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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'06: Designing Interactive Systems 2006-06-26

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Editors:Susanne Bødker; Julie Coughlin
Location:University Park, PA, USA
Dates:2006-Jun-26 to 2006-Jun-28
Standard No:ISBN 1-59593-367-0; ACM Order Number 608062; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS06
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Keynote
  2. Interaction design methods 1
  3. New forms of interaction
  4. Wild places
  5. Understanding design
  6. Panel on design quality
  7. Interaction design methods 2
  8. Social interaction
  9. The home
  10. Seeking inspiration from design
  11. Keynote
  12. Interaction design methods 3
  13. In public
  14. Community tech
  15. Doctoral symposium
  16. Workshops


In search of lasting principles for designing interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 1
  Sol J. Greenspan
Any area of research and education aims to build a body of validated knowledge (facts, theories, models, rules of thumb, etc.) that can form a stable foundation for practice, education and continued research. For the field of Designing Interactive Systems, what are the lasting principles that form the basis of our understanding of complex design problems and provide guidance to designers? In this talk, we will suggest some lasting principles for the Design of Interactive Systems.
   A unifying theme is the idea that interactive systems assume or contain conceptual models of the worlds with which they interact and in which they perform their functions. The critical success factors for interactive systems -- how they achieve their goals, align with their environments, adapt to changing requirements, recover from errors, etc. - depend on the development of these conceptual models as much as on the development of the code. This perspective has consequences for the users, designers and sponsors of the artifacts we design. The talk will explore the role of models and modeling in the analysis, design, deployment and evolution of systems.

Interaction design methods 1

Inspiration card workshops BIBAFull-Text 2-11
  Kim Halskov; Peter Dalsgard
In this paper we start from the position that sources of inspiration play an important role in the design process albeit in a frequently intangible way. We present the Inspiration Card Workshop as a collaborative method for combining findings from domain studies, represented in Domain Cards, with sources of inspiration from applications of technology, represented in Technology Cards, to create new concepts for design. We report our findings from three projects in which we have used the method and argue that the use of Inspiration Cards can successfully frame and guide workshops with disparate participants and bring various sources of inspiration into the design process. We furthermore compare the method to four related methods in the design process, namely Future Workshops, Metaphorical Design, Interaction Relabelling and Lateral Thinking.
Storyboarding: an empirical determination of best practices and effective guidelines BIBAFull-Text 12-21
  Khai N. Truong; Gillian R. Hayes; Gregory D. Abowd
Storyboarding is a common technique in HCI and design for demonstrating system interfaces and contexts of use. Despite its recognized benefits, novice designers still encounter challenges in the creation of storyboards. Furthermore, as computing becomes increasingly integrated into the environment, blurring the distinction between the system and its surrounding context, it is imperative to depict context explicitly in storyboards. In this paper, we present two formative studies designed to uncover the important elements of storyboards. These elements include the use of text, inclusion of people, level of detail, number of panels, and representation of the passage of time. We further present an empirical study to assess the effects of these elements on the understanding and enjoyment of storyboard consumers. Finally, we demonstrate how these guidelines were successfully used in an undergraduate HCI class.
Child-personas: fact or fiction? BIBAFull-Text 22-30
  Alissa Nicole Antle
This paper introduces a practice-based, child-centric method of creating child-user archetypes which extends adult-based persona theory to interaction design with children. Persona construction can help interaction designers better understand real child-users and result in rich child-user archetypes which are developmentally situated and contextually valid. Key differences between adult-personas and child-personas are highlighted. A description of an online mentoring application created for CBC4Kids.ca illustrates the value of child-personas in design practice.

New forms of interaction

The spatial character of sensor technology BIBAFull-Text 31-40
  Stuart Reeves; Tony Pridmore; Andy Crabtree; Jonathan Green; Steve Benford; Claire O'Malley
By considering the spatial character of sensor-based interactive systems, this paper investigates how discussions of seams and seamlessness in ubiquitous computing neglect the complex spatial character that is constructed as a side-effect of deploying sensor technology within a space. Through a study of a torch (aka 'flashlight') based interface, we develop a framework for analysing this spatial character generated by sensor technology. This framework is then used to analyse and compare a range of other systems in which sensor technology is used, in order to develop a design spectrum that contrasts the revealing and hiding of a system's structure to users. Finally, we discuss the implications for interfaces situated in public spaces and consider the benefits of hiding structure from users.
Using kinetic typography to convey emotion in text-based interpersonal communication BIBAFull-Text 41-49
  Joonhwan Lee; Soojin Jun; Jodi Forlizzi; Scott E. Hudson
Text-based interpersonal communication tools such as instant messenger are widely used today. These tools often feature emoticons that people use to express emotion to some degree. However, emoticons still lack the ability to communicate the details of an emotional response, such as the speaker's tone of voice or intensity of emotion. In this paper, we hypothesize that kinetic typography -- text that moves or changes over time -- can address some of this problem by enhancing emotional qualities of text communication using its dynamic and expressive properties.
   This paper presents a study showing that a small sample of designers can create kinetic effects that end-users could employ to consistently convey emotion. In the study, three designers prepared 24 kinetic examples expressing four different emotions. We found that the examples were rated quite consistently by 66 participants. These findings provide a preliminary indication that designers can create predefined kinetic effects which can be applied to a variety of textual messages, and that these effects will reliably convey a particular emotional intent. The findings from this study inform design guidelines for designing an instant messaging client that uses kinetic typography presentation.
Sensorial interfaces BIBAFull-Text 50-59
  Angela Chang; Hiroshi Ishii
Sensorial interfaces are based on augmenting existing physical objects with digital information. We propose sensorial activity theory to relate multi-sensory mappings to the context of device physicality and rituals of use. We share a design process for creating sensorial mappings, relationships between digital information and sensory information. We present and analyze some design projects: musicBottles, LumiTouch and comTouch, which illustrate the idea of sensorial interfaces. By utilizing the physical constraints of an object and creating sensorial mappings these devices offer novel ways for efficiently interacting with digital information. We believe the principal result enhances the user's sensory experience of the object. Finally, we discuss perspectives and limitations of our sensorial interface design process.

Wild places

Supporting ethnographic studies of ubiquitous computing in the wild BIBAFull-Text 60-69
  Andy Crabtree; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Paul Tennent; Matthew Chalmers; Barry Brown
Ethnography has become a staple feature of IT research over the last twenty years, shaping our understanding of the social character of computing systems and informing their design in a wide variety of settings. The emergence of ubiquitous computing raises new challenges for ethnography however, distributing interaction across a burgeoning array of small, mobile devices and online environments which exploit invisible sensing systems. Understanding interaction requires ethnographers to reconcile interactions that are, for example, distributed across devices on the street with online interactions in order to assemble coherent understandings of the social character and purchase of ubiquitous computing systems. We draw upon four recent studies to show how ethnographers are replaying system recordings of interaction alongside existing resources such as video recordings to do this and identify key challenges that need to be met to support ethnographic study of ubiquitous computing in the wild.
DJs' perspectives on interaction and awareness in nightclubs BIBAFull-Text 70-79
  Carrie Gates; Sriram Subramanian; Carl Gutwin
Several researchers have recently proposed technology for crowd-and-DJ interactions in nightclub environments. However, these attempts have not always met with success. In order to design better technologies and systems in this area, it is important to start with an understanding of how nightclub interaction currently happens. To build this understanding, we carried out an interview study focusing on DJ-audience interactions. We interviewed eleven DJs from several different cities, and asked them to discuss the ways that they interact with the audience, and the ways that they maintain and use awareness of the audience. We found that DJs gather a wide variety of information about their audiences, and that this information is important to them as they plan and shape the evening's musical experience. DJs are adept at gathering visual information about the audience, despite poor lighting conditions and a heavy workload of selecting and mixing music. Despite the difficulties, DJs took a dim view of technology designed to let crowds exert more control over the music. This study is one of the first to look closely at the interactive relationship between the DJ and the nightclub audience through the lens of HCI, and our findings provide a number of guidelines for the design of new DJ-focused nightclub technologies.
SESAME: towards better 3D conceptual design systems BIBAFull-Text 80-89
  Ji-Young Oh; Wolfgang Stuerzlinger; John Danahy
Conceptual design dominates the early stages of most creative design processes. During these stages, the designer makes important decisions about the parameters of a model that are aimed at satisfying a set of design criteria. To do this, the designer produces many sketches of various possible solutions. Meanwhile, computer-aided design (CAD) systems are becoming the dominant visual medium used in design practice. However, these tools evolved as documentation production tools and do not support conceptual thinking. This paper presents a list of guidelines for computer support for conceptual design activities on 3D scenes and presents SESAME (Sketch, Extrude, Sculpt, and Manipulate Easily), a system based on these guidelines. Finally, we present a user study comparing SESAME with a conventional CAD package to demonstrate the effectiveness of SESAME.

Understanding design

How do design and evaluation interrelate in HCI research? BIBAFull-Text 90-98
  Christine E. Wania; Michael E. Atwood; Katherine W. McCain
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is defined by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Special Interest Group on Computer-Human Interaction (SIGCHI) as "a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation, and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of the major phenomenon surrounding them" [18]. In HCI there are authors that focus more on designing for usability and there are authors that focus more on evaluating usability. The relationship between these communities is not really clear. We use author cocitation analysis, multivariate techniques, and visualization tools to explore the relationships between these communities. The results of the analysis revealed seven clusters that could be identified as Design Theory and Complexity, Design Rationale, Cognitive Theories and Models, Cognitive Engineering, Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), Participatory Design, and User-Centered Design.
Staying open to interpretation: engaging multiple meanings in design and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 99-108
  Phoebe Sengers; Bill Gaver
Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) often focuses on how designers can develop systems that convey a single, specific, clear interpretation of what they are for and how they should be used and experienced. New domains such as domestic and public environments, new influences from the arts and humanities, and new techniques in HCI itself are converging to suggest that multiple, potentially competing interpretations can fruitfully co-exist. In this paper, we lay out the contours of the new space opened by a focus on multiple interpretations, which may more fully address the complexity, dynamics and interplay of user, system, and designer interpretation. We document how design and evaluation strategies shift when we abandon the presumption that a specific, authoritative interpretation of the systems we build is necessary, possible or desirable.
Unfolding understandings: co-designing UbiComp In Situ, over time BIBAFull-Text 109-118
  John Halloran; Eva Hornecker; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Mark Weal; David Millard; Danius Michaelides; Don Cruickshank; David De Roure
A key challenge in co-designing UbiComp is that users may have limited understanding or experience of these technologies. While the value of situated co-design activities for promoting understanding is known, the role of time is less well researched. Here we describe and reflect on a range of co-design activities carried out with the curators of an historic English manor house to create novel visitor tours. We show how an ensemble of situated co-design activities over time led to the unfolding of user understanding around issues of content, technology and user experience, in turn leading to a progressive re-imagining of practice. This points to the importance of time and variety of in-situ activities to help people engage as co-designers in creating novel UbiComp-enabled experiences.

Panel on design quality

Can we measure quality in design and do we need to? BIBAFull-Text 119-121
  Alistair Sutcliffe; John Karat; Suzanne Bødker; Bill Gaver
The new usability agenda is driving empirical and experimental studies into a growing range of quality criteria such as engagement, user experience, and aesthetics. Some see this as a positive move to theorise about the nature of good design qualities, and to objectively test such hypotheses on the new usability theme. However, others (e.g. [1], [2]) have argued for interpretation-based inquiry into user engagement and experience on the grounds that such phenomena can only be understood by investigations into contexts of use which defy quantitative approaches. Many in the design community would agree with them and go further to argue that quality in design is a matter of creativity and can not be measured or theorised per se; instead, research should focus on understanding and improving the process of design. This panel will debate the tensions between these positions and explore possible common ground between them as a contribution towards the research agenda that is being debated in the DIS conference series.

Interaction design methods 2

The effect of group composition on divergent thinking in an interaction design activity BIBAFull-Text 122-131
  Andrew Warr; Eamonn O'Neill
Nearly 50 years of empirical research has suggested that social influences have an inhibiting effect on creativity in collaborating groups such as design teams. This suggests that design teams may not be as creative as they could be, resulting in a negative impact on the design process. In this paper we investigate the effect of group composition on creativity in terms of divergent thinking, in order to determine how best to support the creative process in design and the development of design environments. We present some novel results about 'group think', showing that real groups foster refinement of ideas while nominal groups foster duplication of ideas.
Randomness as a resource for design BIBAFull-Text 132-139
  Tuck Wah Leong; Frank Vetere; Steve Howard
Randomness is being harnessed in the design of some interactive systems. This is observed in random blogs, random web searching, and in particular Apple's iPod Shuffle. Yet the role of randomness in design of interactive systems in not well understood. This paper reports on an empirical study examining the influence of randomness on the user experience of music listening. 113 instances of self-reporting were collected and analysed according to four themes: listening mode, content organisation, activities during listening, and affective outcomes. The analysis provides insights into how randomness is used to engender certain affective responses (such as feeling refreshed) by using various constraining techniques (such as playlists) whilst engaging in everyday activities (such as driving a car). The paper argues that randomness can be used as an innovative design resource for supporting rich and novel user experiences.
How bodies matter: five themes for interaction design BIBAFull-Text 140-149
  Scott R. Klemmer; Bjorn Hartmann; Leila Takayama
Our physical bodies play a central role in shaping human experience in the world, understandingof the world, and interactions in the world. This paper draws on theories of embodiment -- from psychology, sociology, and philosophy -- synthesizing five themes we believe are particularly salient for interaction design: thinking through doing, performance, visibility, risk, and thick practice. We introduce aspects of human embodied engagement in the world with the goal of inspiring new interaction design approaches and evaluations that better integrate the physical and computational worlds.

Social interaction

Popcorn: the personal knowledge base BIBAFull-Text 150-159
  Stephen Davies; Scotty Allen; Jon Raphaelson; Emil Meng; Jake Engleman; Roger King; Clayton Lewis
People often use powerful tools to manage the documents they encounter, but very rarely to store the mental knowledge they glean from those documents. Popcorn is a personal knowledge base: an experimental interface and database designed to store and retrieve a user's accumulated personal knowledge. It aims to let the user represent information in a way that corresponds more naturally to their mental conceptions than simply text would, in part by making heavy use of transclusion: sharing items among multiple contexts. This paper describes the design rationale for the system, contrasting it with related efforts, and presents the results of deploying it to a group of volunteers who used it in real-world settings. The results, while revealing some limitations in the tool, and some challenges in coping with knowledge reorganization, suggest that the analysis underlying the design is useful, and that Popcorn is a powerful and effective tool for a variety of intellectual work.
iTell: supporting retrospective storytelling with digital photos BIBAFull-Text 160-168
  Brian M. Landry; Mark Guzdial
Digital photographs capture moments in time. Often these moments represent a much larger experience. Storytelling is often used to elicit these experiences from images in an attempt to communicate them to others. In this work, we focus on supporting the creation of narratives using digital images to share personal experiences. In previous work [11], we learned story development, process management and collaboration were activities essential to navigating the process of digital narrative composition. In this work, we detail our design and evaluation of iTell - a digital narrative composition tool. We employ a design process based on providing supports intended to help novice storytellers engage in the composition process like experts. We discuss our experience with our design approach and explore implications of our design decisions.
Mock games: a new genre of pervasive play BIBAFull-Text 169-178
  Martin Brynskov; Martin Ludvigsen
In this paper we identify and characterize, in theory and by design example, a new genre of pervasive play for tweens that lies on the border between play and game, called mock games. The objective is to design digital support for more or less structured playfulness among preteen children, primarily girls, in a way that emphasizes humor, friendly battle and identity construction. The method used is a combination of a review of a number of theories of games and play and a field study into the social reality of children's playful activities. Based on these two investigations we characterize mock games as a genre and show that it is not covered well by any one of the reviewed theories, taking into account both social and technical aspects. Then we present a design example of such a system, DARE! We conclude by discussing ethical issues and set goals for future research.

The home

Morphome: a constructive field study of proactive information technology in the home BIBAFull-Text 179-188
  Ilpo Koskinen; Kristo Kuusela; Katja Battarbee; Anne Soronen; Frans Mayra; Jussi Mikkonen; Mari Zakrzewski
This paper presents the main results of a three-year long field and design study of proactive information technology in the home. This technology uses sensors to track human activities in order to proactively anticipate the direction of human activity. With it, it could be possible to build an environment without buttons and remote controls. However, the home represents a series of design challenges for proactive technology. This paper describes how we have identified suitable areas for proactive designs with user research, how we built several "minidesigns" and experience prototypes, and how we tested them in a series of five field studies in the Tampere and Helsinki regions in Finland. The paper ends with a section in which we outline some of the main design principles learned in these studies, and point directions for studies in the future.
The impact of pre-patterns on the design of digital home applications BIBAFull-Text 189-198
  T. Scott Saponas; Madhu K. Prabaker; Gregory D. Abowd; James A. Landay
Recent research suggests design pre-patterns, structured collections of evidence-based research and design knowledge, provide a useful resource for design activities in emerging application domains. This paper extends previous research by exploring the impact of pre-patterns and tools to support pre-pattern exploration for the domain of ubiquitous computing in the home. We conducted an empirical study of 44 designers engaged in a two hour concentrated brainstorming and design task for the home of the future. Our results show pre-patterns are an easily adopted resource for designers that can impact even the earliest of design activities. We also provide insights for future development of pre-patterns based on designer feedback.
The history tablecloth: illuminating domestic activity BIBAFull-Text 199-208
  William Gaver; John Bowers; Andy Boucher; Andy Law; Sarah Pennington; Nicholas Villar
The History Tablecloth is a flexible substrate screen-printed with electroluminescent material forming a grid of lace-like elements. When objects are left on the table, cells beneath them light to form a halo that grows over a period of hours, highlighting the flow of objects in the home. The Tablecloth explores an approach to design that emphasises engaging, open-ended situations over defined utilitarian purposes. Long-term deployment of the History Tablecloth in a volunteer household revealed complex ways that people experienced and interacted with the Tablecloth. Beyond evoking reflection on the flow of objects over a particular table, the Tablecloth served as a ground for interpretative reflection about technology, an asset for social interaction, and an aesthetic object. Even behaviours we saw as system errors were interpreted by the users as interactively rich. Their experience highlights the subtlety of domestic ubiquitous computing, illustrating alternatives to traditional views of technology's domestic role.

Seeking inspiration from design

What do usability evaluators do in practice?: an explorative study of think-aloud testing BIBAFull-Text 209-218
  Mie Norgaard; Kasper Hornbaek
Think-aloud testing is a widely employed usability evaluation method, yet its use in practice is rarely studied. We report an explorative study of 14 think-aloud sessions, the audio recordings of which were examined in detail. The study shows that immediate analysis of observations made in the think-aloud sessions is done only sporadically, if at all. When testing, evaluators seem to seek confirmation of problems that they are already aware of. During testing, evaluators often ask users about their expectations and about hypothetical situations, rather than about experienced problems. In addition, evaluators learn much about the usability of the tested system but little about its utility. The study shows how practical realities rarely discussed in the literature on usability evaluation influence sessions. We discuss implications for usability researchers and professionals, including techniques for fast-paced analysis and tools for capturing observations during sessions.
Collaborative architecture design and evaluation BIBAFull-Text 219-228
  Steven R. Haynes; Amie L. Skattebo; Jonathan A. Singel; Mark A. Cohen; Jodi L. Himelright
In this paper we describe a collaborative environment created to support distributed evaluation of a complex system architecture. The approach couples an interactive architecture browser with collaborative walkthroughs of an evolving architectural representation. The collaborative architecture browser was created to facilitate involvement of project stakeholders from geographically dispersed, heterogeneous organizations. The paper provides a rationale for the approach, describes the system created to facilitate distributed-collaborative architecture evaluation, and reports on evaluation results from an ongoing, very-large scale application integration project with the United States Marine Corps. The paper contributes to research on early architecture requirements engineering, architecture evaluation, and software tools to support distributed-collaborative design.
Design documentaries: inspiring design research through documentary film BIBAFull-Text 229-238
  Bas Raijmakers; William W. Gaver; Jon Bishay
This paper shows how we can take inspiration and use techniques from documentary film in pursuing user research. Documentary filmmaking has a long history of portraying everyday life in ways that leave the erratic, elusive fabric of the everyday intact. This may be valuable as interaction design currently embraces issues of engagement, expression and aesthetics. We discuss key documentary formats, and suggest that a purely observational approach may not be most valuable for design research. Three design documentaries are discussed to show how different documentary approaches can be used in practice to inform the early stages of design. We suggest that, for design research in HCI, film can be much more than a note-taking tool; we can use it as a means to explore, understand and present the everyday, and benefit from film's capabilities to preserve ambiguities and paradoxes instead of resolving them into univocal conclusions.


The origin and design of intentional affordances BIBAFull-Text 239-240
  Antonio Rizzo
Gibson's seminal concept of affordance could have real design power if it could be adequately explained as a phenomenon that happens within the scale of human lifetime. Today there is a growing number of neurophysiological and behavioral studies that shown that the intuition of Gibson was just a starting point for a more elaborated theory of affordances.

Interaction design methods 3

External representations in ubiquitous computing design and the implications for design tools BIBAFull-Text 241-250
  Steven Dow; T. Scott Saponas; Yang Li; James A. Landay
One challenge for ubiquitous computing is providing appropriate tools for professional designers, thus leading to stronger user-valued applications. Unlike many previous tool-builders' attempts to support a specific technology, we take a designer-centered stance, asking the question: how do professional designers externalize ideas for off-the-desktop computing and how do these inform next generation design tools? We report on interviews with designers from various domains, including experience, interaction, industrial, and space designers. The study broadly reveals perceived challenges of moving into a non-traditional design medium, emphasizes the practice of storytelling for relating the context of interaction, and through two case studies, traces the use of various external representations during the design progression of ubicomp applications. Using paperprototyped "walkthroughs" centered on two common design representations (storyboards and physical simulations), we formed a deeper understanding of issues influencing tool development. We offer guidelines for builders of future ubicomp tools, especially early-stage conceptual tools for professional designers to prototype applications across multiple sensors, displays, and physical environments.
The use of abstraction and motion in the design of social interfaces BIBAFull-Text 251-260
  Bilge Mutlu; Jodi Forlizzi; Illah Nourbakhsh; Jessica Hodgins
In this paper, we explore how dynamic visual cues can be used to create accessible and meaningful social interfaces without raising expectations beyond what is achievable with current technology. Our approach is inspired by research in perceptual causality, which suggests that simple displays in motion can evoke high-level social and emotional content. For our exploration, we iteratively designed and implemented a public social interface using abstraction and motion as design elements. Our interface communicated simple social and emotional content such as displaying happiness when there is high social interaction in the environment. Our qualitative evaluations showed that people frequently and repeatedly interacted with the interface while they tried to make sense of the underlying social content. They also shared their models with others, which led to more social interaction in the environment.
"It's Just a Method!": a pedagogical experiment in interdisciplinary design BIBAFull-Text 261-270
  Steven Harrison; Maribeth Back; Deborah Tatar
What does a student need to know to be a designer? Beyond a list of separate skills, what mindset does a student need to develop for designerly action now and into the future? In the excitement of the cognitive revolution, Simon proposed a way of thinking about design that promised to make it more manageable and cognitive: to think of design as a planning problem [11, 29]. Yet, as Suchman argued long ago [32], planning accounts may be applied to problems that are not at base accomplished by planning, to the detriment of design vision. This paper reports on a pedagogy that takes Suchman's criticism to heart and avoids dressing up design methods as more systematic and predictive than they in fact are. The idea is to teach design through exposure to not just one, but rather, many methods -- that is, sets of rules or behaviors that produce artifacts for further reflection and development. By introducing a large number of design methods, decoupled from theories, models or frameworks, we teach (a) important cross-methodological regularities in competence as a designer, (b) that the practice of design can itself be designed and (c) that method choice affects design outcomes. This provides a rich and productive notion of design particularly necessary for the world of pervasive and ubiquitous computing.
Interaction, usability and aesthetics: what influences users' preferences? BIBAFull-Text 271-280
  Antonella De Angeli; Alistair Sutcliffe; Jan Hartmann
In this paper we describe an evaluation of two websites with the same content but different interface styles (traditional menu-based and interactive metaphors). A formative usability evaluation was carried out with heuristic assessment of aesthetics, and questionnaire assessment of aesthetics, content, information quality, usability and post-test memory. The study revealed that perception of information quality is affected by the interaction style implemented in the interface, in a manner resembling the halo effect in person perception. Implications for website design and evaluation are discussed.

In public

ec(h)o: situated play in a tangible and audio museum guide BIBAFull-Text 281-290
  Ron Wakkary; Marek Hatala
In this paper we discuss an adaptive museum guide prototype in which playfulness is a key design goal for the interaction experience. The interface for our prototype is a combined tangible user interface and audio display. We discuss how we determined the specific requirements for play through an ethnographic study and analysis based on ecological concepts of Bell and Nardi & O'Day. We found that we could consider play in two main forms in regard to the interface: content and physical play. We also found that play is highly contextual. Designers need to consider the situated nature of play for two reasons: 1) to best serve the overall design purpose; 2) in order to understand the nature and degree of play required. We augmented traditional user experience evaluation methods of questionnaires and interviews with observational analysis based on Djajadiningrat's descriptions of aesthetic interaction.
Experiencing BLISS when becoming a bus passenger BIBAFull-Text 291-300
  Darren J. Reed; Peter Wright
This paper understands the design of bus information panels as rooted in a landscape of human experience. It turns the mundane activity of waiting at a bus stop into a deeply problematic space of emotion and volition by understanding the dialogic relationship between human and technology. It does this by developing a novel approach to interaction design, which combines a theoretical framework that reveals the rich experience and 'felt life' of technology with an empirical analysis of bus information. By imagining a series of conversation-like dialogues, based in a Conversation Analytic (CA) sensitivity to the achievement of meaning in sequence, it generates a series of experience narratives that provide for a critical analysis of the information presentation. The exercise stands as an example of a form of imagined experiential narrative that might be developed into a method of experience scenarios in future work. We reflect on moves toward what might be called experiential scenarios in the conclusion.
Challenges in designing interactive systems for emergency response BIBAFull-Text 301-310
  Morten Kyng; Esben Toftdahl Nielsen; Margit Kristensen
This paper presents research on participatory design of interactive systems for emergency response. We present the work by going through the design method with a focus on the new elements that we developed for the participatory design toolkit, in particular we emphasize the use of challenges and visions as ways to bridge between fieldwork and literature studies on the one hand and the emerging computer based prototypes on the other. Our case concerns design of innovative interactive systems for support in emergency response, including patient identification and monitoring as well as construction and maintenance of a situational overview.

Community tech

Back to school: design principles for improving webcast interactivity from face-to-face classroom observation BIBAFull-Text 311-320
  Jeremy Birnholtz
This paper presents an observational study of face-to-face university classrooms and provides preliminary design principles for improving interactivity in "webcast" presentations. Despite the fact that participation and interaction patterns appear to depend heavily on presentation style and class size, useful patterns were observed and analyzed. Design principles presented include the need to support rapid changes in floor control, multiple types of presentation technologies, and the subtleties of awareness between the audience and presenter.
Wikifying your interface: facilitating community-based interface translation BIBAFull-Text 321-330
  M. Cameron Jones; Dinesh Rathi; Michael B. Twidale
We explore the application of a wiki-based technology and style of interaction to enabling the incremental translation of a collaborative application into a number of different languages, including variant English language interfaces better suited to the needs of particular user communities. The development work allows us to explore in more detail the design space of functionality and interfaces relating to tailoring, customization, personalization and localization, and the challenges of designing to support ongoing incremental contributions by members of different use communities.
A persistent chat space for work groups: the design, evaluation and deployment of loops BIBAFull-Text 331-340
  Thomas Erickson; Wendy A. Kellogg; Mark Laff; Jeremy Sussman; Tracee Vetting Wolf; Christine A. Halverson; Denise Edwards
Loops is a text-based computer mediated communication system aimed at small- to medium-sized corporate work groups. We begin by discussing the goals of the system and the rationale behind its design, particularly its treatment of non-conversational text. Next we describe its realization in an implemented system, and discuss how an early working version of the system was'group tested,' and the changes that lead to. We then discuss its deployment within our organization, and provide examples of how it's used. We conclude with reflections on the usage patterns of Loops and their implications for the design of similar systems.

Doctoral symposium

An empirical framework for designing social products BIBAFull-Text 341-342
  Bilge Mutlu
Designers generally agree that understanding the context of use is important in designing products. However, technologically advanced products such as personal robots engender complex contextual characteristics that are not yet well understood. The social context of use shapes the roles that the user and the product play in the interaction. For instance, an intelligent agent that acts as a coach for an exercise program and one that supervises a physical rehabilitation regimen for the physically challenged function in different social contexts. Only a few studies to date have considered the social context of use as part of the design. My research proposes a conceptual framework for understanding the critical social aspects of interaction with products such as the social context of use. I combine interaction design and social science methodology to make an evaluation of my framework with a series of empirical studies.
Designing and evaluating glanceable peripheral displays BIBAFull-Text 343-345
  Tara Matthews
Peripheral displays are an important class of applications that improve our ability to multitask. Increased knowledge on how to design and evaluate glanceable peripheral displays can lead to better support for multitasking. We will contribute a set of guidelines for designing glanceable peripheral displays, using the wealth of abstraction techniques (e.g., change detection, feature extraction), design variables (e.g., color, shape), and design characteristics (e.g., dimensionality, symbolism) available. We will contribute an evaluation framework that clearly defines peripheral displays, metrics for evaluating their success, and guidelines for selecting evaluation methods. These contributions will improve peripheral displays that enable users to manage multiple tasks through low-effort monitoring.
Designing for experiences: randomness as a resource BIBAFull-Text 346-347
  Tuck Wah Leong
Studies which I carried out recently of users of digital music players revealed that the element of randomness plays a role in influencing the user experience (UX). Apart from being generally positive, some users even report rich experiences such as serendipity. I propose a longitudinal study to further explicate the phenomena. In doing so, I aim to produce a theoretical framework which will provide a richer characterization of the randomness-influenced UX. This will add to our understanding of UX and may serve to inform designers of interactive systems on how randomness can be used as an innovative design resource for supporting rich and novel UX.
Designing for social interaction: an experimental design research project BIBAFull-Text 348-349
  Martin Ludvigsen
In this extended abstract I describe the doctoral research project "Designing for Social Interaction". The research project is undertaken in the multidisciplinary context of The Interactive Spaces Research Centre and carried out in three different projects where industrial partners have collaborated on developing social use environments and interfaces. The outcome of the project is one or more conceptual frameworks that will enable designers to better describe and design technologies supporting social interaction.
Designing interfaces to enrich personalization BIBAFull-Text 350-351
  James R. Eagan
Peripheral awareness systems offer significant promise to help people to manage the abundance of information available to them without placing significant additional demands on attention. Rich personalization is essential to enabling these systems to provide relevant information to a particular person's individual needs in their own particular situation. I focus on rich personalization and its implications for the interfaces that can enable it.
Design research for a context-aware capture system to support biology education BIBAFull-Text 352-353
  Abe Crystal
Automatic capture technology could enable students to record and index much information-both digital and non-digital-with little extra effort. Can this technology be designed to augment students' education without overwhelming them? Can it be designed to meet educators' goals? This research will address these questions by studying the information needs and educational practices of undergraduate biology students. Findings will provide a foundation for the design of capture systems that can enhance education and support effective e-Portfolios.
Investigating design knowledge reuse for interface development BIBAFull-Text 354-356
  Shahtab Wahid
Reusing HCI design knowledge shows potential in allowing practitioners to design based on previously identified concerns. A reuse approach is presented that is based on claims, design knowledge units encapsulating tradeoffs. Fundamental characteristics of reuse include abstraction, selection, specification, and integration. Claim relationships provide the key to instantiating each of these traits within the claims reuse approach. A claims library is used implement a working model of the reuse process. Studies analyzing various components of this work validate existing efforts and provide impetus for future work.
"Just the facts ma'am?": a contextual approach to the legal information use environment BIBAFull-Text 357-359
  Yolanda P. Jones
This paper describes a qualitative study of information-seeking behavior patterns of students at the Villanova University School of Law Farmworker Legal Aid Clinic. The interactions of law student researchers with legal information systems were observed, as well as the overall context of use of those systems. The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework for legal information behavior. A strong conceptual framework can be used by librarians and system designers to develop improved legal information systems, services, and instruction.
Trees of life: models of children's creative processes BIBAFull-Text 360-362
  Maria C. R. Harrington
Children possess vivid imaginations and freely, almost impulsively, share new knowledge with peers. At times, they also create art spontaneously or in response to powerful experiences. How can we best design interfaces to virtual and augmented reality technologies to support children in their independent quests for knowledge and acts of creation? In this paper I introduce a prototype of a virtual environment that is intended to support scientific inquiry and artistic creativity for young children.
Visualizing network traffic for intrusion detection BIBAFull-Text 363-364
  John R. Goodall
Intrusion detection, the process of using network data to identify potential attacks, has become an essential component of information security. Human analysts doing intrusion detection work utilize vast amounts of data from disparate sources to make decisions about potential attacks. Yet, there is limited understanding of this critical human component. This research seeks to understand the work practices of these human analysts to inform the design of a task-appropriate information visualization tool to support network intrusion detection analysis tasks. System design will follow a user-centered, spiral methodology. System evaluation will include both a field-based qualitative evaluation, uncommon in information visualization, and a lab-based benchmarking evaluation.


Exploring design as a research activity BIBAFull-Text 365-366
  Blaine Hoffman; Helena Mentis; Matthew Peters; David Saab; Steve Schweitzer; James Spielvogel
Design research is a knowledge generating activity, yielding a valuable resource for a science of design. It extrapolates this knowledge in the form of design criteria, criteria weighting, design alternatives, and general rules for choosing between alternatives and deciding on criteria. Unlike the disciplines that have traditionally informed design research, design research as a field of its own has no agreed upon methods for evaluating its own work. Taken a step further, the criteria for what is and is not design research itself is vague at best.
Exploring the interrelationships between the design and evaluation of interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 367-368
  Michael E. Atwood; Christine E. Wania
While much research has focused on the design of interactive systems and much research has focused on the evaluation of interactive systems, less work has addressed both the design and evaluation of interactive systems together. While having evaluation inform design and having design inform evaluation is a goal that few would disagree with, how this might be done has not been extensively addressed. The evaluation community (often labeled the usability community) focuses primarily on the evaluation of designed artifacts while the design community focuses primarily on the design of artifacts that will be evaluated later. Design and evaluation both share the common goal of usability but each takes a different path in trying to achieve it. Our goal is to further explore the relationships between design and evaluation in an attempt to understand how they can be brought together meaningfully.
Fun & games: on the process of game design BIBAFull-Text 369-370
  Magy Seif El-Nasr; Joshua B. Gross
The game design process is largely driven by practice. While some work has been done in academia targeting the definition of a theoretical foundation for the process of game design, these two communities rarely came together to discuss their perspective theories or processes. As a result, both communities work in isolation. The game industry is often involved in game-specific game design methodologies and academics are concerned with theoretical foundations. The goal of this workshop is to start a dialogue between the two communities and generate general themes and underlying theories. These theories will serve to aid game designers in constructing games, and help tool designers build tools that allow designers to focus on critical issue.