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DL Tables of Contents: 9697989900010203040506070809101112131415

JCDL'04: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries

Fullname:ACM/IEEE Joint Conference on Digital Libraries
Location:Tuscon, AZ, USA
Dates:2004-Jun-07 to 2004-Jun-11
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-832-6; ACM Order Number 606042; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DL04
Papers:117
Pages:424
  1. Plenary
  2. Repository architectures
  3. Evaluation
  4. Geographic aspects of digital libraries
  5. Books and reading
  6. Panel
  7. Automatically structured and translated queries
  8. Surrogates for physical artifacts
  9. Crawling the web
  10. Automated techniques for managing collections
  11. Plenary
  12. Educational aspects of digital libraries
  13. Image and video digital libraries
  14. Collaboration and group work
  15. Indexing music and Chinese text
  16. Panel
  17. Digital preservation
  18. Mining and disambiguating names
  19. Panel
  20. Interacting with collections
  21. Search and query strategies
  22. Supporting personalization
  23. Interchange and interoperability
  24. Panel
  25. Posters
  26. Demonstrations

Plenary

Taking internet's temperature: prescriptions for the 21st century BIBAFull-Text 1
  Vint Cerf
This talk will discuss the current state of the Internet, near term projections, the importance of security and privacy on the Internet especially for health care applications, the impact of RFID, and the effect of Internet-enabling everything ("at home, in your car, in the operating room, in the office, and all the stuff you hang on your body").

Repository architectures

Architecting an extensible digital repository BIBAFull-Text 2-10
  Anoop Kumar; Ranjani Saigal; Robert Chavez; Nikolai Schwertner
The Digital Collection and Archives (DCA) in partnership with Academic Technology (AT) at Tufts University developed a digital library solution for long-term storage and integration of existing digital collections, such as Perseus, TUSK, Bolles and Artifact. In this paper, we describe the Tufts Digital Library (TDL) architecture TDL is an extensible, modular, flexible and scalable architecture that uses Fedora at its core. The extensible nature of the TDL architecture allows for seamless integration of collections that may be developed in the future, while leveraging the extensive tools that are available as part of individual digital library applications at Tufts. We describe the functionality and implementation details of the individual components of TDL. Two applications that have successfully interfaced with TDL are presented. We conclude with some remarks about the future development of TDL.
The multi-faceted use of the OAI-PMH in the lanl repository BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Henry N. Jerez; Xiaoming Liu; Patrick Hochstenbach; Herbert Van de Sompel
This paper focuses on the multifaceted use of the OAI-PMH in a repository architecture designed to store digital assets at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and to make the stored assets available in a uniform way to various downstream applications. In the architecture, the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration Language is used as the XML-based format to represent complex digital objects. Upon ingestion, these objects are stored in a multitude of autonomous OAI-PMH repositories An OAI-PMH compliant Repository Index keeps track of the creation and location of all those repositories, whereas an Identifier Resolver keeps track of the location of individual objects. An OAI-PMH Federator is introduced as a single-point-of-access to downstream harvesters. It hides the complexity of the environment to those harvesters, and allows them to obtain transformations of stored objects While the proposed architecture is described in the context of the LANL library, the paper will also touch on its more general applicability.
BND: the architecture of a national digital library BIBAFull-Text 21-22
  Jose Borbinha; Nuno Freire; Joao Neves
This paper describes the architecture and components of the infrastructure in construction for the National Digital Library in Portugal. The requirements emerged from the definition of the services to support, with a special focus on scalability, and from the decision to give a special attention to community building standards, open solutions, and reusable and cost effective components. The generic bibliographic metadata format in this project is UNIMARC, and the structural metadata is METS. The URN identifiers are processed and resolved as simple but very effective PURL identifiers. The storage for immediate access is provided by the LUSTRE file system, and by ARCO, a locally developed GRID architecture, for long term preservation All these components run on Linux servers, as also the middleware for access based in the FEDORA framework.
BDBComp: building a digital library for the Brazilian computer science community BIBAFull-Text 23-24
  Alberto H. F. Laender; Marcos Andre Gonzalves; Pablo A. Roberto
This paper reports initial efforts towards building BDBComp, a digital library for the Brazilian computer science community BDBComp is based on a number of standards (e.g., OAI, Dublin Core, SQL) as well as on new technologies (e.g., Web data extraction tools), which allowed fast and easy prototyping. The paper focuses on architectural issues and specific challenges faced during the construction of this digital library as well as on proposed solutions.
Integration of biomedical text and sequence OAI repositories BIBAFull-Text 25-26
  Yueyu Fu; Javed Mostafa
Archived biomedical literature and sequence data are growing rapidly. The Open Archives Initiative's Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) [1]. provides a convenient way for data sharing But it has not been tested in the biomedical domain, especially in dealing with different types of data, such as protein, and gene sequences. We built four individual OAI-PMH repositories based on different biomedical resources. Using the harvested data from the four repositories we created an integrated OAI-PMH repository, which hosts the linked literature and sequence data in a single place.

Evaluation

Analytical usability evaluation for digital libraries: a case study BIBAFull-Text 27-36
  Ann Blandford; Suzette Keith; Iain Connell; Helen Edwards
There are two main kinds of approach to considering usability of any system: empirical and analytical. Empirical techniques involve testing systems with users, whereas analytical techniques involve usability personnel assessing systems using established theories and methods. We report here on a set of studies in which four different techniques were applied to various digital libraries, focusing on the strengths, limitations and scope of each approach. Two of the techniques, Heuristic Evaluation and Cognitive Walkthrough, were applied in text-book fashion, because there was no obvious way to contextualize them to the Digital Libraries (DL) domain. For the third, Claims Analysis, it was possible to develop a set of re-usable scenarios and personas that relate the approach specifically to DL development. The fourth technique, CASSM, relates explicitly to the DL domain by combining empirical data with an analytical approach. We have found that Heuristic Evaluation and Cognitive Walkthrough only address superficial aspects of interface design (but are good for that), whereas Claims Analysis and CASSM can help identify deeper conceptual difficulties (but demand greater skill of the analyst). However, none fit seamlessly with existing digital library development practices, highlighting an important area for further work to support improved usability.
Developing a digital learning environment: an evaluation of design and implementation processes BIBAFull-Text 37-46
  Leslie Champeny; Christine L. Borgman; Gregory H. Leazer; Anne J. Gilliland-Swetland; Kelli A. Millwood; Leonard D'Avolio; Jason R. Finley; Laura J. Smart; Patricia D. Mautone; Richard E. Mayer; Richard A. Johnson
The Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT) Project (1999-2004) builds upon the Alexandria Digital Library Project (1994-1999) to add functions and services for undergraduate teaching to a digital library of geospatial resources. The 'Digital Learning Environment' (DLE) services are being developed and evaluated iteratively over the course of this research project. In the 2002-2003 academic year, the DLE was implemented during the fall and spring terms in undergraduate geography courses at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). Evaluation of the fall term implementation identified design issues of time and complexity for creating and organizing course domain knowledge. The spring term implementation added new services to integrate course content into class presentation formats. The implementation was evaluated via interviews with the course instructor, development staff, and students, and by observations (in person and videotaped) of the course. Results indicated that usability and functionality for the instructor had increased between the two course offerings Students found classroom presentations to be useful for understanding concepts, and Web access to the presentations useful for study and review. Assessments of student learning suggest modest improvements over time Developers are now applying lessons learned during these implementations to improve the system for subsequent implementation in the 2003-2004 academic year.
How people describe their image information needs: a grounded theory analysis of visual arts queries BIBAFull-Text 47-48
  Sally Jo Cunningham; David Bainbridge; Masood Masoodian
When people are looking for visual arts information-information related to images-how do they characterize their needs? We analyze a set of 404 queries to identify the attributes that people provide to the Google Answers 'ask an expert' online reference system. The results suggest directions to take in developing an effective organization and features for an image digital library.
Improving video browsing with an eye-tracking evaluation of feature-based color bars BIBAFull-Text 49-50
  Neema Moraveji
This paper explains a method for leveraging the standard video time line widget as an interactive visualization of image features. An eye-tracking experiment is described with results that indicate that such a widget increases task efficiency without increasing complexity while being easily learned by experiment participants.
Measuring the user's experience with digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 51-52
  Elaine G. Toms; Christine Dufour; Susan Hesemeier
In this paper, we propose a method for assessing user experience. Normally evaluation is based on usability or on the efficiency of or effectiveness of focused information search tasks. Yet all experiences with libraries (whether physical or virtual) need not be for the explicit purpose of finding, acquiring and using information. The experience and its playfulness and pleasure have equal value. To assess this experience, we modified a experiential value scale developed for online shopping and have tested it in the context of culture and heritage websites.

Geographic aspects of digital libraries

Automatic organization for digital photographs with geographic coordinates BIBAFull-Text 53-62
  Mor Naaman; Yee Jiun Song; Andreas Paepcke; Hector Garcia-Molina
We describe PhotoCompas, a system that utilizes the time and location information embedded in digital photographs to automatically organize a personal photo collection PhotoCompas produces browseable location and event hierarchies for the collection. These hierarchies are created using algorithms that interleave time and location to produce an organization that mimics the way people think about their photo collections. In addition, our algorithm annotates the generated hierarchy with geographical names. We tested our approach in case studies of three real-world collections and verified that the results are meaningful and useful for the collection owners.
Digital trail libraries BIBAFull-Text 63-71
  Scott Morris; Alan Morris; Kobus Barnard
We propose the idea of an online, user submitted digital library of recreation trails. Digital libraries of trails offer advantages over paper guidebooks in that they are more accurate, dynamic and not limited to the experience of the author(s). The basic representation of a trail is a GPS track log, recorded as recreators travel on trails. As users complete trips, the GPS track logs of their trips are submitted to the central library voluntarily. A major problem is that track logs will overlap and intersect each other. We present a method for the combination of overlapping and intersecting GPS track logs to create a network of GPS trails. Each trail segment in the network can then be characterized by automatic and manual means, producing a digital library of trails. We also describe the TopoFusion system which creates, manages and visualizes GPS data, including GPS networks.
A query interface for an event gazetteer BIBAFull-Text 72-73
  Robert B. Allen
We introduce an event gazetteer which stores and presents "locations in time". Each event is coded with attributes of event type, location, actor, and beginning and ending times. Events can also contain sets of other events. This paper reports the development of an interface for generating searches to these "part-of" relationships. For instance, we can search for all named Battles in the event database which occurred during the Civil War. Ultimately, we envision a flexible, broad-based service that is a resource for users ranging from students to genealogists and researchers interested in historical events.
Accessing the Alexandria digital library from geographic information systems BIBAFull-Text 74-75
  D. Ancona; J. Frew; G. Janee D. Valentine
We describe two experimental desktop library clients that offer improved access to geospatial data via the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL): ArcADL, an extension to ESRI's ArcView GIS, and vtADL, an extension to the Virtual Terrain Project's Enviro terrain visualization package ArcADL provides a simplified user interface to ADL's powerful underlying distributed geospatial search technology. Both clients use the ADL Access Framework to access library data that is available in multiple formats and retrievable by multiple methods Issues common to both clients and future scenarios are also considered.
ETANA-DL: a digital library for integrated handling of heterogeneous archaeological data BIBAFull-Text 76-77
  Unni Ravindranathan; Rao Shen; Marcos Andre Goncalves; Weiguo Fan; Edward A. Fox; James W. Flanagan
Archaeologists have to deal with vast quantities of information, generated both in the field and laboratory. That information is heterogeneous in nature, and different projects have their own systems to store and use it. This adds to the challenges regarding collaborative research between such projects as well as information retrieval for other more general purposes. This paper describes our approach towards creating ETANA-DL, a digital library (DL) to help manage these vast quantities of information and to provide various kinds of services. The 5S framework for modeling a DL gives us an edge in understanding this vast and complex information space, as well as in designing and prototyping a DL to satisfy information needs of archaeologists and other user communities.

Books and reading

Realistic books: a bizarre homage to an obsolete medium? BIBAFull-Text 78-86
  Yi-Chun Chu; David Bainbridge; Matt Jones; Ian H. Witten
For many readers, handling a physical book is an enjoyably exquisite part of the information seeking process. Many physical characteristics of a book-its size, heft, the patina of use on its pages and so on-communicate ambient qualities of the document it represents. In contrast, the experience of accessing and exploring digital library documents is often dull. The emphasis is utilitarian; technophile rather than bibliophile. We have extended the page-turning algorithm we reported at last year's JCDL into a scaleable, systematic approach that allows users to view and interact with realistic visualizations of any textual-based document in a Greenstone collection. Here, we further motivate the approach, illustrate the system in use, discuss the system architecture and present a user evaluation Our work leads us to believe that far from being a whimsical gimmick, physical book models can usefully complement conventional document viewers and increase the perceived value of a digital library system.
A document corpus browser for in-depth reading BIBAFull-Text 87-96
  Eric Bier; Lance Good; Kris Popat; Alan Newberger
Software tools, including Web browsers, e-books, electronic document formats, search engines, and digital libraries are changing the way people read, making it easier for them to find and view documents. However, while these tools provide significant help with short-term reading projects involving small numbers of documents, they provide less help with longer-term reading projects, in which a topic is to be understood in depth by reading many documents. For such projects, readers must find and manage many documents and citations, remember what has been read, and prioritize what to read next. This paper describes three integrated software tools that facilitate in-depth reading. A first tool extracts citation information from documents. A second finds on-line documents from their citations. The last is a document corpus browser that uses a zoomable user interface to show a corpus at multiple granularities while supporting reading tasks that take days, weeks, or longer. We describe these tools and the design principles that motivated them.

Panel

The virtual and the real: panel on current research on museum audiences and library users BIBAFull-Text 97
  Howard Besser; Liz Bishoff; Kati Geber; Jose-Marie Griffiths; Joyce Ray
This panel will discuss current research on museum audiences and library users in both the physical and digital environments Do online resources enhance or inhibit museum visits? Will physical libraries continue to have value? To what extent do museum audiences and library users merge in the online environment? Will online users want "virtual experiences" or "digital libraries"? What opportunities for lifelong learning are provided by non-traditional library and museum dissemination technologies, such as broadband, gaming environments, and public broadcasting? Panelists will discuss a variety of recently completed and in-progress studies with implications for digital library development and learning applications.

Automatically structured and translated queries

The effectiveness of automatically structured queries in digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 98-107
  Marcos Andre Goncalves; Edward A. Fox; Aaron Krowne; Pavel Calado; Alberto H. F. Laender; Altigran S. da Silva; Berthier Ribeiro-Neto
Structured or fielded metadata is the basis for many digital library services, including searching and browsing. Yet, little is known about the impact of using structure on the effectiveness of such services. In this paper, we investigate a key research question: do structured queries improve effectiveness in DL searching? To answer this question, we empirically compared the use of unstructured queries to the use of structured queries. We then tested the capability of a simple Bayesian network system, built on top of a DL retrieval engine, to infer the best structured queries from the keywords entered by the user. Experiments performed with 20 subjects working with a DL containing a large collection of computer science literature clearly indicate that structured queries, either manually constructed or automatically generated, perform better than their unstructured counterparts, in the majority of cases. Also, automatic structuring of queries appears to be an effective and viable alternative to manual structuring that may significantly reduce the burden on users.
Translating unknown cross-lingual queries in digital libraries using a web-based approach BIBAFull-Text 108-116
  Jenq-Haur Wang; Jei-Wen Teng; Pu-Jen Cheng; Wen-Hsiang Lu; Lee-Feng Chien
Users' cross-lingual queries to a digital library system might be short and not included in a common translation dictionary (unknown terms). In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of exploiting the Web as the corpus source to translate unknown query terms for cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in digital libraries. We propose a Web-based term translation approach to determine effective translations for unknown query terms by mining bilingual search-result pages obtained from a real Web search engine. This approach can enhance the construction of a domain-specific bilingual lexicon and benefit CLIR services in a digital library that only has monolingual document collections Very promising results have been obtained in generating effective translation equivalents for many unknown terms, including proper nouns, technical terms and Web query terms.

Surrogates for physical artifacts

Digital restoration using volumetric scanning BIBAFull-Text 117-124
  W. B. Seales; Yun Lin
In this paper we present a new, nondestructive method for revealing inaccessible text buried within damaged books and scrolls. The method is based on volumetric scanning followed by data modeling and physically-based simulation. We show by experiment that it is possible to recover readable text from objects without physically opening or damaging them. In handling damaged collections, conservators often face a choice between two frustrating alternatives: indefinite preservation without analysis, or irreversible physical harm for the sake of potential discovery. We believe that this work creates a new opportunity that embraces both the need to preserve and the possibility for complete analysis.
The 3D vase museum: a new approach to context in a digital library BIBAFull-Text 125-134
  Horn-yeu Shiaw; Robert J. K. Jacob; Gregory R. Crane
We present a new approach to displaying and browsing a digital library collection, a set of Greek vases in the Perseus digital library. Our design takes advantage of three-dimensional graphics to preserve context even while the user focuses in on a single item. In a typical digital library user interface, a user can either get an overview for context or else see a single selected item, sacrificing the context view. In our 3D Vase Museum, the user can navigate seamlessly from a high level scatterplot-like plan view to a perspective overview of a subset of the collection, to a view of an individual item, to retrieval of data associated with that item, all within the same virtual room and without any mode change or special command. We present this as an example of a solution to the problem of focus-plus-context in information visualization. We developed 3D models from the 2D photographs in the collection and placed them in our 3D virtual room. We evaluated our approach by comparing it to the conventional interface in Perseus using tasks drawn from archaeology courses and found a clear improvement Subjects who used our 3D Vase Museum performed the tasks 33% better and did so nearly three times faster.

Crawling the web

Building domain-specific web collections for scientific digital libraries: a meta-search enhanced focused crawling method BIBAFull-Text 135-141
  Jialun Qin; Yilu Zhou; Michael Chau
Collecting domain-specific documents from the Web using focused crawlers has been considered one of the most important strategies to build digital libraries that serve the scientific community. However, because most focused crawlers use local search algorithms to traverse the Web space, they could be easily trapped within a limited sub-graph of the Web that surrounds the starting URLs and build domain-specific collections that are not comprehensive and diverse enough to scientists and researchers. In this study, we investigated the problems of traditional focused crawlers caused by local search algorithms and proposed a new crawling approach, meta-search enhanced focused crawling, to address the problems. We conducted two user evaluation experiments to examine the performance of our proposed approach and the results showed that our approach could build domain-specific collections with higher quality than traditional focused crawling techniques.
Panorama: extending digital libraries with topical crawlers BIBAFull-Text 142-150
  Gautam Pant; Kostas Tsioutsiouliklis; Judy Johnson; C. Lee Giles
A large amount of research, technical and professional documents are available today in digital formats Digital libraries are created to facilitate search and retrieval of information supplied by the documents. These libraries may span an entire area of interest (e.g., computer science) or be limited to documents within a small organization. While tools that index, classify, rank and retrieve documents from such libraries are important, it would be worthwhile to complement these tools with information available on the Web. We propose one such technique that uses a topical crawler driven by the information extracted from a research document. The goal of the crawler is to harvest a collection of Web pages that are focused on the topical subspaces associated with the given document. The collection created through Web crawling is further processed using lexical and linkage analysis. The entire process is automated and uses machine learning techniques to both guide the crawler as well as analyze the collection it fetches. A report is generated at the end that provides visual cues and information to the researcher.

Automated techniques for managing collections

Machine learning for information architecture in a large governmental website BIBAFull-Text 151-159
  Miles Efron; Jonathan Elsas; Gary Marchionini; Junliang Zhang
This paper describes ongoing research into the application of machine learning techniques for improving access to governmental information in complex digital libraries. Under the auspices of the GovStat Project, our goal is to identify a small number of semantically valid concepts that adequately spans the intellectual domain of a collection. The goal of this discovery is twofold. First we desire a practical aid for information architects. Second, automatically derived document-concept relationships are a necessary precondition for real-world deployment of many dynamic interfaces. The current study compares concept learning strategies based on three document representations: keywords, titles, and full-text. In statistical and user-based studies, human-created keywords provide significant improvements in concept learning over both title-only and full-text representations.
Managing distributed collections: evaluating web page changes, movement, and replacement BIBAFull-Text 160-168
  Zubin Dalal; Suvendu Dash; Pratik Dave; Luis Francisco-Revilla; Richard Furuta; Unmil Karadkar; Frank Shipman
Distributed collections of Web materials are common. Bookmark lists, paths, and catalogs such as Yahoo! Directories require human maintenance to keep up to date with changes to the underlying documents. The Walden's Paths Path Manager is a tool to support the maintenance of distributed collections. Earlier efforts focused on recognizing the type and degree of change within Web pages and identifying pages no longer accessible. We now extend this work with algorithms for evaluating drastic changes to page content based on context. Additionally, we expand on previous work to locate moved pages and apply the modified approach to suggesting page replacements when the original page cannot be found Based on these results we are redesigning the Path Manager to better support the range of assessments necessary to manage distributed collections.

Plenary

Cybersecurity considerations for digital libraries in an era of pervasive computing BIBAFull-Text 169
  Joel Birnbaum
Information technology is becoming pervasive in our society; soon, its absence will be more noticeable than its presence, and for most people it will be an unavoidable part of everyday life. This talk will trace this evolution to the present day and make projections to an era later this decade when the prevailing system architecture may consist of information utilities accessed intuitively through a wide variety of specialized information appliances, many of them mobile. Principal among the challenges still impeding this emerging popular view of the future are the reliability and security of such global systems.
   Digital libraries, already playing an essential role in today's information-rich world, will assume central positions of even more significance in such pervasive systems Not only will they serve as repositories of knowledge and information, and as the primary mechanism for its retrieval and distribution, but they will be the focal point for the integration of information and scholarship across all boundaries of application, language, and media Since they will also inevitably become the target of malicious attack by people seeking unauthorized information, and by terrorists seeking to disrupt the global information infrastructure and the physical infrastructures built upon it, it is both timely and essential to study the cybersecurity characteristics future digital libraries will have to support.

Educational aspects of digital libraries

Digital libraries and educational practice: a case for new models BIBAFull-Text 170-178
  Tamara Sumner; Mary Marlino
Educational digital libraries can benefit from theoretical and methodological approaches that enable lessons learned from design and evaluation projects performed in one particular setting to be applied to other settings within the library network. Three promising advances in design theory are reviewed -- reference tasks, design experiments, and design genres. Each approach advocates the creation of 'intermediate' constructs as vehicles for knowledge building and knowledge sharing across design and research projects. One purpose of an intermediate construct is to formulate finer-grained models that describe and explain the relationship between key design features and the cognitive and social dimensions of the context of use. Three models are proposed and used as thought experiments to analyze the utility of these approaches to educational digital library design and evaluation: digital libraries as cognitive tools, component repositories, and knowledge networks.
How geography professors select materials for classroom lectures: implications for the design of digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 179-185
  Christine L. Borgman; Gregory H. Leazer; Anne Gilliland-Swetland; Kelli Millwood; Leslie Champeny; Jason Finley; Laura J. Smart
A goal of the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype (ADEPT) project is to make primary resources in geography useful for undergraduate instruction in ways that will promote inquiry learning. The ADEPT education and evaluation team interviewed professors about their use of geography information as they prepare for class lectures, as compared to their research activities. We found that professors desired the ability to search by concept (erosion, continental drift, etc) as well as geographic location, and that personal research collections were an important source of instructional materials. Resources in geo-spatial digital libraries are typically described by location, but are rarely described by concept or educational application. This paper presents implications for the design of an educational digital library from our observations of the lecture preparation process. Findings include functionality requirements for digital libraries and implications for the notion of digital libraries as a shared information environment. The functional requirements include definitions and enhancements of searching capabilities, the ability to contribute and to share personal collections of resources, and the capability to manipulate data and images.
Element matching in concept maps BIBAFull-Text 186-187
  Byron Marshall; Therani Madhusudan
Concept maps (CM) are informal, semantic, node-link conceptual graphs used to represent knowledge in a variety of applications. Algorithms that compare concept maps would be useful in supporting educational processes and in leveraging indexed digital collections of concept maps. Map comparison begins with element matching and faces computational challenges arising from vocabulary overlap, informality, and organizational variation. Our implementation of an adapted similarity flooding algorithm improves matching of CM knowledge elements over a simple string matching approach.
Usability, learning, and subjective experience: user evaluation of K-MODDL in an undergraduate class BIBAFull-Text 188-189
  Bing Pan; Geri Gay; John Saylor; Helene Hembrooke; David Henderson
Based on the CIAO! framework, this paper describes the initial evaluation of the Kinematic Model for Design Digital Library (K-MODDL), which is being used in an undergraduate mathematics class. Along with revealing general usability problems, our results describe users' subjective experiences and highlight the usefulness of various physical and digital models in facilitating learning. Interesting relationships among usability, learning, and subjective experience were discovered.
Use of MatML with software applications for e-learning BIBAFull-Text 190-191
  Laura M. Bartolo; Cathy S. Lowe; Adam C., IV Powell; Donald R. Sadoway; Jorge Vieyra; Kyle Stemen
This pilot project investigates facilitating the development of the Semantic Web for e-learning through a practical example, using Materials Property Data Markup Language (MatML) to provide materials property data to a web-based application program Property data for 100 materials is marked up with MatML and used as an input format for an application program. Students use the program to generate graphs showing selected properties for different materials Selected graphs are submitted to the Materials Digital Library (MatDL) so that successive classes may be informed by earlier work to encourage new discoveries.

Image and video digital libraries

Semantic video classification and feature subset selection under context and concept uncertainty BIBAFull-Text 192-201
  Jianping Fan; Hangzai Luo; Jing Xiao; Lide Wu
As large collections of videos become one key component of digital libraries, there is an urgent need of semantic video classification and feature subset selection to enable more effective video database organization and retrieval. However, most existing techniques for classifier training require a large number of labeled samples to learn correctly and suffer from the problems of context and concept uncertainty when only a limited number of labeled samples are available. To address the problems of context and concept uncertainty, we have proposed a novel framework to achieve incremental classifier training by integrating a limited number of labeled samples with a large number of unlabeled samples. Specifically, the contributions of this paper include: (a) Using the salient objects to achieve a middle-level understanding of video contents and enhance the quality of features on discriminating among different semantic video concepts; (b) Modeling the semantic video concepts by using the finite mixture models to approximate the class distributions of the relevant salient objects; (c) Developing an adaptive EM algorithm to integrate the unlabeled samples to enable incremental classifier training and address the problem of context uncertainty; (d) Proposing a cost-sensitive video classification technique to address the problem of concept uncertainty over time; (e) Supporting automatic video annotation via semantic classification Our experimental results in a certain domain of medical education videos have also been provided a convincing proof of our conclusions.
Generating fuzzy semantic metadata describing spatial relations from images using the R-histogram BIBAFull-Text 202-211
  Yuhang Wang; Fillia Makedon; James Ford; Li Shen; Dina Goldin
Automatic generation of semantic metadata describing spatial relations is highly desirable for image digital libraries Relative spatial relations between objects in an image convey important information about the image. Because the perception of spatial relations is subjective, we propose a novel framework for automatic metadata generation based on fuzzy k-NN classification that generates fuzzy semantic metadata describing spatial relations between objects in an image. For each pair of objects of interest, the corresponding R-Histogram is computed and used as input for a set of fuzzy k-NN classifiers. The R-Histogram is a quantitative representation of spatial relations between two objects The outputs of the classifiers are soft class labels for each of the following eight spatial relations: 1) LEFT OF, 2) RIGHT OF, 3) ABOVE, 4) BELOW, 5) NEAR, 6) FAR, 7) INSIDE, 8) OUTSIDE Because the classifier-training stage involves annotating the training images manually, it is desirable to use as few training images as possible. To address this issue, we applied existing prototype selection techniques and also devised two new extensions. We evaluated the performance of different fuzzy k-NN algorithms and prototype selection algorithms empirically on both synthetic and real images. Preliminary experimental results show that our system is able to obtain good annotation accuracy (92%-98% on synthetic images and 82%-93% on real images) using only a small training set (4-5 images).
Multi-modal classification in digital news libraries BIBAFull-Text 212-213
  Ming-yu Chen; Alexander Hauptmann
This paper describes a comprehensive approach to construct robust multi-modal video classification on a specific digital source, broadcast news. Broadcast news has a very stable structure and every segment has its specific purpose. Video classification can support fundamental understanding of the structure of the video and the content. The variety of video content makes it hard to classify; however, it also provides multimodal information Our approach tries to solve two important issues of multimodal classification. The first one is to select few discriminative features from many raw features and the second one is to efficiently combine multiple sources. We applied Fisher's Linear Discriminant (FLD) for feature selection and concatenated the projections into a single synthesized feature vector as the combination strategy. Experimental results on the 2003 TRECVID news video archive show that our approach achieves very robust and accurate performance.
Question answering on lecture videos: a multifaceted approach BIBAFull-Text 214-215
  Jinwei Cao; Jay F. Nunamaker
In this paper, we introduce a multifaceted approach for question answering on lecture videos Text extracted from PowerPoint slides associated with the lecture videos is used as a source of domain knowledge to boost the answer extraction performance on these domain specific videos. The three steps of this approach are described and the evaluation plan is discussed.
Video grammar for locating named people BIBAFull-Text 216-217
  Jun Yang; Alexander Hauptmann
Finding a named person in broadcast news video is important to video retrieval. Relying on the text information such as video tran-script and OCR text, this task suffers from the temporal mismatch between a person's visual appearance and his/her name occurred in text. By exploring video grammar on the concurrence pattern between faces and names, we propose an extended text-based IR method to overcome this problem and yield superior performance.

Collaboration and group work

Sharing encountered information: digital libraries get a social life BIBAFull-Text 218-227
  Catherine C. Marshall; Sara Bly
As part of a more extensive study of reading-related practices, we have explored how people share information they encounter in their everyday reading as a complement to the more traditional digital library focus on sharing intentionally retrieved materials. In twenty contextual interviews in home and work place settings, we investigated how people encounter and save published material in the form of paper and electronic clippings. We found that sharing forms a significant use for encountered materials. Furthermore, the function of these clippings extends far beyond a simple exchange of content to inform the recipient; in fact, the content itself may have little immediate value to the recipient. We also found the practice to be ubiquitous: all of our participants had both shared clippings with others and received them themselves. Specifically, this paper reports on: (1) how sharing encountered items fits into the broader spectrum of clipping practices; (2) the function and value of the shared information; and (3) the social role of sharing the encountered information We conclude that from a technological standpoint, we should think beyond an email model for sharing encountered information and, from a social perspective, we should attend to how sharing this sort of material contributes to the strength of social ties outside of a traditional information needs framework.
Enhancing digital libraries with TechLens+ BIBAFull-Text 228-236
  Roberto Torres; Sean M. McNee; Mara Abel; Joseph A. Konstan; John Riedl
The number of research papers available is growing at a staggering rate. Researchers need tools to help them find the papers they should read among all the papers published each year. In this paper, we present and experiment with hybrid recommender algorithms that combine Collaborative Filtering and Content-based. Filtering to recommend research papers to users. Our hybrid algorithms combine the strengths of each filtering approach to address their individual weaknesses. We evaluated our algorithms through offline experiments on a database of 102, 000 research papers, and through an online experiment with 110 users. For both experiments we used a dataset created from the CiteSeer repository of computer science research papers. We developed separate English and Portuguese versions of the interface and specifically recruited American and Brazilian users to test for cross-cultural effects. Our results show that users value paper recommendations, that the hybrid algorithms can be successfully combined, that different algorithms are more suitable for recommending different kinds of papers, and that users with different levels of experience perceive recommendations differently These results can be applied to develop recommender systems for other types of digital libraries.
Light-weight communal digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 237-238
  Kurt J. Maly; Michael L. Nelson; Mohammad Zubair; Ashraf Amrou; S. Kothasama; Lan Wang; Richard Luce
We describe Kepler, a collection of light-weight utilities that allow for simple and quick digital library construction. Kepler bridges the gap between established, organization-backed digital libraries and groups of researchers that wish to publish their findings under their control, anytime, anywhere yet have the advantage of their personal libraries. The personal libraries, or "archivelets", are Open Archives Initiative (OAI) compliant and thus available for harvesting from OAI service providers. A Kepler archivelet can be installed in the order of minutes by an author on a personal machine and a Kepler group server in the order of hours.
Collaborative extensions for the UpLib system BIBAFull-Text 239-240
  William C. Janssen
The UpLib personal digital library system is specifically designed for secure use by a single individual. However, collaborative operation of multiple UpLib repositories is still possible. This paper describes two mechanisms that have been added to UpLib to facilitate community building around individual document collections.
Metaextract: an NLP system to automatically assign metadata BIBAFull-Text 241-242
  Ozgur Yilmazel; Christina M. Finneran; Elizabeth D. Liddy
We have developed MetaExtract, a system to automatically assign Dublin Core + GEM metadata using extraction techniques from our natural language processing research MetaExtract is comprised of three distinct processes: eQuery and HTML-based Extraction modules and a Keyword Generator module. We conducted a Web-based survey to have users evaluate each metadata element's quality. Only two of the elements, Title and Keyword, were shown to be significantly different, with the manual quality slightly higher. The remaining elements for which we had enough data to test were shown not to be significantly different; they are: Description, Grade, Duration, Essential Resources, Pedagogy-Teaching Method, and Pedagogy-Group.

Indexing music and Chinese text

Looking for new, not known music only: music retrieval by melody style BIBAFull-Text 243-251
  Fang-Fei Kuo; Man-Kwan Shan
With the growth of digital music, content-based music retrieval (CBMR) has attracted increasingly attention. For most CBMR systems, the task is to return music objects similar to query in syntactic properties such as pitch and interval contour sequence. These approaches provide users the capability to look for music that has been heard. However, sometimes, listeners are looking, not for music they have been known, but for music that is new to them. Moreover, people sometimes want to retrieve music that "feels like" another music object or a music style. To the best of our knowledge, no published work investigates the content-based music style retrieval. This paper describes an approach for CBMR by melody style. We proposed four types of query specification for melody style query. The output of the melody style query is a music list ranked by the degree of relevance, in terms of music style, to the query. We developed the melody style mining algorithm to obtain the melody style classification rules. The style ranking is determined by the style classification rules. The experiment showed the proposed approach provides a satisfactory way for query by melody style.
Discovery of retrograde and inverted themes for indexing musical scores BIBAFull-Text 252-253
  Xiaona Ren; Lloyd A. Smith; Richard A. Medina
This paper describes extensions to a musical score indexing program that enable it to discover sequences of notes that appear in retrograde and/or inverted form. The program was tested over a set of 50 orchestral movements by several composers of the Baroque, Classical, and Romantic periods. The retrograde and inversion discovery algorithm added an average of 3.76 patterns per movement to the index, increasing the number of notes in the index by 6.5%, and the number of entries by 8.2%. Among the patterns added to the index were variations of 3 themes in retrograde, 5 themes in inversion, and 3 themes in retrograde inversion.
A tree-based method for fast melodic retrieval BIBAFull-Text 254-255
  Charles L. Parker
The evolution of aurally queryable melodic databases (so-called query-by-humming systems) has reached a point where retrieval accuracy is relatively high, even at large database sizes. With this accuracy has come a decrease in retrieval speed as methods have become more sophisticated and computationally expensive. In this paper, we turn our attention to heuristically culling songs from our database that are unlikely given a sung query, in hopes that we can increase speed by reducing the number of matching computations necessary to reach the proper target song.
Error analysis of Chinese text segmentation using statistical approach BIBAFull-Text 256-257
  Christopher C. Yang; Kar Wing Li
The Chinese text segmentation is important for the indexing of Chinese documents, which has significant impact on the performance of Chinese information retrieval. The statistical approach overcomes the limitations of the dictionary based approach. The statistical approach is developed by utilizing the statistical information about the association of adjacent characters in Chinese text collected from the Chinese corpus Both known words and unknown words can be segmented by the statistical approach. However, errors may occur due to the limitation of the corpus. In this work, we have conducted the error analysis of two Chinese text segmentation techniques using statistical approach, namely, boundary detection and heuristic method Such error analysis is useful for the future development of the automatic text segmentation of Chinese text or other text in oriental languages. It is also helpful to understand the impact of these errors on the information retrieval system in digital libraries.

Panel

Demonstrating education impact: challenges in the years ahead BIBAFull-Text 258
  Tamara Sumner; Mary Marlino
The purpose of this panel is to stimulate thought and debate about the legacy of educational digital libraries.

Digital preservation

Mediating team work for digital heritage archiving BIBAFull-Text 259-268
  Jyi-shane Liu; Mu-Hsi Tseng
Building digital heritage requires substantial resources in materials, expertise, tools, and cost. Projects supported by governments and academics can only cover a small part of the world's heritage in both time and space dimensions. The preservation coverage problem is most serious in domains where sources of intellectual and cultural heritage may diminish or disappear over time. A central notion that helps resolve these issues is to facilitate global reach of digital technology to sources of valuable heritage. We propose an approach to exploit non-institutional resources for wider participation and coverage in digital heritage endeavor. The approach attempts to replicate institutional digital heritage work by teaming up non-institutional resources and providing standard practice.
A semi-automated digital preservation system based on semantic web services BIBAFull-Text 269-278
  Jane Hunter; Sharmin Choudhury
This paper describes a Web-services-based system which we have developed to enable organizations to semi-automatically preserve their digital collections by dynamically discovering and invoking the most appropriate preservation service, as it is required. By periodically comparing preservation metadata for digital objects in a collection with a software version registry, potential object obsolescence can be detected and a notification message sent to the relevant agent. By making preservation software modules available as Web services and describing them semantically using a machine-processable ontology (OWL-S), the most appropriate preservation service(s) for each object can then be automatically discovered, composed and invoked by software agents (with optional human input at critical decision-making steps). We believe that this approach represents a significant advance towards providing a viable, cost-effective solution to the long term preservation of large-scale collections of digital objects.
Preservation functionality in a digital archive BIBAFull-Text 279-286
  Erik Oltmans; Raymond van Diessen; Hilde van Wijngaarden
Early 2003 the digital archiving system of the National Library of the Netherlands (KB) was taken into production. This system is called the e-Depot and its technical heart is the IBM system called Digital Information Archiving System (DIAS). The e-Depot is built according to the recommendations in the OAIS reference model and is dedicated to the long-term storage of and access to large quantities of digital publications. To control safe storage and provide for future rendering of the digital documents, extra functionality was needed. Therefore, at the same time the system was taken into production, a joint KB/IBM project group started with the design, development and implementation of the Preservation Manager. This system provides the functionality for defining and managing the technical environment needed to render the electronic resources stored in DIAS. In this paper we present the design of the Preservation Manager, its rationale, and the way it is used within the operational digital archiving environment of the KB e-Depot.

Mining and disambiguating names

Mining events and new name translations from online daily news BIBAFull-Text 287-295
  Wai Lam; Pik-Shan Cheung; Ruizhang Huang
We develop a system for mining events and unseen name translations from online daily Web news. This system first automatically discovers bilingual events by analyzing the content of the news stories. The discovered event can be treated as comparable bilingual news and can be used for generating name candidates. A name matching algorithm is developed to discover new unseen name translations based on phonetic and context clues. The experimental results show that our system is effective for mining new knowledge and information from online Web news.
Two supervised learning approaches for name disambiguation in author citations BIBAFull-Text 296-305
  Hui Han; Lee Giles; Hongyuan Zha; Cheng Li; Kostas Tsioutsiouliklis
Due to name abbreviations, identical names, name misspellings, and pseudonyms in publications or bibliographies (citations), an author may have multiple names and multiple authors may share the same name. Such name ambiguity affects the performance of document retrieval, web search, database integration, and may cause improper attribution to authors. This paper investigates two supervised learning approaches to disambiguate authors in the citations. One approach uses the naive Bayes probability model, a generative model; the other uses Support Vector Machines (SVMs) and the vector space representation of citations, a discriminative model. Both approaches utilize three types of citation attributes: co-author names, the title of the paper, and the title of the journal or proceeding. We illustrate these two approaches on two types of data, one collected from the web, mainly publication lists from homepages, the other collected from the DBLPcitation databases.
Finding authoritative people from the web BIBAFull-Text 306-313
  Masanori Harada; Shin-ya Sato; Kazuhiro Kazama
Today's web is so huge and diverse that it arguably reflects the real world. For this reason, searching the web is a promising approach to find things in the real world. This paper presents NEXAS, an extension to web search engines that attempts to find real-world entities relevant to a topic. Its basic idea is to extract proper names from the web pages retrieved for the topic. A main advantage of this approach is that users can query any topic and learn about relevant real-world entities without dedicated databases for the topic. In particular, we focus on an application for finding authoritative people from the web. This application is practically important because once personal names are obtained, they can lead users from the web to managed information stored in digital libraries. To explore effective ways of finding people, we first examine the distribution of Japanese personal names by analyzing about 50 million Japanese web pages. We observe that personal names appear frequently on the web, but the distribution is highly influenced by automatically generated texts. To remedy the bias and find widely acknowledged people accurately, we utilize the number of web servers containing a name instead of the number of web pages. We show its effectiveness by an experiment covering a wide range of topics. Finally, we demonstrate several examples and suggest possible applications.

Panel

Library leaders on digital libraries and the future of the research library: a panel discussion BIBAFull-Text 314
  Clifford Lynch; Charles Henry; Sarah Pritchard; Betsy L. Humphreys; Brian Schottlaender
This panel presents perspectives from a group of research library leaders on the evolving relationships between the body of systems, services and technologies associated with digital libraries and the institution of the research library. Four panelists and the moderator will consider many questions, including whether libraries are being too timid or overly aggressive in engaging the world of digital libraries; the extent to which digital library technologies may threaten the future of the research library; and how changes in the practices of science and scholarship due to information technology and digital content will help shape the future of the research library and the integration of digital library technologies. We will also examine the possible roles of research libraries in helping to make digital library projects sustainable. The panel will also include time for questions from the audience.

Interacting with collections

Enhancing usability in CITIDEL: multimodal, multilingual, and interactive visualization interfaces BIBAFull-Text 315-324
  Saverio Perugini; Kathleen McDevitt; Ryan Richardson; Manuel A. Perez-Quinones; Rao Shen; Naren Ramakrishnan; Chris Williams; Edward A. Fox
We describe four usability-enhancing interfaces to CITIDEL aimed at improving the user experience and supporting personalized information access by targeted communities. These comprise: a multimodal interaction facility with capability for out-of-turn input, interactive visualizations for exploratory analysis, a translation center exposing multilingual interfaces, as well as traditional usability enhancements. Pilot studies demonstrate the resulting improvements in quality, as measured across a number of metrics.
Lost in memories: interacting with photo collections on PDAs BIBAFull-Text 325-333
  Susumu Harada; Mor Naaman; Yee Jiun Song; QianYing Wang; Andreas Paepcke
We developed two browsers to support large personal photo collections on PDAs. Our first browser is based on a traditional, folder-based layout that utilizes either the user's manually created organization structure, or a system-generated structure. Our second browser uses a novel interface that is based on a vertical, zoomable timeline. This timeline browser does not require users to organize their photos, but instead, relies solely on system-generated structure. Our system creates a hierarchical structure of the user's photos by applying time-based clustering to identify subsets of photos that are likely to be related. In a user experiment, we compared users' searching and browsing performance across these browsers, using each user's own photo collection. Photo collection sizes varied between 500 and 3000 photographs Our results show that our timeline browser is at least as effective for searching and browsing tasks as a traditional browser that requires users to manually organize their photos.
Collection understanding BIBAFull-Text 334-342
  Michelle Chang; John J. Leggett; Richard Furuta; Andruid Kerne; J. Patrick Williams; Samuel A. Burns; Randolph G. Bias
Collection understanding shifts the traditional focus of retrieval in large collections from locating specific artifacts to gaining a comprehensive view of the collection. Visualization tools are critical to the process of efficient collection understanding By presenting simple visual interfaces and intuitive methods of interacting with a collection, users come to understand the essence of the collection by focusing on the artifacts. This paper discusses a practical approach for enhancing collection understanding in image collections.

Search and query strategies

Combined searching of web and oai digital library resources BIBAFull-Text 343-344
  Aaron Krowne; Martin Halbert
In this paper, we describe an experiment in combined searching of web pages and digital library resources, exposed via an Open Archives metadata provider and web gateway service. We utilize only free/open source software components for our investigation, in order to demonstrate feasibility of deployment for all institutions.
Ontology acquisition and semantic retrieval from semantic annotated Chinese poetry BIBAFull-Text 345-346
  Wun Von Soo; Yao Shih Yang; Lei Shu Chen; Ting Yi Fu
This research aims to utilize semantic web[1]. technology to the semantic annotation of classical Chinese poetry. We investigate the feasibilities and advantages of semantic retrieval and automated ontology acquisition from semantically annotated poems based on a Chinese thesaurus. We have induced a set of semantic composition rules for pair-wise character (word) patterns that can be used to parse the poem sentences and recursively generate RDF[2]. triple relations among the pair of characters (words). We have also defined a scoring scheme to assess semantic similarity for semantic retrieval. We showed that the semantic retrieval method significantly outperformed the keyword-based retrieval method.
Web question answering through automatically learned patterns BIBAFull-Text 347-348
  Dmitri Roussinov; Jose Robles
While being successful in providing keyword based access to web pages, commercial search portals, such as Google, Yahoo, AltaVista, and AOL, still lack the ability to answer questions expressed in a natural language. We explore the feasibility of a completely trainable approach to the automated question answering on the Web or large scale digital libraries. By using the inherent redundancy of large scale collections, each candidate answer found by the system is triangulated (confirmed or disconfirmed) against other possible answers. Since our approach is entirely self-learning and does not involve any linguistic resources it can be easily implemented within digital libraries or Web search portals.

Supporting personalization

Exploring the relationship between personal and public annotations BIBAFull-Text 349-357
  Catherine C. Marshall; A. J. Bernheim Brush
Today people typically read and annotate printed documents even if they are obtained from electronic sources like digital libraries If there is a reason for them to share these personal annotations online, they must re-enter them. Given the advent of better computer support for reading and annotation, including tablet interfaces, will people ever share their personal digital ink annotations as is, or will they make substantial changes to them? What can we do to anticipate and support the transition from personal to public annotations? To investigate these questions, we performed a study to characterize and compare students' personal annotations as they read assigned papers with those they shared with each other using an online system. By analyzing over 1, 700 annotations, we confirmed three hypotheses: (1) only a small fraction of annotations made while reading are directly related to those shared in discussion; (2) some types of annotations -- those that consist of anchors in the text coupled with margin notes -- are more apt to be the basis of public commentary than other types of annotations; and (3) personal annotations undergo dramatic changes when they are shared in discussion, both in content and in how they are anchored to the source document. We then use these findings to explore ways to support the transition from personal to public annotations.
Supporting personal collections across digital libraries in spatial hypertext BIBAFull-Text 358-367
  Frank M. Shipman; Haowei Hsieh; J. Michael Moore; Anna Zacchi
Creating, maintaining, or using a digital library requires the manipulation of digital documents. Information workspaces provide a visual representation allowing users to collect, organize, annotate, and author information. The Visual Knowledge Builder (VKB) helps users access, collect, annotate, and combine materials from digital libraries and other sources into a personal information workspace VKB has been enhanced to include direct search interfaces for NSDL and Google. Users create a visualization of search results while selecting and organizing materials for their current activity. Additionally, metadata applicators have been added to VKB. This interface allows the rapid addition of metadata to documents and aids the user in the extraction of existing metadata for application to other documents. A study was performed to compare the selection and organization of documents in VKB to the commonly used tools ofa Web browser and a word processor. This study shows the value of visual workspaces for such effort but points to the need for subdocument level objects, ephemeral visualizations, and support for moving from visual representations to metadata.

Interchange and interoperability

Tools for a new generation of scholarly edition unified by a tei-based interchange format BIBAFull-Text 368-369
  Rajiv Kochumman; Carlos Monroy; Jie Deng; Richard Furuta; Eduardo Urbina
We report on experience gained from our ongoing multi-year project to produce an Electronic Variorum Edition of Cervantes' Don Quixote de la Mancha. Initially designed around a custom database representation, the project's evolution has lead to the adoption of a TEI-based format for information interchange among the project's major components. We discuss the mechanics of this approach and its benefits.
Toward information retrieval web services for digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 370-371
  Y. Fu; J. Mostafa
Information retrieval (IR) functions serve a critical role in many digital library systems. There are numerous mature IR algorithms that have been implemented and it will be a waste of resources and time to re-implement them. The implemented IR algorithms can be distributed or their functions made available through the framework of web services. Web services in the IR domain have not been widely tested. Concept extraction is an important area in traditional IR. We demonstrated that it can be easily adopted as IR web services and can be accessed in multiple ways. For the IR web services, we take advantage of a term representation database which was created as a result of a previous digital library project containing 31, 928, 892 terms found on 49, 602, 191 pages of the web.
Enabling interoperability for autonomous digital libraries: an API to citeseer services BIBAFull-Text 372-373
  Yves Petinot; Clyde Lee Giles; Vivek Bhatnagar; Pradeep B. Teregowdae; Hui Han
We introduce CiteSeer-API, a public API to CiteSeer-like services CiteSeer-API is SOAP/WSDL based and allows for easy programatical access to all the specific functionalities offered by CiteSeer services, including full text search of documents and citations and citation-based document discovery. CiteSeer-API is currently showcased on SMEALSearch [10]. a digital library search engine for business academic publications.

Panel

Digital libraries settling the score: 10 years hence and 10 before BIBAFull-Text 374
  Edward A. Fox; Gregory R. Crane; Stephen M. Griffin; Ronald L. Larsen; David M. Levy; David J. McArthur; Sugimoto Shigeo
Six panelists and a moderator leverage knowledge of the first ten years of the digital libraries field, to suggest key future directions.

Posters

Alessandro Kraus music pamphlet digitization BIBAFull-Text 375
  Estelle Paskausky
The Alessandro Kraus Pamphlets project completed in Fall 2003 is among the first major digitization projects at Boston College. This poster describes the process of selecting and digitizing pamphlets from the Alessandro Kraus music pamphlet collection for inclusion in the Boston College Digital Library, and serves as an example for planning and choosing future digital library projects.
Applying web analysis in web page filtering BIBKFull-Text 376
  Michael Chau
Keywords: information retrieval, machine learning, neural networks, support vector machines, vertical search engines, web analysis, web page classification, web page filtering
Bricoleurs: exploring digital library evaluation as participant interactions, research, and processes BIBAFull-Text 377
  Anita S. Coleman; Laura Bartolo; Casey Jones
The NSF-funded National Science Digital Library (NSDL) is working to develop community-based processes for implementing shared evaluation goals and instruments among its distributed library network to examine library usage, collections growth, and library governance processes. The bricoleur modality of evaluation research is one that integrates scientific methods as well as humanistic values. These activities are helping to provide the foundation for the development of a scientific program of digital library evaluation that crosses disciplinary boundaries.
Browsing and searching behavior in the renardus web service a study based on log analysis BIBKFull-Text 378
  Traugott Koch; Anders Ardo; Koraljka Golub
Keywords: browsing, log analysis, searching, user behavior
Capturing content for virtual museums: from pieces to exhibits BIBAFull-Text 379
  Bradley M. Hemminger; Gerald Bolas; David Carr; Paul Jones; Doug Schiff; Nick England
Virtual museums provide ways to capture the content of a real museum in a digital (electronic) form and make this digital form more universally available. This poster describes a novel method for digitally recording not only individual museum pieces, but entire museum exhibits (consisting of one or more rooms or spaces). The methodology allows anyone with access to the internet or a PC to experience anywhere, anytime, any part of the museum's collection or exhibits (past, present and future). Users can explore the museum exhibits in a virtual reality that is both spatially accurate and visually compelling. All objects and 3D scenes are seen in precise full color photographic quality detail. The scene and objects are polygonal meshes representing the surfaces of objects. This permits making measurements directly on the scene with millimeter precision. The methodology, its application to capturing museum exhibits, and examples of exhibits recorded using this technique are described. This work is part of the Virseum project (http://ils unc edu/bmh/virseum) at the School of Information and Library Science at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). In addition to the standard capture of items and exhibits for virtual access, this methodology opens the door for many other applications, including the design of virtual (never physically implemented) exhibits and pieces.
Collaboration in digital libraries: a conceptual framework BIBAFull-Text 380
  Lee Iverson
New classes of services for digital libraries have been explored in there search community with many now being tested and deployed in real-world settings. Unfortunately, there have been problems, some predicted and some unforeseen, in the development of these services. Moreover, a number of problems have been identified as becoming critical in the future, especially the difficulties as sociated with preservation of archives of digital content when data formats and media both have limited life spans. We have analyzed a number of these services in a research library (personal collection management, annotation, institutional repositories, and learning object repositories) in terms of their user and task requirements for three prototypical users: a researcher, a teacher and a student. Given these, we develop a unified conceptual model of how these services should work together in collaborative situations and some of the requirements for systems and service organizations that might implement them. This model centers around a vision of the digital library as the hub of a personalized, integrated information management environment. In particular we note the importance of: a flexible collection model that encompasses traditional collections managed by librarians, community collections managed by either professionals or users, and private, individual collections; both synchronous and asynchronous interactions between users and data; integration between library services and tools for using the information managed by the library user annotations as metadata associated with documents and document fragments and the integration of this facility with metadata search; a data model that provides universal, granular access to the contents of documents and other resources whether they are structured, semi-structured or unstructured; a data security model that provides full support for a range of private to semi-public to fully public data and metadata for users and user communities; and simple, flexible and integrated control of privacy, security, and integrity of all such data and metadata. Beyond these, one significant observation that deserves greater emphasis is the need to provide direct and sophisticated support for a variety of epistemic communities in any such digital library. In particular, both users and communities need new tools to organize and use the information they are collecting in the context of their personal and collective knowledge. The claim is that for these patterns of use, it is less useful to provide universal ontological models or category hierarchies than it is to provide sophisticated tools to allow both automatic and user-directed semantic categories and relations to be defined, refined and adapted for information management in context. Finally, this analysis reveals a set of technical requirements that highlight a number of critical gaps in the conceptual integration of the services and in the infrastructure underlying their current implementations. One model for building such set of facilities takes the traditional three-tier enterprise application model and adapts it for use as a layered application model for integrated data-driven applications We then consider current and potential technologies for implementing this model and suggest that the best hope for a solution that meets both user and technical needs lies in a combination of integrated services built on a document modelling and collaboration infrastructure that we call NODAL, the Network-Oriented Document Abstraction Language. We illustrate how this model may enable even the most ambitious visions of the potential of the collaborative digital library.
Communication channels and the adoption of digital libraries for electronic theses and dissertations BIBAFull-Text 381
  Suzie Allard
This research used diffusion of innovation theory to explore factors that influence adoption of digital libraries for electronic theses and dissertations (ETD-DL) among members of the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD) Communication channels were categorized as being either interpersonal or mediated, and the perceived importance of these channels was assessed both within and between organizations. A web-based survey collected data from the 133 universities in 26 countries that were NDLTD members in December 2002. Respondents were members of the university's 'ETD Committee' and represented academic administrators, faculty, librarians, and computer systems specialists. Surveys were received from 95 respondents representing 65 universities in 14 countries. Twenty-one of these universities were outside the United States, and represented countries with a wide range of economic development.
   Results provide insights into university attitudes towards distributed digital libraries. For example, results suggest that interpersonal channels of communication about digital library adoption are more important than mediated channels within the organization. However, mediated channels of communication are more important for those universities that have decided to adopt the ETD-DL but have not yet implemented the DL. There were also significant differences in the importance attributed to these channels by individuals in different jobs. The results suggest strategies that could encourage development of digital libraries within other social systems. The study also illustrates the importance of planning for the human factor in digital library management. Carefully constructed strategies that address all the parties involved in DL adoption and that account for differences in communication style will more readily facilitate successful adoption of distributed digital libraries.
The concept space interchange protocol BIBAFull-Text 382
  Sonal Bhushan; Qianyi Gu; Tamara Sumner
The Concept Space Interchange Protocol supports the deployment of conceptual browsing interfaces in digital libraries. The protocol provides a programmatic interface to dynamically generate interactive visual components that enable users to navigate a concept space, request information about concepts, and request library resources aligned with concepts. The Concept Space Interchange Protocol has been implemented as part of the NSDL Strand Map Service, which enables digital library developers to create user interfaces and services based on nationally recognized K-12 science learning goals developed by the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The protocol, the principles underpinning its design, and the problem-centered design methodology used to create it are described.
Cross-lingual searching and visualization for Greek and Latin and old Norse texts BIBAFull-Text 383
  Jeffrey A. Rydberg-Cox; Lara Vetter; Stefan Ruger; Daniel Heesch
We explore approaches to multi-lingual information retrieval for Greek, Latin, and Old Norse texts and an innovative visualization facility for the results.
Coupling browse and search in highly interactive user interfaces: a study of the relation browser++ BIBKFull-Text 384
  J. Zhang; G. Marchionini
Keywords: browse, category overview, dynamic query, interface design, search, visualization
DialogPlus: digital libraries in support of innovative approaches to learning and teaching in geography BIBAFull-Text 385
  Michael Freeston; Hugh Davis
DialogPlus is one of four international projects, supported in the US by the NSF International Collaborative Research Program in Digital Libraries, and in the UK by the Joint Information Systems Committee of the UK Higher Education Funding Councils. The two primary objectives of the project are to develop: a distributed enabling information infrastructure for the support of learning and teaching in Geography; innovative approaches to teaching and learning, based on this infrastructure. Specifically, the project aims to show how: the undergraduate and postgraduate programs of study in Geography in the consortium universities can be enriched and developed through cross-national collaboration and on-line delivery; different virtual learning environments can be supported by a common, open and distributed digital library infrastructure; major geospatial resources relevant for the study of the environment and landscape and for the study of human populations in cities and the countryside can be used in student programs of study; important skills in the analysis of spatial information through use of Geographical Information Science and Earth Observation software and functions can be taught on-line and made available in undergraduate programs. The project plans to deliver shared UK/US electronic resources associated with four courses across four topic areas, namely: Human Geography (based on the Census); Geographical Information Science (applied to retailing); Geomorphology (based on river catchments); and Earth Observation (for land cover and land use inference). The project will capitalize on a variety of rich digital resources which have been created by both official agencies and universities and which can be used to enhance student learning, knowledge and skills in each of these topic areas. These electronic resources will be made available through interoperable digital library technology and integrated directly into course units in undergraduate programs supported by Virtual Learning Environments within each institution. A distributed version of the Alexandria geo-referenced digital library, developed at UCSB within the DLI1 and DLI2 programs of the NSF, will be used as the foundation of the technical infrastructure to support the project. A major aim of the project will be to show that several different pedagogic approaches, and a wide variety of data collections and teaching resources, can be supported and shared within this common infrastructure.
Digital libraries and community networking: the Canadian experience BIBAFull-Text 386
  Nadia Caidi; Andrew Clement
We describe integrating DLs with community networking initiatives as part of the Canadian Research Alliance for Community Innovation and Networking.
A digital library for health sciences educators: the health education assets library (heal) BIBAFull-Text 387
  Sandra A. McIntyre; Sharon E. Dennis; Sebastian H. J. Uijtdehaage; Chris S. Candler
Health sciences educators have the need but neither the time nor the resources to create and index digital multimedia materials suitable for use in educational settings. The primary mission of the Health Education Assets Library (HEAL) is to address this need by providing health sciences educators with free access over the Internet to high-quality multimedia materials, including such items as images, videos, and animations The project team is working with other organizations to establish an international network of distributed databases containing high-quality teaching resources in a variety of health sciences-related subject areas HEAL's resources are freely available on the Web for use by health sciences faculty, students, and staff, as well as patients and their families. The digital library includes interfaces for searching, downloading, contributing, and browsing through materials. A custom metadata schema based on the Educause Instructional Management Systems (IMS) standard has been extended by HEAL to include additional health sciences-related elements Intellectual property issues are handled through the use of the Creative Commons set of licenses; most commonly, contributors grant free use of the library's resources for non-commercial purposes with clear attribution. The HEAL project has attracted the interest of over sixty organizational and individual partners, and by February 2004 there were over 4000 registered users. The collection is growing as new partner collections are being added by the end of late 2004, the national multimedia repository/referatory created by the HEAL team at www.healcentral.org will offer health sciences educators access to a large, diverse collection of health science materials appropriate for use in a variety of educational settings.
The digital ideakeeper: integrating digital libraries with a scaffolded environment for online inquiry BIBAFull-Text 388
  Chris Quintana; Meilan Zhang
Online inquiry is an important way of engaging learners in information-rich activities using online sources to explore questions in different fields, such as science. Online inquiry involves a set of interrelated activities, such as planning an investigation; seeking, analyzing, and making sense of online information; and synthesizing information into a final argument. However, learners may encounter several obstacles in trying to tackle an open-ended, complex process like online inquiry. Therefore, using a learner-centered design approach, we are developing the Digital Idea Keeper environment to extend digital libraries by integrating different tools and incorporating different scaffolding approaches to help learners effectively engage in online inquiry.
Digitally modeling, visualizing and preserving archaeological sites BIBKFull-Text 389
  Peter K. Allen; Steve Feiner; Lynn Meskell; Ken Ross; Alejandro J. Troccoli; Hrvoje Benko; Edward Ishak; Benjamin Smith; James Conlon
Keywords: 3D scanning, archaeology, augmented reality, cultural heritage, digital libraries, multimodal interaction
DLIST: opening LIS research and practice BIBAFull-Text 390
  Paul J. Bracke; Anita Sundaram Coleman; Shawn Nelson
In this paper we describe DLIST, a digital library for Library and Information Science Research and Practice and for Information Technology as it relates to LIS It is built upon the open access eprints model, but that extends materials in the collection beyond the formal, scholarly literature to include other types of content created by researchers and practitioners. DLIST is intended to promote resource sharing in LIS and IT and to attempt to bridge the gap between research and practice. The notion of open access is briefly discussed as a central tenet for the development of the intellectual commons as an interactive space for learning.
Dynamically generating conceptual browsing interfaces for digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 391
  Qianyi Gu; Tamara Sumner; Sonal Bhushan; Faisal Ahmad
A system is described that supports the dynamic generation of conceptual browsing interfaces. These interfaces are comprised of interacting visual components that contain different views onto a concept space that can be modeled as nodes and links. This algorithm uses a combined approach of tree-based processing with a grid-based drawing system to automatically generate the visual components. This algorithm is part of a larger digital library service, the NSDL Strand Map Service, which aims to provide educators and learners with conceptual browsing interfaces that help them to locate and use learning resources in educational digital libraries.
Ensuring quality in peer review BIBAFull-Text 392
  F. P. McMartin; M. Wetzel; G. Hanley
Faculty users of education digital libraries require contents that are high quality and that are effective teaching and learning materials. Faculty use peer reviews of these materials to select those that they wish to use. MERLOT has developed a scalable, effective peer review system that meets the needs of its users. This paper describes evaluation research conducted to ensure that as the process is reliable, trusted and useable.
An evaluation methodology for coordinated event visualization in digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 393
  Wingyan Chung; Luis G. Chaboya; Christopher D. O'Toole; Homa Atabakhsh
Event visualization holds the promise of alleviating information overload in digital libraries. We propose a methodology for evaluating a coordinated event visualization tool called COPLINK Spatio-Temporal Visualizer (STV) The methodology examines different event dimensions and compares STV with another frequently used crime analysis tool (Microsoft Excel). We briefly describe the experimental procedure and results, and discuss future directions.
How to annotate an image?: the need of an image annotation guide agent BIBAFull-Text 394
  Chen-Yu Lee; Von-Wun Soo; Yi-Ting Fu
The performance of retrieving an image in terms of text-type of queries depends heavily on the quality of the annotated descriptive metadata that describes the content of the images. However, effective annotation of an image can often be a laborious task that requires consistent domain knowledge. We showed that the critical property and common sense heuristics used by an annotation guide agent to aid the annotation of images could significantly lead to the improvement of the recall and precision of image retrieval.
A hybrid approach to generating and utilizing faceted vocabulary for knowledge discovery on the web BIBKFull-Text 395
  Kiduk Yang; Elin Jacob
Keywords: automatic classification, concept relationships, concept search, faceted vocabulary, knowledge discovery
If you build it, will they come?: lessons learned from the workshop on participant interaction in digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 396
  Brandon Muramatsu; Sarah Gierschi; Flora McMartin; Steve Weimar; Gene Klotz
A workshop in early February 2004, hosted by the Math Forum, brought together over thirty experts from the National Science Digital Library (NSDL) program and representatives from online communities to discuss and identify promising models of participant involvement for the NSDL and NSDL-funded projects [see pidlworkshop comm nsdl org]. The workshop leveraged the expertise of attendees to identify tools and reporting mechanisms, develop strategies and formulate recommendations that will help NSDL projects incorporate, support and grow the communities who use their digital libraries Workshop attendees also provided a rich set of examples of how users are currently involved in building and maintaining NSDL digital libraries and the potential impact of their involvement Participant involvement is a critical factor not only in developing educational digital libraries, but also in sustaining the resources, the technology and most importantly, the communities who use them Without converting casual or one-time users into recurring, involved participants, or even members of a community, educational digital libraries will simply be yet another example of, 'If you build it, will they come'.
Integrating knowledge components for writer identification in a digital archive of historical music scores BIBAFull-Text 397
  Ilvio Bruder; Temenushka Ignatova; Lars Milewski
The integration of domain- and user-specific specialized services, for the management and representation of information, is an important step towards efficiently usable digital libraries and archives. However, specialized services have not yet become an integral part of digital archive systems. Here we represent some of the recently achieved milestones towards developing a digital archive of historical music scores, providing specialized services for the identification of writers of music scores, based on their handwriting characteristics.
The materials digital library: MatDL.org BIBAFull-Text 398
  Laura M. Bartolo; Sharon C. Glotzer; Javed I. Khan; Adam C. Powell; Donald R. Sadoway; Kenneth M. Anderson; James A. Warren; Vinod Tewary; Cathy S. Lowe; Cecilia Robinson
The Materials Digital Library project, as part of the National Science Foundation's National Science Digital Library program, researches efficient creation and dissemination of materials information using a multifaceted approach: collection of materials content, with an emphasis on soft matter; construction of authoring tools for improved delivery, and; use of materials content in a digital library.
NIKE: integrating workflow, digital library, and online catalog systems BIBKFull-Text 399
  Nancy Allmang; Jo Ann Remshard
Keywords: NIKE, crosswalk, digital library, knowledge management, public access, publications, submission and tracking
The OAI-PMH NASA technical report server BIBAFull-Text 400
  Micheal L. Nelson; JoAnne R. Calhoun; Calvin E. Mackey
The NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) is now based on the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH). This metadata harvesting version of NTRS represents a significant improvement over the previous distributed searching implementation of NTRS. In addition to being an OAI-PMH service provider, the new version of NTRS is also an OAI-PMH aggregator. This allows NTRS to serve as a one-stop shop for harvesting of NASA metadata.
Scholars portal: beyond simple metasearch BIBAFull-Text 401
  Krisellen Maloney; John R. James
The Scholars Portal Project is a collaborative venture joining seven ARL Libraries and a software vendor to develop an integrated web-based system that will connect researchers, instructors and students with appropriate, vetted information resources. The Project's initial focus has been on the meta-search discovery" and direct linking "delivery" tools that provide the software and metadata foundation for the Scholars Portal This paper will provide the current progress of implementation and plans for the future".
Sharing culture shock through a collection of experiences BIBAFull-Text 402
  Babatunde Azeez; Andruid Kerne; Joseph Southern; Bridgette Summerfield; Isaac Aholu; Eshita Sharmin
Culture shock and cultural adaptation are phenomena that international students experience, while crossing boundaries On their arrival to the U.S. displaced students from the Third World often feel isolated, afraid, inferior, and insecure. Digital collections can serve as a medium for sharing sensations and experiences. They can help overcome the sense of isolation and culture shock, by illustrating to an individual how others have similar experiences We are building a digital collection to support this exchange of experiences In collecting experiences, we found that first person ethnographic interviews are more effective as a method for data collection, when they are conducted with a sense of informality Woezor, a prototype system, was developed to structure and present these collections, using the Greenstone digital libraries software.
Tools and techniques for harvesting the world wide web BIBAFull-Text 403
  J. L. Marill; A. Boyko; M. Ashenfelder; L. Graham
Recently the Library of Congress began developing a strategy for the preservation of digital content. Efforts have focused on the need to select, harvest, describe, access and preserve Web resources. This poster focuses on the Library's initial investigation and evaluation of Web harvesting software tools.
Toolkits for visualizing co-authorship graph BIBAFull-Text 404
  Xiaoming Liu; Johan Bollen; Michael L. Nelson; Herbert Van de Sompel; Jeremy Hussell; Rick Luce; Linn Marks
Visualization eases insight into complex systems such as co-authorship networks. We present an initial deployment of an author navigator application for convenient visual examination of JCDL and LANL co-authorship networks.
Towards a unified framework for assessing the complexity of digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 405
  Christine Dufour; Pierrette Bergeron
This poster presents a unified Web information system (WIS) framework developed to study the impact of WIS introduction on a digital" organization's information environment. As digital libraries can be seen as information systems and are often based on Web technologies we suggest that this framework is also useful to assess their complexity".
Toward melodic access and title uniformity in the Chopin early editions music digital library BIBKFull-Text 406
  J. S. Downie; T. Olson
Keywords: Design
Usability of digital libraries: an evaluation model BIBAFull-Text 407
  Judy H. Jeng
This research proposes methods and instruments for assessing usability of academic digital libraries. Criteria in this study are effectiveness, efficiency, satisfaction, and learnability. It is found that there exist interlocking relationships among effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction.
Using digital library components for biodiversity systems BIBAFull-Text 408
  Ricardo da Silva Torres; Claudia Bauzer Medeiros; Renata Queiroz Dividino; Mauricio Augusto Figueiredo; Marcos Andre Goncalves; Edward A. Fox; Ryan Richardson
Biodiversity information systems (BISs) involve all kinds of heterogeneous data, which include ecological and geographical features. However, available information systems offer very limited support for managing such data in an integrated fashion, and such integration is often based on geographic coordinates alone. Furthermore, such systems do not fully support image content management (e.g. photos of landscapes or living organisms), a requirement of many BIS end-users. In order to meet their needs, these users -- e.g. biologists, environmental experts -- often have to alternate between distinct biodiversity and image information systems to combine information extracted from them. This cumbersome operational procedure is forced on users by lack of interoperability among these systems. This hampers the addition of new data sources, as well as cooperation among scientists. The approach provided in this project to meet these issues is based on taking advantage of advances in Digital Library (DL) innovations to integrate networked collections of heterogeneous data. It focuses on creating the basis for a biodiversity information system under the digital library perspective, combining new techniques of content-based image retrieval and database query processing mechanisms. This approach solves the problem of system switching, and provides users with a flexible platform from which to tailor a BIS to their needs. The main contributions of this project are the following: (a) a generic architecture for managing heterogeneous collections, based on digital library components, to access heterogeneous biodiversity data sources (text and images), that allows combining text-based and content-based queries in a seamless way; and (b) a new component, for content-based image search, integrated into that architecture. The proposed architecture has been implemented by using DL components which are mostly new or recently developed. Furthermore, its implementation uses the Open Archives Initiative (OAI) protocol as a basis for interoperability. This architecture is easily extensible, and provides users a considerable degree of flexibility in data management. To illustrate our claim that this architecture can be applied to several domains, we are investigating its application in building a biodiversity information system on fish species. This solution solves many current problems in this kind of system, allowing handling of images and textual information in an integrated fashion. A new Content-Based Image Search Component has been developed to support queries on image collections. Since this component is based onthe OAI principles, it provides an easy-to-install search engine to query images by content. It can be readily tailored for a particular collection by a trained designer, who carries out a clearly defined set of pilot experiments. It supports the use of different image descriptors, which can be chosen from the pilot experiment, and then easily combined to yield improved effectiveness. In addition, it encapsulates a multidimensional index structure to speed up the search process, that also can be easily configured for different image collections.
The University of North Texas libraries' portal to Texas history: archival challenges and solutions BIBAFull-Text 409
  K. E. Nordstrom; C. N. Hartman; M. Phillips
The UNT Texas History Portal Project strives to balance the goals of accessibility of information and long-term preservation of digital objects. This poster details the system that automates the collection of metadata records to coordinate access to web-viewable files and preservation of archived master files.

Demonstrations

The Alexandria Digital Library and the Alexandria digital earth prototype BIBAFull-Text 410
  Michael Freeston
The Alexandria Digital Library, together with its follow-on -- the Alexandria Digital Earth Prototype Project -- is one of the flagship projects of the NSF/NASA/ Digital Library Initiative Uniquely among these projects, ADL is a georeferenced library i.e. a library in which the principal mode of access to information is by specifying the location of the information on the surface of the Earth. The most immediate application of this technology is in support of a library of maps, aerial photographs and remote sensing images, and ADL is now run as an operational service by UCSB's Map and Image Library, one of the largest such libraries in the US.But the longer term objective is to provide georeferenced search as an alternative way of accessing conventional libraries i.e. libraries of textual information With the aid of a natural language parser and the ADL gazetteer, the locations (lat, long) of places named in a text can be identified This functionality offers a quantum leap in information retrieval performance in the many cases in which locational information is involved For example, it becomes possible to discover documents about California, even if the name California" does not appear explicitly in the text. It also offers a foundation technology for the concept of the Digital Earth able to answer questions such as: "What information do you have about this place?The primary focus of the ADEPT project, however, is on the development of digital learning environments (DLEs) for undergraduate education There are two particularly innovative strands to this research: first the use of digital library technology to provide curated learning and teaching resources for the DLEs; and second a pedagogic approach based on an explicit concept model of the chosen field of study ADEPT has naturally chosen Geography as the experimental field of study but the approach is quite general and could be applied to any other field A first course using this approach was given at UCSB in Fall 2003".
Building metadata-based navigation using semantic web standards: the Dublin Core 2003 conference proceedings BIBAFull-Text 411
  Bradley P. Allen; Joseph T. Tennis
One of the touted benefits of the Semantic Web is that it will make searches more precise and efficient by leveraging metadata about web-delivered content. Faceted metadata retrieval is an approach to providing users access to large collections of semi-structured data and content that promises an improvement in usability over that available using more traditional search methods. In this demonstration we illustrate how the on-line proceedings for the 2003 Dublin Core Conference were implemented by combining traditional and innovative knowledge organization techniques. The 2003 Dublin Core Conference Proceedings served as a test-bed for generating a faceted metadata retrieval interface from instance metadata, ontologies, and controlled vocabularies expressed in RDF and RDF Schema. We share lessons learned in the design and implementation of the proceedings, and in particular focus on emerging best practices for representing and sharing metadata using Dublin Core Metadata recommendations, new interpretations of traditional Library and Information Science information retrieval techniques, and implementations of Semantic Web standards.
Digital library access via image similarity search BIBAFull-Text 412
  D. C. Heesch; M. J. Pickering; P. Howarth; A. Yavlinsky; S. M. Rueger
We present an image library with similarity-based searching and novel browsing structures and a news video library with content-based search and summarisation features.
eLibrary and ARTE: two opendlib digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 413
  Donatella Castelli; Pasquale Pagano; Manuele Simi
This demonstration shows two experimental digital libraries, e-Library and ARTE, which have been built by configuring appropriately the OpenDLib digital library system and then acquiring content with different approaches. Through these DLs we intend to demonstrate the capability of the OpenDLib system to be exploited in different application contexts.
ETANA-DL: managing complex information applications -- an archaeology digital library BIBAFull-Text 414
  Unni Ravindranathan; Rao Shen; Marcos Andre Goncalves; Weiguo Fan; Edward A. Fox; James W. Flanagan
Archaeological research results in the generation of large quantities of heterogeneous information managed by different projects using custom information systems. We will demonstrate a prototype Digital Library (DL) for integrating and managing archaeological data and providing services useful to various user communities ETANA-DL is a model-based, componentized, extensible, archaeological DL that manages complex information sources using the client-server paradigm of the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH).
Geographic information retrieval (GIR) ranking methods for digital libraries BIBAFull-Text 415
  Ray R. Larson; Patricia Frontiera
This demo will presents results from an evaluation of algorithms for ranking results by probability of relevance for Geographic Information Retrieval (GIR) applications. We will demonstrate an algorithm for GIR ranking based on logistic regression from samples of the test collection We also show the effects of different representations of the geographic regions being searched, including minimum bounding rectangles, convex hulls, and complex polygons.
Greenstone digital library software: current research BIBAFull-Text 416
  David Bainbridge; Ian H. Witten
The Greenstone digital library software (www.greenstone.org) provides a flexible way of organizing information and publishing it on the Internet or removable media such as CDROM. Its aim is to empower users, particularly in universities, libraries and other public service institutions, to build their own digital libraries. It is open-source software, issued under the terms of the GNU General Public License. It is produced by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato, and developed and distributed in cooperation with UNESCO and the Human Info NGO.
Mobile image capture and management BIBKFull-Text 417
  Michael A. Smith; Andy Choi; Serge Aublant
Keywords: GPS, geolocation, mobile images, retrieval, search
An OAI compliant content-based image search component BIBAFull-Text 418
  Ricardo da Silva Torres; Claudia Bauzer Medeiros; Marcos Andre Goncalves; Edward A. Fox
Advances in data storage and image acquisition technologies have enabled the creation of large image datasets. In order to deal with these data, appropriate information systems (e.g. image digital libraries) have been developed to efficiently manage such collections. One of the most common retrieval approaches is to employ so-called Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems. Basically, these systems try to retrieve images similar to a user-defined pattern (e.g. image example). Their goal is to support image retrieval based on content properties (e.g. shape, color, or texture), which are often encoded in terms of image descriptors. This demonstration presents a new CBIR system based on configurable components. The main novelty resides in its Content-Based Image Search Component (CBISC) that supports queries on image collections. CBISC is based on the OAI principles, and thus provides an easy-to-install search engine to support querying images by content. As with the OAI protocol, queries are posed via HTTP requests and the responses are encoded in XML. CBISC encapsulates multidimensional index structures to speed up the search process. Furthermore, it supports the use of different image descriptors (metric and non-metric; color, texture, and shape descriptors; with 1D or 2D feature vectors), which can be easily combined to yield improved effectiveness. We will show that this search component can be tailored for particular image collections by a trained designer, who carries out a clearly defined set of pilot experiments to select the appropriate descriptors. Image descriptors are typically domain and usage-dependent. Further, a given image can be associated with very many descriptors. However, standard CBIR methods only support a fixed set of descriptors. CBISC, instead, allows progressive extension of the descriptor base. Figure 1 presents a screen shot showing the CBISC Configuration Tool developed to support CBISC designers in the configuration process. Basically, this process concerns the description/definition of both the image descriptors that will be used to retrieve images by content, and the image database to which the CBISC is related. The XML file generated in this process is used during CBISC execution.
OCLC digital archive demonstration BIBAFull-Text 419
  Leah Houser
The demonstration shows the functionality of OCLC's new Digital Archive, which became publicly available in September 2002. This system is an implementation of the ISO Reference Model for an Open Archival Information System (OAIS). This product uses an implementation of the OCLC/RLG Preservation Metadata element set, tailored for web documents Front-end workflow and harvester components allow users to archive web content.
Services for a customizable authority linking environment BIBAFull-Text 420
  M. S. Patton; D. M. Mimno
The SCALE -- Services for a Customizable Authority Linking Environment -- project is developing tools to help integrate collections within the National Science Foundation's National Science Digital Library (NSDL) through terminological linking. These tools will transparently provide reading support to NSDL collections by automatically linking phrases in the content of one collection to relevant material in another collection. This will enhance the user experience in the NSDL and encourage greater integration of collections by increasing the value of each collection to other collections.
Using digital libraries to build educational communities: the chemcollective BIBAFull-Text 421
  David Yaron; Michael Karabinos; Gaea Leinhardt
The ChemCollective is a new project in the targeted research track of the National Science Digital Library (NSDL). The project (http://www.chemcollective.org) was launched in spring 2004 at the National American Chemical Society (ACS) and National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) meetings. The research goal is to explore the degree to which digital library structures can attract and support a community of educators working towards a common vision of educational reform.
Variations2: improving music findability in a digital library through work-centric metadata BIBAFull-Text 422
  Mark Notess; Jon Dunn
The Variations2 Indiana University Digital Music Library is a large test-bed project funded in part by Phase 2 of the Digital Libraries Initiative, with support from the National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities. This demonstration will show the current state of the Variations2 test-bed software, focusing on the search user interface.
Visiting virtual reality museum exhibits BIBAFull-Text 423
  Bradley M. Hemminger; Gerald Bolus; Doug Schiff
Virtual museums provide ways to capture the content of a real museum in a digital (electronic) form and make this digital form more universally available. This exhibit demonstrates a novel method for digitally recording entire museum exhibits and allowing them to be explored in virtual reality. The methodology allows anyone with access to the Internet or a PC to experience anywhere, anytime, any part of the museum's collection or exhibits (past, present and future). Users can explore the museum exhibits in a virtual reality that is both spatially accurate and visually compelling. All objects and 3D scenes are seen in precise full color photographic quality detail. The scene and objects are polygonal meshes representing the surfaces of objects as recorded by a laser range finder. This permits making measurements directly on the scene with millimeter precision. The methodology, its application to capturing museum exhibits, and examples of exhibits recorded using this technique are demonstrated on a laptop PC. Visitors to the demonstration will be able to: Learn about the process of digitizing 3D environments like museum exhibits and creating virtual reality environments from them; Place themselves in one of three virtual reality exhibits and explore the multiple rooms and artifacts comprising the exhibits (Ackland Art Museum, living room, Clue murder scene).
Zoomable user interface for in-depth reading BIBAFull-Text 424
  Eric Bier; Kris Popat; Lance Good; Alan Newberger
The Instant Bookplex system includes a zoomable user interface (ZUI) for navigating through a spatial representation of a document collection. This ZUI supports extended reading in the collection using semantic zooming, graphical presentation of metadata, animated transitions, and an integrated reading tool It helps users find and re-find documents, choose good documents to read next, and navigate between documents.