number of ad hoc sequences as a result. However, the criteria for relevance specified in the search is unlikely to be reflected within the returned topics: they are usually still structured in a way that reflects the primary browsing path. For example, a search of API information for a description of a specific method returns a description of the entire class where it is declared, because API documentation is organized around classes, even though this particular search has nothing to do with classes.
   One way to resolve this tension (between linear display and multidimensional search) is with multiple documents that capture various useful ways of looking at the same information. However, the number of possible views and the growing size of information bases can make static generation of such views prohibitively expensive.
   The ideal solution would be a dynamically assembled document, in which the information base is so comprehensively structured that it can be meaningfully reconstructed into any number of relevant documents, whose derived structures reflect the needs of a particular reader and environment.
   This is a speculative paper that looks at what the interface to a dynamically assembled document might look like.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Information Search and Retrieval (H.3.3): Search process; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; dynamic documentation, reference documentation, structured information
Publication and Customization of Electronic Documents using PANDA BIBAKPDF 58-64
  Isabel F. Cruz; Gerard T. McGuire
The publication of conference proceedings and technical journals generates the need for a consistent format or set of admissible formats, easily enforceable across the submissions of the authors. In this paper we present an approach for the integration of electronic documents, which is part of a system called PANDA. Our approach has benefits for editors, authors, and readers: it easily allows the editor to provide multiple user interfaces with minimal overhead, while the authors can present their submissions using any of the permitted different formats, and the readers can choose one of these formats or define their own. The customization of the layout as provided by PANDA goes beyond that provided by widely available tailorable interfaces, such as MyYahoo!. Currently our approach works on HTML files but is general enough to accommodate XML or other formats in the future.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): Format and notation; Design, Documentation, Performance, Theory
One Step Further: Extending Electronic Submission into the Reviewing Process BIBAKPDF 65-69
  Jochen Bern; Christoph Meinel
As the focus of our work on electronic publishing, the department for Theoretical Computer Science at the University of Trier has developed methods and prototypical tools for use of the Internet in both kinds of publications since about mid-1994. While transfer of documents as-is can nowadays be considered everyday technology (which it wasn't, for several reasons, in 1994), and proper collection and processing of metadata is at least doable, the areas of mixed-platform document processing and support of the editorial process are still in the research phase. In this paper, we will focus on recent work in the latter area.
   In one of our projects -- the Electronic Colloquium on Computational Complexity (ECCC), operative since the end of 1994 -- the decision process for selection of contributions to include was radically simplified in comparison to traditional journals. As a result, ECCC has a guaranteed limit on the delay between submission and decision of two months; many electronic journals use the same decision mechanism as paper journals, and suffer the same delays of sometimes over a year because of the time spent for communication between reviewers and editors.
   This approach could not be used, however, in the tools we developed for electronic conference submission. Conferences have established modi operandi, usually involving distribution of the submissions for reviewing down several hierarchical levels and an actual meeting of the editors (program committee, PC) for the final decision. As a consequence, the first tools we presented did not address the decision process at all, which left a large procedural hole between the actual electronic submission and the later support of final version submission and conference attendance.
   In 1999, we performed electronic submissions to the Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science (STACS), and since the conference was hosted in Trier, we were able to "co-develop" certain changes in the decision process and a software implementing support for the entire process. The software performed well and demonstrated the anticipated advantages, the most memorable being publication of the list of accepted papers -- formerly taking place up to a week after the PC meeting -- while the assembled PC members watched.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Electronic Publishing (I.7.4); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; Symposium on Theoretical Aspects of Computer Science, decision support software, distributed editing, electronic submission to conferences, online reviewing process
Pulling Yourself up by Your Own Bootstraps: Strategies for Advancing your Documentation Team's Position in Your Company BIBAKPDF 70-71
  Jay Lesandrini
This paper shows several methods a manager can use to change the company's perception of his or her documentation department, which in turn can effect a change in the role of that department within the company.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Management techniques; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; management strategy, roles, team development
Creating Your Own Space: Strategies for Moving up in the Development Process BIBAKPDF 72-73
  C. Shannon Brown
This paper outlines two strategies for documentation specialists to increase their participation in the early stages of the development process.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory
From the Outside in: How to Become Part of the Internal Team BIBAKPDF 74-77
  Meredith Blackwelder
As a writer for Monterey Technologies, Inc. (MTI), my role in the Consumer Information Design (CID) group at the Indianapolis-based Thomson Consumer Electronics facility functions differently than that of the in-house documentation specialist. After a brief history of my and my company's relationship with Thomson, this paper presents methods I employ to establish myself as part of the internal documentation team.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Management techniques; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; Monterey Technologies, Thomson Consumer Electronics, barriers, contractor, documentation, inside, relationship
The Evolution of an Information Development Process BIBAKPDF 78-85
  Glenn M. D'Amore
In today's business climate of thin profit margins and lean staff, a Documentation manager faces the continual challenge of proving that writers are efficient and productive. One way to do this is to follow an effective information development process with every project. As a manager, a documented process helps you:
  • Repeat successful project activities
  • Create realistic schedules
  • Train new staff quickly
  • Move writers between projects as different needs arise
  • Work more effectively with other departments To encourage continual innovation, however, your process must also be flexible and non-restrictive. This paper describes the challenges and opportunities of a well-defined information development process. The information is from my recent experience in leading our department's process development project at Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP).
    Keywords: Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Management techniques; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Staffing; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; capability maturity model, process, project management
  • Developing a User Information Architecture for Rational's ClearCase Product Family Documentation Set BIBAKPDF 86-92
      Mary Hunter Utt; Robert Mathews
    Information architecture, like information development and delivery, has much in common with its software counterpart. This paper describes how the Rational ClearCase documentation group developed an information architecture to meet changing industry, corporate, and product requirements. During this work, it became clear that our architecture development process mapped closely to the Rational Unified Process, an iterative and incremental approach to software architecture and development. The common features are noted and extensions are proposed to enhance both user-information processes and the Rational Unified Process.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Human Factors, Management; ClearCase documentation, RUP, Rational Unified Process, information architecture
    Dynamic Views of SGML Tagged Documents BIBAKPDF 93-98
      B. Fraser; J. Roberts; G. Pianosi; P. Alencar; D. Cowan; D. German; L. Nova
    Product information is more frequently being delivered as hypertext webs or documents because of the availability of the World-Wide Web and the associated communications infrastructure. However, this type of document with its large number of files and hyperlinks can become very complex and present significant usability problems for the creator, maintainer and user. Because of this complexity it becomes extremely difficult to implement and maintain dynamic views of a document, a supposed advantage of a hyperlinked structure. In this paper we analyze some of the causes for these usability issues, and then describe some approaches that are being used to make significant improvements to this situation.
    Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): SGML; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Database Management - Languages (H.2.3): SQL; Information Systems -Database Management - Systems (H.2.4): Relational databases; Design, Documentation, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; SGML, SQL, World-Wide Web, XML, documentation, dynamic views, hyperlinks, relational databases, tagging languages, usability
    ISO 9001: Traditions Before and After BIBAKPDF 99-104
      Debbie Hysell
    OCLC's implementation of ISO 9001 has helped the Documentation department to progress to the next level in the publishing process continuum. The implementation process is viewed positively by new staff in Documentation as well as those who worked in the pre-ISO 9001 era.
    Keywords: Computing Milieux - The Computer Industry (K.1): Standards; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Electronic Publishing (I.7.4); Software -Software Engineering - Management (D.2.9): Life cycle; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Standardization, Theory; ISO 9001, documentation, publication management, publishing life cycle, quality management
    Technical Documentation and Related Contractual Liability BIBAKPDF 105-109
      John W. Stamey; Thomas M. Roth
    This paper examines major issues of liability that the Technical Writer faces in preparing documentation for the End User. The three relationships present in creation and delivery of documentation are defined, as well as the relationships between liability and defects in documentation.
    Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Milieux -Legal Aspects of Computing - General (K.5.0); Design, Documentation, Legal Aspects, Performance, Theory; documentation defects, legal liability, liability, technical documentation
    Preparing Technical Communicators for Future Workplaces: A Model that Integrates Teaming, Professional Communication Skills, and a Software Development Process BIBAKPDF 110-119
      Margaret R. Heil
    This paper outlines a model that uses teaming as a framework to support professional communication and process to improve student performance, as measured by the quality of output. It describes a pedagogical approach used in a computer science undergraduate senior class that integrates teaming, professional communication and a software development process. The approach demonstrates the importance of team instruction and monitoring to the overall success of projects. It discusses how effective teaming strengthens process and professional communication which, in turn, lead to the creation of a high quality product; it is believed that this model may be applied to a variety of subject areas.
    Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Management techniques; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Education; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - General (K.3.0); Computing Methodologies -Simulation and Modeling - Applications (I.6.3); Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Design, Documentation, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
    A Database of E-Commerce Terms: Implementation and Benefits in Producing Internationalized Software BIBAKPDF 120-126
      Kara Warburton
    In this paper, some challenges in producing internationalized software are presented, and a pilot project involving the creation of a terminology database is described.
    Keywords: Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Electronic Commerce (K.4.4); Computing Milieux - The Computer Industry (K.1): Standards; Information Systems -Database Management - Database Applications (H.2.8); Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - General (I.7.0); Design, Documentation, Performance, Standardization, Theory; data categories, software, standards, terminology, usability
    Website Localization BIBAKPDF 127-130
      John W. Stanley; W. Scott Speights
    This paper presents the development of a methodology for presenting websites to an audience culturally different that the ones from which they originate. The process, called website localization, consists of far more than just textual translation of websites. The three-step procedure outlined is the first step in determining more effective techniques for website localization. Included is a case study that highlights the important aspects of localization.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): WEB; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; Internet, Website, Website localization, document localization, localization, translation
    A Rhetorical Approach to Understanding Images in the New 'Visual Age' BIBAKPDF 131-137
      Beverly B. Zimmerman
    This paper reviews Paul Martin Lester's six analytical perspectives for understanding all visual images and suggests that by adding an additional perspective-the rhetorical one-we can better analyze and understand web pages.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Graphical user interfaces (GUI); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - General (I.2.0): Cognitive simulation; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; Web pages, graphics, information designs
    Paper to HTML - An Automatic, Seamless Process for Documentation Production BIBAKPDF 138-143
      Virginie Ahrens; Valerie Lecompte
    This paper describes how ILOG, a French software company designing C++ and Java class libraries, managed the transition between paper-only documentation and extensive HTML online documentation in less than two years. In this paper, we analyze the underlying reasons for making this change, describe the technological choices that were made, and walk through the various steps of the project from its beginning to final completion.
    Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): HTML; Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): C++; Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): Java; Design, Documentation, Languages, Performance, Theory; C++ and Java class libraries, HTML, Java Script, Web design, modularity, online documentation, page-authoring tools, portability, reusability
    The Developer-Documenter Relationship in Java Software Development BIBAKPDF 144-146
      Glenn McAllister
    This paper describes the developer-documenter relationship in Java API software development. The lack of trust between developer and documenter is highlighted in the issue of updating doc comments in Java source code, and two potential solutions are presented. The first, long-term solution is to work to increase the levels of trust between developers and documenters. The second, short-term solution is to use a documentation tool that creates, modifies, or removes doc comments in a source file without changing the source code.
    Keywords: Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): Java; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Performance, Theory
    API Documentation from Source Code Comments: A Case Study of Javadoc BIBAKPDF 147-153
      Douglas Kramer
    This paper describes in a general way the process we went through to determine the goals, principles, audience, content and style for writing comments in source code for the Java platform at the Java Software division of Sun Microsystems. This includes how the documentation comments evolved to become the home of the Java platform API specification, and the guidelines we developed to make it practical for this document to reside in the same files as the source code.
    Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): Java; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - General (I.7.0); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Performance, Theory; API documentation, Java platform, Javadoc, doc comments, doclets, documentation comments, generated documentation, source code comments
    Information Design Considerations for Improving Situation Awareness in Complex Problem-Solving BIBAKPDF 154-158
      Michael J. Albers
    The conventional techniques for task analysis derive the basic tasks that make up user actions. However, in the complex-problem solving environment, attempts to describe step-by-step actions breakdown because no single route to a solution exists. Although individual tasks can be defined, task-analysis normally results in the tasks being divorced from context. However, to support complex problem-solving, the design must place the information within the situation context and allow users to develop and maintain situation awareness.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Types of Systems (H.4.2): Decision support; Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory
    Component-Based Software Development: Implications for Documentation BIBAKPDF 159-164
      Robin Green
    The progressive shortening of software development cycles has led software vendors to seek new ways of delivering their product to the customer. When a software product is updated every two or three months, delivering the product only on CD is not a viable alternative. For projects such as IBM VisualAge for Java, where a component-based strategy has been chosen for delivering software function, an equivalent strategy must be devised for delivering product documentation. This paper describes the approach we adopted to componentize the VisualAge for Java help system, and describes the technical challenges the approach posed to IBM writers, and the solutions chosen.
    Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4): Navigation; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Training, help, and documentation; Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): Java; Design, Documentation, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory; componentization, help system, navigation
    Componentization of HTML-Based Online Help BIBAKPDF 165-168
      Luc Chamberland
    This paper examines the case for componentization of HTML-based help webs. Instead of providing a single, monolithic help web for a complex software product, content providers can provide online help that is divided (or componentized) along the same functional lines as the software itself. Traditionally, online help has been chunked according to task orientation, and a component-centered approach appears to challenge task orientation. In the proposed approach, componentization is achieved without sacrificing a task-orientation; they complement one another. Componentization of online help makes the help system more usable for users, and makes the task of integrating help content more flexible for help content providers -- all without sacrificing the user's task perspective.
    Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Document Preparation (I.7.2): HTML; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Training, help, and documentation; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): WEB; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Languages, Management, Performance, Theory
    CBT on the Fast Track BIBAKPDF 169-175
      Kay Palkhivala; Cynthia Bowllan; Thomas Barnwell
    This presentation describes a strategy for creating customizable computer-based training (CBT) materials quickly. The writers of the CBT materials are expected to be familiar with document creation tools, but might have relatively little experience with CBT authoring tools.
       The keys to the strategy are modularity and recycling. Training materials created for print are adapted, first for passive online presentation, then for interactive computer-based training. In each adaptation, the materials are modified to suit a different environment or application of the product being described. The subject matter and educational objectives are not modified.
       The presentation will discuss the rationale for the recommended strategy and outline the steps in the process by which it is executed, illustrating the process with examples.
    Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Training; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Training, help, and documentation; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; computer-based training, demonstrations, interactivity, modularity, rapid updates, repurposing information, reusability
    Unifying Documentation Teams BIBAKPDF 176-184
      Karl A. Hakkarainen
    This paper describes how a set of geographically and organizationally distributed documentation teams created the Rational Suite 1.0 documentation set. The paper covers the business operations of Rational Software, details the documentation tools and technologies used in the project and describes the evolution of the larger team as it learned how to work with a new software development methodology. The paper concludes with a summary of lessons learned and next steps.
    Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Milieux - The Computer Industry (K.1): Standards; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3): Software development; Software -Software Engineering - Management (D.2.9): Programming teams; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Standardization, Theory; distributed teams, documentation standards, organizational development
    Groupware Support for Asynchronous Document Review BIBAKPDF 185-192
      James Miller; John D. Ferguson; Paul Murphy
    The formal document review process has basically remained unchanged since it was first introduced by Fagan in 1976. Central to this process is the review meeting, which all participants attend. However, recent empirical work has indicated that this meeting is not necessarily effective.
       A review model and a prototype co-operative work tool, InspectA, that dispense totally with the need for reviewers to hold face-to-face meetings, are presented. They replace the meeting with further individual reviews combined with communication between reviewers facilitated by electronic mail. The model and tool are both compared with other existing work in the area of meetingless review.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Computer-supported cooperative work; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Asynchronous interaction; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Management, Performance, Theory; asynchrony, computer supported co-operative work, document review, groupware
    Role-Based Access Control in Online Authoring and Publishing Systems vs. Document Hierarchy BIBAKPDF 193-198
      Z. Zhang; E. Haffner; A. Heuer; T. Engel; Ch. Meinel
    How to structure diverse (documentation) information sources of an enterprise and how to arrange a workflow with access control are two important issues for online authoring and publishing systems. Aim of this paper is to describe a solution for both problems, which is based on department structure, subject areas, and roles in an enterprise. Our approach will be introduced by presenting the DAPHNE system. DAPHNE provides possibilities to support collaborative authoring on a document hierarchy that reflects the diverse branches of an enterprise's organization structure and allows diverse (documentation) information sources of an enterprise to be well structured. The role-based access control (RBAC) mechanism implemented within DAPHNE is supported by the document hierarchy as well.
    Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Computing Methodologies -Document and Text Processing - Electronic Publishing (I.7.4); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): WEB; Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Business; Software -Operating Systems - Security and Protection (D.4.6): Access controls; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Security, Theory; RBAC, Web authoring system, document hierarchy, online authoring and publishing, role-based access control, workflow
    There's More than One Way to Wire That: When Assembly Workers are Technically Writers BIBAKPDF 199-205
      Susan P. Hall; Lili Fox Velez
    While technical writing is becoming a more obvious part of undergraduate education, it is not uncommon for an engineer to face the task of writing documentation without much training in the craft of communication. Other members of production teams may have received even less training, and yet have an equal or greater need to have a say in how documentation is produced and what it contains.
       In this paper, we will examine a situation in which an assembly worker, or system integrator, demanded the opportunity to document the appropriate ways to assemble complex Test and Measurement systems (for evaluating the electronic components of products such as PC's, cars, and cellular phones), and the effects her change in roles has had on the production processes for both systems and their documentation.
    Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Manufacturing; Design, Documentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory
    Software Demonstration: Professional Writing Online BIBAKPDF 206
      Jim Porter
    One of the authors of a forthcoming web-based professional communication textbook (Professional Writing Online) will provide a description of its contents and a demonstration of its uses. He will talk about instructional and design issues in developing web-based training materials for use in writing courses and distance education. He will also seek input and suggestions from session participants.
    Keywords: Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1): Distance learning; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): WEB; Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; World Wide Web, distance education, distance learning, instructional materials, multimedia, textbooks
    Software Demo: A Transaction Processing Information Architecture BIBPDF 207
      Kathy Haramundanis
    The CD Browser -- A New Documentation Vehicle BIBAKPDF 208-210
      Jack Massa
    A CD Browser is a user-friendly front-end to a software CD ROM. This demonstration shows how CD Browsers can be used to meet documentation goals.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Software -Software Engineering - Distribution, Maintenance, and Enhancement (D.2.7): Documentation; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5); Design, Documentation, Management, Performance, Theory; CD browser, installation instructions, multimedia, online documentation
    Intentional Learning in an Intentional World: New Perspectives on Audience Analysis and Instructional System Design for Successful Learning and Performance BIBAKPDF 211-220
      Margaret Martinez
    How do we support successful, lifelong learners and performers and help them competently respond to rapidly changing opportunities in the 21st century. The answer to this challenging question lies in how well we consider diverse sources for successful learning and explain audiences differentiated by individual learning differences. After years of primarily cognitive traditions, lack of strong theoretical foundations, and imperfect one-size-fits-all designs, our cognitive-rich explanations are missing the significant, higher-order impact of affective, conative, and other factors on learning. In this study the investigator introduces learning orientation (learner-difference profiles) to examine the fundamental sources for individual learning differences from an entirely new perspective. This perspective highlights the importance of intentions and emotions and describes how these dominant factors guide, manage, and sometimes override cognitive (thinking) processes. Using multiple repeated measures univariate ANOVAs, this study exhibits how learning orientation, time, and environments account for significant variance, effects, and interactions. The results demonstrate useful ways to analyze and differentiate the audience before designing solutions and environments for more successful performance.
    Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1); Design, Documentation, Experimentation, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; audience analysis, individual learning differences, instructional design, learning orientations