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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'10: Designing Interactive Systems 2010-08-16

Fullname:Proceedings of the 8th ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems
Editors:Kim Halskov; Marianne Graves Petersen
Location:Aarhus, Denmark
Dates:2010-Aug-16 to 2010-Aug-20
Standard No:ISBN: 1-4503-0103-7, 978-1-4503-0103-9; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS10
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. The politics of design
  2. Connecting people
  3. Mind your body
  4. Tools for ideation
  5. Sustainability
  6. Sketching interaction
  7. Designing for diversity of family life
  8. Physical programming
  9. Designing for community engagement
  10. Tangible interfaces
  11. Strategies for designing diabetes management systems
  12. Iterative design
  13. Visualising the invisible
  14. Perspectives on design research
  15. Designing for urban life
  16. Experience and emotions
  17. Designing for interaction in buildings
  18. Demos
  19. Workshops

The politics of design

HCI and environmental sustainability: the politics of design and the design of politics BIBAKFull-Text 1-10
  Paul Dourish
Many HCI researchers have recently begun to examine the opportunities to use ICTs to promote environmental sustainability and ecological consciousness on the part of technology users. This paper examines the way that traditional HCI discourse obscures political and cultural contexts of environmental practice that must be part of an effective solution. Research on ecological politics and the political economy of environmentalism highlight some missing elements in contemporary HCI analysis, and suggest some new directions for the relationship between sustainability and HCI. In particular, I propose that questions of scale -- the scales of action and the scales of effects -- might provide a useful new entry point for design practice.
Keywords: environmental justice, environmental sustainability, environmentality, political ecology, scale, social networks
A tale of two publics: democratizing design at the margins BIBAKFull-Text 11-20
  Christopher A. Le Dantec; Jim E. Christensen; Mark Bailey; Robert G. Farrell; Jason B. Ellis; Catalina M. Danis; Wendy A. Kellogg; W. Keith Edwards
The design and use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has now evolved beyond its workplace origins to the wider public, expanding to people who live at the margins of contemporary society. Through field work and participatory co-design with homeless shelter residents and care providers we have explored design at the common boundary of these two "publics." We describe the design of the Community Resource Messenger (CRM), an ICT that supports both those in need and those attempting to provide care in a challenging environment. The CRM consists of three components: 1) a message center that pools messages to and from mobile users into a shared, persistent forum; 2) a text and voice messaging gateway linking the mobile phones of the homeless with the web-enabled computer facilities of the care providers; 3) a shared message display accessible from mobile texting, voice, e-mail, and the web, helping the two groups communicate and coordinate for mutual good. By democratizing design and use of technology at the margins of society, we aim to engage an entire "urban network," enabling shared awareness and collective action in each public.
Keywords: constructed publics, design, homeless, urban computing
Participatory sensing in public spaces: activating urban surfaces with sensor probes BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Eric Paulos
Recent convergence between low-cost technology, artform and political discourse presents a new design space for enabling public participation and expression. We explore non-experts' use of place-based, modular sensors to activate, author and provoke urban landscapes. Our work with communities of bicyclists, students, parents, and homeless people suggests design opportunities for merging grassroots data collection with public expressions and activism. Members of each community were given probes that represent the measurement of exhaust, smog, pathogens, chemicals, noise or dust, and asked to engage with them as fully functional sensors over the course of one week. Our findings offer insights into participation, environmental sensing, and data sharing within and across four different communities, revealing design implications for future sensing systems as instruments of social currency and political change.
Keywords: participatory sensing, public spaces, urban probes

Connecting people

ResearchWave: an ambient visualization for providing awareness of research activities BIBAKFull-Text 31-34
  Uta Hinrichs; Danyel Fisher; Nathalie Henry Riche
The goal of a research institution is, ultimately, to share and disseminate knowledge. Yet the sheer volume of information produced by large institutions makes it challenging to keep track of the vast knowledge within. Information on who knows what is often scattered across multiple sources and media. Expertise tracking systems allow users to search for people who know answers, but do not support serendipitous discovery. To help visitors and researchers alike develop awareness of research activities, we have designed ResearchWave -- a large-display ambient visualization, installed in the social spaces of a research institution. ResearchWave represents information on research activities in a lightweight and aesthetically pleasing manner. Research-Wave is based on a "walk up and use" approach: it uses multiple levels of visual encodings to engage people while allowing them to learn more with each novel encounter. In this paper, we report our design process, first prototype and lessons learned from initial user feedback.
Keywords: activity awareness, ambient visualization, case study
Social distance, mobility and place: global and intimate genres in geo-tagged photographs of Guguletu, South Africa BIBAKFull-Text 35-38
  Marion Walton
This paper documents locative photographic practices on photo-sharing sites Flickr and The Grid and analyses how geo-tagged photographs of the Guguletu in South Africa represent interpersonal meanings and social distance. Distinct communicative genres are associated with (i) a tourist view of Guguletu shared via Flickr, and (ii) intimate social exchanges by residents meeting online contacts via mobile social network, The Grid. These differences are a reminder that access to mobility and uses of mobile media vary according to socio-economic status, and that priorities for the design of mobile image-sharing systems may differ in this context, where visual interactional genres and playful interactions appear to supercede locative uses of systems such as The Grid.
Keywords: Flickr, The Grid, geo-referenced photographs, mobile photographs, multimodal analysis, photo collections, social media, social networking, tourism
TouchFace: the interaction between cursors and live video images for casual videoconferencing BIBAKFull-Text 39-42
  Yujin Tsukada; François Guimbretière
We present a set of interaction techniques called "TouchFace" for casual videoconferencing among people in close relationships. It enables users to experience the sense of "touching" without the need for any special devices using interactions between cursors and live video images. After presenting the design guidelines underlying TouchFace, we describe a prototype following these guidelines. We conclude by presenting the results of a preliminary study.
Keywords: cursor, touch, videoconference
Telling calls: making informed call handling decisions BIBAKFull-Text 43-46
  Sukeshini A. Grandhi; Richard P. Schuler; Quentin Jones
Call handling decisions are made based on explicit information such as caller ID and/or implicit knowledge inferred from previous interactions. Our previous work showed that people often answer calls to find out the reason behind the call. This suggests that the provision of explicit information regarding what a call is about or under what circumstances is it being made can be of value in call handling decisions. To explore this concept we developed Telling Calls a prototype application for cell phone users to provide and receive call related information. We present the design rationale and lessons learned from qualitative accounts of users' experience with the application in their daily life. Our findings confirm the utility of our design and suggest ways in which we can improve the design to support informed call handling decisions in mobile phones.
Keywords: availability, cell, context, interruptions, mobile, phones

Mind your body

Mind the body!: designing a mobile stress management application encouraging personal reflection BIBAKFull-Text 47-56
  Pedro Sanches; Kristina Höök; Elsa Vaara; Claus Weymann; Markus Bylund; Pedro Ferreira; Nathalie Peira; Marie Sjölinder
We have designed a stress management biofeedback mobile service for everyday use, aiding users to reflect on both positive and negative patterns in their behavior. To do so, we embarked on a complex multidisciplinary design journey, learning that: detrimental stress results from complex processes related to e.g. the subjective experience of being able to cope (or not) and can therefore not be measured and diagnosed solely as a bodily state. We learnt that it is difficult, sometimes impossible, to make a robust analysis of stress symptoms based on biosensors worn outside the laboratory environment they were designed for. We learnt that rather than trying to diagnose stress, it is better to mirror short-term stress reactions back to them, inviting their own interpretations and reflections. Finally, we identified several experiential qualities that such an interface should entail: ambiguity and openness to interpretation, interactive history of prior states, fluency and aliveness.
Keywords: biosensors, interactional empowerment, stress, wearability
TiY (tag-it-yourself) BIBAKFull-Text 57-60
  Nora O'Murchu; Anders Sigfridsson
In this paper, we present TiY (tag-it-yourself), an adaptable iPhone application for self-management of type 1 diabetes. The application allows users to record and track blood sugar levels, insulin injections, and other data relevant for managing their condition. The key feature is that the users can extend the records with their own categories for data and make links between all types of entries through attachments. This is meant to facilitate sense making and is further augmented with the ability to attach written notes and photos. The aim is that the tool will be adapted through actual usage, rather than specified by preconceptions and abstractions of user needs. A discussion of the key principles informing our design and how we have realized it in the application is the main contribution of our paper. We also present our design process and discuss empirical insights that lay behind our assumptions about user needs as well as our specific design decisions.
Keywords: adaptation, chronic disease management, diabetes, health care technology, iPhone, mobile devices, self-care practices
Breakbot: a social motivator for the workplace BIBAKFull-Text 61-64
  Sarah Reeder; Lorelei Kelly; Bobak Kechavarzi; Selma Sabanovic
Workplace injuries commonly result from long periods of inactivity during computer use. Software exists to help remind people to take breaks but is often ineffective. On the basis of design research performed in an office environment, we propose an emotionally expressive companion robot to encourage employees to take breaks and socialize more regularly. Initial reactions to our design were positive, and encourage further investigation.
Keywords: assistive technology, emotional design, human-robot interaction, interpretation, ubiquitous computing

Tools for ideation

Design's processional character BIBAKFull-Text 65-74
  Laurel Swan; Diana Tanase; Alex S. Taylor
In this paper, we examine the ideas behind and reactions to a prototype online tool designed, in-house, for an art college's interaction design department. The web-based prototype, the Digital Scrapbook, was initially intended as a tool for tutors to oversee their students' work. However, our ongoing discussions with the department's members indicate that it is more interesting to its target audience for a variety of other reasons, including its role in design inspiration; group representation and collaboration; and as a repository for documenting the creative process. We speculate on the reasons behind this by further reflecting on the reactions to the tool. We come to the conclusion that members of the department value the Digital Scrapbook because it is seen to reflect the processional character of design. That is, we suggest the system is seen as promising because it reveals the often messy, unintended and meandering routes design can follow. In closing, we suggest how we might support further ways of displaying design's processional character and discuss the broader implications of displaying collective processes.
Keywords: collective creativity, design, design practice, processional
Investigating the relationship between imagery and rationale in design BIBAKFull-Text 75-84
  Shahtab Wahid; Stacy M. Branham; D. Scott McCrickard; Steve Harrison
Artifacts can be used to inspire, guide, and create new designs. As approaches to design can range from focusing on inspiration to formalized reasoning, we seek to create and study artifacts that combine the use of images and rationale. In this paper, we contribute an understanding of the relationship between imagery and rationale through an investigation of an artifact made of both. Through a study of group design sessions, we find images can provide access to rationale, moments of inspiration can be balanced with rationale, and differences between images and rationale must be reconciled. We conclude with thoughts on how such artifacts might be leveraged by the design community.
Keywords: design artifact, imagery, rationale
Open-ended objects: a tool for brainstorming BIBAKFull-Text 85-88
  Virginia Cruz; Nicolas Gaudron
This paper describes a new tool for use in the process of brainstorming workshops on HCI called "Open-ended objects". It is more of a conceptual presentation of the methodology than an experience report. Open-ended objects are open-ended interactive experiences that are used to introduce a brainstorming session. Their aim is to lead participants to reflect on emotions, human desires and make them forget about their expertise often centred on technical questions. These Open-ended objects are a tangible translation of the brainstorming brief to inspire participants beyond words. They are like interaction seeds that people can use to generate ideas. Besides, this shared and playful exercise sets a gentle and participatory atmosphere. In this paper, we describe the features of this tool that we have created and an example of how we have applied it to an innovation workshop.
Keywords: brainstorming, creativity, experience, interaction design, introduction, materialisation, tool
Ideation decks: a card-based design ideation tool BIBAKFull-Text 89-92
  Michael Golembewski; Mark Selby
Ideation Decks is a project that explores the development of a methodological tool for design ideation It involves the creation and use of bespoke project-specific card based systems which help to define constrained design problems within a broader overall problem space. Use of this system is intended to support the practice of parallel design by design practitioners, and to help more effectively explore specific problems by aiding in iterative design explorations.
Keywords: creativity support tools, design methods, design processes


Coffee maker patterns and the design of energy feedback artefacts BIBAKFull-Text 93-102
  Loove Broms; Cecilia Katzeff; Magnus Bång; Åsa Nyblom; Sara Ilstedt Hjelm; Karin Ehrnberger
Smart electricity meters and home displays are being installed in people's homes with the assumption that households will make the necessary efforts to reduce their electricity consumption. However, present solutions do not sufficiently account for the social implications of design. There is a potential for greater savings if we can better understand how such designs affect behaviour. In this paper, we describe our design of an energy awareness artefact -- the Energy AWARE Clock -- and discuss it in relation to behavioural processes in the home. A user study is carried out to study the deployment of the prototype in real domestic contexts for three months. Results indicate that the Energy AWARE Clock played a significant role in drawing households' attention to their electricity use. It became a natural part of the household and conceptions of electricity became naturalized into informants' everyday language.
Keywords: ambient display, energy use, households, interaction design, sustainability, user study
Design requirements for ambient display that supports sustainable lifestyle BIBAKFull-Text 103-112
  Tanyoung Kim; Hwajung Hong; Brian Magerko
People are ready to change themselves to adopt more eco-friendly habits such as conserving electricity when they are aware of the possible problems of their lifestyle. In this sense, ambient display, which users experience occasionally without its interfering with their primary tasks, is well suited to provide the feedback of their personal activities in a more subtle manner than direct information presentation. We present the results of user studies with two ambient displays in different visualization styles. Participants showed diverse usage behaviors of ambient displays according to their motivational level of sustainable lifestyle. In addition, iconic metaphor of eco-visualization can trigger more emotional attachment while indexical representation helps retrospective functions. Finally, we suggest design requirements for ambient displays that support different stages of persuasion from raising awareness to motivating to change behaviors and to maintaining desired habits.
Keywords: ambient display, behavior change, eco-visualization, persuasive technology, sustainable design
Materializing energy BIBAKFull-Text 113-122
  James Pierce; Eric Paulos
Motivated and informed by perspectives on sustainability and design, this paper draws on a diverse body of scholarly works related to energy and materiality to articulate a perspective on energy-as-materiality and propose a design approach of materializing energy. Three critical themes are presented: the intangibility of energy, the undifferentiatedness of energy, and the availability of energy. Each theme is developed through combination of critical investigation and design exploration, including the development and deployment of several novel design artifacts: Energy Mementos and The Local Energy Lamp. A framework for interacting with energy-as-materiality is proposed involving collecting, keeping, sharing, and activating energy. A number of additional concepts are also introduced, such as energy attachment, energy engagement, energy attunement, local energy and energy meta-data. Our work contributes both a broader, more integrative design perspective on energy and materiality as well as a diversity of more specific concepts and artifacts that may be of service to designers and researchers of interactive systems concerned with sustainability and energy.
Keywords: design, design theory, energy, materiality, sustainability

Sketching interaction

Using vocal sketching for designing sonic interactions BIBAKFull-Text 123-131
  Inger Ekman; Michal Rinott
An increasing number of interactive consumer products make use of the auditory channel. Consequently, sound has become an important part of the interaction designer's palette. Nevertheless, sound is a difficult medium for nonexperts to sketch in. We propose Vocal Sketching as a methodology for addressing sounding design, alleviating the challenges inherent for non-experts when thinking and communicating about sound and sounding objects in the early stages of design. The method was tested in a workshop with 35 participants, who, working in groups, used only their voices to sketch sonic interactions for three object props. Observations and results from a post-workshop questionnaire study show this methodology to be feasible and enjoyable, and applicable to the design process even without prior vocal training. The emerging pros and cons of this method, as well as results relating to social comfort in using the voice and group strategies for using multiple voices, are discussed. Further work should include a comparative study of this methodology and other sonic sketching strategies.
Keywords: design methodology, sonic interaction design, vocal sketching
The look, the feel and the action: making sets of ActDresses for robotic movement BIBAKFull-Text 132-140
  Mattias Jacobsson; Ylva Fernaeus; Rob Tieben
We present a series of design explorations for controlling autonomous robotic movement based on a metaphor of clothing and accessorising. From working with various sketches, scenarios and prototypes we identify a number of particular features of this form of interaction, as well potential challenges for designers of other systems based on this design concept. Finally we conclude with a few general implications, especially concerning the inert properties of visibility, physicality and modularity with respect to the particular case of interaction and robotic movement.
Keywords: human robot interaction, interaction design, physical user interfaces, tangible interaction
Creating the perception-based LADDER sketch recognition language BIBAFull-Text 141-150
  Tracy Hammond; Randall Davis
Sketch recognition is automated understanding of hand-drawn diagrams. Current sketch recognition systems exist for only a handful of domains, which contain on the order of 10-20 shapes. Our goal was to create a generalized method for recognition that could work for many domains, increasing the number of shapes that could be recognized in real-time, while maintaining a high accuracy. In an effort to effectively recognize shapes while allowing drawing freedom (both drawing-style freedom and perceptually-valid variations), we created the shape description language modeled after the way people naturally describe shapes to 1) create an intuitive and easy to understand description, providing transparency to the underlying recognition process, and 2) to improve recognition by providing recognition flexibility (drawing freedom) that is aligned with how humans perceive shapes. This paper describes the results of a study performed to see how users naturally describe shapes. A sample of 35 subjects described or drew approximately 16 shapes each. Results show a common vocabulary related to Gestalt grouping and singularities. Results also show that perception, similarity, and context play an important role in how people describe shapes. This study resulted in a language (LADDER) that allows shape recognizers for any domain to be automatically generated from a single hand-drawn example of each shape. Sketch systems for over 30 different domains have been automatically generated based on this language. The largest domain contained 923 distinct shapes, and achieved a recognition accuracy of 83% (and a top-3 accuracy of 87%) on a corpus of over 11,000 sketches, which recognizes almost two orders of magnitude more shapes than any other existing system.

Designing for diversity of family life

Designing for dynamic family structures: divorced families and interactive systems BIBAKFull-Text 151-160
  William Odom; John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi
While the HCI community has long investigated issues of designing for family and the home, very little attention has focused on the lives of divorced families and the ways in which interactive systems might be better designed to address the very real and growing issues they face. In this paper we present an overview of related research on divorce and families. We then report field evidence from 13 in depth interviews conducted with families of parents and children in joint custody situations, and unpack key emergent problems and tensions. We conclude with a discussion of the design implications and opportunities that give shape to how the HCI community may be able to have a positive effect on this set of potential users. The overarching goal of this research is to better understand how the HCI community might begin to approach designing for this alternative family.
Keywords: divorce, domestic design, family, ubiquitous computing
Age and experience: ludic engagement in a residential care setting BIBAKFull-Text 161-170
  Mark Blythe; Peter Wright; John Bowers; Andy Boucher; Nadine Jarvis; Phil Reynolds; Bill Gaver
The "older old" (people over eighty) are a largely invisible group for those not directly involved in their lives; this project explores the ways that technology might strengthen links between different generations. This paper describes findings from a two-year study of a residential care home and develops the notion of cross-generational engagement through ludic systems which encourage curiosity and playfulness. It outlines innovative ways of engaging the older old through "digital curios" such as Bloom, the Tenori On and Google Earth. The use of these curios was supplemented with portraiture by three local artists, nine school children and the field researcher. The paper describes four technological interventions: "video window", "projected portraiture", "blank canvas", and "soundscape radio". These interventions attempt to reposition "off the shelf technologies to provide a space for cross-generational engagement The notion of inter-passivity (the obverse of interaction) is explored in relation to each intervention.
Keywords: cross-generational engagement, inter-passivity, older people, residential care, user experience
Enhancing the sleeping quality of partners living apart BIBAKFull-Text 171-174
  Tomaso Scherini; Paulo Melo; Toon van Craenendonck; Wenzhu Zou; Maurits Kaptein
An increasing number of people reports sleeping problems. In the present paper we describe Somnia: a system designed to support remote couples to fall asleep faster and to enhance their sleep quality. Following a user-centered design process, Somnia was prototyped and evaluated. Qualitative feedback after a two-week user study showed that Somnia succeeded in providing a sense of connectedness between partners when sleeping remotely. This sense of connectedness might lead to a more pleasant sleeping experience. Based on our findings, we recommend designers of sleep related technologies to (a) incorporate the social aspects of sleep in their designs and (b) to focus on emotional arguments rather than rational arguments to influence sleeping habits.
Keywords: remote couples, sleep enhancement, social connectedness
Engaging the disengaged: how do we design technology for digitally excluded older adults? BIBAKFull-Text 175-178
  Graeme W. Coleman; Lorna Gibson; Vicki L. Hanson; Ania Bobrowicz; Alison McKay
Amongst older adults, recent evidence suggests the most commonly stated reason for non-adoption of digital technologies is a lack of interest, rather than affordability or difficulty. This directly impacts upon the design community, both in terms of technologies we design for such groups to adopt, and the design methods we use for exploiting the untapped creativity and innovation amongst people who are not particularly interested in the outcome. This paper explores issues of technology non-acceptance amongst older adults, and reports on work designed to incorporate the values of older adults within the design process. We present the results of a series of interviews conducted with disengaged older adults, presenting the key themes found within a subset with these interviews.
Keywords: design, digital economy, inclusion, older adults, technology acceptance

Physical programming

Intuino: an authoring tool for supporting the prototyping of organic interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 179-188
  Akira Wakita; Yuki Anezaki
Recently, organic interactive devices, inspired by shapes and movements of nature and living things, have been attracting attention. In order to implement such behavior, programming skills and mathematical knowledge are essential. Due to this, for the potential users of the devices, such as product designers, it is too hard to apply the attractive interfaces to their works. We propose Intuino, an authoring tool that can prototype behavior through time-line operations, spline drawing, or other visual PC operations. The system enables the designers to concentrate on their essential works of interaction design, i.e., selection of the sensor and actuator, and tuning of their operations. Through various practical examples and discussion about them, we will show that our tool can make the prototyping process stronger and can also be used as the tool for facilitation, debugging or creativity support.
Keywords: organic interface, prototyping, smart materials
Bosu: a physical programmable design tool for transformability with soft mechanics BIBAKFull-Text 189-198
  Amanda Parkes; Hiroshi Ishii
Physical transformability is emerging as an important element of interaction design as advances in material science and computational control give rise to new possibilities in actuated products and kinetic environments. However, this transition also produces a new range of design problems-how do we visualize, imagine, and design the physical processes of transformation? This paper presents Bosu, a design tool offering kinetic memory -- the ability to record and play back motion in 3-D space -- for soft materials. It is used for motion prototyping and digitally augmented form finding, combining dynamic modeling with coincident sensing and actuation to create transformable structures. Evaluation from a workshop with architects and interaction, product, and fashion designers is presented discussing the ramifications of physically programming motion with a new soft materiality, moving toward new ideas in body mimesis and material construction for kinetic design.
Keywords: case studies, interaction design, kinetic interface, product design, tangible user interface, transformability
LilyPad in the wild: how hardware's long tail is supporting new engineering and design communities BIBAKFull-Text 199-207
  Leah Buechley; Benjamin Mako Hill
This paper examines the distribution, adoption, and evolution of an open-source toolkit we developed called the LilyPad Arduino. We track the two-year history of the kit and its user community from the time the kit was commercially introduced, in October of 2007, to November of 2009. Using sales data, publicly available project documentation and surveys, we explore the relationship between the LilyPad and its adopters. We investigate the community of developers who has adopted the kit -- paying special attention to gender -- explore what people are building with it, describe how user feedback impacted the development of the kit and examine how and why people are contributing their own LilyPad-inspired tools back to the community. What emerges is a portrait of a new technology and a new engineering/design community in co-evolution.
Keywords: Arduino, LilyPad, e-textiles, electronic textiles, long tail, open-source hardware, wearable computing

Designing for community engagement

WallBots: interactive wall-crawling robots in the hands of public artists and political activists BIBAKFull-Text 208-217
  Stacey Kuznetsov; Eric Paulos; Mark D. Gross
Street art and political activism have a rich history of shaping urban landscapes. Our work explores the processes by which public artists and political activists contribute to public spaces, introducing opportunities for HCI researchers to engage with the people who shape the aesthetic feel of our cities. We present WallBots-autonomous, wall-crawling robots as a research probe for public expression across a wide range of surfaces and hard-to-reach places, including bus stops, whiteboards, streetpoles, trashcans, moving vehicles and building walls. We evaluate WallBots as a low-cost DIY authoring tool for public artists and activists. Our study of six individuals who extensively contribute to public spaces offers insights into the materials and practices behind grassroots public expression. We then leverage feedback from participants, among them a graffiti artist, light painter, political activists, and street musician, to evaluate interaction techniques for manipulating WallBots as a medium for public expression across a range of surfaces. Our findings expose a research space for technological interventions in the context of street art, and we conclude with design insights for magnetic kinetic systems as an approach for supporting engagement, expression and creativity in public spaces.
Keywords: autonomous agents, public spaces, street art
Creating a rural community display with local engagement BIBAKFull-Text 218-227
  Nick Taylor; Keith Cheverst
We present our experiences of using an iterative, prototype-driven approach to developing social systems with the participation of communities, inspired by probe-based methodologies. This approach is illustrated by our attempts to design and understand the role of situated display technologies in a rural community, which has led to the development of a photo display and digital notice board, guided by the community's involvement.
Keywords: action research, community, participatory design, probes, prototyping, rural, situated displays
Sharebee: encouraging Osusowake to promote community development BIBAKFull-Text 228-231
  Erika Ito; Mikiko Iwakuma; Shunsuke Taura; Tomoaki Hashima; Yu Ebihara; Naohito Okude
Osusowake means to share food or other things with neighbors and is a traditional communication style in the Japanese culture. People often osusowake (share) dishes they have cooked or things they have received from others with a kind message such as "Okimochi desuga (I am happy to give you this)." Osusowake has functioned as a means of developing community. However, the tradition of Osusowake or even simple neighborhood bonding no longer exists among people living in urban areas. Sharebee is an attachment to encourage people to osusowake and help organize urban residential community.
Keywords: Osusowake, apartment building, community development, interaction design, neighborhood, sharing, urban residential community
"Mate, we don't need a chip to tell us the soil's dry": opportunities for designing interactive systems to support urban food production BIBAKFull-Text 232-235
  William Odom
We describe findings from ethnographic fieldwork and a participatory design workshop conducted with members of urban agriculture communities. The aim of this work is to critically understand community members' agricultural practices as well as uses of interactive technologies in the service of investigating how the values of these communities might shape future sustainable HCI research. We found members heavily resisted technological augmentation of their agricultural practices, but suggested several novel ways in which interactive systems could be leveraged to help achieve their goals and potentially engender more sustainable ways of living. We conclude with a discussion of opportunities for designing interactive systems to support small-scale urban food production and implications for future research.
Keywords: sustainability, sustainable HCI, urban agriculture

Tangible interfaces

On the design of a "moody" keyboard BIBAKFull-Text 236-239
  Alexander De Luca; Bernhard Frauendienst; Max Maurer; Doris Hausen
To counter the increasing number of online threats for users' privacy and security, this paper explores the design of an ambient security indicator, in form of a standard keyboard illuminated in different colors, and equipped with additional buttons and vibration functionality. We present the results of a focus group study, which notably influenced the design, and discuss a prototypical implementation called Moody Board.
Keywords: MoodyBoard, ambient information, awareness, privacy, security
Watt-Lite: energy statistics made tangible BIBAKFull-Text 240-243
  Li Jönsson; Loove Broms; Cecilia Katzeff
Increasing our knowledge of how design affects behaviour in the workplace has a large potential for reducing electricity consumption. This would be beneficial for the environment as well as for industry and society at large. In Western society energy use is hidden and for the great mass of consumers its consequences are poorly understood. In order to better understand how we can use design to increase awareness of electricity consumption in everyday life, we will discuss the design of Watt-Lite, a set of three oversized torches projecting real time energy statistics of a factory in the physical environments of its employees. The design of Watt-Lite is meant to explore ways of representing, understanding and interacting with electricity in industrial workspaces. We discuss three design inquiries and their implications for the design of Watt-Lite: the use of tangible statistics; exploratory interaction and transferred connotations.
Keywords: energy conservation, engagement, interaction design, product design, sustainability, workplace
Some consideration on the (in)effectiveness of residential energy feedback systems BIBAKFull-Text 244-247
  James Pierce; Chloe Fan; Derek Lomas; Gabriela Marcu; Eric Paulos
Energy feedback systems, particularly residential energy feedback systems (REFS), have emerged as a key area for HCI and interaction design. However, we argue that HCI researchers, designers and others concerned with the design and evaluation of interactive systems should more strongly consider the ineffectiveness of such systems, including not only potential limitations of specific types of REFS or REFS in general but also potentially counterproductive or harmful effects of REFS. In this paper we outline research questions and issues for future work based on critical gaps in REFS research identified from (i) a review of REFS literature and (ii) findings from two qualitative studies of commercial home energy monitors.
Keywords: design, energy, everyday practice, home, sustainability
Enabling new forms of agency using wearable environments BIBAKFull-Text 248-251
  A. Baki Kocaballi; Petra Gemeinboeck; Rob Saunders
Technological artefacts can mediate the relations between humans and the environment: mediation changes our agency, which can be defined as our capacity for action. There can be different types of technological mediation and each type shapes our agency differently. Our model of wearable environments, which combines wearable computing and smart environment approaches, is useful for exploring new types of relations and, by extension, new forms of agency. In this paper, we present the first stage of developing a wearable environment system involving a series of workshops using two prototype devices. We evaluated the workshop activities according to a post-phenomenological account: this has allowed us to analyse the transformation of machine-mediated agency vis-à-vis two dimensions: perception and praxis. Our findings showed that interpretations of sonic and tactile feedback were highly dependent upon the placement of the sensing and effecting capacities of the system.
Keywords: agency, mediation, post-phenomenology, sensory substitution, smart environments, wearable computing

Strategies for designing diabetes management systems

Take it personally: accounting for individual difference in designing diabetes management systems BIBAKFull-Text 252-261
  Yunan Chen
The goal of this study was to investigate how diabetes patients use health information to support their daily disease management. A qualitative interview study was conducted with type-2 diabetes patients and healthcare providers. The analysis suggests that individual diabetes patients have a unique way of managing their care through the interpretation of personal health experiences. The ways in which patients learn to interact with their diabetes are detailed in this paper in four themes: understanding typical life routine, accommodating atypical activities, disproving & discovering healthy tips and reevaluating personal expectations. The findings of this study call for a diabetes management system that addresses a patient's physiological, social and psychological activities within the process of individual disease management. The finding opens up new opportunities for designing interactive systems to account for individual differences, encouraging positive patient involvement and sustaining long-term health outcomes.
Keywords: diabetes management, individual experience, personal health experience
Making chocolate-covered broccoli: designing a mobile learning game about food for young people with diabetes BIBAKFull-Text 262-271
  Marie Glasemann; Anne Marie Kanstrup; Thomas Ryberg
Assessing the amount of carbohydrates in their food is central for people with diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin therapy. This can be a challenging task for adults, but it is particularly so for young people since being a teenager takes attention from disease management. Learning happens in everyday life, but formal diabetes education is also considered an important aspect of diabetes self-management. In a case study we wanted to investigate how, and to which extent, to add motivation (chocolate) to learning (broccoli) by applying participatory design methods in the development of a mobile game about carbohydrate counting. This paper presents the design process and the resulting prototype. It concludes with challenges and opportunities for design of digital learning systems for children and adolescents addressing the carbohydrate counting issue.
Keywords: diabetes, educational games, nutrition, youth

Iterative design

The booTable experience: iterative design and prototyping of an alternative interactive tabletop BIBAKFull-Text 272-281
  Dimitris Grammenos; Yannis Georgalis; Nikolaos Kazepis; Giannis Drossis; Nikolaos Ftylitakis
This paper introduces booTable, an interactive coffee table prototype constructed by recycled paper aiming to build upon the paradigm of surface computing, but endeavoring to overcome a number of identified limitations of current design practice. In this respect, the paper first runs through the design requirements, decisions and rationale towards creating a first version of the prototype. Then, the outcomes of the prototyping process are described, along with the results of an informal assessment session and related critique. Following that, the revisions made towards the development of a second version of the prototype are laid out and the final result is presented.
Keywords: ambient intelligence, interactive table, multimodal interaction, smart furniture, surface computing
Design from the everyday: continuously evolving, embedded exploratory prototypes BIBAKFull-Text 282-291
  Clint Heyer; Margot Brereton
One of the major challenges in the design of social technologies is the evaluation of their qualities of use and how they are appropriated over time. While the field of HCI abounds in short-term exploratory design and studies of use, relatively little attention has focused on the continuous development of prototypes longitudinally and studies of their emergent use. We ground the exploration and analysis of use in the everyday world, embracing contingency and open-ended use, through the use of a continuously-available exploratory prototype. Through examining use longitudinally, clearer insight can be gained of realistic, non-novelty usage and appropriation into everyday use.
   This paper sketches out a framework for design that puts a premium on immediate use and evolving the design in response to use and user feedback. While such design practices with continuously developing systems are common in the design of social technologies, they are little documented. We describe our approach and reflect upon its key characteristics, based on our experiences from two case studies. We also present five major patterns of long-term usage which we found useful for design.
Keywords: appropriation, design, field study, iterative design, messaging, situated displays, social practices, social systems, text messaging

Visualising the invisible

Visual design of physical user interfaces for NFC-based mobile interaction BIBAKFull-Text 292-301
  Alina Hang; Gregor Broll; Alexander Wiethoff
Near Field Communication (NFC) can facilitate mobile interaction with everyday objects, associated digital information and ubiquitous services. Despite the simplicity of the touch-like interaction between mobile devices and tagged physical objects, most people are still unfamiliar with this physical interaction, resulting in various usability problems. In order to improve mobile interaction with NFC-tagged objects, that serve as physical user interfaces (UI), we examine various aspects of their visual design. We identify different phases of mobile interaction with tagged objects and apply a user centered design process to create and evaluate different symbols for these phases. We report on the iterative design of NFC-symbols and physical UIs using low- and high-fidelity prototyping and present the results of a user study which was carried out with an experience prototype for an advertising scenario.
Keywords: Near Field Communication, experience prototype, low-fidelity prototyping, physical user interfaces, visual design
Designing for the invisible: user-centered design of infrastructure awareness systems BIBAKFull-Text 302-305
  Juan David Hincapié-Ramos; Aurélien Tabard; Jakob Bardram
Infrastructure awareness systems reveal invisible aspects of infrastructures to their existing or potential users. Designing such systems is challenging as it requires making visible the hidden activity of infrastructures while providing information of interest to the users. To address this challenge we introduce the AMC technique (for Awareness Model Cards). This technique relies conceptually on awareness model's concepts of nimbus and focus. The main objective is to match the users' interests to the information the infrastructure awareness systems can provide, through the use of card matching. This technique provides three benefits: 1) evaluate how relevant is the information displayed by infrastructure awareness systems; 2) identify which of users' interests infrastructure awareness systems do not take into account; 3) identify elements of re-design in the infrastructures themselves, so to improve their adoption.
Keywords: AMCards, infrastructure awareness, user-centred design
Incorporating user control in automated interactive scheduling systems BIBAKFull-Text 306-309
  Jina Huh; Martha Pollack; Hadi Katebi; Karem Sakallah; Ned Kirsch
In this paper, we report our findings on the impact of providing users with varying degrees of control in an automated interactive scheduling system. While automated scheduling techniques such as constraint optimization have been widely adopted in a variety of scheduling applications, such applications require that users relinquish a certain amount of control to the system. The implications of such a shift in control are not clear for people who oversee the scheduling of human activities, for example, case managers scheduling patient appointments in hospitals and clinics. We asked our participants to use a working prototype system for clinic scheduling to complete a series of scheduling problems that we designed. We varied the size of the problems -- i.e., the number of patients to be scheduled -- and the style of interaction in ways that are associated with different degrees of user control. We recorded standard usability metrics and conducted post-task written surveys and interviews. Our results suggest that although maintaining full user control decreases efficiency as the problem becomes larger, the participants still preferred to have full user control in completing scheduling tasks. We end with design implications in supporting users' increased acceptance of automated scheduling systems.
Keywords: automation, group scheduling, user control

Perspectives on design research

An analysis and critique of Research through Design: towards a formalization of a research approach BIBAKFull-Text 310-319
  John Zimmerman; Erik Stolterman; Jodi Forlizzi
The field of HCI is experiencing a growing interest in Research through Design (RtD), a research approach that employs methods and processes from design practice as a legitimate method of inquiry. We are interested in expanding and formalizing this research approach, and understanding how knowledge, or theory, is generated from this type of design research. We conducted interviews with 12 leading HCI design researchers, asking them about design research, design theory, and RtD specifically. They were easily able to identify different types of design research and design theory from contemporary and historical design research efforts, and believed that RtD might be one of the most important contributions of design researchers to the larger research community. We further examined three historical RtD projects that were repeatedly mentioned in the interviews, and performed a critique of current RtD practices within the HCI research and interaction design communities. While our critique summarizes the problems, it also shows possible directions for further developments and refinements of the approach.
Keywords: Research through Design, design, design research, design theory
Bridging designers' intentions to outcomes with constructivism BIBAKFull-Text 320-329
  Kevin Muise; Ron Wakkary
This exploratory study investigates the value of constructivist theory for the field of interaction design. In this paper we explore how designer intentions and outcomes can be expressed in constructivist terms, and how constructivism can describe the relationship of design intentions to outcomes. This study's findings point to the potential of an emerging constructivist framework. The authors present the findings of two case studies of designer intentions and outcomes from two museum design projects. The paper presents themes drawn from the analysis that include designing for personal experience, play, and social interaction.
Keywords: constructivism, design case studies, design intentions, epistemologies, interaction design, user experience
The CLOTHO project: predicting application utility BIBAKFull-Text 330-339
  Joshua Hailpern; Nicholas Jitkoff; Joseph Subida; Karrie Karahalios
When using the computer, each user has some notion that "these applications are important" at a given point in time. We term this subset of applications that the user values as high-utility applications. Identifying high-utility applications is a critical first step for Task Analysis, Time Management/Workflow analysis, and Interruption research. However, existing techniques fail to identify at least 57% of these applications. Our work directly associates measurable computer interaction (CPU consumption, window area, etc.) with the user's perceived application utility without identifying task. In this paper, we present an objective utility function that accurately predicts the user's subjective impressions of application importance, improving existing techniques by 53%. This model of computer usage is based upon 321 hours of real-world data from 22 users (both professional and academic). Unlike existing approaches, our model is not limited by a pre-existing set of applications or known tasks. We conclude with a discussion of the direct implications for improving accuracy in the fields of interruptions, task analysis, and time management systems.
Keywords: application importance, application utility, interruptions, modeling, task analysis, workflow analysis

Designing for urban life

Water wars: designing a civic game about water scarcity BIBAKFull-Text 340-343
  Tad Hirsch
There has been growing interest in recent years in computer games that not only entertain, but also address pressing social issues. In this paper, we introduce "civic games" as a class of socially-engaged games whose intent is to involve citizens in public affairs and democratic processes. We present several underlying principles that characterize civic games, and show how they inform design the design of Water Wars, a new civic game about water scarcity and environmental policy.
Keywords: civic games, design, sustainability, water
U.F.O.scope!: families playing together at the public library BIBAKFull-Text 344-347
  Eva Eriksson
This paper investigates how interaction design installations can support families playing together in the context of public libraries. The interactive installation U.F.O. scope is presented as a mean to investigate how the library can support children and parents playing together. The idea of the installation is to stimulate the lust for families to explore the unknown together on unfamiliar ground, while also discovering the physical library and its different types of resources. The design and evaluation of the installation are discussed, and some general issues central for future design are outlined.
Keywords: children's library, interaction design, ubiquitous computing
Observing the mobile music phenomenon: one in nine commuters is wired BIBAKFull-Text 348-351
  Lassi A. Liikkanen; Mikko Lahdensuo
In this study we attempt to quantify the popularity of mobile music device utilization. We present an observational method to study music interaction in the wild and assess the reliability of the method. We apply this method to investigate mobile music device use regionally and globally in Europe, Asia, and North America. Our results show that globally, a stable one ninth of all observed urban commuters is engaged with music gadgets, in Tokyo above the other cities. In depth analysis shows that public displays of music devices are most common late on the working days. A subsample of bicyclists suggests that they utilize music devices even more than the pedestrians, but none of the observed segments is much interacting with the device while in transit. This has several implications for designing ubiquitous music experiences, particularly for modalities utilized in interaction.
Keywords: cultural studies, mobile devices, music interaction, ubiquity
TTI model: model extracting individual's curiosity level in urban spaces BIBAKFull-Text 352-355
  Chihiro Sato; Shigeyuki Takeuchi; Takuo Imbe; Shuichi Ishibashi; Masahiko Ýnami; Masa Inakage; Naohito Okude
Recommendation systems have become widespread, however these systems only determine information inputted from the customers through a browser, and cannot be used when actually moving around outside. This paper presents TTI Model, a model extracting individual's curiosity level in urban spaces on their spare time by collecting behavior data from sensors. It calculates person's real time curiosity level by analyzing behavior depending on the walking speed within the city, such as window shopping or just hanging around by themselves. This paper evaluates this model with a sensor device prototype, and elaborates possibilities when understanding individuals in detail, by extracting the curiosity predicted from current behaviors using sensors.
Keywords: Bayesian Networks, curiosity, urban experience, user analysis
Human-to-dancer interaction: designing for embodied performances in a participatory installation BIBAKFull-Text 356-359
  David A. Shamma; Renata M. Sheppard; Jürgen Scheible
In this article we describe the creation and exhibit of a participatory installation performance. Graffiti Dance allows the audience to graffiti paint with light onto a buildings side and receive immediate local feedback from a set of dancers choreographed to respond to the movement on the public display. The installation is a holistic experience using a plurality of sources (syndicated news Images and Twitter) and local influences (from mobile uploads) that reflect our understanding of the world around us, how we speak out in public forums, and how we interpret the creative act. We present the results of the performance from the perspective of the audience and the dancers and present new directions for future performances.
Keywords: art, community, dance, graffiti, mobile, network, projection
Clear Panels: a technique to design mobile application interactivity BIBAFull-Text 360-363
  Quincy Brown; Elizabeth Bonsignore; Leshell Hatley; Allison Druin; Gregory Walsh; Elizabeth Foss; Robin Brewer; Joseph Hammer; Evan Golub
We introduce a design technique, Clear Panels, to design interactive mobile device applications. Using mixed-fidelity prototyping, a combination of low- and high-tech materials, participants refine multiple aspects of a mobile application's design. Clear Panels supports writing and sketching via a transparent overlay affixed atop a mobile device screen. It enables design partners to refine their gesture-based interactions on actual devices. The technique has been successfully implemented in the design of children's mobile applications. The technique leverages and extends longstanding interaction design methods to include mobile and hand-held technologies. Importantly, we show it is effective in raising participants' awareness of key mobile application design issues without constraining their creativity.

Experience and emotions

Valence method for formative evaluation of user experience BIBAKFull-Text 364-367
  Michael Burmester; Marcus Mast; Kilian Jäger; Hendrik Homans
This paper describes a method for formative evaluation of the user experience based on the user experience model of Hassenzahl [11]. It captures positive and negative feelings during the exploration of an interactive product. In a subsequent retrospective interview phase users indicate for each instance of a positive or negative feeling the product design aspects inducing it. This phase further employs the laddering interview technique [24] to reveal the meaning of product design aspects to the user and the underlying fulfilled or frustrated needs. The generated information helps designers to understand and optimize the user experience potential of a product.
Keywords: formative evaluation, user experience
Virtual possessions BIBAKFull-Text 368-371
  William Odom; John Zimmerman; Jodi Forlizzi
For more than forty years, researchers have detailed how people develop attachments to their material possessions as they create and evolve a sense of self. Over the past several years people have increasingly acquired virtual possessions. These include both possessions that are losing their material integrity (books, photos, music, movies) as well as things that have never had material form (e.g. email archives, social networking profiles, personal behavior logs). However, little is known about how people perceive, value, and form attachments to their virtual possessions. To investigate, we conducted a study with teens exploring their virtual possessions. Preliminary findings reveal three key themes and suggest emerging interaction design opportunities for new forms for people's virtual things.
Keywords: cloud computing, interactive systems, virtual possessions
Do emotions matter in creative design? BIBAKFull-Text 372-375
  Corina Sas; Chenyan Zhang
A wealth of research has suggested that emotions play a significant role in creative problem solving, but less work has focused on investigating their roles in design. This is surprising given that creative problem solving lies at the heart of the design process. In an exploratory study we interviewed 9 expert designers about their emotions during the design process. We identified several relevant emotions and extended Wallas model of creative problem solving with emotional components for each of its stages. We also identified ways in which expert designers regulate their emotions and concluded with a discussion of the contributions of our work for design methods and tools, design thinking and design expertise.
Keywords: creative problem solving, design methods, emotions
Digital user research in Korea: defining quality factors for an internet-based research tool BIBAKFull-Text 376-379
  Puck Siemerink; Minyou Rek; Annemiek van Boeijen; Yong-Ki Lee; Kun-Pyo Lee
Participatory design approaches that built on the active engagement of users originated from the Western World. Consequently, their application to the East Asian context bears problems due to cultural barriers. In this paper we identify limiting problems of generative techniques in Korea by analyzing related theories based on cultural dimensions and conducting a pilot research that comprises a qualitative analysis of four exploratory interviews with Koreans from professional industry. Preliminary insights from the pilot research are that the main limitations to generative techniques in Korea are due to five factors: lack of Expressiveness, feeling of Insecurity, desire for Perfection, fear of Losing Face, and lacking Efficiency of the method. We suggest a new method involving an internet-based tool for applying generative techniques. As work-in-progress, we define crucial Quality Factors for such a tool, as well as point out the direction of our future research that is meant to lead us to its development and its implementation.
Keywords: cultural barriers, digital research tools, generative techniques, participatory design

Designing for interaction in buildings

Bricolage and consultation: addressing new design challenges when building large-scale installations BIBAKFull-Text 380-389
  William R. Hazlewood; Nick Dalton; Paul Marshall; Yvonne Rogers; Susanna Hertrich
We describe the many challenges faced when designing, implementing and embedding large-scale installations in a physical space, such as a building. A case study is presented of a distributed ambient display system intended to inform, lure and influence people when moving through the building. We outline the wide range of technical, user, aesthetic and practical aspects that need to be addressed; pointing out how many unpredictable problems can surface when going 'big', 'physical' and 'out of the PC', We argue that a different set of 'non-user-centered' processes are required. Furthermore, we propose a new design implementation approach that includes aspects of iterative design, but with the new processes of bricolage and consultation added for progressing the design.
Keywords: Waterfall model, bricolage, consultation, design, implementation, public installation, tinkering
Designing for high expectations: balancing ambiguity and thorough specification in the design of a wayfinding tool for firefighters BIBAKFull-Text 390-399
  Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks
Ambiguity has been identified as a useful tool for designing ubicomp systems. In the design of safety critical systems, however, the expectations for a system are particularly high, and goals of the technology are rigidly defined. In this context is not clear if open ended systems can still be used as a tool for design. In this paper we present a detailed account of the design process of an indoor wayfinding support tool for firefighters, in which ambiguity played a central role in driving the construction of the system. Based on an ongoing work covering more than a year of close collaboration with a heterogeneous team of project partners, we present some implications of using ambiguity for designing ubiquitous computing solutions in a domain that traditionally requires more formal specifications for the construction of technology.
Keywords: context awareness, firefighting, indoor navigation, interaction design, ubiquitous computing, wayfinding


DynamiCross: dynamic representation and sharing of information with flexible cross-reality interactions BIBAKFull-Text 400-403
  Jee Yeon Hwang
In this paper, the author presents DynamiCross, a system that enables users to dynamically represent and share information in cross-reality. Recently, designers and meeting attendees have enhanced engagement through a multiple display environments (MDE) [2, 5], which include not only personal objects, such as papers and laptops, but also shared objects, such as large displays, to provide collaborators with a virtual workspace. In this paper, the author describes how DynamiCross can support the user's individual or collaborative information handling with its cross-reality interfaces and multiple displays. In addition, when a user's personal material is placed on a large display, the display becomes a multilayer display that uses augmented reality (AR) technology to show digital contents of the personal object. The author introduces three major functions of the system to explain these capabilities which could be beneficial to similar research on cross-reality collaborations and paper interactions.
Keywords: augmented reality, collaborative virtual environment, cross-reality interaction design, multilayer display
IT-services for everyday life with diabetes: learning design, community design, inclusive design BIBAKFull-Text 404-407
  Anne Marie Kanstrup; Marie Glasemann; Ole Nielsby
The paper presents three directions for design of IT-services supporting everyday living with the chronic illness diabetes.
Keywords: IT-services, community, diabetes, inclusive design, learning
LumiBots: making emergence graspable in a swarm of robots BIBAKFull-Text 408-411
  Mey Lean Kronemann; Verena V. Hafner
Emergence is a concept that is not easy to grasp, since it contradicts our idea of central control and planning. In this work, we use a swarm of robots as a tangible tool to visualize interactions as the underlying principle of emergence.
   We utilize phosphorescent sheet (i.e. glow-in-the-dark foil) that can be activated with UV LEDs to visualize local information transfer between the robots in form of fading luminescent trails. The robots are specially designed to be both easy-to-understand and easy-to-build. They are a low-cost kit that can allow non-professionals to explore collective behaviour. By playing with the robots, they can get an understanding of complex systems such as emergence or Ant Colony Optimization algorithms in an automatic and playful way.
Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Arduino, education, glow-in-the-dark, phosphorescence, swarm robotics, tangible, trail pheromones, visualization
TacTowers: an interactive training equipment for elite athletes BIBAKFull-Text 412-415
  Martin Ludvigsen; Maiken Hillerup Fogtmann; Kaj Grønbæk
The interactive training equipment, TacTower, is aimed at supporting multiple elite athletes, such as handball players in training their micro-tactical skills in close-contact situations. It focuses on psychomotor abilities and trains the skills involved in reading the opponents' actions and anticipating the outcome while reacting accordingly. The Tac-Tower prototype will be demonstrated live, and here we summarize the main design issues, to give the reader a sense of how the elite sports context stands out from other interaction design domains. There is much potential for interaction design for the elite athletic community, as this domain holds interesting challenges while also inspiring relevant, new forms of interaction design for other domains.
Keywords: competition, elite sports, interaction space, kinesthetic empathy interaction, kinesthetic interaction, motivation, playing field, social interaction, team sports
Home awareness: connecting people sensuously to places BIBAKFull-Text 416-418
  Aviaja Borup Lynggaard; M. G. Petersen; R. Gude; M. Mortensen
People living a global lifestyle connect remotely to their families while away from home. In this paper we identify a need for connecting with a home as the physical place itself. For this purpose we introduce the concept of Home Awareness that connects people sensuously to remote places through sound, light and feeling of temperature. A working prototype has been successfully tested and we present some results from early user studies.
Keywords: ambient displays, home feeling, interaction design, mobility, remote connectedness
SINAIS: home consumption package: a low-cost eco-feedback energy-monitoring research platform BIBAFull-Text 419-421
  Filipe Quintal; Nuno J. Nunes; Adrian Ocneanu; Mario Berges
This paper describes a low cost eco-feedback energy monitoring research platform. The prototype system developed in Quartz Composer uses the computer's audio input and a current transformer to calculate real-time energy usage while also offering multiple visualization options and tracking human-activities. The prototype is being used in a multidisciplinary research project to understand the long-term effects of eco-feedback and enduring behavioral changes towards practices that promote sustainability.
ThanatoFenestra: photographic family altar supporting a ritual to pray for the deceased BIBAKFull-Text 422-425
  Daisuke Uriu; Naohito Okude
"ThanatoFenestra" is a family altar designed for people to remember the deceased and pray for them, which displays the images of the deceased depending on a candlelight's movement by burning aroma oil for cleansing their spirits like using incense sticks. In this paper, we define why we made the ThanatoFenestra deriving from Japanese traditional Buddhist rituals, describe how it works technically, suppose how to use it by two scenarios, and discuss how it will be able to make a new Japanese ritual surrounding death.
Keywords: Buddhism, Buddhist altar, death, design, digital photo frame, interaction design, memory, mortality, photography
SnowGlobe: the development of a prototype awareness system for longitudinal field studies BIBAKFull-Text 426-429
  Thomas Visser; Martijn Vastenburg; David Keyson
Awareness systems are a novel class of communication systems that enable people to be conscious of each other in a peripheral way. To better understand how people experience these systems over time, and how they blend in the user context, longitudinal field studies are needed. Although tangible awareness systems are considered to be more intimate and aesthetically pleasing than screen based awareness systems, they are not often evaluated in a longitudinal setting. This may be due to several factors that complicate the field evaluation of such systems, including the robustness and reliability of the prototype. This paper describes how the challenges of designing and evaluating a prototype have been addressed in the design of SnowGlobe. The system was evaluated in a longitudinal field setting with 12 users. The prototype enabled extensive data collection on the user experience and usage of such a tangible awareness system.
Keywords: awareness systems, research through design, social connectedness, tangible interaction
Towards multimodal interaction in smart home environments: the home operating system BIBAKFull-Text 430-433
  Florian Weingarten; Marco Blumendorf; Sahin Albayrak
Future homes as smart and interactive environments will include a large and constantly growing number of networked devices that communicate with each other to coordinate activities. In this case the main challenge for developers and designers will be to offer possibilities to simply control this growing network of independent devices for different purposes, embodying complex technology, as well as managing a large number of information flows. In this paper we describe an approach of how to control such environments through the multimodal user interface of a home operating system.
Keywords: UI design, human-computer interaction, multimodal interaction, smart environment, smart home, user interface


Handcrafting textile mice BIBAKFull-Text 434-435
  Hannah Perner-Wilson; Leah Buechley
This workshop will explore the use of low-cost materials and tools to build textile-based interfaces that replace the current hard-shell computer mice or laptop touchpads that you use to navigate your screen. We will introduce a range of methods for handcrafting textile input devices. Participants will learn techniques developed by the workshop leaders and will also be encouraged to use our materials library to design their own custom mice. The goal of the workshop is to familiarize participants with available electronic textile materials, to introduce them to a variety of sensor and circuitry construction techniques and get people thinking about different interfaces that allow you interact differently with everyday technology.
Keywords: computer mouse, do it yourself (DIY), e-textiles, wearable technology, workshop
Heritage inquiries: a designerly approach to human values BIBAKFull-Text 436-437
  Elisa Giaccardi; Ole Sejer Iversen
This two-day workshop brings together the interdisciplinary community of scholars and practitioners involved in the design of interactive systems and sharing a common interest in heritage matters. The workshop addresses heritage as a unique domain for the exploration of novel design inquiries into how we come together through separate understandings and attachments to artifacts, places, and events of the past as well as of the present. The workshop aims to explore how design research in the heritage domain can contribute to human-centered design, with a particular focus on everyday engagement.
Keywords: cultural heritage, design inquiry, everyday engagement, human values, interaction design
Informing the design of the future urban landscape BIBAKFull-Text 438-439
  Michael Smyth; Ingi Helgason
This workshop will identify emerging themes that will impact on the design of the urban environment, through exploration of the boundaries between the virtual and physical worlds. Participants in the workshop will collaborate in a practical exercise designed to act as a stimulus for thought concerning the nature of the products and services that will populate the urban landscape in the near future. The outcome of the workshop will be the identification and description of a series of issues that designers and technologists will have to address as they shape the interactions within the media-rich urban landscape. This will form the basis of new collaborative networks with the aim of taking this technological design research agenda further.
Keywords: design, ethnography, technology, urban landscape, virtuality
Tracing design(ed) authority in critical modes of making BIBAKFull-Text 440-441
  Marisa Cohn; Tobie Kerridge; Ann Light; Silvia Lindtner; Matt Ratto
The workshop will consider the ways in which authority is distributed throughout the design process, what kind of authority inheres in design, and also the ways that we design authority into processes and materials. We will explore the relationship between particular critical modes of making and the forms of authority that they construct.
Keywords: STS, critical design, critical theory, design morality, designer-user relations, inscription practices, materiality and agency, methods, personas, reflective design
Open design spaces: socially crafting interactive experiences BIBAKFull-Text 442-443
  Steffen Budweg; Sebastian Draxler; Steffen Lohmann; Asarnusch Rashid; Gunnar Stevens
Engaging end-users and user communities to take an active part in the co-creation, evolution, and appropriation of modern, interactive systems has become an increasingly important issue over the last years. Bringing together existing research and experiences as well as new challenges such as long-term, large-scale, or highly distributed stakeholders has led to the notion of Open Design Spaces (ODS) to frame and reflect current developments of distributed co-design. Several, formerly often separated strands of research covering different aspects of these challenges have emerged and led to a growing community of researchers and practitioners building on concepts such as Participatory Design, Meta-Design, and End-User Development. Building on two successful predecessors on the topic with more than 50 international researchers and practitioners, the workshop at DIS 2010 focuses particularly on social aspects and community co-creation in Open Design Spaces.
Keywords: co-design, end-user development, living labs, meta-design, open design spaces, participatory design, social interaction
Materialities influencing the design process BIBAKFull-Text 444-445
  Anijo Punnen Mathew; Tom MacTavish; Jared Donovan; Laurens Boer
The use of material artefacts within the design process is a long-standing and continuing characteristic of interaction design. Established methods, such as prototyping, which have been widely adopted by educators and practitioners, are seeing renewed research interest and being reconsidered in light of the evolving needs of the field. Alongside this, the past decade has seen the introduction and adoption of a diverse range of novel design methods into interaction design, such as cultural probes, technology probes, context mapping, and provotypes.
   Yet, interaction design does not have a cohesive framework for understanding this diverse range of practices. Such a framework would assist practitioners in comparing and choosing between methods across the different stages, contexts and stakeholder relations within a design process. It seems that one fruitful place to start in addressing this lack is to focus in on the common characteristic that these practices share of materialities influencing the design process.
Keywords: design process, interaction design, materiality, prototyping