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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'12: Designing Interactive Systems 2012-06-11

Fullname:Proceedings of the Designing Interactive Systems Conference
Location:Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom
Dates:2012-Jun-11 to 2012-Jun-15
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1210-3; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS12
Links:Conference Website
  1. Design and appropriation
  2. Together alone
  3. Research through design
  4. Rich communication
  5. Children and development
  6. Civic engagement
  7. Rural, remote and indigenous
  8. Curating me, curating you
  9. Photos and memories
  10. Absolutely fab
  11. Design theory
  12. Interaction techniques
  13. Paradigm clash
  14. Collaborative and participatory
  15. In the moment
  16. Design practices and processes
  17. Public displays
  18. Materials and senses
  19. Design techniques
  20. Experiencing the network
  21. Acceptability factor
  22. Sustainability
  23. Engagement with digital artefacts
  24. Organisation and productivity
  25. Game design
  26. Responding to emotion
  27. Designing for the body
  28. DIS workshops

Design and appropriation

Embodied narratives: a performative co-design technique BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Elisa Giaccardi; Pedro Paredes; Paloma Díaz; Diego Alvarado
This paper describes a new co-design technique for early stages of the design process called Embodied Narratives. The technique leverages children's natural playfulness to inspire and motivate the design process, and it uses technology as a part of the process to encourage exploration and improvisation in familiar settings. Its outcome is not the final design but valuable material for further co-design activities. The paper expands the set of available techniques that can be used for co-designing with children, and contributes to growing research on the use of performances in design through empirical studies conducted with 36 children from age 10 to 11.
Crafting quality in design: integrity, creativity, and public sensibility BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Shaowen Bardzell; Daniela K. Rosner; Jeffrey Bardzell
This paper aims to enrich the design research community's notions of quality by turning to the techniques and values of master craftspeople. We describe and analyze interviews conducted with elite craft practitioners in the US and Taiwan to consider how they perceive and produce quality. The crafters articulate a consensus view of interaction with integrity. American participants tend to frame their understanding of quality in terms of self-expression through a creative interaction with materials, while participants from Taiwan emphasize the role of communities in establishing -- and benefitting from -- craft quality. As HCI continues to turn to design approaches on account of their strengths producing works of socio-cultural relevance and value, our study sheds light on the qualities of interacting with integrity, the pleasures of self-expression through creative interaction with materials, and the practical benefits of positioning creative work in relation to the material resources, aesthetic tastes, and socio-economic needs of a public.
Kolab: appropriation & improvisation in mobile tangible collaborative interaction BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  Nick Dalton; Gordon MacKay; Simon Holland
Current design guidelines for conventional tangible systems suggest that the representational significance of tangible tokens is an important consideration in the design of tangible interaction, especially in collaborative contexts. Such advice might be assumed to imply that nomadic tangible systems that employ improvised tokens are liable to have highly impaired usability. In this paper we describe a proof of concept experiment for Kolab, a nomadic tangible interaction system that permits any surface to be appropriated as a collaborative tabletop, and which affords the use of a wide range of appropriated artifacts as improvised tangibles. We demonstrate an approach for realizing the necessary interaction techniques combining tangibles and hand gestures using a fusion of image and depth sensing. We present the results of a user study showing that while users' choices of artifacts were seen to follow an unexpected pattern, various artifacts were appropriated and improvised as tangibles, and the system was found to be both usable and well able to support user collaboration.
Design tools in practice: studying the designer-tool relationship in interaction design BIBAFull-Text 25-28
  Erik Stolterman; James Pierce
This paper presents findings from semi-structured interviews with professional interaction designers. The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between interaction designers and their design tools -- specifically the reasons behind their choice of tools. The findings show that the relationship between designers and their tools is more complex than commonly assumed. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the complexity of the designer-tool relationship can make a difference for both education and practice.

Together alone

Clique Trip: feeling related in different cars BIBAFull-Text 29-37
  Martin Knobel; Marc Hassenzahl; Melanie Lamara; Tobias Sattler; Josef Schumann; Kai Eckoldt; Andreas Butz
Contemporary car design must not only focus on technology supporting the driver and the driving task: it needs to create positive experiences for drivers and passengers alike. This case study, the Clique Trip, is an example of designing a positive social (i.e. relatedness) experience in the automotive context, addressing the analysis, the design, and the evaluation of the experience. The Clique Trip experience creates a feeling of closeness and relatedness among friends when being in a "motorcade". It is derived from experience reports, implemented in the car and evaluated on the road. Qualitative and quantitative results revealed its capability to create the targeted social experience.
Telematic dinner party: designing for togetherness through play and performance BIBAFull-Text 38-47
  Pollie Barden; Rob Comber; David Green; Daniel Jackson; Cassim Ladha; Tom Bartindale; Nick Bryan-Kinns; Tony Stockman; Patrick Olivier
There is an increasing desire to remain connected when physically distant and computer-mediated communication (CMC) is one means of satisfying this desire. In particular, there is a growing trend for individuals to use commercially available technology to connect with friends and family in social and leisure settings. Drawing on this trend, performative arts and existing telecommunications research, we identify the social practice of sharing a meal together as ripe for reinterpretation within CMC. We explore the opportunities to design a technology platform that supports remote guests in experiencing togetherness and playfulness within the practices of a traditional dinner party. Through both visual and aural channels as well as remote agency, the dinner guests were able to share a holistic telematic dining experience comparable to a traditional co-presence dinner. Based on the findings, we propose that one must consider the social structure and cultural background of users to inform the design of a technological intervention.
Kissenger: design of a kiss transmission device BIBAFull-Text 48-57
  Hooman Aghaebrahimi Samani; Rahul Parsani; Lenis Tejada Rodriguez; Elham Saadatian; Kumudu Harshadeva Dissanayake; Adrian David Cheok
In this paper, we present Kissenger (Kiss Messenger), an interactive device that provides a physical interface for transmitting a kiss between two remotely connected people. Each device is paired to another and can sense and transmit the amount of force that a user applies to a pair of lips which is recreated on the other device using motors. Kissenger was designed to augment already existing remote communication technologies such as video chat. The goal of this work is to promote intimacy between humans in long distance relationships. After presenting the background and motivation for the need of such a device, we describe the design process that consisted of three iteration stages, each with its own focus and evaluation. We then present a preliminary user study performed with seven couples that compare Kissenger to current video chat technology.

Research through design

Dynamics of research through design BIBAFull-Text 58-67
  Ditte Amund Basballe; Kim Halskov
In this paper, we investigate Research through Design at a micro-level, by addressing the dynamic interplay of research and design as they unfold throughout a design process. As our principal case, we consider the design of a three-dimensional projection installation, a process that unfolded over a one-year period. We analyse material collected from 18 key events during the process, in order to identify the ongoing dynamics. Based on the analysis, we establish how the interplay evolves in a complex structure, where the design and research interests continuously couple, interweave, and decouple. Last, the paper discusses what facilitates the three different kinds of dynamics.
The logic of annotated portfolios: communicating the value of 'research through design' BIBAFull-Text 68-77
  John Bowers
This paper examines Research Through Design as an orientation to so-called 'Third Wave' Human Computer Interaction (HCI). A number of recent critical reflections are reviewed and the 'disciplinary anxieties', which this approach to HCI has aroused, are discussed. Drawing on Feyerabend's philosophical scepticism over methods and contributions to the Sociology of Science, it is suggested that design research might build its own 'limited rationality' rather than be brought in line with supposed norms for good research or criteria for rigour and relevance of unfamiliar provenance. To this end, a concept of 'annotated portfolio' is advanced, and detailed, as a means for capturing the family resemblances that exist in a collection of artefacts, simultaneously respecting the particularity of specific designs and engaging with broader concerns. The concept is demonstrated through annotating nine well-known pieces created by the Goldsmiths Interaction Research Studio. Treating this collection as an annotated portfolio highlights, formulates and collates interaction design issues in this work in a novel manner. On this basis, annotated portfolios are proposed as a viable means for communicating design thinking in HCI in a descriptive yet generative and inspirational fashion, without having recourse to standards of 'theory' which fit design practice uncomfortably.
Processlessness: staying open to interactional possibilities BIBAFull-Text 78-81
  Joon-Suk Lee; Stacy Branham; Deborah Tatar; Steve Harrison
Technologies increasingly inhabit evermore mundane and personal settings, a fact that has caused some designers to reflect upon the emergent, inaccessible nature of context. We present the notion of processlessness as a design value. The examples given here are intended to provoke thought about current design priorities and practices, and spur design discourse regarding the issue of context. Two cases illustrate how the absence of process in mediating artifacts can make room for users to discover, construct, and reconfigure context through and around their technologies. This argument is related to the notion of Zensign, that what we omit from technology designs is as important as what we put in; by adding features to computational systems, designers might be removing interactional possibilities.
Discursive navigation of online news BIBAFull-Text 82-85
  Symon Oliver; Guia Gali; Fanny Chevalier; Sara Diamond
As a response to the current navigational format of online news, which is linear, chronological, and heavily delineated by topics, we propose a more discursive and heuristic model of navigation that will offer readers a variety of lenses, interpretations, and pathways to read through a news site. Through an analysis of two prominent discursive models of knowledge -- Foucault's Discursive Formations and Deleuze and Guattari's Rhizome -- we can determine an organizational framework that is more representative of human memory and associative connections. This discursive framework is put into practice through the interactive and exploratory medium of data visualization, shown in a sketch-based format.

Rich communication

Considerate Audio MEdiating Oracle (CAMEO): improving human-to-human communications in conference calls BIBAFull-Text 86-95
  Rahul Rajan; Cliff Chen; Ted Selker
This paper introduces CAMEO, a behavior-driven design approach to address commonly occurring technical and social problems in audio-only teleconference calls. Many of these problems are associated with the missing visual channel and the low bandwidth for non-verbal signals. CAMEO seeks not only to sense these problems, but also to frame and respond to them in considerate ways. These include scheduling of advisory prompts, and assistive mechanisms to augment this bandwidth-constrained medium. This paper describes their implementation in CAMEO using a blackboard architecture that shapes and define its behavior. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate CAMEO on its resolution of conversational dominance in a collaborative meeting, and its utility in reducing the effects of disruptive extraneous noise on a conference call. We show that variance in conversational dominance can significantly be reduced with proactive aural feedback. Our experiments further reveal that such feedback can also reduce the impact of extraneous noise on conversations.
Focusing on shared experiences: moving beyond the camera in video communication BIBAFull-Text 96-105
  Jed R. Brubaker; Gina Venolia; John C. Tang
Even with the investment of significant resources, video communication in professional settings has not gained mass appeal. This contrasts with the consumer space where, despite limited resources and low quality solutions, services such as Skype have seen widespread adoption. In this paper, we explore the behavior and attitudes of individuals who actively use video communication in both their personal and professional lives. We highlight similarities and differences across these two domains, with particular focus on the interpersonal relationships, spaces, and activities that each domain supports and enables. We conclude by discussing how our study leads to a new perspective that focuses on the shared experiences enabled by video communication.
I'll knock you when I'm ready...: reflecting on media richness beyond bandwidth and imitation BIBAFull-Text 106-115
  Majken Kirkegaard Rasmussen; Natalie Lehoux; Ioana Ocnarescu; Peter Gall Krogh
Following the research field of Computer Mediated Communication (CMC), we explore and expand upon the notion of media richness. We consider the term outside its ordinary domain of conventional communication mediums, such as email, phone or video calls. We focus on minimal communication, and the qualities of suggestive interactions that mediate communication. We introduce Knock-Knock as a novel, shape-changing communication medium, and use it as a rhetorical tool to reflect upon the notion of media richness. In doing so, we highlight the value of meaning and language creation that suggestive communication mediums make possible. Finally, we propose three directions for the future evaluation of the richness experienced in communication, mediated by suggestive communication artefacts.

Children and development

User-centered research in the early stages of a learning game BIBAFull-Text 116-125
  Asimina Vasalou; Gordon Ingram; Rilla Khaled
Games offer a compelling medium for learning. However, designing a successful learning game that features engagement alongside its educational objectives is a craft that is still underway. Our research adapts a user-centered approach toward designing a game that will teach children conflict resolution skills. By involving users of the game, namely teachers and students, in the design process we reveal new considerations for how to create convincing narratives of conflict, sustain children's engagement and gain teachers' support. At the same time, our work highlights the challenges facing researchers in this domain who must balance users' values, needs and expectations with the game's learning objectives.
Designing visualizations to facilitate multisyllabic speech with children with autism and speech delays BIBAFull-Text 126-135
  Joshua Hailpern; Andrew Harris; Reed La Botz; Brianna Birman; Karrie Karahalios
The ability of children to combine syllables represents an important developmental milestone. This ability is often delayed or impaired in a variety of clinical groups, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and speech delays (SPD). Prior work has demonstrated successful use of computer-based voice visualizations to facilitate speech production and vocalization in children with and without ASD/SPD. While prior work has focused on increasing frequency of speech-like vocalizations or accuracy of speech sound production, we believe that there is a potential new direction of research: exploration of real-time visualizations to shape multisyllabic speech. Over two years we developed VocSyl, a real-time voice visualization system. Rather than building visualizations based on what adult clinicians and software designers may think is needed, we designed VocSyl using the Task Centered User Interface Design (TCUID) methodology throughout the design process. Children with ASD and SPD, targeted users of the software, were directly involved in the development process, allowing us to focus on what these children demonstrate they require. This paper presents the results of our TCUID design cycle of VocSyl, as well as design guidelines for future work with children with ASD and SPD.
Magic land: the design and evaluation of an interactive tabletop supporting therapeutic play with children BIBAFull-Text 136-145
  Olga Pykhtina; Madeline Balaam; Gavin Wood; Sue Pattison; Ahmed Kharrufa; Patrick Olivier
We consider the role and design of digital technologies in play therapy settings with young children. Through an aggregation of the researcher and practitioner literature, and results of discussions with therapists and counselors, we propose a set of design requirements for digital technologies that support non-directive play within a play therapy context. We explore how to design for these complex requirements through the development and evaluation of Magic Land, a set of four play therapy applications for an interactive tabletop. Based on our experiences we recommend that designers create digital interactive toys, which create opportunities for play that would not normally be possible within the traditional play therapy environment.

Civic engagement

People, content, location: sweet spotting urban screens for situated engagement BIBAFull-Text 146-155
  Ronald Schroeter; Marcus Foth; Christine Satchell
A growing body of research is looking at ways to bring the processes and benefits of online deliberation to the places they are about and in turn allow a larger, targeted proportion of the urban public to have a voice, be heard, and engage in questions of city planning and design. Seeking to take advantage of the civic opportunities of situated engagement through public screens and mobile devices, our research informed a public urban screen content application DIS that we deployed and evaluated in a wide range of real world public and urban environments. For example, it is currently running on the renowned urban screen at Federation Square in Melbourne. We analysed the data from these user studies within a conceptual framework that positions situated engagement across three key parameters: people, content, and location. We propose a way to identify the sweet spot within the nexus of these parameters to help deploy and run interactive systems to maximise the quality of the situated engagement for civic and related deliberation purposes.
Active aging in community centers and ICT design implications BIBAFull-Text 156-165
  Young S. Lee; Shirley Chaysinh; Santosh Basapur; Crysta J. Metcalf; Hiren Mandalia
In recent years, the wellness of seniors has become more important than ever before in our rapidly aging society. In the U. S., approximately 11,000 community senior centers provide a broad spectrum of programs for seniors to improve their overall health and wellness in their community. Although numerous studies have reported on the various benefits of participation in such programs, little is known about how information and communications technology (ICT) can support seniors' participation in this practice. We describe findings from a two-phase qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, site visits, and focus groups with seniors and staff of senior centers located in urban and suburban areas of Chicago, IL and Tampa, FL. Based on the results, we discuss design implications for technologies that could facilitate seniors' engagement with their local community including senior centers.
A long-term strategy for designing (in) the wild: lessons from the urban mediator and traffic planning in Helsinki BIBAFull-Text 166-175
  Joanna Saad-Sulonen; Andrea Botero; Kari Kuutti
This paper addresses the move towards understanding an expanded domain of design for interactive systems. We take up Dourish's invitation to "designing politics", and examine, through the long-term study of the design of the Urban Mediator and its outcomes, how and to what extend the design of an interactive system can impact citizen participation in urban planning. The study shows that with the adoption of an expanded approach to the participatory design of technology, it is possible to impact the processes in place for citizen participation, albeit naturally in a modest way. Issues of different timeframes and rhythms in technological development and the practices and politics of citizen participation need to be addressed, as well as new strategic considerations, which go beyond the traditional role of design.

Rural, remote and indigenous

Designed for work, but not from here: rural and remote perspectives on networked technology BIBAFull-Text 176-185
  Roberta M. Melvin; Andrea Bunt
While workers in an urban environment typically enjoy full speed, always available, broadband access, those in rural and remote environments do not necessarily have access to the same level of service. In this paper we describe insights from a qualitative study examining the benefits and continued challenges of using networked technologies for work purposes in rural and remote communities. Our findings indicate that work in these areas increasingly depends on networked technology to support in-situ and geographically distributed work practices, and to ameliorate health and safety issues, but that participants experience significant challenges in obtaining signal access and stability. We discuss implications for design and future research that arise from our findings.
"Dead China-make" phones off the grid: investigating and designing for mobile phone use in rural Africa BIBAFull-Text 186-195
  Susan P. Wyche; Laura L. Murphy
Mobile phone users in rural parts of the developing world, especially Africa, adapt to lack of electricity, poverty, remote locations, unpredictable services, and second-hand technology. Meanwhile, the technology developers are forging ahead, designing for "smartphones," high-speed data packets, and Internet access, not the "dumb" phones and parsimonious voice calls of the rural householder. We draw from fieldwork in Kenya with mobile phone owners to relate specific practices and issues facing rural users. Problems such as "spoiled" phone batteries and "China-makes" suggest larger design implications. We use our findings to motivate a design agenda for the rural poor built on the assumption of off-grid use and limited power, simple cheap phones, and Unstructured Supplementary Service Data (USSD) protocol. A key part of this agenda calls for developing usable technologies aimed at the infrastructure rather than mobile phone interface level.
Putting it in perspective: designing a 3D visualization to contextualize indigenous knowledge in rural Namibia BIBAFull-Text 196-199
  Kasper L. Jensen; Heike Winschiers-Theophilus; Kasper Rodil; Naska Winschiers-Goagoses; Gereon K. Kapuire; Richard Kamukuenjandje
One design endeavor we pursue in a long-term research and co-design project is the creation of a 3D visualization interface for an indigenous knowledge (IK) management system with rural dwellers of Herero ethnicity in Namibia. Evaluations of earlier prototypes and theories on cultural differences in perception led us to further investigate the suitability of different perspectives of view for the given user group. Through a combination of drawing sessions, design discussions and a high-fidelity technology probe we explored the visual perceptions and preferences of community members; specifically focusing on representation and recognition of objects and places in their everyday environment. We report how the findings from the study have informed design decisions for our particular system while also suggesting that certain viewing angles for 3D visualizations could be more suitable for rural dwellers in general and the collaborating community in specific.

Curating me, curating you

Understanding personal digital collections: an interdisciplinary exploration BIBAFull-Text 200-209
  Melanie Feinberg; Gary Geisler; Eryn Whitworth; Emily Clark
Once undertaken primarily by museum professionals, the activity of curatorship has been popularized via the Web. Social media tools, such as YouTube playlists and Pinterest Web bulletin boards, enable users to curate a diverse range of materials for personal use and for broader publication. But what makes one set of "curated" items more interesting than another? In this paper, we show how findings from an initial humanistic inquiry led to a lab-based user experiment, and how combined insights from these studies have illuminated new research streams in both humanistic and design research modes.
iSpace: interactivity expression for self-expression in an online communication environment BIBAFull-Text 210-219
  Da-jung Kim; Youn-kyung Lim
In this paper, we suggest interactivity, which defines dynamic and invisible characteristics of an interactive system, as a medium for self-expression in an online communication environment. Since existing means of self-expression are visual- or text-oriented, they cover only a part of one's real self. Interactivity, however, is invisible, but still evokes emotional experiences depending on its value. Therefore, we expected that one's interactivity expression customization would also represent the different dimensions of one's characteristics. This study aims to explore the possibility of interactivity expressions as a new way of self-expression in an online communication environment. By conducting a user study with a social website prototype, namely, iSpace, in which each user's personal site can be distinguished by their different interactivity expressions, this study provides understandings of rationales and patterns of interactivity expressions, and design implications which we expect to inspire designers to consider them strategically in their design practices.
Expanding the design space for intimacy: supporting mutual reflection for local partners BIBAFull-Text 220-223
  Stacy M. Branham; Steve H. Harrison; Tad Hirsch
The design space for intimate partners has largely been populated with technologies that support distant partners via abstracted presence. We seek to expand the design space to include a wider range of potential users and designs. To this end, we present findings from qualitative interviews with Family Studies experts in the form of a stage-based model of couple connection -- Re-pattern, Reflect, Re-story, Reconnect. From this analysis, we identify two new regions in the couples design space, local partners and deep interpersonal sharing. Finally, we share the design of a technology that sits at the intersection of these regions. These findings present new opportunities for designers of intimate collaborative technologies.

Photos and memories

A process of engagement: engaging with the process BIBAFull-Text 224-233
  Bernd Ploderer; Tuck Leong; Shawn Ashkanasy; Steve Howard
Photography is now a highly automated activity where people enjoy phototaking by pointing and pressing a button. While this liberates people from having to interact with the processes of photography, e.g., controlling the parameters of the camera or printing images in the darkroom, we argue that an engagement with such processes can in fact enrich people's experience of phototaking. Drawing from fieldwork with members of a film-based photography club, we found that people who engage deeply with the various processes of phototaking experienced photography richly and meaningfully. Being able to participate fully in the entire process gave them a sense of achievement over the final result. Having the opportunity to engage with the process also allowed them to learn and hone their photographic skills. Through this understanding, we can imagine future technologies that enrich experiences of photography through providing the means to interact with photographic processes in new ways.
Time, topic and trawl: stories about how we reach our past BIBAFull-Text 234-243
  Joon-Suk Lee; Deborah Tatar; Elin Rønby Pedersen
Legacy web tools attempt to build on information that uses have when they originally conduct web research. In contrast, we examine the information that they have at the time when they attempt to recreate their past. We interviewed 11 non-expert users twice a week for eight weeks in their own physical and computational environments. We used both Google web histories and the prototype Research Trails system as prompts to probe how the participants viewed their past web experiences and how they reconstructed them. The Research Trails system lets users utilize information about both time and topic to help themselves remember and resume everyday research tasks. Based on these observations, a model of users' perceived past web activities informed the iterative refinement of the Research Trails system. The user may see a past action as belonging to multiple categories at the same time or as in different categories at different times.
Photographic social media: a framework for design BIBAFull-Text 244-247
  Clifton Lin; Haakon Faste
In this paper we explore the potential of using photos and images to promote social connections in the online space. We have conducted contextual interviews focusing on users' photo sharing, organizing, and viewing behaviors to identify the mechanisms and motivations driving image-based social media. Our findings indicate that people are socially motivated by photographs, selective in what they view, and use photographic narratives to correspond with others and to browse information. We conclude with a framework of opportunities for the design of photographic social media: communities where people connect through photo-sharing.

Absolutely fab

Phybots: a toolkit for making robotic things BIBAFull-Text 248-257
  Jun Kato; Daisuke Sakamoto; Takeo Igarashi
There are many toolkits for physical UIs, but most physical UI applications are not locomotive. When the programmer wants to make things move around in the environment, he faces difficulty related to robotics. Toolkits for robot programming, unfortunately, are usually not as accessible as those for building physical UIs. To address this interdisciplinary issue, we propose Phybots, a toolkit that allows researchers and interaction designers to rapidly prototype applications with locomotive robotic things. The contributions of this research are the combination of a hardware setup, software API, its underlying architecture and a graphical runtime debug tool that supports the whole prototyping activity. This paper introduces the toolkit, applications and lessons learned from three user studies.
At the seams: DIYbio and opportunities for HCI BIBAFull-Text 258-267
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Alex S. Taylor; Tim Regan; Nicolas Villar; Eric Paulos
DIYbio (Do It Yourself Biology) aims to 'open source', tinker and experiment with biology outside of professional settings. In this paper, we present the origins, practices, and challenges of DIYbio initiatives around the world. Our findings depict DIYbio as operating across intersections ('seams') between a range of stakeholders, materials and concerns. To map out the role of Human Computer Interaction (HCI) across these seams, we present design exercises (functional prototypes) that explore three areas for future work: internal collaboration tools within the DIYbio and professional community; mechanisms for external communication with stakeholders from the general public; and bio-electronic assemblies of organic and digital materials. In doing so, we hope to critically re-envision the role of HCI at the emerging intersection of biology, computation and DIY.
Case studies in the personal fabrication of electronic products BIBAFull-Text 268-277
  David A. Mellis; Leah Buechley
This paper investigates the use of digital fabrication for the individual production and customization of electronic devices. We present two products -- a pair of speakers with laser-cut parts and a computer mouse with a 3D-printed enclosure -- and describe their making and modification by workshop participants. The speakers target a general audience, engaging a diversity of skills and backgrounds. The mouse aims at designers, exploring the application of 3D modeling skills to the production of electronic devices. We use the case studies to discuss general implications of digital fabrication for technology production and education: enabling collaboration and iteration through open-source hardware, enhancing the products of educational technologies and experiences, and increasing the diversity of and personal connections to electronic products. The case studies also suggest opportunities for further research into tools, materials, and people.

Design theory

Framespaces: framing of frameworks BIBAFull-Text 278-287
  Margaret Dickey-Kurdziolek; Deborah Tatar; Steve Harrison
Socio-cultural analysis [18], design practice [20], and philosophy, stretching back at least to Rogoff, Rittle, and Heidegger, all point out that we arrive at different pictures of difficult problems depending on the frames within which we examine them [16]. Yet after all this time, this truism remains difficult to approach. What can we make of these different perspectives? This paper explores how one system, for classroom mathematics education, looks different from experimental, ethnographic, and ethnomethodological frames during the investigation and different again as we try to put the frames into relationship with one another, that is, as we create a framespace. These different frames contend with one another in defining the meaning and the design brief going forward. We coin the term framespace to describe the constituent set of frames and the relationships between them that must be understood to describe the summative results of the project.
Critical design and critical theory: the challenge of designing for provocation BIBAFull-Text 288-297
  Shaowen Bardzell; Jeffrey Bardzell; Jodi Forlizzi; John Zimmerman; John Antanitis
Constructive design research is a form of research where design activity is a central research activity. One type of constructive design research is critical design, which seeks to disrupt or transgress social and cultural norms. Critical design's advocates have turned to critical theory as an intellectual resource to support their approach. Interestingly, critical design processes remain under-articulated in the growing design research literature. In this paper, we first explain why critical design is so hard to describe as a design practice or process. We then describe two critical design case studies we undertook and the effects we observed them having when place in the field. After sharing our breakdowns and breakthroughs along the way, we offer reflections on designing for provocativeness, the value of deep relationships between researchers and research participants, and the need to plan for and go with a fluid and emergent research plan -- with the goal of helping clarify critical design as an approach.
How learning works in design education: educating for creative awareness through formative reflexivity BIBAFull-Text 298-307
  Kathryn Rivard; Haakon Faste
This paper reviews and extends educational principles from recent learning sciences literature to address the nuanced needs of creative design education. We have performed a variety of ethnographic and qualitative research activities, including interviews with design students and learning experts, as well as reflecting on our experiences as design educators and practitioners. Our findings identify opportunities in the areas of the classroom environment, learning objectives, formative strategies for student achievement, iterative learning, and suggest the value of an adaptive interface between objectives and learning strategies. We therefore propose a new model of reflexive learning to both improve design education and support creativity and self-leadership in studio design practice.

Interaction techniques

Designing interaction with media façades: a case study BIBAFull-Text 308-317
  Alexander Wiethoff; Sven Gehring
Media façades are one prominent example of how new technologies currently augment urban spaces. At the same time, they offer new, ubiquitous opportunities for novel applications. To achieve a usable and enjoyable outcome, however, designing interaction with media façades demands a structured design process. In this paper, we present our experiences designing iRiS, a system for remote interaction with media façades. We approached the development following a user-centered design approach and addressing the process at two points with additional means: (1) using a purpose-built prototyping toolkit testing and exploring both, content and hardware before deploying the system on the actual façade and (2) experimental use and adaptation of user experience (UX) evaluation methods to investigate the users actions and emotions more holistically in this context.
A cross-device interaction style for mobiles and surfaces BIBAFull-Text 318-327
  Dominik Schmidt; Julian Seifert; Enrico Rukzio; Hans Gellersen
Natural forms of interaction have evolved for personal devices that we carry with us (mobiles) as well as for shared interactive displays around us (surfaces) but interaction across the two remains cumbersome in practice. We propose a novel cross-device interaction style for mobiles and surfaces that uses the mobile for tangible input on the surface in a stylus-like fashion. Building on the direct manipulation that we can perform on either device, it facilitates fluid and seamless interaction spanning across device boundaries. We provide a characterization of the combined interaction style in terms of input, output, and contextual attributes, and demonstrate its versatility by implementation of a range of novel interaction techniques for mobile devices on interactive surfaces.
Small gestures go a long way: how many bits per gesture do recognizers actually need? BIBAFull-Text 328-337
  Radu-Daniel Vatavu
We investigate in this work the effect of bit depth on the performance of today's commonly used nearest-neighbor gesture recognizers. As current bit representations are typically an artifact of today's hardware and file formats, they are not reflective of the true cardinality of gesture data. We show that as few as 4-5 bits per gesture channel (x/y) are enough in order to attain peak recognition for Euclidean, Cosine, DTW, and Hausdorff distances. We also show how reduction in bit depth can lead to 85 times less memory for storing the training set without ruining recognition performance. The results will benefit practitioners of the next age of gesture sensing gadgets and devices that need to optimize speed, memory, and bit depth representation in their software and hardware designs.

Paradigm clash

A fieldwork of the future with user enactments BIBAFull-Text 338-347
  William Odom; John Zimmerman; Scott Davidoff; Jodi Forlizzi; Anind K. Dey; Min Kyung Lee
Designing radically new technology systems that people will want to use is complex. Design teams must draw on knowledge related to people's current values and desires to envision a preferred yet plausible future. However, the introduction of new technology can shape people's values and practices, and what-we-know-now about them does not always translate to an effective guess of what the future could, or should, be. New products and systems typically exist outside of current understandings of technology and use paradigms; they often have few interaction and social conventions to guide the design process, making efforts to pursue them complex and risky. User Enactments (UEs) have been developed as a design approach that aids design teams in more successfully investigate radical alterations to technologies' roles, forms, and behaviors in uncharted design spaces. In this paper, we reflect on our repeated use of UE over the past five years to unpack lessons learned and further specify how and when to use it. We conclude with a reflection on how UE can function as a boundary object and implications for future work.
Digital Christmas: an exploration of festive technology BIBAFull-Text 348-357
  Daniela Petrelli; Simon Bowen; Nick Dulake; Ann Light
Elaborating on the result of a field study of Christmas traditions in eight British households, we explore the design of technology specifically aimed at augmenting existing practices. Four concepts that favoured playfulness and engagement across generations were discussed in a workshop with eight people who took part in the initial field study. The importance of being connected and spending time together in a way that reinforces the family bonding was evident. The enthusiasm demonstrated during the workshop for some proposals and participants' engagement in revisiting those that did not feel right to produce better concepts seems to demonstrate there is space for interaction design that is ethnographically motivated and aesthetically harmonious with the meaning of home.
What do lab-based user studies tell us about in-the-wild behavior?: insights from a study of museum interactives BIBAFull-Text 358-367
  Eva Hornecker; Emma Nicol
We contribute to an understanding of how well lab-based user studies can help us to anticipate how a system will be used in 'the wild'. We analyze and compare data from lab-based user studies of prototype museum installations and the subsequent deployment of these systems in a museum. While the user study was successful in identifying usability issues, social behavior patterns in the museum, in particular between caregivers and children, differed in several aspects between the settings. Our analysis highlights influences on usage and behavior patterns: the physical and structural setup, the user study creating a focused activity, and the demand characteristics of a user study.

Collaborative and participatory

Co-creating games through intergenerational design workshops BIBAFull-Text 368-377
  Mark Rice; Yian Ling Cheong; Jamie Ng; Puay Hoe Chua; Yin-Leng Theng
In this paper, we present a co-design study into the development of intergenerational games. Three separate design workshops were conducted with 50 participants aged between 15-21 and 55-74 years old, representing younger and older cohorts respectively. A range of design activities were used to elicit ideas and allow participants of different ages to self-reflect, negotiate and collectively create games that they desired to play. The analysis reports on the game concepts envisaged from early brainstorming, group sketching and more refined storyboards. A number of genres and game-types are illustrated, as we compare the different game features designed. These ideas reflect a combination of interests from mixed-age groups. The paper concludes by discussing recommendations to developing intergenerational games.
User interface design by collaborative sketching BIBAFull-Text 378-387
  Ugo Braga Sangiorgi; François Beuvens; Jean Vanderdonckt
User interface design consists of a collaborative activity where various stakeholders can all sketch the future interactive system at different levels of fidelity on different devices and computing platforms. User interfaces sketches are also intended to support prototypes on multiple computing platforms and operating systems that all impose their own capabilities and constraints. In order to support the needs for user interface design by sketching, this paper describes Gambit, a multi-platform system that provides a light-weight approach for prototyping graphical user interfaces by sketching with HTML5. The paper reports on an experiment for the most preferred platform/devices for three primary sketching functions by designers and developers in a Gambit-supported session.
Provotypes for participatory innovation BIBAFull-Text 388-397
  Laurens Boer; Jared Donovan
Central to multi-stakeholder processes of participatory innovation is to generate knowledge about 'users' and to identify business opportunities accordingly. In these processes of collaborative analysis and synthesis, conflicting perceptions within and about a field of interest are likely to surface. Instead of the natural tendency to avoid these tensions, we demonstrate how tensions can be utilized by embodying them in provocative types (provotypes). Provotypes expose and embody tensions that surround a field of interest to support collaborative analysis and collaborative design explorations across stakeholders. In this paper we map how provotyping contributes to four related areas of contemporary Interaction Design practice. Through a case study that brings together stakeholders from the field of indoor climate, we provide characteristics of design provocations and design guidelines for provotypes for participatory innovation.

In the moment

The i-Cube: design considerations for block-based digital manipulatives and their applications BIBAFull-Text 398-407
  Wooi Boon Goh; L. L. Chamara Kasun; A Fitriani; Jacquelyn Tan; Wei Shou
Manipulatives are tangible objects designed to support learning through exploratory arrangement and manipulation. The i-Cube is a cube-shaped digital manipulative that provides unique 3-D spatial awareness of the facets and orientation of neighboring i-Cubes. This paper discusses the considerations adopted in its design and the advantages of the proposed design to that of other cube-based tangible user interfaces. The i-Cubes are then employed in the design of two applications. MusiCube Arranger is a tangible music composition and layering system and Spelling Cube is an interactive system for learning spelling. These applications are used to illustrate how the unique features of the i-Cube can be exploited to implement novel tangible interactions such as free-form 3D stacking, interactive control through block orientation change and context-aware feedback.
Sonic Cradle: designing for an immersive experience of meditation by connecting respiration to music BIBAFull-Text 408-417
  Jay Vidyarthi; Bernhard E. Riecke; Diane Gromala
Sonic Cradle is a chamber of complete darkness where users shape a peaceful soundscape using only their respiration. This interactive system was designed to foster a meditative experience by facilitating users' sense of immersion while following a specific attentional pattern characteristic of mindfulness. The goal of Sonic Cradle is twofold: first, to trigger the proven effects of mindfulness on stress, and second, to help teach and demystify the concept of meditation for users' long-term benefit. This paper presents the design phase of the project, starting by theoretically grounding the initial concept. We then discuss 15 co-design sessions which provided informal conceptual validation and led to several concrete design iterations aimed at balancing users' perceived sense of control. The presented approach to designing an interactive stress management system can be considered research through design, as it also resulted in a novel theoretical framework for the psychology of media immersion which has implications for a wide range of research areas.
MelodicBrush: a novel system for cross-modal digital art creation linking calligraphy and music BIBAFull-Text 418-427
  Michael Xuelin Huang; Will W. W. Tang; Kenneth W. K. Lo; C. K. Lau; Grace Ngai; Stephen Chan
MelodicBrush is a novel system that connects two ancient art forms: Chinese ink-brush calligraphy and Chinese music. Our system uses vision-based techniques to create a digitized ink-brush calligraphic writing surface with enhanced interaction functionalities. The music generation combines cross-modal stroke-note mapping and statistical language modeling techniques into a hybrid model that generates music as a real-time, auditory response and feedback to the user's calligraphic strokes.
   Our system is in fact a new cross-modal musical system that endows the ancient art of calligraphy writing with a novel auditory representation to provide the users with a natural and novel artistic experience. Experiment evaluations with real users suggest that MelodicBrush is intuitive and realistic, and can also be easily used to exercise creativity and support art generation.

Design practices and processes

Reflective design documentation BIBAFull-Text 428-437
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov
Interaction design researchers doing research through design face not only the wicked problems in the practice of doing interaction design, but also the wicked problems that exist in the practice of doing research. In this paper we discuss the use of a tool developed for the specific purpose of documenting design projects and prompting reflection about design events as part of doing research through design. Based on cases lasting from nine to thirteen months we address specific benefits and challenges that we have encountered while employing the tool. Challenges concern roles and responsibilities, lack of routines, determining what to document, and finding the right level of detail. Benefits include support of shared reflection and discussion in on-going projects, the development, refining, and reflection upon research questions, scaffolding longitudinal and cross-project studies. Moreover, the benefits derived from entering design materials and other kinds of artefacts into a tool may not be achieved until must later, for instance when writing research publications.
Framing, aligning, paradoxing, abstracting, and directing: how design mood boards work BIBAFull-Text 438-447
  Andrés Lucero
This paper builds upon the earlier work of Gaver on design workbooks by taking another design method and making a case for using it in HCI and interaction design. In this paper I discuss design mood boards, which consist of a collection of visually stimulating images and related materials. I present the results of an empirical study of how experienced designers from different disciplines (i.e., fashion, textile and industrial design) use mood boards as part of their work. The results suggest that mood boards can play five main roles in the early stages of the design process: framing, aligning, paradoxing, abstracting, and directing. I also reflect on design practice by providing concrete examples of mood boards and the resulting prototypes for an interaction design project. These examples are used to ground the discussion on the five roles found in the study.
Interaction-driven design: a new approach for interactive product development BIBAFull-Text 448-457
  Seungwoo Maeng; Youn-kyung Lim; KunPyo Lee
As a new approach to interactive product development, we found possibilities in interactions themselves as the starting point of a product development, and propose a concept of interaction-driven design. We focused on the movements in interactions, such as users' input behaviors and feedback movements from the system's output. In this paper, design patterns and their characteristics for three different interactive product development approaches, including our newly proposed one, were examined through an ideation workshop: 1) user-driven product development, 2) technology-driven product development, and 3) interaction-driven product development. We were able to see that results for the development of interactive products differed depending on the combining order or the linking patterns of factors such as form, function, and interaction. Interaction-driven product development opens up a wider range of linking possibilities compared to the other two approaches.

Public displays

Virtual prototyping using miniature model and visualization for interactive public displays BIBAFull-Text 458-467
  Yasuto Nakanishi
In the development of augmented spaces, it is often difficult to perform frequent prototyping and testing. A range of related problems arise, especially when the cost of operation is high or when it is difficult to implement simulation in advance within the installation space. To address these problems, the authors created an integrated environment for iteration-based development of augmented spaces that allows interactive system developers to create systems using iterative virtual simulation and trial-and-error. With this system, hybrid prototyping using both virtual and miniature simulation can be performed. This paper introduces virtual simulation based on visualization. The authors studied four prototyping and deployment processes for two interactive public displays using both methods in order to clarify their characteristics, and the respective merits and demerits were discussed. Based on the results, a prototyping strategy for interactive public displays was proposed. Basic software operations and ideal positioning of input and output devices were investigated within virtual space, problems arising from differences between virtual and real space were clarified within miniature model space, and the addition of features to the code and related adjustment were iterated within both spaces.
Territoriality and behaviour on and around large vertical publicly-shared displays BIBAFull-Text 468-477
  Alec Azad; Jaime Ruiz; Daniel Vogel; Mark Hancock; Edward Lank
We investigate behaviours on, and around, large vertical displays during concurrent usage. Using an observational field study, we identify fundamental patterns of how people use existing public displays: their orientation, positioning, group identification, and behaviour within and between social groups just-before, during, and just-after usage. These results are then used to motivate a controlled experiment where two individuals or two pairs of individuals complete tasks concurrently on a simulated large vertical display. Results from our controlled study demonstrates that vertical surface territories are similar to those found in horizontal tabletops in function, but their definitions and social conventions are different. In addition, the nature of use-while-standing systems results in more complex and dynamic physical territories around the display. We show that the anthropological notion of personal space must be slightly refined for application to vertical displays.
Evaluating ambient displays in the wild: highlighting social aspects of use in public settings BIBAFull-Text 478-481
  Jörn Messeter; Daryn Molenaar
A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user's attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild.
Interactive philanthropy: an interactive public installation to explore the use of gaming for charity BIBAFull-Text 482-485
  Tuduyen Annie Nguyen; David Kodinsky; William Skelton; Parminder Kaur; Yu Yin; Anijo Mathew; Santosh Basapur
This paper highlights the results and future implications of a project aimed at understanding how the combination of game mechanics and a large-scale public installation might affect an individuals' willingness to donate to a charitable organization. The research attempts to determine if the use of an interactive public installation is an effective tool for educating the general public and inciting individuals to give to a worthy cause.

Materials and senses

The material move how materials matter in interaction design research BIBAFull-Text 486-495
  Ylva Fernaeus; Petra Sundström
The topic of Materials has recently surfaced as a major theme within the research field of interaction design. In this paper we further discuss the need for in-depth descriptions of specific design cases, by revisiting some of our own research-through-design efforts when working with new or not yet fully explored materials for mobile interaction. We outline a series of design challenges that we see commonly arising in this domain, divided into three general themes; 1) affordances of hardware and casings, 2) experiential properties of different software solution, and 3) material properties of sensors, radio-signals, and electricity. Our main conclusion is that research in interaction design needs an extended focus on how systems are crafted from and together with properties of digital materials, and how new knowledge gained from those processes can be shared.
Designing for perceptive qualities: 7 showcases BIBAFull-Text 496-505
  E. J. L. Deckers; P. D. Levy
In this paper we describe seven showcases, namely 'BeTouched', 'Dawe & Valle', 'Wonderturf', 'IN2WACO', 'Blow!', 'ShyLight' and 'PeR', that give relevant insights on how to design for perceptive qualities in artifacts. Designing these perceptive qualities hypothetically enables a person to engage in a reciprocal perceptive interplay with the artifact: perceptual crossing between person and artifact can happen. This paper is part of an ongoing research in which we designed, built and evaluated several artifacts with perceptive qualities and in which we discovered a set of design notions. The theoretical model and the design notions involved in this research-project are introduced. The showcases illustrate and give value insights on the application of the theoretical model and the design notions.
Identifying unintentional touches on handheld touch screen devices BIBAFull-Text 506-509
  Juha Matero; Ashley Colley
Accidental triggering of unwanted interaction when using a handheld touch screen device is a problem for many users. Accidental touches on capacitive touch screen based mobile telephones were analyzed in a user test. Patterns that are characteristic of unintentional touches were identified. Layout guidelines to reduce the amount of unintentional touches are presented. Additionally, filtering criteria is defined that rejected 79.6% of unintentional touches whilst rejecting only 0.8% of intentional touches.
Holding onto the magic: lightweight augmentation of digital reading devices BIBAFull-Text 510-513
  Emma Thom; Matt Jones
Reading devices such as the Kindle are becoming widely used and many users are now routinely reading on tablet computers. The physical form factor of these devices promotes and accommodates comfortable, natural interactions, providing some of the look and feel of their paper predecessors. However, for operations such as searching and cutting and pasting, the magic and charm of paper is lost and the user has to revert to device-centred selections and menu operations. In this paper, we introduce and explore an alternative set of approaches. In the NoteDrop system we use hand-only gestures along with haptic and limited visual feedback. The aim is to enhance the active reading process with a focus on interactions with digital research documents. In addition to describing the concept prototype, we present the findings of an exploratory user-study that highlights the value and challenges of these new methods.

Design techniques

Autobiographical design in HCI research: designing and learning through use-it-yourself BIBAFull-Text 514-523
  Carman Neustaedter; Phoebe Sengers
Designing a system with yourself as a target user and evaluating the design through your own self-usage is commonly considered a questionable approach in HCI research. Perhaps for this reason, HCI research including extensive self-usage of a design is underdocumented. Yet such self-usage does happen and many researchers have found great value in the lessons learned from it. Our goal in this paper is to bring these hidden practices to light and offer guidelines for how HCI researchers can usefully engage in what we term 'autobiographical design' -- design research drawing on extensive, genuine usage by those creating or building a system. Through interviews with HCI experts who have engaged in variations of autobiographical design, we draw out the possibilities and limitations of autobiographical design methods and lay out best practices for its use as an HCI research method.
Memory-storming: externalizing and sharing designers' personal experiences BIBAFull-Text 524-533
  Xiao Zhang; Ron Wakkary; Leah Maestri; Audrey Desjardins
In this paper, we describe memory-storming, a design technique that combines oral storytelling with sketching to externalize designers' personal experiences. The proposition behind developing this method is that designers' personal experiences are a potential design resource that can trigger new design insights and ideas. This paper provides a description of our use of this method, shows how it helped us in our design research, and presents lessons learned. We claim that memory-storming is a design technique that focuses on designers' personal experiences yet complements the user focus of user-centered design.
Invisible design: exploring insights and ideas through ambiguous film scenarios BIBAFull-Text 534-543
  Pam Briggs; Mark Blythe; John Vines; Stephen Lindsay; Paul Dunphy; James Nicholson; David Green; Jim Kitson; Andrew Monk; Patrick Olivier
Invisible Design is a technique for generating insights and ideas with workshop participants in the early stages of concept development. It involves the creation of ambiguous films in which characters discuss a technology that is not directly shown. The technique builds on previous work in HCI on scenarios, persona, theatre, film and ambiguity. The Invisible Design approach is illustrated with three examples from unrelated projects; Biometric Daemon, Panini and Smart Money. The paper presents a qualitative analysis of data from a series of workshops where these Invisible Designs were discussed. The analysis outlines responses to the films in terms of; existing problems, concerns with imagined technologies and design speculation. It is argued that Invisible Design can help to create a space for critical and creative dialogue during participatory concept development.

Experiencing the network

That syncing feeling: early user experiences with the cloud BIBAFull-Text 544-553
  Cathy Marshall; John C. Tang
We studied how people use file sync and sharing services to better understand how early adopters conceptualize their interactions with the cloud. A survey of 106 users provided background information about current use of these cloud storage services and identified 19 people for in-depth interviews. Use cases described in the interviews revealed a hierarchy of concepts that participants needed to master to make full use of these services. Five pivotal concepts demonstrate that users make sense of the cloud as a: personal file repository, shared file repository, personal replicated file store, shared replicated file store, and synchronization mechanism that coordinates among replicas. We propose specific ways in which process transparency and interface scaffolding can help users build a more robust model of cloud services.
Unremarkable networking: the home network as a part of everyday life BIBAFull-Text 554-563
  Andy Crabtree; Richard Mortier; Tom Rodden; Peter Tolmie
This paper extends the focus of current research into home networks. It represents a shift in perspective from the home network as something that is essentially understood as a technological object by the inhabitants of the home, to something that is understood by household members as a sociological object wrapped up in the organisation of their everyday lives. This shift in perspective is significant. It moves the focus of design from developing home network technologies that better support users' management of the home network and the devices that hang off it, to developing home network technologies that support household members' management of everyday life and the social activities that compose it. Through a range of ongoing ethnographic studies we elaborate this turn to the social, and a number of sensitising concerns informing the continued development of home network technologies.
Exquisite Corpse 2.0: qualitative analysis of a community-based fiction project BIBAFull-Text 564-567
  Peter Likarish; Jon Winet
This paper describes the outcome of a public art project exploring collaborative, community-based authorship of a work of fiction with contributions transmitted over the Twitter social network. Between July 15th, 2011 and July 17th, 71 authors, 8 invited and the rest voluntary members of the community, collaborated over Twitter, tweeting a "novel" 140 characters at a time. Dubbed "Novel Iowa City," the project was displayed to the public during the Iowa City Book Festival attended by thousands. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the product of this process, reflecting on the challenges community-based authorship imposes on the writing of fiction and suggests best practices for future collaborative fiction projects.
Understanding participation and opportunities for design from an online postcard sending community BIBAFull-Text 568-571
  Ryan Kelly; Daniel Gooch
The advent of Internet communication has seen much personal correspondence move from paper-based into digital form. But while the Internet is often associated with the decline in paper-based communication, it also provides opportunities to exchange traditional ephemera in new, exciting ways. We present here an analysis of Postcrossing, an online system that facilitates the sending of non-digital postcards among random strangers. Via a survey study of Postcrossing users, we elicit six key factors that contribute to the Postcrossing experience. We consider how these elements might be carried over into other digital communication technologies.

Acceptability factor

Value biases of sensor-based assistive technology: case study of a GPS tracking system used in dementia care BIBAFull-Text 572-581
  Yngve Dahl; Kristine Holbø
We investigate a conventional GPS tracking system employed in professional dementia care in search of value biases that contradict central care values. The investigation follows the formal steps of the value-sensitive design approach. Four biases are identified. These are related to: augmentation, privacy, self-esteem, and trust and accountability. Drawing on data gathered through a field experiment and related focus group meetings, professional stakeholders' responses and attitudes towards these biases are accounted for. The main lessons learned form our investigation are as follows: Firstly, this study highlights the situation that stakeholders' concerns about sensor-based assistive technology in dementia care often relate to specific value-laden design aspects or features. Secondly, we consider the identified biases central issues that need to be taken into account in ethical evaluations of the uptake and adoption of sensor-based technologies in dementia care. For designers of assistive technologies the biases identified represent areas for improvements. Thirdly, the study strengthens the argument that ethics and human values need to be paid explicit attention as part of human-centered design processes that target the care sector.
To move or to remove?: a human-centric approach to understanding gesture interpretation BIBAFull-Text 582-591
  Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Gina Joue; Irene Mittelberg
This paper explores how na?ve observers recognize and interpret transitive actions (actions involving manipulation of objects) without accompanying speech, in order to derive guidelines for the design of gesture interpretation systems. Semi-structured interviews with 11 observers, interpreting 106 video clips of transitive actions elicited unstaged from 16 participants, reveal that people are generally able to interpret the transitive action as well as characteristics of the object manipulated despite individual variations in how people naturally gesture. In particular, people focus primarily on hand movement and hand shape to correctly interpret object characteristics, and on manner of movement of arms and/or final location of hands to interpret the goal of the transitive action (e.g., arrange objects vs. clear objects). These findings provide insights on aspects of gestures one can focus on to inform and guide the design of gesture interpretation models for interfaces that allow for individual variations in natural gesture production.
Style by demonstration for interactive robot motion BIBAFull-Text 592-601
  Jeffrey Allen; James E. Young; Daisuke Sakamoto; Takeo Igarashi
As robots continue to enter people's everyday spaces, we argue that it will be increasingly important to consider the robots' movement style as an integral component of their interaction design. That is, aspects of the robot's movement which are not directly related to a task at hand (e.g., pick up a ball) can have a strong impact on how people perceive that action (e.g., aggressively or hesitantly). We call these elements the movement style. We believe that perceptions of this kind of style will be highly dependent on the culture, group, or individual, and so people will need to have the ability to customize their robot. Therefore, in this work we use Style by Demonstration, a style focus on the more-traditional programming by demonstration technique, and present the Puppet Dancer system, an interface for constructing paired and interactive robotic dances. In this paper we detail the Puppet Dancer interface and interaction design, explain our new algorithms for teaching dance by demonstration, and present the results from a formal qualitative study.


Designing everyday technologies with human-power and interactive microgeneration BIBAFull-Text 602-611
  James Pierce; Eric Paulos
This paper creatively explores and critically inquires into power and energy at scales at which it can be generated by human bodily kinetic motion, with goals of promoting more engaging, meaningful, and sustainable interactions with and through interactive technology and electricity. To do so we delineate and name the research and design space of interactive microgeneration (IμG) and the subarea of human-power microgeneration (HPμG). We then present findings from a qualitative study employing (i) novel design prototypes we designed (e.g., a hand-powered mobile phone), (ii) commercially available products (e.g., a solar phone charger), and (iii) common everyday products (e.g., a kitchen knife, a food processor). Our empirical study and design explorations point to new design and research opportunities and challenges related to the generation and consumption of electrical energy in everyday life.
Power to the people: dynamic energy management through communal cooperation BIBAFull-Text 612-620
  Andy Boucher; David Cameron; Nadine Jarvis
In this paper we propose that design and HCI research address domestic energy management as a matter of timeliness, and organised on a community scale. We argue that instead of focusing on the financial benefits of energy saving, technologies can be used to connect users in systems that promote better understandings of the impact of their behaviours. We review current policy and practice and outline design proposals for systems that bring people together to work as a team to reduce the strain on national energy generating infrastructure. We argue that by exposing some of the complexity of power generation people can make more informed energy consuming choices.
Re-conceptualizing fashion in sustainable HCI BIBAFull-Text 621-630
  Yue Pan; David Roedl; John C. Thomas; Eli Blevis
As a starting point, this paper considers a compelling idea concerning fashion and sustainable HCI -- rather than attempt to thwart fashion, or exhort people not to engage in fashion-related behavior, instead, based on a deeper understanding of the complexity of fashion, utilize this concept to design products and services so as to resonate with those dimensions of fashion that are most compatible with sustainability. Our ultimate vision is to provide mechanisms to allow designers to use fashion as a positive force for sustainable design, especially in the context of HCI and interaction design. As a step along the path between this starting point and our ultimate vision, this paper describes some related literature and thoughts about methods, reports on a collection of interviews and emergent insights, and several general design implications which link fashion positively to sustainable practices and futures. Moreover, we hope to inspire others to contribute to this idea and its potential for sustainable HCI.
The local energy indicator: designing for wind and solar energy systems in the home BIBAFull-Text 631-634
  James Pierce; Eric Paulos
This paper proposes and investigates the area of local energy for interactive systems design. We characterize local energy in terms of three themes: contextuality, seasonality, and visibility/tangibility. Here we focus on two specific local energy technologies domestic, electrical generation from wind and solar. In order to investigate this area we design, deploy and study a novel local energy device: The Local Energy Indicator. We conclude by outlining directions for future work related to local energy for interactive design.

Engagement with digital artefacts

Inspiring the design of longer-lived electronics through an understanding of personal attachment BIBAFull-Text 635-644
  Silke Gegenbauer; Elaine M. Huang
Research in sustainable HCI has repeatedly pointed to the need for encouraging longer use of technology as part of the solution for stemming the tide of e-waste. Ways of achieving this goal remain elusive, however. We build upon previous research that considers the role of personal attachment in object ownership, and how this attachment might be leveraged to encourage longer use. We conducted a personal inventories study with 17 households in Switzerland, and use the findings to support and expand Odom et al.'s framework of attachment categories. We subsequently provided this framework to 3 designers and asked them to design novel technologies that encourage attachment. This exercise shed light on how they drew insight and inspiration from the framework, and how they integrated it into their design processes and design thinking.
DIAM: towards a model for describing appropriation processes through the evolution of digital artifacts BIBAFull-Text 645-654
  Amaury Belin; Yannick Prié
Appropriation of technology is a process by which users complete the work of designers by making interactive systems functional within the frame of their situated activities. While existing theories and studies about appropriation are oriented toward the psychological or organizational dimension of this process, we propose a model to describe it through evolutions of digital artifacts and information structures. We also present a case study demonstrating how this model helps to identify particular user operations, and related digital transformations, as a part of the appropriation process. These findings open perspectives to bridge scattered theoretical approaches of appropriation around a low-level, artifact-oriented, and objective way of describing appropriation. Our model could also improve the way appropriation is taken into account in design, by bringing more focus on technical aspects of interactive systems.
Towards a more cherishable digital object BIBAFull-Text 655-664
  Connie Golsteijn; Elise van den Hoven; David Frohlich; Abigail Sellen
As we go about our everyday routines we encounter and interact with numerous physical (e.g. furniture or clothes) and digital objects (e.g. photos or e-mails). Some of these objects may be particular cherished, for example because of memories attached to them. As several studies into cherished objects have shown, we have more difficulties identifying cherished digital objects than physical ones. However, cherishing a small collection of digital objects can be beneficial; e.g. it can encourage active selection of digital objects to keep and discard. This paper presents a study that aimed to increase understanding of cherished physical and digital objects, and beyond that, of how we perceive physical and digital objects, and their advantages and disadvantages. We identified design opportunities for novel products and systems that support the creation of more cherishable digital objects by extrapolating the advantages of the physical to the digital, exploiting the reasons for cherishing digital objects, and aiming for meaningful integrations of physical and digital.
Photobox: on the design of a slow technology BIBAFull-Text 665-668
  William Odom; Mark Selby; Abigail Sellen; David Kirk; Richard Banks; Tim Regan
We describe the design and implementation of Photobox, a device intended to be used over many years, which occasionally prints a randomly selected photo from the owner's Flickr collection inside of a wooden chest. We describe and reflect on how engaging in the design of this slow technology [5] led to some unexpected challenges and provoked us to re-think approaches to making technologies that are intended to be used over long time scales and which might act infrequently. We also reflect on how living with the device during the implementation phase led to unexpected insights. We conclude with implications for research and practice in the slow technology design space.

Organisation and productivity

Showing is sharing: building shared understanding in human-centered design teams with Dazzle BIBAFull-Text 669-678
  Lora Oehlberg; Kyu Simm; Jasmine Jones; Alice Agogino; Björn Hartmann
Human-centered design teams must integrate diverse individual perspectives into a shared understanding during conceptual design. The team's shared knowledge of their users becomes the basis for later design decisions. We conducted a formative study that shows how generic groupware is insufficient to support the transition from individual to collaborative creative work. We developed a set of design guidelines and implemented them in Dazzle, a collaborative shared display system for co-located design team meetings. Dazzle associates the action of showing information on the shared display with granting the rest of the team access to that information: showing is sharing. Dazzle also records a history of shown files. Team members can annotate this log using cross-platform synchronized clients. Teams of novice designers tested Dazzle over two consecutive sessions: the first focused on synthesizing user research, and the second focused on brainstorming. Dazzle was very effective at grounding team conversations about user research, but was used less for sharing information during brainstorming tasks. Items from the shared activity log were used as sources of inspiration and decision criteria during the brainstorming task. Future work includes additional support for active decision-making, and ambient feedback on design activity.
Experiences: a year in the life of an interactive desk BIBAFull-Text 679-688
  John Hardy
The author has spent a year living and working with an interactive office desk based on a modified desktop computer. This paper recounts these experiences as a post-hoc, reflective case study that investigates the effects that ergonomics, input devices and user interface elements have on work patterns, task organisation, collaboration and personal habits. In addition to covering usability questions such as why the mouse and keyboard remained the dominant input method, it illustrates how new workflow processes formed around hardware constraints and the roles that separate visual planes played in the management and perception of subtasks. This study explores the meeting of the virtual and physical workspace in terms of clutter, personal expression and aesthetics and concludes by discussing the future of interactive office desks and outlining the key findings from the year.
Designing soundscapes of virtual environments for crisis management training BIBAFull-Text 689-692
  Jan Rudinsky; Ebba Thora Hvannberg; Alexander Annas Helgason; Petur Bjarni Petursson
Since crisis management training requires extensive resources, we are offering a virtual environment which is meant to complement live exercise training. This paper presents a prototype of communication in noisy conditions that forms a basis for such training in a virtual environment. As a part of this development, we have designed and implemented communication metaphors, which are derived from empirical data and latest research in voice communication. Furthermore, this research proposes a taxonomy of sounds that is based on the relation between noise and the communication metaphors as an extension to existing soundscape taxonomies. The proposed communication metaphors and soundscape taxonomy are implemented in a prototype using an integration of a game engine and voice communications.
Supporting the aviation industry: a traveler-centered approach BIBAFull-Text 693-696
  Kagonya Awori; Andreia Gonçalves; Emme Clark; Troy Effner; Justine Yang; Ian Oakley; Nuno Nunes
The aviation industry is fundamental to today's connected global economies, rapidly and effectively linking people, places and cultures. However, aviation struggles to provide a high quality of service; air travelers typically report dissatisfaction and frustration with their experiences. This paper describes fieldwork in the form of 63 interviews that aims to understand the needs of air travelers in order to improve user experiences during and around air travel. Three themes from this traveler-centered user research process are presented and the design of FlyTalk, a mobile phone application inspired by this data and tailored to the needs of air travelers is described. FlyTalk collates existing information about airports and their procedures, presents this to users in a location and context aware interface and seamlessly integrates social media features connecting travelers with both their service providers and each other. This paper argues air travel is an important but overlooked domain for HCI practitioners and that mobile applications that meet user needs in this scenario have the potential to reduce travel costs while improving traveler satisfaction.
Making the office catch up: comparing generation Y interactions at home and work BIBAFull-Text 697-700
  Wei Liu; Gert Pasman; Pieter Jan Stappers; Jenneke Taal-Fokker
Information technology (IT) support of office work has increased rapidly in functionality, but the interaction styles have evolved more slowly. This study explores interaction qualities of IT supported activities in the contexts of home and work. A series of contextual interviews was conducted with six Generation Y office workers. An interview toolkit was used to sensitize them to the subject of interaction qualities, experiences, and demands of future ways of working. This study resulted in a set of design guidelines, aiming to support Generation Y interactions in future office work. Designers and researchers who focus on understanding (rich interactions in) the work context would benefit from the result of this study.

Game design

The role of physical controllers in motion video gaming BIBAFull-Text 701-710
  Dustin Freeman; Otmar Hilliges; Abigail Sellen; Kenton O'Hara; Shahram Izadi; Kenneth Wood
Systems that detect the unaugmented human body allow players to interact without using a physical controller. But how is interaction altered by the absence of a physical input device? What is the impact on game performance, on a player's expectation of their ability to control the game, and on their game experience? In this study, we investigate these issues in the context of a table tennis video game. The results show that the impact of holding a physical controller, or indeed of the fidelity of that controller, does not appear in simple measures of performance. Rather, the difference between controllers is a function of the responsiveness of the game being controlled, as well as other factors to do with expectations, real world game experience and social context.
The final TimeWarp: using form and content to support player experience and presence when designing location-aware mobile augmented reality games BIBAFull-Text 711-720
  Lisa Blum; Richard Wetzel; Rod McCall; Leif Oppermann; Wolfgang Broll
Designing Augmented Reality location aware games requires an understanding of how form and content issues impact on presence. A study of 60 players was conducted using questionnaires, video analysis and interviews. The results indicate that content including: moral dilemmas, strong narratives, using real locations effectively and applying simple physical behavior within virtual characters to improve embodiment have a positive impact on player experience. The results are presented in the form of guidelines.
Muse-based game design BIBAFull-Text 721-730
  Rilla Khaled
Game design and user experience (UX) design both centre on the design of experiences. But whereas it is par for the course for end-user perspectives to be included during early design stages in UX, there is little methodological support or research into how to incorporate player perspectives into early stages of game design. In this paper, we introduce muse-based game design, an experimental empathic design approach foregrounding a dialogic artist -- muse relationship between a game designer and player. Following a user research stage focused on learning about the player, the designer forms idiosyncratic design constraints inspired by and relating to the player, which are then used to inspire ideation. To understand the consequences, advantages, and disadvantages of this approach, we discuss findings from two years of application of this style of game design in a Master's-level class of game design students at the IT University of Copenhagen.

Responding to emotion

Do you care if a computer says sorry?: user experience design through affective messages BIBAFull-Text 731-740
  S. Joon Park; Craig M. MacDonald; Michael Khoo
While traditional HCI research emphasizes usability based on models of cognition, user experience (UX) focuses on affect and emotion through the provision of positive interactive experiences. Providing affective cues, such as apologetic on-screen display messages, appears to be a way to influence users' affective states as well as their perceptions toward an information retrieval system. A study was designed to determine whether users' affect and perceptions differ between three types of systems: neutral, apologetic, and non-apologetic. Our results revealed that the users perceived the apologetic system as more aesthetically appealing and usable than the neutral or non-apologetic system. The result also showed that users' frustration was the lowest when using the apologetic system. We discuss the implications of these results in designing a more experience-centered system.
UX_Mate: from facial expressions to UX evaluation BIBAFull-Text 741-750
  Jacopo Staiano; María Menéndez; Alberto Battocchi; Antonella De Angeli; Nicu Sebe
In this paper we propose and evaluate UX_Mate, a non-invasive system for the automatic assessment of User eXperience (UX). In addition, we contribute a novel database of annotated and synchronized videos of interactive behavior and facial expressions. UX_Mate is a modular system which tracks facial expressions of users, interprets them based on pre-set rules, and generates predictions about the occurrence of a target emotional state, which can be linked to interaction events. The system simplifies UX evaluation providing an indication of event occurrence. UX_Mate has several advantages compared to other state of the art systems: easy deployment in the user's natural environment, avoidance of invasive devices, and extreme cost reduction. The paper reports a pilot and a validation study on a total of 46 users, where UX_Mate was used for identifying interaction difficulties. The studies show encouraging results that open possibilities for automatic real-time UX evaluation in ecological environments.
Enhancing User eXperience during waiting time in HCI: contributions of cognitive psychology BIBAFull-Text 751-760
  Carine Lallemand; Guillaume Gronier
Despite technological progress, daily Human-Computer Interactions (HCI) are still encompassing moments where the interaction between the user and the system is temporarily interrupted (file download, setup of a program, etc.). These waiting times are often sources of anxiety and irritation. In order to enhance the User eXperience (UX) during waiting time in HCI, this research based on cognitive models of time perception focuses on the impact of several variables on the satisfaction and waiting time perceived by a user. Variations in waiting time duration, cognitive workload and informational level of a feedback screen are therefore experimentally created to study their impact on satisfaction and waiting time perception. The results confirm the existence of a link between cognitive workload and waiting time perception and may provide valuable information for User Interface design.

Designing for the body

Movement qualities as interaction modality BIBAFull-Text 761-769
  Sarah Fdili Alaoui; Baptiste Caramiaux; Marcos Serrano; Frédéric Bevilacqua
In this paper, we explore the use of movement qualities as interaction modality. The notion of movement qualities is widely used in dance practice and can be understood as how the movement is performed, independently of its specific trajectory in space. We implemented our approach in the context of an artistic installation called A light touch. This installation invites the participant to interact with a moving light spot reacting to the hand movement qualities. We conducted a user experiment that showed that such an interaction based on movement qualities tends to enhance the user experience favouring explorative and expressive usage.
An unfinished drama: designing participation for the theatrical dance performance Parcival XX-XI BIBAFull-Text 770-778
  Gesa Friederichs-Büttner; Benjamin Walther-Franks; Rainer Malaka
The partnership of theater and digital media shows much potential for new means of storytelling. Digital scenery can be joined to the performer's action on stage; algorithmic influences can blur the linearity of a drama; interactive technology offers novel means of involving the audience in the creation of the piece. Interaction can thus enhance the dramaturgical possibilities of traditional theater. However, the narrative task also accompanies various new challenges for the designers of such a play. On the basis of our dance performance Parcival XX-XI, we define requirements for making an audience interact in a theatrical play and introduce four interaction-enabling criteria for theatrical performances that use gestural interfaces.
Bodily experience and imagination: designing ritual interactions for participatory live-art contexts BIBAFull-Text 779-788
  Lian Loke; George Poonkhin Khut; A. Baki Kocaballi
We are exploring new possibilities for bodily-focused aesthetic experiences within participatory live-art contexts. As artist-researchers, we are interested in how we can understand and shape bodily experience and imagination as primary components of an interactive aesthetic experience, sonically mediated by digital biofeedback technologies. Through the making of a participatory live-art installation, we illustrate how we used the Bodyweather performance methodology to inform the design of ritual interactions intended to reframe the audience experience of self, body and the world through imaginative processes of scaling and metaphor. We report on the insights into the varieties of audience experience gathered from audience testing of the prototype artwork, with a particular focus on the relationship between the embodied imagination and felt sensation; the influence of objects and costume; and the sonically mediated experience of physiological processes of breathing and heartbeat. We offer some reflections on the use of ritual and scripted interactions as a strategy for facilitating coherent forms of bodily experience.

DIS workshops

Designing wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 789-790
  Anja Thieme; Madeline Balaam; Jayne Wallace; David Coyle; Siân Lindley
This two-day workshop will bring together an interdisciplinary group of researchers, designers and practitioners who are interested in the topic of wellbeing in the field of interaction design. Wellbeing is defined as positive mental health, and not only the absence of mental illness, but also the presence of positive psychological functioning. The workshop will provide a platform to share resources, create new ideas for design and build valuable future collaborations. During the first day participants will present their work and exchange their knowledge and experiences in the field. The workshop will utilize a series of interactive activities to support participants in collaboratively constructing a shared understanding of the concept of wellbeing and its challenges in terms of design. On the second day participants will be invited to create low-fidelity prototypes that support an aspect of wellbeing using Microsoft .NET Gadgeteer and other prototyping materials. These practical activities will stimulate discussion so as to contribute to a better understanding of how wellbeing can be facilitated through design, how to address evaluation challenges as well as illustrate related ethical questions.
Designing performative interactions in public spaces BIBAFull-Text 791-792
  Julie R. Williamson; Lone Koefoed Hansen
More and more interactive artifacts are used in public on an everyday basis, and metaphors from performance and theatre studies find their way into research on these interfaces, addressing how interaction with technology can be understood in a performative sense. Through theoretical discussions as well as practical design activities and building on the assumption that every human action in public space has a performative aspect, this workshop seeks to explore performative interaction as it occurs in real world public settings with interactive technologies. The purpose of the workshop is to make prototyping experiments that enable participants to explore select themes and questions relevant to everyday or staged performativity, e.g. the design of performative technologies, the evaluation of user experience, the importance of spectator and performer roles, and the social acceptability of performative actions in public spaces.
Food for thought: designing for critical reflection on food practices BIBAFull-Text 793-794
  Jaz Hee-jeong Choi; Conor Linehan; Rob Comber; John McCarthy
This workshop is a continuation and extension to the successful past workshops including [4, 5, 6]. The workshop addresses the opportunities and challenges for the design of digital interactive systems that engage individuals in critical reflection on their everyday food practices -- including designing for engagement in more environmentally aware, socially inclusive, and healthier behaviour. These three themes represent the focus of much recent HCI work related to food. The workshop aims to further the conversation on these themes through understanding specifically how the process of critical reflection can be encouraged by interactive technology. While the focus will be on food as an application area, the intention is to also explore, more generally, how the process of critical reflection can be facilitated through interactive technology. The workshop provides a unique forum to discuss existing theoretical and pragmatic approaches, and to envision novel ways to design technology that encourages sustained critical reflection.
Research in the wild: understanding 'in the wild' approaches to design and development BIBAFull-Text 795-796
  Alan Chamberlain; Andy Crabtree; Tom Rodden; Matt Jones; Yvonne Rogers
We are starting to see a paradigm shift within the field of HCI. We are witnessing researchers leaving the safety and security of their controlled, lab-based environments and moving their research out into 'the wild'. Their studies are carrying out in-situ development and extended engagement, sampling experiences and working with communities in their homes and on the streets. This research has initially focused upon understanding the impacts that technological intervention has upon our day-to-day life and is leading us to explore the ways in which in-situ design, development and evaluation can be used to understand and explore these technological interventions. Is it the case that lab-based studies, taking people out of their natural environment and designing in the lab without long term user engagement are no longer appropriate to properly understand the impacts of technology in the real world?
Crafting urban camouflage BIBAFull-Text 797-798
  Karen Martin; Ben Dalton; Matt Jones
As interactive systems become increasingly entwined with architecture, and spaces become able to detect the presence of individuals, we argue that the control of visibility as a temporary personal state should be considered in the design of public spaces. This workshop will provide the opportunity for participants to engage hands-on with a computer vision tracking system (OpenCV) and explore how low-cost materials and tools can be used to render people invisible in monitored public space. We invite researchers and practitioners from the fields of art, design, HCI, architecture and social science to consider strategies for managing personal visibility and how these relate to design and the use of technologies. The intention of the workshop is not to produce implementable designs. Instead we prefer to make speculative design scenarios that might act as future inspiration or critique. By focusing on practical strategies for managing personal visibility we hope to extend designers thinking of presence in public space beyond the purely physical to include digital representations of inhabitation that are processed and archived remotely.
Perspectives on participation: evaluating cross-disciplinary tools, methods and practices BIBAFull-Text 799-800
  John Vines; Rachel Clarke; Tuck Wah Leong; Peter Wright; Ann Light; Ole Sejer Iversen
This workshop brings together a cross-disciplinary community of researchers and practitioners interested in participative practice and interactive systems design. The workshop addresses growing fascination with participation across interaction design, community informatics, the arts, science and social science, and asks workshop participants to reflect on the ethics and efficacy of the tools and methods used in these diverse practices. The aim of the workshop will be to map out a critical framework exploring the qualities of participation from multiple disciplines. The workshop outcomes will outline how cross-disciplinary perspectives on participation can contribute to participatory and user-centred interaction design.
Designing interactive lighting BIBAFull-Text 801-802
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Bernt Meerbeek; Jon Mason; Harm van Essen; Serge Offermans; Alexander Wiethoff; Norbert Streitz; Andrés Lucero
LED-based lighting systems have introduced radically new possibilities in the area of artificial lighting. Being physically small the LED can be positioned or embedded into luminaires, materials and even the very fabric of a building or environment. Hundreds of LEDs can be used in a single luminaire or space, of which each could have different light output properties. The light switch therefore in many situations will need to be enhanced or fully replaced by intelligent controls and smart environments that are sensitive to the context and responsive to the people in the environment. The focus of this workshop is to explore new ways of interacting with light where lighting is no longer simply an on or off system, but a flexible system capable of creating a large range of functional, decorative and ambient light effects.
Supporting reflection in and on design processes BIBAFull-Text 803-804
  Peter Dalsgaard; Kim Halskov; Steve Harrison
In this workshop, we wish to explore how design processes extending longer periods of time, weeks to several months, can be captured and documented, how this data can be analyzed, and what types of research insights such work can yield. Such topics include, but are not limited to, how ideas emerge, how design concepts are manifested in different forms, how interaction between different participants and stakeholders unfold, etc.
Designing for cognitive limitations BIBAFull-Text 805-806
  D. Scott McCrickard; Clayton Lewis
People with cognitive disabilities that affect their memory, attention, and comprehension can become overwhelmed when using technology -- just as cognitively-demanding situations like driving or multitasking can hinder technology use for most people. However, appropriately-designed technology can assist in overcoming cognitive disabilities and cognitive limitations. This workshop seeks to bring together researchers and practitioners with design experience in the many areas of cognitive disability and cognitive limitation to exchange, evolve, and develop strategies for design. Workshop participants will present key lessons from their own experiences, and workshop activities will employ claims-based design strategies toward identifying, comparing, and mapping approaches for addressing cognitive disabilities and limitations.
Designing musical interactions for mobile systems BIBAFull-Text 807-808
  Koray Tahiroglu; Atau Tanaka; Adam Parkinson; Steve Gibson
Mobile music making is an area where many of the specific design challenges and specific affordances of mobile technologies can be explored. Music applications have often been at the forefront of research in social-interactive aspects of emerging technologies. Music, as a social activity and time-based medium makes demands in terms of intuitive and responsive interactions that later find relevance in other application domains. This workshop will discuss the specific interaction design challenges for deploying engaging and creative musical activities on mobile devices. These devices are characterised by powerful, but not unlimited processing power, touchscreen, small form factor, networking capability, embedded tilt, microphone, camera sensors, and compact GUI. The workshop will allow interaction designers, musicians, and developers who may not already be involved in mobile music development to engage with and learn about this rapidly developing field, and the design research methods that are at the core of creative mobile music applications.
(DIY)biology and opportunities for HCI BIBAFull-Text 809-810
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Alex S. Taylor; Eric Paulos; Carl DiSalvo; Tad Hirsch
Over the past decade, a diverse community of biologists, artists, engineers and hobbyists has emerged to pursue biology projects outside of traditional laboratories. Though still in its nascent form, this DIYbio (Do It Yourself Biology) movement has given rise to a host of technical innovations and sharing mechanisms that enable hobbyists to experiment with organic materials. As these developments continue to expand science practice beyond professional settings and into hackspaces, art studios and private homes, HCI research is presented with a range of new opportunities and concerns.
   Our workshop will bring together a diverse group of designers and HCI researchers, as well as biologists, bioartists, and members of the DIYbio community to critically re-envision the role HCI might play at the intersection of biology, computation and DIY. This action-based one-day workshop will engage directly with DIYbio initiatives in the UK to explore the materials, practices and challenges of 'garage biology'. Drawing on presentations from DIYbio participants who work with organic materials, hands-on biology activities (such as extracting DNA), and structured discussions, we hope to address themes such as: opportunities and implications for integrating organic materials into interactive systems; technologies that support and hinder public engagement with science; and HCI's role in the public discourse around bioethics and biosafety.
The message in the bottle: best practices for transferring the knowledge from qualitative user studies BIBAFull-Text 811-812
  Marianna Obrist; Daniela Wurhofer; Petra Sundström; Elke Beck; Elizabeth Buie; Jettie Hoonhout
This workshop aims to identify and improve current strategies and practices for transferring knowledge from qualitative user studies to become inspiration for an experience-centered design process. The message (e.g., qualitative user study results) can be skewed when passed on from one phase to another in the design and development process. Moreover, the way insights are communicated is often not inspiring enough. We intend to get practitioners and academics engaged in a discussion about how to best transfer research findings of especially qualitative user studies and prevent loss of valuable information. Best practices, failure and success stories are especially welcomed as contributions. At the end of this workshop we will have identified strengths of a few methods, tools, and techniques selected from examples of best practices. Also, we will have summarized limitations and challenges of knowledge transfer and communication practices within experience-centered design.
Re-conceptualizing fashion in sustainable HCI BIBAFull-Text 813-815
  Yue Pan; David Roedl; Eli Blevis; John Thomas
In this workshop, we intend to explore within the HCI community the importance of fashion in the IT industry. We will explore the meaning of fashion and how fashion and sustainability could and might interplay in the IT industry. Participants in the workshop will collaborate in a practical exercise to act as a stimulus for thought concerning how the notion of fashion affects people's behaviors and attitudes toward digital consumption. Participants will also form different groups and share their own personal experience, behavioral changes, as well as insights related to sustainability and fashion. The outcomes of the workshop will include 1) a collection of exemplars and patterns relevant to fashion related to digital devices and technology services; 2) the identification and description of the characteristics of fashion in the digital technology domain; 3) a summary of the discussion on how interaction designers and researchers can use fashion as a positive force in sustainable HCI.
Slow technology: critical reflection and future directions BIBAFull-Text 816-817
  William Odom; Richard Banks; Abigail Durrant; David Kirk; James Pierce
Over a decade ago Hallnäs and Redström's seminal article on Slow Technology [6] argued that the increasing availability of technology in environments outside of the workplace requires interaction design to be expanded from creating tools for making people's lives more efficient to creating technology that could be embedded in everyday environments over long periods of time. Since then, the Slow Technology design agenda has expanded to include issues such as (i) designing for slowness, solitude, and mental rest, (ii) designing interactive systems to be used across multiple generations and lifespans, and (iii) designing for slower, less consumptive lifestyles and practices. This workshop aims to advance the Slow Technology design program by exploring the various practical, methodological and theoretical motivations, challenges, and approaches implicated in doing research and design in this growing space.