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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'95: Designing Interactive Systems 1995-08-23

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Editors:Gary M. Olson; Sue Schuon
Location:Ann Arbor, Michigan
Dates:1995-Aug-23 to 1995-Aug-25
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-673-5; ACM Order Number 608951; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS95
  1. Evolutionary Design
  2. Experience and Requirements
  3. Organizational Concerns
  4. Multidisciplinary Teams
  5. Design in Context
  6. Panel Discussion
  7. CSCW
  8. Design Environments
  9. Formal Notations/Methods
  10. Scenarios
  11. Plenary Speakers

Evolutionary Design

Building a History of the Blacksburg Electronic Village BIBAK 1-6
  John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson; Andrew M. Cohill; John R. Schorger
We are developing a history of the Blacksburg Electronic Village community network; gathering a broad spectrum of materials from and about the development process. We are providing browsing and authoring access to these materials through a World-Wide Web-based information system. The system is at once both a tool for the technical work of developing design-history, and a highly democratic forum for evolving a community-history. We believe this project raises fundamental questions and possibilities regarding the concept of history itself.
Keywords: Design history, Design rationale
Supporting the Evolution of Design Artifacts with Representations of Context and Intent BIBAK 7-15
  Gerhard Fischer; Kumiyo Nakakoji; Jonathan Ostwald
The design of complex artifacts is essentially an evolutionary process that requires collaboration among stakeholders. Domain-oriented design environments (DODEs) support the evolution of artifacts both by individual designers and by designers participating in long-term, indirect collaboration. DODEs provide representations for generic and specific levels of context. This context supports individual designers by making the information space relevant to the current design intent, and long-term collaboration among designers by allowing them to ground their communication around design artifacts. We demonstrate our approach using the KID (Knowing-in-Design) system, articulate principles for representations of context and intent, and discuss various approaches to represent intent and context in design environments.
Keywords: Domain-oriented design environments, Shared context, Explicit representations for intent, Communication of intent, Evolution of design artifacts, Knowledge-based information delivery, Long-term indirect collaboration
Technology-Driven Design of Speech Recognition Systems BIBAK 17-24
  Catalina Danis; John Karat
End-users and application developers are increasingly considering use of large vocabulary automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology for tasks that involve entering large volumes of text into a computer. Interest is in part fueled by the overwhelmingly positive reviews the technology is receiving in the trade press and at major trade shows. While acknowledging the impressive advances in ASR technology in recent years, critics nevertheless point out that problems with ASR-enabled applications currently preclude them from being broadly considered viable alternatives to keyboard input. In this paper, we argue that to become a generally viable alternative to keyboard input, ASR needs to undergo a transformation from a laboratory technology into a human computer interaction (HCI) technique. That is, we must discover how the technology should be used to support users engaged in productive work. We propose that to bring this about, designers must engage in building applications grounded in real work contexts now, even though the technology is still at an immature stage of development. We call this approach technology-driven design to emphasize our goal of advancing the technology in our design activities. Not as apparent in this label, but of great importance to our approach, is a commitment to the involvement of users in every aspect of system design.
Keywords: Speech recognition, Speech user interface, Design, Dictation, Technology-driven design

Experience and Requirements

Empowering Users in a Task-Based Approach to Design BIBAK 25-31
  Stephanie Wilson; Peter Johnson
This paper presents an approach to interactive system design known as task-based design. The approach advocates a design process that is centred on descriptions of the work tasks which users currently perform and will perform in the future. It encompasses a design method, design representations and design support tools. We discuss the motivations for the work and examine its relation to other design paradigms such as model-based and scenario-based design. The paper concludes with a discussion of current research involving the application of participatory design techniques to the task-based design paradigm. This is seen as a natural extension to the original work in which users will participate in formulating descriptions of their work contexts and in deriving artifact designs that will have consequences for those contexts.
Keywords: Task-based design, Design methods, User interface design environments, Participatory design
Requirements Rationales: Integrating Approaches to Requirement Analysis BIBAK 33-42
  Alistair Sutcliffe
An empirical study of requirements analysis techniques is reported. The study used a ship board emergency application. Requirements were elicited by presenting users with a prototype-simulation of a prospective design based on preliminary analysis. This was combined with rationale based techniques for structuring probe questions and a questionnaire to elicit user preferences. Transcripts of the sessions were analysed for the type of questions asked, answers received and the type of requirement captures. The scenario and rationale techniques proved very effective in eliciting requirements, but style of questioning may be an important effect. Recommendations are made for requirements capture session using scenario based approaches.
Keywords: Requirements analysis, Design rationale, Scenarios
A Framework for Developing Experience-Based Usability Guidelines BIBAK 43-53
  Scott Henninger; Kyle Haynes; Michael W. Reith
Reflecting the growing consensus that principles and methods for developing effective interfaces are beginning to mature, usability design guidelines have begun to proliferate. But current approaches to guidelines tend to either be technology-centric, focusing on platform-specific interface widgets, or abstract and general-purpose. At best, these general guidelines provide weak support that is insufficient to support developers faced with specific interface design problems targeted for specific user populations.
   If the potential of usability guidelines as an interface design technique is to be fully realized, they need to be augmented with context-specific guidelines and examples that synthesize isolated guidelines into domain-specific solutions to design problems. In this paper, we present a method in which software development organizations can develop and evolve domain-specific guidelines based on the kinds of applications they develop. The method facilitates the process of determining when and how guidelines should be applied by tying guidelines to specific design cases and providing the means to match customer requirements to specific interface techniques that have proven effective for similar users and application domains. The concrete cases help designers interpret the guidelines, making them easier to comprehend and apply to the current design problem. We demonstrate these issues through Mimir, a case-based system that supports the refinement and location of relevant guidelines and cases.
Keywords: Design methodology, Organizational memory, Usability guidelines, Case-based reasoning

Organizational Concerns

Towards an Integrated Organization and Technology Development BIBAK 55-64
  Volker Wulf; Markus Rohde
Nowadays organizations are seen as self-organizing social systems. To cope with dynamics of a continuously changing environment they have to be able to react flexibly. To support organizational change we will work out the concept of integrated organization and technology development. This approach offers a framework to deal with organizational and technological change jointly in an evolutionary and participative way. We will investigate on methods to organization development, work psychological guide-lines, approaches to software development and tailoring in use. Based on these results we will develop an integrated approach to organization and technology development.
Keywords: Organisation development, Work psychology, Software development, Tailoring in use
Facilitating Communication in Software Development BIBA 65-73
  Michael E. Atwood; Bart Burns; Dieter Gairing; Andreas Girgensohn; Alison Lee; Thea Turner; Sabina Alteras-Webb; Beatrix Zimmermann
Effective communication is critical to the success of a software development project. It factors into the productivity of individuals and organizations, and has particular impact when change occurs. Yet communication is generally left unsupported by the software development process and by the communication infrastructure. We address this issue in the context of two software development projects at NYNEX through a conceptual framework called Design Intent. There are three innovations in our approach. Design Intent encourages stakeholders to engage in active listening, enables stakeholders to collaboratively construct a consistent understanding of the development effort, and provides a communication infrastructure for stakeholders to share ideas and participate in discussions.
From Domain Modeling to Collaborative Domain Construction BIBAK 75-85
  Gerhard Fischer; Stefanie Lindstaedt; Jonathan Ostwald; Markus Stolze; Tamara Sumner; Beatrix Zimmermann
Domain-oriented systems offer many potential benefits for end-users such as more intuitive interfaces, better task support, and knowledge-based assistance. A key challenge for system developers constructing domain-oriented systems is determining what the current domain is and what the future domain should be; i.e. what entities should the system embody and how should they be represented. Determining an appropriate domain model is challenging because domains are not static entities that objectively exist, but instead they are dynamic entities that are constructed over time by a community of practice. New software development models and new computational tools are needed that support these communities to create initial models of the domain and to evolve these models over time to meet changing needs and practices. We describe a specific software development model and computational tools that enable domain practitioners to participate in domain construction processes.
Keywords: Software design, Domain-oriented design environments, Design, Domain modeling, Domain construction

Multidisciplinary Teams

Applying Design Methodology to Software Development BIBAK 87-95
  Jonas Lowgren
Professional software development, and specifically the external design of interactive systems, suffers from a tension between the normative development models being prescribed and the actual design work being performed. This tension manifests itself in, e.g., recurring problems with fluctuating requirements. I argue that this tension can be understood as the clash of two views on external design work: the engineering design and the creative design perspectives. To explain the tension and to lay a foundation for new ways to structure software development, I seek to apply critical insights and concepts from design methodology -- the theoretical framework for creative design. The result is a development process in which external design is separated from internal design and construction. The external design work consists of conceptual, constitutive and consolidatory steps. The process shares some characteristics with participatory design, but the designer's expertise is recognized and identified.
Keywords: Design methodology, Professional software development, External design, Creative design
A Framework for Describing and Understanding Interdisciplinary Interactions in Design BIBAK 97-103
  Catherine M. Burns; Kim J. Vicente
Today's design environments are highly constrained and projects are often worked on by designers from different domains. This paper describes a framework, based on the work of Rasmussen (1990), for examining these design processes in terms of design movements through levels of constraint and across design domains. The different design domains are defined by different disciplines. This framework was developed to assist in the analysis of a field study of the design of a nuclear power plant control room. The general structure of the framework is explained and then is used in five design scenarios to demonstrate its utility.
Keywords: Interdisciplinary design, Design constraints, Design process, Design studies
A Preliminary Study of the Relationship Between Industrial Design and Engineering Design BIBA 105-114
  W. P. Holmes; M. A. Azam; P. C. Hills
This project is being conducted at the Coventry University Centre for Integrated Design (CUCID) and is supported by the Coventry University Research Fund.
   The aim of this research is to improve the communication links between the fields of industrial design and engineering design. This paper presents an initial study of the two fields, beginning with set definitions of design. There then follows a brief discussion of design function and the design process.
   Industrial design and engineering design are then separated and different definitions of both fields are highlighted. Both design processes are discussed and models for each are presented.
   The final section of the paper examines the relationship between the two fields which enables a combined process model to be derived. Conclusions and proposals on more efficient linking of the two fields are presented which will lead to a greater understanding of the two fields and which will identify further areas fruitful for research.

Design in Context

An Applied Ethnographic Method for Redesigning User Interfaces BIBAK 115-122
  Anne Rose; Ben Shneiderman; Catherine Plaisant
Methods for observing software users in the workplace will become increasingly important as the number of people using computers grows and developers improve existing systems. Successful redesigns rely, in part, on complete and accurate evaluations of the existing systems. Based on our evaluation experience, we have derived a set of practical guidelines to be used by designers in preparing for the evaluation, performing the field study, analyzing the data, and reporting the findings. By providing a general framework based on ethnographic research, we hope to reduce the likelihood of some common problems, such as overlooking important information and misinterpreting observations. Examples from our ongoing work with the Maryland Department of Juvenile Justice are used to illustrate the proposed guidelines.
Keywords: Ethnography, Anthropology, Participant observation, Design methods, Redesign, Evaluation, User studies
Combining Programming Languages and Direct Manipulation in Environments for Computational Science BIBAK 123-130
  Eric Blough; Michael Eisenberg
Creating computational environments for scientists presents an unusual challenge to software designers. Computational scientists have the skills and motivation to explore models via programming, yet also have highly-developed qualitative visual skills (e.g., interpretation of plots). Unfortunately, software designers have traditionally considered programming and point-and-click interfaces to be mutually exclusive. We propose instead that the most expressive computational environments for scientists are those in which programming and direct manipulation are both present, each supplementing the other. We present several broad themes of interface-language integration, illustrating them with three prototype applications that we are developing to support specific research areas of computational science; and we extend these themes into promising paths for future exploration.
Keywords: Interactive programming environments, Computational science, Programmable applications, Direct manipulation
Designing Deeper: Towards a User-Centered Development Environment BIBA 131-142
  Keith A. Butler
We describe our work on a User-Centered Development Environment (UCDE). UCDE is based on emerging, object-oriented software technologies, and its purpose is to investigate how software development can function as an extension of business process improvements. We focus on a method to develop business-oriented components (BOCs). BOCs are software objects that model business rules, processes, and data from the end-user's perspective. They have a clear mapping to the process which they are intended to support, and provide function and data that are reusable in tasks throughout that process. We report preliminary cost-benefit data from construction of applications by assembling BOCs in a model-view-controller environment.

Panel Discussion

Learner-Centered System Design: HCI Perspective for the Future BIBAK 143-147
  Mark Guzdial; Yasmin B. Kafai; John M. Carroll; Gerhard Fischer; Roger Schank; Elliot Soloway; Ben Shneiderman
User-centered system design (Norman & Draper, 1986) taught the HCI community to address users and their needs, but the community has learned that the needs of users are not a constant. Learner-centered design draws attention to the changing needs of users (both students and professionals) as they gain expertise and how these changes need to be reflected in the interface. The panelists will help in defining how interface design must be tailored to support users as learners with case studies of their experiences in designing adaptive and adaptable interfaces for learners.
Keywords: User-centered system design, Learner-centered design, Diversity, Education, Software-realized scaffolding


A Method for Analyzing Team Design Activity BIBAK 149-156
  Antonio Carlos Pereira Maia; Carlos Jose Pereira de Lucena; Ana Cristina Bicharra Garcia
Design is a complex activity that has been the focus of substantial research work. Alone or in groups, designers create, develop, refine, analyze and document their conceptualization of a product. Many research projects have proposed methods for observing the design activity. These methods vary from simple documentation analysis to video tape analysis.
   Although video tape technology has been in use for many years to record design activity, systematic methods have not been developed to analyze video data. This paper presents a method for analyzing team design activity recorded in videotapes. The purpose of the method is to reduce the subjectivity of video data analysis.
   Our study has been developed in the domain of collaborative software design. The design activity of a multi-disciplinary group including from five to eight people was videotaped and has been analyzed. The team was involved with the design of an educational software system using the approach of decision making meetings. The analysis focused on the dynamics of the interactions among people involved in the design activity. This study is based on the belief that the interactions established among designers will provide important insights for a better understanding of design practice.
Keywords: Design activity analysis, Empirical studies of design practice, Collaborative design, Software design, Design rationale
Analysis of Gestures in Face-to-Face Design Teams Provides Guidance for How to Use Groupware in Design BIBAK 157-166
  Mathilde M. Bekker; Judith S. Olson; Gary M. Olson
Many phases of design projects are done in groups. Communication in these groups is naturally supported through a variety of gestures. We catalog four types of gestures that people use when engaged in design (kinetic, spatial, pointing, and other), and overlay it with the purpose of the design subtask, -- design, meeting management, and other. From this and other observations, we list recommendations for supporting this kind of communication in settings which have technology support, either face-to-face with group editors (where people do not necessarily see the same thing at the same time), and remote work (where people see neither the same view of the object nor a full room view of the other participants).
Keywords: Group design, Gesture, Support for design, Remote work

Design Environments

Inference Bear: Designing Interactive Interfaces through Before and After Snapshots BIBAK 167-175
  Martin R. Frank; Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya; James D. Foley
We present Inference Bear ("An Inference Creature based on Before and After Snapshots") which lets users build functional graphical user interfaces by demonstration.
   Inference Bear is unique in its use of a domain-independent reasoning engine. This approach has several advantages over systems that are closely tied to their domains. Most notably, Inference Bear reasons about a class of relationships that is defined by their computational complexity while rule-based systems are limited to reasoning about the class of relationships that the designer foresaw when building the system.
   However, it is also more difficult to design domain-independent demonstrational systems that are as easy to use as their domain-specific counterparts. The paper addresses this issue, and other issues relating to domain-independence.
Keywords: Rapid prototyping, Human-computer dialog specification, Programming by demonstration
Deceived by Ease of Use -- Using Paradigmatic Applications to Build Visual Design Environments BIBAK 177-188
  Kurt Schneider; Alexander Repenning
Application frameworks for visual design environments usually offer a wide range of features and easy-to-use mechanisms to develop applications. We observed that sometimes those features deceive application designers: Tempted by the desire to make rapid progress, designers go into too much detail about easy things too early in the process, like graphical representations. After the easy-to-use mechanisms have been exploited, they find themselves stuck and frustrated. Premature design decisions made during the feature-driven phase can corrupt application system architecture or require abandonment of much work. Extensive rework endangers project success.
   Paradigmatic applications can help to bridge the gap between application framework features and intended application -- better than manuals or additional features can. As examples and sources for reusable components, this special kind of exemplary applications directs the attention of designers to higher-level building blocks and helps them to avoid premature feature exploitation. We characterize paradigmatic applications and describe their impact on the design process.
Keywords: Application framework, Visual design environment, Analogies, Examples, Design process
Self-Disclosing Design Tools: A Gentle Introduction to End-User Programming BIBAK 189-197
  Chris DiGiano; Mike Eisenberg
Programmable tools for design offer users an expressive new medium for their work, but becoming acquainted with the tool's language can be a daunting task. To address this problem, we present a framework for the design of self-disclosing tools which provide incremental, situated language learning opportunities for designers in the context of authentic activity. By way of example, we present Chart 'n' Art, a programmable application for the creation of graphs and information displays. Chart 'n' Art employs a wide variety of self-disclosure techniques whose purpose is to introduce users to the system's "domain-enriched" dialect of Lisp.
Keywords: End-user programming, Learning

Formal Notations/Methods

OBSM: A Notation to Integrate Different Levels of User Interface Design BIBAK 199-205
  Birgit Kneer; Gerd Szwillus
The development of user interfaces has to take into account different design aspects at the same time or in subsequent development phases. Single aspects are supported by dedicated specification languages and techniques -- a unifying representation, however, does not exist. This situation forces the designer to perform complex transitions between different views. We propose a specification technique, which covers different aspects of user interface development in a coherent notation. It is based primarily on the paradigm of object-orientation, constraints, a representation of interaction sequences, and temporal relations.
Keywords: User interface design, Visual modelling, Model-based user interfaces, Object-oriented systems, Constraints, Task analysis, Dialogue specification
Designing Complex Systems -- a Structured Activity BIBA 207-217
  Gerrit C. van der Veer; Johannes C. van Vliet; Bert F. Lenting
This paper concerns the development of complex systems from the point of view of design as a structure of activities, related both to the clients and the users. Several modeling approaches will be adopted for different aspects of design, and several views on design will be integrated. The proposed activity structure is based on teaching design practice, and will be illustrated by examples from design courses for university students and for practitioners in industry.
A Formal Technique for Automated Dialogue Development BIBAK 219-226
  Gregory D. Abowd; Hung-Ming Wang; Andrew F. Monk
A number of notations exist by which a designer can specify the behavior of a human-computer interface in relatively formal terms. In this paper we show how many of the dialogue specifications described using these notations are amenable to automated analysis to detect potential problems such as user actions that are never enabled or have effects that are hard to reverse. In many situations, a dialogue specification can be thought of as a finite state machine in which the transition between states is signalled as an event from the user or system. The trouble with this state transition model is that states quickly multiply presenting two problems to the analyst: (i) how to easily describe all of the possible dialogue states and state transitions; and (ii) how to analyze a very large STN. This paper reviews possible solutions to both of these problems. A tabular interface to Olsen's Propositional Production System is described and goes some way towards solving the descriptive problem. This representation is also useful for simulating requirements scenarios in a validation exercise. For the analytic problem, we make use of finite state model checking technology that allows for automated analysis of very large state machines. We demonstrate how eight categories of dialogue verification properties can be analyzed with this approach. Together, dialogue simulation and automated verification leads to a more complete analytic framework for dialogue development.
Keywords: Dialogue design method, Simulation, Automated verification, Formal methods, Model checking


An Integration of Scenarios with their Purposes in Task Modeling BIBAK 227-235
  Hermann Kaindl
Requirements capture and task modeling are very important but insufficiently supported parts of interaction design. In particular, promising approaches using scenarios have been proposed, but these are often viewed in isolation. We complement scenarios with their purposes, and explicitly represent and use relationships between them in task modeling. More precisely, we link scenarios (viewed as behavioral requirements) with functional requirements that describe the purposes of the scenarios. In addition, these scenarios can have functions attached that are required to make the desired behavior happen. We have applied our approach in real-world projects, and our experience suggests the usefulness of this approach. Essentially, it helps to achieve a more complete and consistent definition of the requirements and the task model.
Keywords: Scenario-based design, Requirements capture and documentation, Formal notations, Design support tools and environments
Using Scenario-Based Designs to Review User Interface Changes and Enhancements BIBA 237-246
  Traci Royer
When major portions of a software application's user interface change, using a scenario-based design document is an effective method to design and review those changes.
   However, when descriptive and functional design documents are reviewed, the group of reviewers may have difficulty determining whether the design makes sense and how the features will be used.
Using Schematic Scenarios to Understand User Needs BIBAK 247-256
  Colin Potts
Scenarios are narrative descriptions of interactions between users and proposed systems. The concreteness of scenarios helps users and designers develop a shared understanding of the proposed system's functionality; but concreteness leads to a potentially unbounded number of scenarios for a system. To help designers develop a limited set of salient scenarios, we propose a schema similar to story schemata. Like stories, scenarios have protagonists with goals, they start with background information already in place, and they have a point that makes them interesting or tests the reader's understanding. The scenario schema provides a structural framework for deriving scenarios with slots for such teleological information. Scenarios are derived from a description of the system's and the user's goals, and the potential obstacles that block those goals. In this paper, we describe the scenario schema and a method for deriving a set of salient scenarios. We illustrate how these scenarios can be used in the analysis of user needs for a multi-user office application.
Keywords: Scenarios, Goal refinement, User requirements

Plenary Speakers

The Evolution of Useful Things BIBA 257
  Henry Petroski
Artifacts evolve from artifacts, and understanding how this happens provides insights into the design process. Furthermore, since all artifacts share the common characteristic of having been designed and developed, any single artifact has the potential to reveal to us general principles of design. The conception and development of complicated objects and devices tend to be masked with detail, however, and so the essence of technological evolution can be more directly revealed through simpler artifacts.
   The paper clip appears to be among the simplest of things, and yet it provides a rich and rewarding case study into the nature of invention and design. This lecture traces the cultural and patent history of the paper clip over the past century or so and derives from it principles that are relevant to the design and evolution of all artifacts. Patents spanning a century reveal timeless features of the inventive process that serve as guides to understanding the design and evolution of technologically much more complex devices, systems, and processes.
Designing in a Design Community: Insights and Challenges BIBAK 259-263
  Ernesto G. Arias
This presentation critically focuses on an experience gained from interactions between practice and research on designing complex artifacts (such as cities) in the communities of physical design over 25 years. Grounded on this experience, insights and issues which have emerged over time will be shared to form the basis for the arguments that: "design can never be static over time," and for the "dream of a common language". These arguments in turn are offered as suggestions which may be useful in thinking about design support systems beyond existing rhetoric (reflection in action, participatory design, etc.) to support design as a CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING AND LEARNING PROCESS WITH INNOVATIVE PRESCRIPTIVE OUTCOMES AS ITS GOAL. To this end, it is argued that: creativity is fundamental in design; time effects and affects complex artifacts; the origins of conflict; and dreams of computational simulations and games and of a common Language. The conclusion moves toward designing the design community by offering some future directions and challenges to think about the DIS community.
Keywords: Creativity, Conflict, Design client, 3-D decision simulation games