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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'08: Designing Interactive Systems 2008-02-25

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Editors:Gary Marsden; Ilda Ladeira; Paula Kotzé
Location:Cape Town, South Africa
Dates:2008-Feb-25 to 2008-Feb-28
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-60558-002-3, 978-1-60558-002-9; ACM Order Number: 608086; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS08
Papers:50
Pages:473
Links:Conference Home Page
Envisioning systemic effects on persons and society throughout interactive system design BIBAFull-Text 1-10
  Lisa P. Nathan; Batya Friedman; Predrag Klasnja; Shaun K. Kane; Jessica K. Miller
The design, development, and deployment of interactive systems can substantively impact individuals, society, and the natural environment, now and potentially well into the future. Yet, a scarcity of methods exists to support long-term, emergent, systemic thinking in interactive design practice. Toward addressing this gap, we propose four envisioning criteria -- stakeholders, time, values, and pervasiveness -- distilled from prior work in urban planning, design noir, and Value Sensitive Design. We characterize how the criteria can support systemic thinking, illustrate the integration of the envisioning criteria into established design practice (scenario-based design), and provide strategic activities to serve as generative envisioning tools. We conclude with suggestions for use and future work. Key contributions include: 1) four envisioning criteria to support systemic thinking, 2) value scenarios (extending scenario-based design), and 3) strategic activities for engaging the envisioning criteria in interactive system design practice.
Getting the message across: visual attention, aesthetic design and what users remember BIBAFull-Text 11-20
  Alistair Sutcliffe; Abdallah Namoune
An investigation into user attention and design quality in websites is described. The investigation combined reported attention to areas of interest, with free memory recall and a questionnaire to assess whether areas of interest that users attended to were also remembered and rated well in terms of aesthetic design and usability. Users' memory of areas of interest and design features agreed reasonably well with their reported attention. The sites which were rated more attractive overall had an open layout, extensive use of animations which drew users' attention, and good aesthetic design ratings. Aesthetics was the more important determinant for overall attractiveness; whereas content, brand and usability were more important for overall preference. Based on the analysis, design guidelines for directing user attention are proposed.
Designing for inquisitive use BIBAFull-Text 21-30
  Peter Dalsgaard
This paper presents the concept of inquisitive use and discusses design considerations for creating experience-oriented interactive systems that inspire inquisitive use. Inquisitive use is based on the pragmatism of John Dewey and defined by the interrelated aspects of experience, inquiry, and conflict. The significance of this perspective for design is explored and discussed through two case-studies of experience-oriented installations. The paper contributes to the expanding discourse on experience design on a theoretical level by exploring one particular facet of interaction, inquisitive use, and on a practical level by discussing implications for design prompted by insights into inquisitive use. These implications are presented as a set of design sensitivities, which provide contextual insights and considerations for ongoing and future design processes.
The role of a cohort in the design and evaluation of pervasive systems BIBAFull-Text 31-39
  Tim Jay; Danaë Stanton Fraser
In this paper, we describe a new methodology for the design and evaluation of pervasive systems. We have recruited a cohort of 30 participants who are engaging with an interdisciplinary pervasive computing project Cityware over 3 years. The cohort has been selected in order to represent a broad mix of ages and technological abilities so as to increase the ecological validity of evaluation of systems and applications developed in Cityware. We discuss some of the techniques and methods that we have been able to employ as a result of maintaining this group of participants and illustrate how their data feeds into Cityware studies and applications. While the costs of recruiting and maintaining a cohort such as this are relatively high, the benefits in terms of the depth, richness and validity of results produced in this way are considered to be significant. We discuss this in terms of the potential for new designs, the type of data one can collect and engagement within the city.
Paper interface to electronic medical records: a case of usage-driven technology appropriation BIBAFull-Text 40-49
  Elin Rønby Pedersen; Greg Wolff
We conducted a 6-month project with a physical therapy clinic, involving equal parts ethnographic fieldwork and rapid prototyping. It differed from most reported user-informed design by having an explicit dual purpose. On the one hand, the prototype should provide significant, measurable improvements for the field site. On the other hand, the project sponsor did not intend to develop the prototype into a product but rather identify future opportunities and needs in the small-to-medium health care sector, requirements for next generation multifunction peripherals (MFPs), and business applications of existing technology. Thus, the project simultaneously investigated specific solutions for a specific work practice while looking for key technologies to address future needs. This paper provides a detailed account of the process and results, highlighting particular contingencies that come with a dual-purpose exploration, as well as the benefits of a small, focused team that "oscillates" between research and deployment.
Zebra: exploring users' engagement in fieldwork BIBAFull-Text 50-57
  Yann Riche; Matthew Simpson; Stephen Viller
Participatory Design is a design approach that provides a popular set of techniques for designing interactive systems in collaboration with end-users. Technology probes are one of such techniques, developed recently to encourage users' engagement with design ideas while capturing interaction. In this paper, we describe a technology probe called Zebra, which aimed at exploring the design of an observation tool for fieldwork with busy professionals. We deployed Zebra in the coffee room of our lab and observed researchers' reactions to the proposed concepts it embodied, both as researchers and as participants. We found that participants engaged with the probe in ways ranging from playful performances, through to abandoning the social space. Based on analysis of the collected qualitative and quantitative data, we present our reflections on the Zebra probe, how it eased the burden of engagement in the design process, and helped us better understand the potential of the observation tool for participatory design with busy professionals.
Designing e-learning games for rural children in India: a format for balancing learning with fun BIBAFull-Text 58-67
  Matthew Kam; Aishvarya Agarwal; Anuj Kumar; Siddhartha Lal; Akhil Mathur; Anuj Tewari; John Canny
Poor literacy remains a barrier to economic empowerment in the developing world. Of particular importance is fluency in a widely spoken "world language" such as English, which is typically a second language for these low-income learners. We make the case that mobile games on cellphones is an appropriate solution in the typical ecologies of developing regions. The challenge is to design e-learning games that are both educational and pleasurable for our target learners, who have limited familiarity with high technology. We propose the receptive-practice-activation cycle that could be used as the conceptual model for the designs. We then report how this format could be refined, based on our experiences in the field with three games that have collectively undergone nine rounds of iterations. In particular, it appears that maintaining a distinction between learning and fun to some extent is necessary for effective designs.
Playground games: a design strategy for supporting and understanding coordinated activity BIBAFull-Text 68-77
  Deborah Tatar; Joon-Suk Lee; Nouf Alaloula
From a design point of view, coordination is radically undertheorized and under-explored. Arguably, playground games are the universal, cross-cultural venue in which people learn about and explore coordination between one another, and between the worlds of articulated rules and the worlds of experience and action. They can therefore (1) teach us about the processes inherent in human coordination, (2) provide a model of desirable coordinative possibilities, and (3) act as a design framework from which to explore the relationship between game and game play -- or, to put it in terms of an inherent tension in human-computer interaction, between plans and situated actions. When brought together with a computer language for coordination that helps us pare down coordinative complexity to essential components, we can create systems that have highly distributed control structures. In this paper, we present the design of four such student-created collaborative, distributed, interactive systems for face-to-face use. These take their inspiration from playground games with respect to who can play (plurality), how (appropriability) and to what ends (acompetitiveness). As it happens, our sample systems are themselves games; however, taking playground games as our model helps us create systems that support game play featuring not enforcement of plans but emergence of rules, roles, and turn taking.
Towards guidelines for designing augmented toy environments BIBAFull-Text 78-87
  Steve Hinske; Marc Langheinrich; Matthias Lampe
Combining interactive technology with traditional toys promises to significantly enhance the educational value of children's play. Designing such augmented toy environments, however, requires designers to take both the traditional, technology-less nature of the toy, and the novel interactive aspects of the newly accessible virtual environment into account. This article attempts to present a unified set of guidelines for the design and implementation of augmented toy environments, drawing upon existing literature in traditional and educational toy and game design, as well as our own experiences in building mixed reality game environments. We also offer practical advice on the use of these guidelines by reporting on our own augmented toy environment for young children, called the Augmented Knight's Castle, which encourages learning about the Middle Ages in a playful way.
The landscape's apprentice: lessons for place-centred design from grounding documentary BIBAFull-Text 88-98
  Nicola J. Bidwell; Peta-Marie Standley; Tommy George; Vicus Steffensen
We propose that grounding documentaries can help designers to respond to non-western, non-urban spatial infrastructures. We describe locally-produced, in vivo video methods developed by indigenous Elders in Australia to persist and transfer their Traditional Knowledge and the specific use-case of a documentary on fire. The culturally-situated nature of the documentary exposes subtleties in a dialectic between models of space. The ontology embedded in the methods, and expressed by the documentary, has a spatiality and a belonging to place that profoundly differs from that typifying HCI's urban focus and many video methods used by designers to understand useage contexts. Grass-roots driven documentaries ground subsequent design by engaging designers in otherwise inaccessible truths about remote places, partly through the designer's sense of their own felt-life. The fire documentary reveals many general insights for design, such as the need to escape a singularly anthropocentric spatio-temporal approach in order to respond to the plurality of user experience.
Place-specific computing: conceptual design cases from urban contexts in four countries BIBAFull-Text 99-108
  Jörn Messeter; Michael Johansson
An increased interest in the notion of place has evolved in interaction design. Proliferation of wireless infrastructure, developments in digital media, and a 'spatial turn' in computing provides the base for place-specific computing as a suggested new genre of interaction design. In the REcult project place-specific computing is explored through design oriented research. This article reports six pilot studies where design students have designed concepts for place-specific computing in Berlin (Germany), Cape Town (South Africa), Rome (Italy) and Malmö (Sweden). Background and arguments for place-specific computing as a genre of interaction design are described. A total number of 36 design concepts designed for 16 designated zones in the four cities are presented. An analysis of the design concepts is presented indicating potentials, possibilities and problems as directions for future research.
Exploring true multi-user multimodal interaction over a digital table BIBAFull-Text 109-118
  Edward Tse; Saul Greenberg; Chia Shen; Clifton Forlines; Ryo Kodama
True multi-user, multimodal interaction over a digital table lets co-located people simultaneously gesture and speak commands to control an application. We explore this design space through a case study, where we implemented an application that supports the KJ creativity method as used by industrial designers. Four key design issues emerged that have a significant impact on how people would use such a multi-user multimodal system. First, parallel work is affected by the design of multimodal commands. Second, individual mode switches can be confusing to collaborators, especially if speech commands are used. Third, establishing personal and group territories can hinder particular tasks that require artefact neutrality. Finally, timing needs to be considered when designing joint multimodal commands. We also describe our model view controller architecture for true multi-user multimodal interaction.
Cognitive partnerships on the bench top: designing to support scientific researchers BIBAFull-Text 119-128
  Ellie Harmon; Nancy J. Nersessian
There has been a growing interest to develop technologies for laboratory environments. However, existing systems are underdeployed in real research labs. In order to create more successful technologies for the creative laboratory setting, we need a deeper understanding of the values of the researchers we are designing for and the unique roles of technology in the research laboratory. Our three-year ethnographic study of a biomedical engineering (BME) lab contributes to building this foundation for future design. Drawing form a distributed and situated cognition framework, our analysis highlights the ways in which technology is integrated into the researchers' daily practices. This study is one of the first deep ethnographies of a laboratory culture with a central focus on technology and provides several insights for the design community.
Supporting cooperative teamwork: information, action and communication in sailing BIBAFull-Text 129-138
  Russell Beale
This paper provides details of an in-depth investigation into how racing sailors use information displays and devices, and shows that these devices act as communication loci and instigators of action. The paper presents a detailed look at how sailors use instrumentation on their boats for both their own performance and as the foci for developing a shared understanding: this is a detailed study of computer-supported cooperative work in a new environment. We present a brief summary of the ways that technology has pervaded the environs of sailing yachts, and analyze how this has affected the activities of the crew and altered the relationship between the sailors and their environment. We introduce a taxonomy of information processing levels that allows us to understand what information is currently presented and in what form, and provides a basis for us to consider future developments in the field. After presenting the study and some analysis of the use of existing technology, we present a new design that addresses some of the issues identified, and evaluate its impact. The systems are analysed from the perspective of assisting people to improve their performance in training and in race situations. We use a combination of observation, discussion and personal reflection in undertaking the study.
e-du box: educational multimedia with tangible-enhanced interaction BIBAFull-Text 139-146
  André Wilson Brotto Furtado; Taciana Pontual Falcão; Alex Sandro Gomes; Carlos Eduardo; Monteiro Rodrigues; Roberto Sonnino
Media resources usage has significant impact on children literacy in the first school years in Brazil [5]. Computer software and tangible interfaces can help engage pupils in effective learning activities. Tangible interfaces built with familiar objects of our everyday lives such as wood and tissues are well accepted by pupils. In this work, we detail our design and evaluation of e-du box -- an educational, authoring and sharing multimedia platform including a tangible companion that provides feedback for users. We employed a participatory design process based on providing supports intended to help children engage in different tasks. We could elicit a list of design guidelines for this specific application. We discuss our experience with this design approach and explore its implications.
Flutter: directed random browsing of photo collections with a tangible interface BIBAFull-Text 147-155
  John Williamson; Lorna M. Brown
Large collections of photographs are commonplace, and many interfaces for viewing, sorting and organizing them have been proposed. This work describes the design and implementation of a "living photo frame" -- designed not to navigate or browse collections but to create an enjoyable activity from a collection of images. Tangible interactions with a tablet-style PC are used to bind the user closely to the system. Every interaction is logged and used to gradually evolve the structure of photo collections.
Beyond the screen: designing immersive collaborative experiences for children through digital and physical interaction BIBAFull-Text 156-163
  Julia Frederking; Michael Cruz; Mark Baskinger; Kees Overbeeke
This paper summarizes key points and findings of an interaction design research project coordinated between Carnegie Mellon University's School of Design (USA) and Technische Universiteit Eindhoven (The Netherlands). The interactive system concept introduced in this paper reflects focused research on collaborative play and presents an opportunity for children of various ages to cooperatively explore shape grammar, cause and effect, and story telling through interdependent digital and physical interaction. This concept named "Lila," embodies the notion of "purposeless play," and promotes inquiry, spontaneity, and causality as children explore the relationships of physical components with their subsequent digital visualizations. "Lila" is a continuing research project that serves as a link to joint ventures between these two universities that deal with digital interaction beyond a screen-based format.
Bringing context to the foreground: designing for creative engagement in a novel still camera application BIBAFull-Text 164-173
  Maria Håkansson; Lalya Gaye
Sensor-based interaction has enabled a variety of new creative practices. With ubiquitous computing, designing for creative user experience with sensor-based devices benefits from new opportunities as well as new challenges. We propose a design approach where surrounding context information is brought to the foreground to become a resource for interaction, available at hand and in real time to the users. We illustrate this approach with our project context photography as a design case. Context photography consists of taking still pictures that capture not only incoming light but also some of the additional context surrounding the scene, with real-time context information visually affecting the pictures as they are taken. Based on the design and use of our context camera prototypes, this paper brings insight into implications of our approach to the design of sensor-based ubiquitous computing systems for creative purposes.
CityFlocks: designing social navigation for urban mobile information systems BIBAFull-Text 174-183
  Mark Bilandzic; Marcus Foth; Alexander De Luca
CityFlocks is a mobile system enabling visitors and new residents in a city to tap into the knowledge and experiences of local residents, so as to gather information about their new environment. Its design specifically aims to lower existing barriers of access and facilitate social navigation in urban places. This paper presents a design case study of a mobile system prototype that offers an easy way for information seeking new residents or visitors to access tacit knowledge from local people about their new community. In various user tests we evaluate two general user interaction alternatives -- direct and indirect social navigation -- and analyse under what conditions which interaction method works better for people using a mobile device to socially navigate urban environments. The outcomes are relevant for the user interaction design of future mobile information systems that leverage off of a social navigation approach.
Handy navigation in ever-changing spaces: an ethnographic study of firefighting practices BIBAFull-Text 184-192
  Sebastian Denef; Leonardo Ramirez; Tobias Dyrks; Gunnar Stevens
This paper presents an ethnographic study, conducted to gain an insight of the practices around navigation of firefighters on the first line of intervention.
   We argue that the common approach of looking only at the technical aspects is incomplete. We show instead, that navigation of firefighters in ever-changing spaces is a collective craft or art, where technology is only one of the relevant pieces, but not the only one. Therefore design should take a deep look at existing navigation practices of firefighters.
   In order to identify relevant work practices, we conducted our ethnographic study to find out patterns of navigation work and based on our findings, we provide an outline of how the navigation practices can be supported by ubiquitous computing.
Interaction as a component of meaning-making BIBAFull-Text 193-202
  Kunmi Otitoju; Steve Harrison
Using a multi-media work of art, SenSpace, we investigate the relationship of meaning making and meaning-understanding to interaction. SenSpace is a multimedia installation that uses visual, audio and tactile cues to convey the Greek myth of Narcissus to the user. As opposed to books, audio-books, oral literature and other traditional means of conveying a story, Sen-Space embeds the myth within a physical space, engaging the user in an exercise in meaning-making that can involve multiple senses at the scale of the human body. The SenSpace installation uses projections, water reflections, sound, and distorted visual imagery to present a scripted experience of fixed duration. Following a visit to SenSpace, visitors were surveyed on their expectations and interpretations to help us answer the following research questions: (1) how and to what extent does interaction with the work of art encourage engagement with ideas and interpretation? (2) how and to what extent does content ambiguity encourage engagement and interpretation? (3) does social interaction encourage interpretation?
Taming the situationist beast BIBAFull-Text 203-211
  Lucian Leahu; Jennifer Thom-Santelli; Claudia Pederson; Phoebe Sengers
The interplay between arts and HCI has become increasingly commonplace in the past years, offering new opportunities for approaching interaction, but also raising challenges in integrating methods and insights from across a great disciplinary divide. In this paper, we examine the ways Situationist art practice has been used as an inspiration for HCI design. We argue that methods from Situationist art practice have often been picked up without regard for their underlying sensibility: reflection and improvisation in an activist socio-political context. We describe an experiment in incorporating Situationist sensibility in design and use it to elucidate the challenges that face HCI in truly integrating the arts.
Evaluating usability: using models of argumentation to improve persuasiveness of usability feedback BIBAFull-Text 212-221
  Mie Nørgaard; Rune T. Høegh
Usability evaluation is widely accepted as a valuable activity in software development. However, how results effectively are fed back to developers is still a relatively unexplored area. We argue that usability feedback can be understood as an argument for a series of usability problems, and that basic concepts from argumentation theory can help us understand how to create persuasive feedback. We revisit two field studies on usability feedback to study if concepts from Toulmin's model for argumentation and Aristotle's modes of persuasion can explain why some feedback formats outperform others. We recommend that evaluators specifically back up the warrants behind their usability claims, that their arguments use several modes of persuasion, and that they present feedback in browsable amounts not to overwhelm developers with information. For complex and controversial problems, we advise evaluators to involve developers in a learning process and provide the opportunity to experience and discuss the findings.
Designing marketing experiences BIBAFull-Text 222-229
  Lene Mailund; Kim Halskov
The two-dimensional model presented in this article is a contribution to the discussion of the ways in which IT-based marketing experiences in a physical setting may be designed and understood. In the presentation of the model, the focus has been on central issues regarding the design of the IT-based experience's physical design, interaction, and content, with regard to ensuring the achievement of the desired behavioural, cognitive, and affective effects, and, in the final analysis, the desired overarching marketing effect. The paper draws on three installations from a research project, which include two commercial partners: a major department store, and a large international chewing gum research and manufacturing company, whose primary marketing channels are international sweets conventions. Additional inspiration for the model's strategies have been drawn from the field of digital art installation.
Constructivism, virtual reality and tools to support design BIBAFull-Text 230-239
  Cara Winterbottom; Edwin Blake
This paper describes a process for creating a design tool, which is based in constructivism. The process is described for the creation of a tool to help novices in designing virtual environment interactions, however it can be generalized to other design domains. The process consists of four steps: first constructivist values of atomic simplicity, multiplicity, exploration, control and reflection are distilled. Next, expert practices are researched and reframed in terms of the constructivist values. Thirdly, novice processes are examined and understood in constructivist terms. Lastly, prototypes are created and shown to target users. These steps are iterated until the designed tool is satisfactory.
Integrating agile methods for mixed reality design space exploration BIBAFull-Text 240-249
  Volker Paelke; Karsten Nebe
Mixed reality -- the close coupling of real world objects with computer generated information and functionality -- has high potential for the creation of usable user interfaces. The implementation of practical applications that exploit these benefits requires an exploratory design approach to handle the interaction of application content with newly developed interaction techniques and complex hardware. In this paper we describe how agile methods from software engineering can be integrated with usability engineering and mixed reality development techniques to enable effective design space exploration. The approach was employed in the development of the Augmented Paper Map (APM) project in which conventional paper maps are enhanced with mixed reality functionality. Experiences with the method and future enhancements and modifications of the approach are discussed.
Sharing digital photographs in the home through physical mementos, souvenirs, and keepsakes BIBAFull-Text 250-260
  Michael Nunes; Saul Greenberg; Carman Neustaedter
People now easily share digital photos outside the home via web publishing and gift-giving. Yet within the home, digital photos are hard to access and lack the physical affordances that make sharing easy and opportunistic. To promote in-home photo sharing, we designed Souvenirs, a system that lets people link digital photo sets to physical memorabilia. These mementos trigger memories and serve as social instruments; a person can enrich their story-telling by moving the physical memento close to their large-format television screen, and the associated photos are immediately displayed. We implemented Souvenirs, and then re-examined our design premises through contextual interviews with 20 households. Families described their current practices of photo sharing and memento use, and also reacted to the Souvenirs design. Based on these interviews, we redesigned Souvenirs to better fit the real practices of photo and memento use in the home.
Photo displays in the home BIBAFull-Text 261-270
  Laurel Swan; Alex S. Taylor
This paper examines an under explored area of digital photography, namely photo display. Using examples from a study undertaken with six families, we examine photo displays on mantelpieces, sideboards, and hallway walls, and in homeoffices. Using the examples, we make a case relating to the material properties of photo displays, suggesting that families routinely (and often unintentionally) express something of themselves in the ways they display their photos. The very ideas of family and home, we suggest, are tightly interwoven with the methods of photo display. This position is used to offer up some early design considerations for digital photo displays. We outline some basic properties that might be designed around and contend that the ideas of family and home impose constraints on which of these properties might be best combined and exploited. We also present three design concepts to illustrate how we have been developing this position.
The past is a different place: they do things differently there BIBAFull-Text 271-280
  R. Harper; D. Randall; N. Smyth; C. Evans; L. Heledd; R. Moore
This paper reports the trial of a wearable data capture device, SenseCam, as a resource for digital narratives and uses data from the trial to reflect on the models of the 'mind' that underscore HCI. More particularly, over a period of one week, 5 participants and 2 researchers used SenseCams to capture digital traces of their experiences, and used the same to create 'story telling' materials for presentation at a workshop at the end of the trial. The study found that all users delighted in the devices, but found that the traces that SenseCams produced were not analogues to their own memory. Instead, SenseCam data presented a picture of daily lives which was at once different to the one recollected by participants and yet brought a sense of wonder, depth and felt-life that was strangely enriching; furthermore, SenseCam data enabled participants to create artistic and evocative stories about prosaic activities that would not normally merit being recounted; and finally, SenseCam data could be used to tell parables about 'life' and hence about the characters in those parables. The paper will comment on the implications these findings have for digital narrative technologies, on concepts of memory prosthesis devices, the sociology of memory and for the concept of mind that underscores HCI.
Projected cognition: capturing intent in descriptions of complex interaction BIBAFull-Text 281-287
  William Edmondson; Russell Beale
In a study of activity and usage of comparatively complex configurations -- where users have multiple screens and/or multiple computers -- we have noticed that accounts of what is being observed and reported are tricky to unify within a coherent framework. In this paper we look in detail at one such setting, where a complex office configuration has the machines well spread out in a structure designed by an individual for themselves. The layout also permits pairs of users to work collaboratively and clear cases of co-operative working are observed. In order to describe this successfully, we have extended the distributed cognition approach to capture notions of intent. This Projected Cognition, as we have termed it, allows us to provide a richer description of intent, activity and context.
The iterative design of a project charter for interdisciplinary research BIBAFull-Text 288-294
  Stan Ruecker; Milena Radzikowska
This paper describes our experience with the iterative development and use of a project charter for helping to manage expectations of the various members of interdisciplinary research teams. Some of our team members may be working with other researchers for the first time, and many of them have not worked previously with researchers from other disciplines. The charter is based on the need to explicitly discuss principles and policies of research practice with people from different disciplines at the start of the project, and to have a common agreement to refer to if necessary during the project. Our current template contains the following principles:
  • We are interested in disseminating the results of this project as widely as
       possible, with credit to us for doing it.
  • We intend this work to move forward at a steady pace, given due awareness of
       the vagaries of life.
  • We would prefer for this work to be funded.
  • We understand that the work we do on this project may have future phases.
       Modifications and additions may be made to further the project by other
       members.
  • We wish to communicate in such a way as to preserve professional dignity.
  • We would like to foster goodwill among all the participants. Although these seem on the surface like motherhood statements that would go without saying, in practical terms these principles, and the longer list of policies that emerge from them, is actually the basis of fundamental misunderstandings between disciplines.
  • Games for virtual team building BIBAFull-Text 295-304
      Jason B. Ellis; Kurt Luther; Katherine Bessiere; Wendy A. Kellogg
    Distributed teams are increasingly common in today's workplace. For these teams, face-to-face meetings where members can most easily build trust are rare and often cost-prohibitive. 3D virtual worlds and games may provide an alternate means for encouraging team development due to their affordances for facile communication, emotional engagement, and social interaction among participants. Using principles derived from social psychological theory, we have designed and built a collection of team-building games within the popular virtual world Second Life. We detail here the design decisions made in the creation of these games and discuss how they evolved based on early participant observations.
    Designing for nomadic work BIBAFull-Text 305-314
      Norman Makoto Su; Gloria Mark
    Nomadic work, an extreme form of mobile work, is becoming increasingly prevalent in organizations. Yet so far there has not been enough research attention on the particular challenges that nomadic workers face in order to design support for their work practices. We employed ethnographic interviews and observations to understand nomadic work practices. Drawing from strategies for survival of pastoralist nomads to guide our design investigation, we focus on an integrated perspective of nomadic work involving challenges related to assembling actants, seeking resources, and integrating with others in the organization. We discovered that nomadic workers need to continually seek out and compete for resources to maintain their mobile offices. They also face challenges in integrating into the organization to maintain visibility and to synchronize with others for meeting. We discuss the design recommendations that emerged from our investigation.
    Near real-time fire alert system in South Africa: from desktop to mobile service BIBAFull-Text 315-322
      Diane K. Davies; Hein F. Vosloo; Suresh Santhana Vannan; Philip E. Frost
    We present a design case study of a near-real time alert system warning of vegetation fires that threaten to disrupt electricity flow along power transmission lines in South Africa. Fire is one of the main causes of outages on South Africa's extensive power grid. For Eskom (South Africa's largest electricity company), knowing where and when these fires occur saves money, resources and time. The system was primarily designed to provide the locations of vegetation fires, detected from satellite data, to the mobile phones of field supervisors via SMS (short message service). The system adapts an existing desktop-accessible internet application to provide fire alerts to nonexpert users via mobile phones. It demonstrates how usability and access to needed information is enhanced by changing the output to a mobile service.
    Anchored mobilities: mobile technology and transnational migration BIBAFull-Text 323-332
      Amanda Williams; Ken Anderson; Paul Dourish
    Mobile technologies are deployed into diverse social, cultural, political and geographic settings, and incorporated into diverse forms of personal and collective mobility. We present an ethnography of transnational Thai retirees and their uses of mobile technology, highlighting forms of mobility that are spatially, temporally, and infrastructurally anchored, and concepts of the house as a kinship network that may be globally distributed. We conclude in pointing out several ways in which our observations and analysis can influence design.
    Aesthetic journeys BIBAFull-Text 333-341
      Johanna Brewer; Scott Mainwaring; Paul Dourish
    Researchers and designers are increasingly creating technologies intended to support urban mobility. However, the question of what mobility is remains largely under-examined. In this paper we will use the notion of aesthetic journeys to reconsider the relationship between urban spaces, people and technologies. Fieldwork on the Orange County bus system and in the London Underground leads to a discussion of how we might begin to design for multiple mobilities.
    Art, design, education and research in pursuit of interactive experiences BIBAFull-Text 342-349
      Geoffrey Shea
    In the development of mobile and location-specific experience creation, artists, designers and researchers at the Ontario College of Art & Design are developing new approaches to creation and collaboration that take into account the realities of artistic, academic and technical cultures. These included iterative creation strategies, co-evolution of technical platforms and cultural content, and rapid prototyping through charettes.
       This paper will examine some of the strategies employed across several projects which all focused on creating new content and new types of content delivery for users of mobile devices, particularly cell phones. It will draw examples from games, sound compositions and virtual theatre experiences.
    Objects of wonderment BIBAFull-Text 350-359
      Eric Paulos; Tom Jenkins; August Joki; Parul Vora
    While we should celebrate our success at evolving many vital aspects of the human-technology interactive experience, we question the scope of this progress. Step back with us for a moment. What really matters? Everyday life spans a wide range of emotions and experiences -- from improving productivity and efficiency to promoting wonderment and daydreaming. But our research and designs do not reflect this important life balance. The research we undertake and the applications we build employ technology primarily for improving tasks and solving problems. Our claim is that our successful future technological tools, the one we really want to cohabitate with, will be those that incorporate the full range of life experiences. In this paper we present wonderment as a design concept, introduce a novel toolkit based on mobile phone technology for promoting non-experts to participate in the creating of new objects of wonderment, and finally describe probe style interventions used to inform the design of a specific object of wonderment based on urban sounds and ringtones called Hullabaloo.
    Evaluating the effectiveness of term frequency histograms for supporting interactive web search tasks BIBAFull-Text 360-368
      Orland Hoeber; Xue Dong Yang
    Throughout many of the different types of Web searches people perform, the primary tasks are to first craft a query that effectively captures their information needs, and then evaluate the search results seeking relevant documents. However, the top Web search engines generally provide little support for users in these tasks. WordBars is a next-generation Web search interface that provides an interactive histogram representation of the most frequently appearing terms within the titles and snippets of the top 100 search results. In this paper, the results of a user study are presented in which the ability of the participants to find relevant documents using the features of WordBars is measured. Most participants were able to find more relevant documents using WordBars when compared to the original order of the search results. Subjective reactions were very positive, with all the participants rating the interactive features of WordBars highly.
    "Narrowcast yourself": designing for community storytelling in a rural Indian context BIBAFull-Text 369-378
      Matt Jones; Will Harwood; David Bainbridge; George Buchanan; David Frohlich; Dorothy Rachovides; Maxine Frank; Mounia Lalmas
    The StoryBank project is examining technologies and practices to allow digitally impoverished communities to take part in the user-generated content revolution. The approach involves combining mobile phones to create audio-visual stories and a touch screen display situated in a community meeting place. This paper discusses the design, evaluation and refinement of the situated display. We consider how our experiences of working with a rural Indian village community influenced design processes, principles and prototypes. The work highlights the value of community-centred design practices and prototypes in such developing-world contexts.
    Understanding iDTV in a developing country and designing a T-gov application prototype BIBAFull-Text 379-385
      Lara Schibelsky; Godoy Piccolo; Maria Cecília; Calani Baranauskas
    TV is an artifact present in 90% of Brazilian homes and it is the main source of information for a major part of the population. The moment of definition and consolidation of an interactive digital TV technology in Brazil provides us with a unique opportunity to cope with the digital divide issues. Making sure that iDTV contents and devices are flexible enough so that people are able to perceive, understand and interact with them is an essential requirement for the democratization of information via TV broadcasting. This paper investigates the basis for setting an interactive digital TV in Brazil by analyzing the Brazilian scenario and by proposing recommendations for the design of accessible user interfaces for iDTV applications; this basis is illustrated with the design of ciT-goV, a t-gov application prototype.
    TapGlance: designing a unified smartphone interface BIBAFull-Text 386-394
      Daniel C. Robbins; Bongshin Lee; Roland Fernandez
    The difference between using one mobile phone and another can feel like learning a new language based on our extensive experience designing mobile applications for spatial data navigation, faceted search, and glanceable information, we have developed design principles for unifying the various aspects of the internet connected mobile phone ("smartphone") user experience.
       This paper presents TapGlance, a design proposal for a novel mobile phone user interface. TapGlance adapts its presentation to different levels of user attention, provides ubiquitous faceted search, and uses a zooming metaphor to unite inter- and intra-application navigation. Because our interface relies on a spatial metaphor it can also be adapted to non-textual representations and thus useful to broader populations. This paper describes our design goals, design process, and the resulting TapGlance design.
    Interface designs for pen-based mobile video browsing BIBAFull-Text 395-404
      Wolfgang Hürst; Georg Götz
    In this paper, we describe two interface designs for mobile video browsing on pen-based handheld devices. Both feature different interaction types, such as speed- and position-based navigation which enable users to interactively skim a video's content along the timeline at different granularity levels. The feasibility and usefulness of the proposed designs is demonstrated in a comparative user study.
    Reflecting human behavior to motivate desirable lifestyle BIBAFull-Text 405-414
      Tatsuo Nakajima; Vili Lehdonvirta; Eiji Tokunaga; Hiroaki Kimura
    Ambient lifestyle feedback systems are embedded computer systems designed to motivate changes in a person's lifestyle by reflecting an interpretation of targeted behavior back to the person. Other interactive systems including "serious games" have been applied for the same purpose in areas such as nutrition, health and energy conservation, but they suffer from drawbacks such as inaccurate self-reporting, burdens placed on the user, and lack of effective feedback. Ambient lifestyle feedback systems overcome these challenges by relying on passive observation, calm presentation style and emotionally engaging feedback content. In this paper, we present an ambient lifestyle feedback system concept and provide insights from the design and implementation of two prototype systems, Virtual Aquarium and Mona Lisa Bookshelf. In particular, we discuss the theory and practice of effective feedback design by drawing on elementary behavioral psychology and small-scale user studies. The work is aimed at aiding in the design of ambient persuasive technologies and ambient interaction in general.
    Opening the design space: the soft set of requirements BIBAFull-Text 415-424
      Alessia Rullo
    This paper provides a methodological perspective regarding the design of ambient computing systems informed by the notion of Aesthetics of Interaction. This approach stemmed from the growing complexity that is offered by interaction when computation is distributed in the environment and embodied in all sorts of objects. In this work the notion of Aesthetics of Interaction in ambient computing systems is challenged by the use of the Soft Requirements as tools that complement the existing design methodologies based on participatory design approaches. The perspective presented is based on the work conducted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Siena Hospital -- Italy as a part of the EU PalCom project. The outcomes provide a heuristic account, which informs the design process by fostering the novel complexity of ambient/palpable technologies in delicate and fragile settings.
    Subjective objectivity: negotiating emotional meaning BIBAFull-Text 425-434
      Lucian Leahu; Steve Schwenk; Phoebe Sengers
    Affective computing systems face challenges in relating objective measures with subjective human experiences. Many systems have either focused on objective measures as a substitute for subjective experience (e.g. skin conductance as a direct representation of arousal) or have abandoned objective measures to focus purely on subjective experience. In this paper, we explore how to negotiate the relationship between objective signals and subjective experiences by highlighting the role of human interpretation. Our approach is informed by a reflective analysis drawing on the arts and the humanities and by a participatory study examining the emergence of emotional meaning. We demonstrate the potential of our approach for interactive affective systems through a series of conceptual designs that embody these understandings.
    Theories and practice of design for information systems: eight design perspectives in ten short weeks BIBAFull-Text 435-444
      David G. Hendry; Batya Friedman
    Students come to design education with different goals. Some seek to acquire expertise in design, others to learn specialized methods tailored to a research domain. Furthermore, students in the area of information system design confront a large literature of diverse perspectives on design, all of which are potentially useful. To disentangle this literature and to develop students' knowledge and know-how for design, a ten-week course, titled Theories and Practice of Design for Information Systems, was developed. Pedagogically, this introductory course is neither a studio course nor a methods course. Instead, it takes a "design perspectives" approach where students engage a number of substantial perspectives on design through conceptual and experiential study. This paper introduces this pedagogical approach and describes eight design perspectives including readings, key questions, and activities. It concludes with lessons learned for positioning students to engage the interplay between the theory and practice of information system design.
    Where all the interaction is: sketching in interaction design as an embodied practice BIBAFull-Text 445-454
      Jakob Tholander; Klas Karlgren; Robert Ramberg; Per Sökjer
    Sketching and design sketches are often recognized as key elements of successful interaction design practice and a central skill in interaction design expertise. Interaction design is a relatively young field without well-developed conventions, tools, and formalisms. We analyze the practical work and the conduct of interaction designers in how they express interaction and dynamics through whiteboard drawings. We focus on how talk and action were used to shape the meaning of the drawings. The ways the designers imagined that users would interact with the system and how it would mediate communication between users became topical through a web of drawings, talk, and embodied action. Our analysis forefronts three aspects of interaction design: 1) the role of the design material 2) the role of embodied action in interaction design, and 3) talk and embodied action as central means of doing design. We argue that the qualities of a design material need to be understood in relation to the activity in which it is taken into use and through the kinds of actions that the participants engage in. This implies that design representations do not carry meaning in themselves but are made meaningful through design activity.
    More than meets the eye: transforming the user experience of home network management BIBAFull-Text 455-464
      Erika Shehan Poole; Marshini Chetty; Rebecca E. Grinter; W. Keith Edwards
    As computing migrates from the workplace to the home, householders must tackle problems of home network maintenance. Often they lack the technical knowledge or motivation to complete these tasks, making the user experience of home network maintenance frustrating. In response to these difficulties, many householders rely on handwritten reminders or interactive networking tools that are ill-suited for the home environment. In this paper, we seek to understand how to design better home network management tools through a study of sketches created by 40 people in 18 households. In our study, we obtained information about householders' knowledge, practices and needs with respect to home networking. Based on our results, we present guidelines for transforming the user experience of home network management.
    Empathetic living media BIBAFull-Text 465-473
      Adrian David Cheok; Roger Thomas Kok; Chuen Tan; Owen Noel Newton Fernando; Tim Merritt; Janyn Yen Ping Sen
    We describe a new form of interactive living media used to communicate social or ecological information in the form of an empathetic ambient media. In the fast paced modern world people are generally too busy to monitor various significant social or human aspects of their lives, such as time spent with their family, their overall health, state of the ecology, etc. By quantifying such information digitally, information is semantically coupled into living microorganisms, E. coli. Through the use of transformed DNA, the E. coli will then glow or dim according to the data. The core technical innovation of this system is the development of an information system based on a closed-loop control system through which digital input is able to control input fluids to the E. coli, and thereby control the output glow of the E. coli in real time. Thus, social or ecological based information is coupled into a living and organic media through this control system capsule and provides a living media which promotes empathy. We provide user design and feedback results to verify the validity of our hypothesis, and provide not only system results but generalized design frameworks for empathetic living media in general.