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DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'04: Designing Interactive Systems 2004-08-01

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Editors:Daniel Gruen; Irene McAra-McWilliam
Location:Cambridge, MA, USA
Dates:2004-Aug-01 to 2004-Aug-04
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 1-58113-787-7; ACM Order Number 608042; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS04
Papers:56
Pages:382
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Interactive systems in public places
  2. Reflection, reaction, and design
  3. Ubicomp at home and on the move
  4. Interaction, creativity and communication
  5. Music and voice
  6. Please touch tangible UIs
  7. Museums and public displays
  8. New frontiers in ubicomp
  9. Aesthetics, ephemerality and experience
  10. Interaction, creativity and communication
  11. Exhibitions
  12. Interactive posters
  13. Panels
Keynote BIBFull-Text 1-2
  William J. Mitchell
Keynote BIBFull-Text 3
  Gillian Crampton Smith

Interactive systems in public places

Sharing multimedia content with interactive public displays: a case study BIBAFull-Text 7-16
  Elizabeth F. Churchill; Les Nelson; Laurent Denoue; Jonathan Helfman; Paul Murphy
Plasma Posters are large screen, digital, interactive poster-boards situated in public spaces, designed to facilitate informal content sharing within teams, groups, organizations and communities. While interest in interactive community poster boards has grown recently, few successful examples have been reported. In this paper we describe an ongoing installation of Plasma Posters within our organization, and report qualitative and quantitative data from 20 months of use showing the Posters have become an integral part of information sharing, complementing email and Web-based sharing. Success factors include our design process, the reliability and flexibility of the technology and the social setting of our organization. We briefly describe three external installations of the Plasma Poster Network in public places. We then reflect on content posting as "information staging" and the ways in which the public space itself becomes part of the "interface" to content.
Easing the wait in the emergency room: building a theory of public information systems BIBAFull-Text 17-25
  Eamonn O'Neill; Dawn Woodgate; Vassilis Kostakos
In this paper we discuss a real world problem encountered during recent fieldwork: that of providing information in public settings when the information has both public and private components. We draw on our ethnographic studies in the waiting area of a busy hospital Emergency department. Despite evidence that lack of information can lead to stress, problem behaviours and poor levels of satisfaction with treatment, little information was made available to patients. We review the types of information needed and propose how the theoretical concepts of public, social and private information spheres relate to public spaces such as the Emergency department waiting area. We argue how the further theoretical concept of interaction spaces may be used in conjunction with these information spheres to inform interaction design for public settings.
Contextualizing mobile IT BIBAFull-Text 27-36
  Jorn Messeter; Eva Brandt; Joachim Halse; Martin Johansson
Information and communication technologies are moving into the era of ubiquitous computing, with increased density of technology and increased mobility and continuity in use. From a design perspective, addressing the accommodation and coordination of multiple devices and services in situated use across different contexts is becoming increasingly important. In the COMIT project, ethnographic fieldwork has been combined with participatory design engaging users, designers and researchers in order to explore mobile IT use as well as the design of mobile IT concepts. Four seclected scenarios from the project are presented and discussed regarding implications for the design of mobile IT devices, with particular focus on (1) coping with multiple social contexts, and (2) the configuration and connectivity of mobile devices.

Reflection, reaction, and design

Eliciting reactive and reflective feedback for a social communication tool: a multi-session approach BIBAFull-Text 39-48
  Hilary Smith; Geraldine Fitzpatrick; Yvonne Rogers
Gaining feedback from users early in the design of a complex, novel social system poses unique challenges. We report on our multi-session, in-context approach to get users to envision how they would use an early prototype in everyday life, combined with projections of how their friends would use it. The prototype is a novel social communication management tool and we required users develop a deep understanding of the complete system over time. Findings from data collected across four sessions show that using personalised task scenarios and giving users longer exposure to an early interactive prototype, combined with peer-to-peer discussion, enables participants to move beyond initial reactions to develop more reflective opinions. Participants were able to overcome first impressions and learning effects, develop deeper understanding of new conceptual models underpinning the system, integrate their understanding of piecemeal components and reflect on own use and use by others in deeper ways.
Making tea: iterative design through analogy BIBAFull-Text 49-58
  M. C. Schraefel; Gareth Hughes; Hugo Mills; Graham Smith; Jeremy Frey
The success of translating an analog or manual practice into a digital interactive system may depend on how well that translation captures not only the functional what and how aspects of the practice, but the why of the process as well. Addressing these attributes is particularly challenging when there is a gap in expertise between the design team and the domain to be modeled. In this paper, we describe Making Tea, a design method foregrounding the use of analogy to bridge the gap between design team knowledge and domain expertise. Making Tea complements more traditional user-centered design approaches such as ethnography and task analysis. In this paper, we situate our work with respect to other related design methods such as Cultural Probes and Artifact Walkthroughs. We describe the process by which we develop, validate and use analogy in order to maximize expert contact time in observation, interviews, design reviews and evaluation. We contextualize the method in a discussion of its use in a project we ran to replace a paper-based synthetic chemistry lab book with an interactive system for use in a pervasive lab environment.
Design in the absence of practice: breaching experiments BIBAFull-Text 59-68
  Andy Crabtree
IT research is often informed by studies of the practices that new technologies are to be embedded in and which they transform in their use. The development of mixed reality, tangible, ambient, ubiquitous, mobile, and wearable computing have seen the emergence of a range of technological innovations that have little or no grounding in current practices, however. Such developments create new practices where none existed before and the challenge for multi-disciplinary research is to adapt to this situation. This paper articulates a novel methodology that treats technological innovations as 'breaching experiments', whose situated use beyond the confines of the research lab may be studied ethnographically to support innovation.

Ubicomp at home and on the move

Between the dazzle of a new building and its eventual corpse: assembling the ubiquitous home BIBAFull-Text 71-80
  Tom Rodden; Andy Crabtree; Terry Hemmings; Boriana Koleva; Jan Humble; Karl-Petter Akesson; Par Hansson
This paper presents the development of a lightweight component model that allows user to manage the introduction and arrangement of new interactive services and devices in the home. The model is responsive to ethnographic studies of the interplay between the Space-plan or interior layout and Stuff or artefacts placed within the fabric of the home. Interaction techniques developed through user-participation enable household members -- rather than designers -- to configure and reconfigure interactive devices and services to meet local needs. As a result, we have developed a tablet-based editor that discovers available ubiquitous components and presents these to users as 'jigsaw pieces' that can be dynamically assembled and recombined.
Gate reminder: a design case of a smart reminder BIBAFull-Text 81-90
  Sung Woo Kim; Min Chul Kim; Sang Hyun Park; Young Kyu Jin; Woo Sik Choi
In this paper, we present the design case for Gate Reminder, a family shared home appliance located at the front door area that represents informative messages, reminding users of things they need to take and know before leaving home. For this project, we built a working prototype and conducted a number of usability and user experience evaluations. In the paper we describe (1) why we chose reminder as our research topic (2) what we found from the early phases of user research for the Gate Reminder (3) what design requirements and decisions we have established from our user study (4) how we designed the working prototype based on our design decisions and (5) what we have learned from our user experience evaluation. The requirements for effective reminding, the usability challenges in ubicomp application, issues in the current prototype and future developments will be presented throughout the paper as well.
Privacy risk models for designing privacy-sensitive ubiquitous computing systems BIBAFull-Text 91-100
  Jason I. Hong; Jennifer D. Ng; Scott Lederer; James A. Landay
Privacy is a difficult design issue that is becoming increasingly important as we push into ubiquitous computing environments. While there is a fair amount of theoretical work on designing for privacy, there are few practical methods for helping designers create applications that provide end-users with a reasonable level of privacy protection that is commensurate with the domain, with the community of users, and with the risks and benefits to all stakeholders in the intended system. Towards this end, we propose privacy risk models as a general method for refining privacy from an abstract concept into concrete issues for specific applications and prioritizing those issues. In this paper, we introduce a privacy risk model we have developed specifically for ubiquitous computing, and outline two case studies describing our use of this privacy risk model in the design of two ubiquitous computing applications.

Interaction, creativity and communication

The interactive thread: exploring methods for multi-disciplinary design BIBAFull-Text 103-112
  Wendy E. Mackay
The Interactive Thread is a design method that helps us gather detailed, contextualised data from a large user population while sharing interaction design methods with professional designers from different disciplines. We developed a set of 10-15 minute exercises drawn from design, social and computer science and presented them as a series woven throughout two interaction design conferences. Our goals were to provide an entertaining, interactive conference activity, to teach and share multi-disciplinary design methods, and to gather information that would otherwise be too labour-intensive for us as designers. This paper reflects on our experiences, including what worked and what did not. We discuss how others may reuse this strategy in other settings, including workshops, conferences and corporate retreats and we include an appendix with the specific interactive thread exercises.
Integrating creativity workshops into structured requirements processes BIBAFull-Text 113-122
  Neil Maiden; Sharon Manning; Suzanne Robertson; John Greenwood
Requirements engineering is a creative process in which stakeholders and designers work together to create ideas for new systems that are eventually expressed as requirements. This paper describes RESCUE, a scenario-driven requirements engineering process that includes workshops that integrate creativity techniques with different types of use case and system context modelling. It reports a case study in which RESCUE creativity workshops were used to discover stakeholder and system requirements for DMAN, a future air traffic management system for managing departures from major European airports. The workshop was successful in that it provided new and important outputs for subsequent requirements processes. The paper describes the workshop structure and wider RESCUE process, important results and key lessons learned.
Communication functions and the adaptation of design representations in interdisciplinary teams BIBAFull-Text 123-132
  David G. Hendry
Design representations in user-centered design serve intentions for directing design process and communication functions for enlisting interdisciplinary participation. To disentangle these two factors, a vocabulary for identifying communication functions in design is proposed. This vocabulary, drawn from a selective review of empirical studies of design activity in architecture and engineering, is then applied to three design cases from user-centered design. This analysis shows how representational use is subject to adaptive pressure from the communication demands in interdisciplinary teams. The consequences of this pressure for understanding the nature of design are discussed.

Music and voice

Daisyphone: the design and impact of a novel environment for remote group music improvisation BIBAFull-Text 135-144
  N. Bryan-Kinns
Music has lost its role as a central part of many people's everyday action. This paper reports on the design and impact of a novel environment for remote group music improvisation with the view to understanding how we could design more engaging, social, and serendipitous musical environments. The design reported here focuses on the representation of looping music, support for remote collaboration, and support for idea formulation. Observations of use suggest that the environment developed does encourage some group music, and we identify clear areas for future design consideration.
Jukola: democratic music choice in a public space BIBAFull-Text 145-154
  Kenton O'Hara; Matthew Lipson; Marcel Jansen; Axel Unger; Huw Jeffries; Peter Macer
Jukola is an interactive MP3 Jukebox device designed to allow a group of people in a public space to democratically choose the music being played. A public display is used to nominate songs which are subsequently voted on by people in the bar using networked wireless handheld devices. Local bands and artists can also upload their own MP3s to the device over the Web. The paper presents a field trial of the system in a local cafe bar. As well as the value in affording a democratic musical outcome, more importantly the whole process of voting and choice created a rich source of social value and interaction in the form of discussions around music, playful competition, identity management and sense of community.
Tutor design for speech-based interfaces BIBAFull-Text 155-164
  Jaakko Hakulinen; Markku Turunen; Esa-Pekka Salonen; Kari-Jouko Raiha
Speech-based applications commonly come with web-based or printed manuals. Alternatively, the dialogue can be designed so that users should be able to start using the application on their own. We studied an alternative approach, an integrated tutor. The tutor participates in the interaction when new users learn to use a speech-based system. It teaches the users how to operate the system and monitors user actions to be certain that the users do indeed learn. In this paper we describe our experiences with the design and the iterative development of an integrated tutor. Expert evaluation and two user tests were conducted with different versions of the tutor. The results show that the tutor can effectively guide new users. We identify the six most important lessons learned, the most important being that it is essential to spot problems by monitoring user actions, especially when novice users are tutored.

Please touch tangible UIs

The calder toolkit: wired and wireless components for rapidly prototyping interactive devices BIBAFull-Text 167-175
  Johnny C. Lee; Daniel Avrahami; Scott E. Hudson; Jodi Forlizzi; Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh
Toolkits and other tools have dramatically reduced the time and technical expertise needed to design and implement graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allowing high-quality, iterative, user-centered design to become a common practice. Unfortunately the generation of functioning prototypes for physical interactive devices as not had similar support -- it still requires substantial time and effort by individuals with highly specialized skills and tools. This creates a divide between a designers' ability to explore form and interactivity of product designs and the ability to iterate on the basis of high fidelity interactive experiences with a functioning prototype. To help overcome this difficulty we have developed the Calder hardware toolkit. Calder is a development environment for rapidly exploring and prototyping functional physical interactive devices. Calder provides a set of reusable small input and output components, and integration into existing interface prototyping environments. These components communicate with a computer using wired and wireless connections. Calder is a tool targeted toward product and interaction designers to aid them in their early design process. In this paper we describe the process of gaining an understanding of the needs and workflow habits of our target users to generate a collection of requirements for such a toolkit. We describe technical challenges imposed by these needs, and the specifics of design and implementation of the toolkit to meet these challenges.
Interaction frogger: a design framework to couple action and function through feedback and feedforward BIBAFull-Text 177-184
  S. A. G. Wensveen; J. P. Djajadiningrat; C. J. Overbeeke
In this paper we present a design framework to analyze person-product interaction. Its focus is on how the user's action and the product's function are coupled through different types of feedback and feedforward: inherent and augmented information. Instead of using the notion of 'coupling' in an abstract sense, our framework tries to give six practical characteristics for coupling action and information, i.e., time, location, direction, dynamics, modality and expression. Unifying action and information on each of these aspects makes the interaction intuitive. The framework invites and challenges designers to explore couplings leading towards embodied freedom of interaction.
Hands-only scenarios and video action walls: novel methods for tangible user interaction design BIBAFull-Text 185-192
  Jacob Buur; Mads Vedel Jensen; Tom Djajadiningrat
In our research on tangible user interaction we focus on the design of products that are dedicated to a particular user, task and context. In doing so, we are interested in strengthening the actions side of tangible interaction. Currently, the actions required by electronic products are limited to pushing, sliding and rotating. Yet humans are capable of far more complex actions: Human dexterity is highly refined. This focus on actions requires a reconsideration of the design process. In this paper we propose two design methods that potentially boost the focus on skilled actions in the design of tangible user interaction: The Hands-Only Scenario is a 'close-up version' of the dramatised use scenario. It helps focus effort on what we imagine the hands of the users doing. The Video Action Wall is a technique of 'live post-its' on a (projected) computer screen. Little snippets of action videos running simultaneously help designers understand user actions by the qualities they represent.

Museums and public displays

The swisshouse: an inhabitable interface for connecting nations BIBAFull-Text 195-204
  Jeffrey Huang; Muriel Waldvogel
We present the Swisshouse, a novel type of "inhabitable interface" that supports direct and indirect communication and cultural awareness of habitants in different nations. The Swisshouse allows unsophisticated users to collaborate and be aware of each other over distance. By carefully sculpting the space and choreographing interactive elements in the space, the Swisshouse allows users to instantly separate, combine, and customize environments for specific collaborative activities. By providing visual representations of remote users and places, the Swisshouse provides awareness of the culture, presence and identities of virtual participants. And by tagging physical users with RFID tags, the Swisshouse makes participants aware of the social interaction occurring in the physical space. The combination of these primitives provides a single consistent inhabitable interface that integrates architectural and user interface design thinking, hardware and software design. To illustrate the power of this convergent approach, we describe several examples of real-life applications including a remote lecture, a brainstorming session, a business meeting, and an exhibition.
Shaping experiences in the hunt museum: a design case study BIBAFull-Text 205-214
  Kieran Ferris; Liam Bannon; Luigina Ciolfi; Paul Gallagher; Tony Hall; Marilyn Lennon
Re-Tracing the Past: exploring objects, stories, mysteries, was an exhibition held at the Hunt Museum, in Limerick, Ireland from 9th-19th June 2003. We attempted to create an exhibition that would be an engaging experience for visitors, that would open avenues for exploration, allow for the collection of visitor opinions, and that would add to the understanding of material already in the Museum, rather than focus on "gee-whiz" technology. Thus our augmented environment completely hid the technology from view. A key objective was to be faithful to the ethos of the Museum, and to produce an exhibition that would stand up to scrutiny by Museum professionals. This design study paper gives a flavour of the exhibition by taking the reader on a tour of the whole design and development cycle-through site pictures, drawings, scenarios, pictures of the exhibition spaces, the interactive components, and visitor comments.
Infotropism: living and robotic plants as interactive displays BIBAFull-Text 215-221
  David Holstius; John Kembel; Amy Hurst; Peng-Hui Wan; Jodi Forlizzi
Designers often borrow from the natural world to achieve pleasing, unobtrusive designs. We have extended this practice by combining living plants with sensors and lights in an interactive display, and by creating a robotic analogue that mimics phototropic behavior. In this paper, we document our design process and report the results of a 2-week field study. We put our living plant display, and its robotic counterpart, in a cafeteria between pairs of trash and recycling containers. Contributions of recyclables or trash triggered directional bursts of light that gradually induced the plant displays to lean toward the more active container. In interviews, people offered explanations for the displays and spoke of caring for the plants. A marginally significant increase in recycling behavior (p=.08) occurred at the display with living plants. Apparent increases also occurred at the robotic display and a unit with only lights. Our findings indicate value in exploring the use of living material and biomimetic forms in displays, and in using lightweight robotics to deliver simple rewards.

New frontiers in ubicomp

Supporting time-based coordination in everyday service interactions: the fluidtime system BIBAFull-Text 225-232
  Michael Kieslinger; Laura Polazzi
The need for flexible and dynamic time management is becoming increasingly crucial in our society, especially where it concerns the coordination between individual and organizational time flows. The HCI community's prevailing approach to this issue focuses on personal time management or time-based coordination within teams and organizations. We follow a different angle, looking at the specific temporal relationship that connects individuals (customers) with service providers.
   In order to increase people's control over their time when they interact with services, we developed Fluidtime, a mobile phone based information system that provides users with continuous and ambient real-time information directly from the services they are seeking.
   The paper describes the Fluidtime system and provides case studies of its implementation. It presents insights from the trials and discusses both the design issues the project raises and new opportunities for using real time information.
Development and evaluation of emerging design patterns for ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 233-242
  Eric S. Chung; Jason I. Hong; James Lin; Madhu K. Prabaker; James A. Landay; Alan L. Liu
Design patterns are a format for capturing and sharing design knowledge. In this paper, we look at a new domain for design patterns, namely ubiquitous computing. The overall goal of this work is to aid practice by speeding up the diffusion of new interaction techniques and evaluation results from researchers, presenting the information in a form more usable to practicing designers. Towards this end, we have developed an initial and emerging pattern language for ubiquitous computing, consisting of 45 pre-patterns describing application genres, physical-virtual spaces, interaction and systems techniques for managing privacy, and techniques for fluid interactions. We evaluated the effectiveness of our pre-patterns with 16 pairs of designers in helping them design location-enhanced applications. We observed that our pre-patterns helped new and experienced designers unfamiliar with ubiquitous computing in generating and communicating ideas, and in avoiding design problems early in the design process.
Seamful interweaving: heterogeneity in the theory and design of interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 243-252
  Matthew Chalmers; Areti Galani
Design experience and theoretical discussion suggest that a narrow design focus on one tool or medium as primary may clash with the way that everyday activity involves the interweaving and combination of many heterogeneous media. Interaction may become seamless and unproblematic, even if the differences, boundaries and 'seams' in media are objectively perceivable. People accommodate and take advantage of seams and heterogeneity, in and through the process of interaction. We use an experiment with a mixed reality system to ground and detail our discussion of seamful design, which takes account of this process, and theory that reflects and informs such design. We critique the 'disappearance' mentioned by Weiser as a goal for ubicomp, and Dourish's 'embodied interaction' approach to HCI, suggesting that these design ideals may be unachievable or incomplete because they underemphasise the interdependence of 'invisible' non-rationalising interaction and focused rationalising interaction within ongoing activity.

Aesthetics, ephemerality and experience

Designing for ephemerality and prototypicality BIBAFull-Text 255-260
  Susanne Bødker; Ellen Christiansen
As a context for IT design, flexible work presents a new challenge. Ways of working tend to be prototypical, habits are forming slowly and work is carried out everywhere. Even when applying ethnographic methods, it is difficult to capture the ephemerality and prototypicality of cooperative work that Grudin claims must be preserved through design. Through a discussion of a design project dedicated to the design of support for social awareness, we reflect on the means of design - scenarios and prototypes, and their ability to support design for ephemerality and prototypicality. Our conclusion is that by using scenarios as boundary objects, in multiple prototyping experiments, they support the negotiation and boundary understanding of design ideas, rather than one or more solutions. Hence it becomes possible to design to preserve ephemerality and prototypicality.
Understanding experience in interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 261-268
  Jodi Forlizzi; Katja Battarbee
Understanding experience is a critical issue for a variety of professions, especially design. To understand experience and the user experience that results from interacting with products, designers conduct situated research activities focused on the interactions between people and products, and the experience that results. This paper attempts to clarify experience in interactive systems. We characterize current approaches to experience from a number of disciplines, and present a framework for designing experience for interactive system. We show how the framework can be applied by members of a multidisciplinary team to understand and generate the kinds of interactions and experiences new product and system designs might offer.
Aesthetic interaction: a pragmatist's aesthetics of interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 269-276
  Marianne Graves Petersen; Ole Sejer Iversen; Peter Gall Krogh; Martin Ludvigsen
There is a growing interest in considering aesthetic aspects in the design of interactive systems. A set of approaches are emerging each representing different applications of the terminology as well as different inherent assumptions on the role of the user, designer and interaction ideals. In this paper, we use the concept of Pragmatist Aesthetics to provide a framework for distinguishing between different approaches to aesthetics. Moreover, we use our own design cases to illustrate how pragmatist aesthetics is a promising path to follow in the context of designing interactive systems, as it promotes aesthetics of use, rather than aesthetics of appearance. We coin this approach in the perspective of aesthetic interaction. Finally we make the point that aesthetics is not re-defining everything known about interactive systems. We provide a framework placing this perspective among other perspectives on interaction.

Interaction, creativity and communication

Unpacking critical parameters for interface design: evaluating notification systems with the IRC framework BIBAFull-Text 279-288
  C. M. Chewar; D. Scott McCrickard; Alistair G. Sutcliffe
We elaborate a proposal for capturing, extending, and reusing design knowledge gleaned through usability testing. The proposal is specifically targeted to address interface design for notification systems, but its themes can be generalized to any constrained and well-defined genre of interactive system design. We reiterate arguments for and against using critical parameters to characterize user goals and usability artifacts. Responding to residual arguments, we suggest that clear advantages for research cohesion, design knowledge reuse, and HCI education are possible if several challenges are overcome. As a first step, we recommend a slight variation to the concept of a critical parameter, which would allow both abstract and concrete knowledge representation. With this concept, we demonstrate a feasible approach by introducing equations that elaborate and allow evolution of notification system critical parameters, which is made operational with a variety of usability evaluation instruments. A case study illustrates how one general instrument allowed system designs to be meaningfully compared and resulted in valuable inferences for interface reengineering. Broad implications and conclusions about this approach will be of interest to others concerned with using critical parameters in interface design, development of notification systems interfaces, or approaches to design rationale and knowledge reuse.
PHOXEL-SPACE: an interface for exploring volumetric data with physical voxels BIBAFull-Text 289-296
  Carlo Ratti; Yao Wang; Ben Piper; Hiroshi Ishii; Assaf Biderman
Three-dimensional datasets (voxel datasets), generated by different types of sensing or computer simulations, are quickly becoming crucial to various disciplines - from biomedicine to geophysics. Phoxel-Space is an interface that enables the exploration of these datasets through physical materials. It aims at overcoming the limitations of traditional planar displays by allowing users to intuitively navigate and understand complex 3-dimensional datasets. The system works by allowing the user to manipulate a freeform geometry whose surface intersects a voxel dataset. The intersected voxel values are projected back onto the surface of the physical material to reveal a non-planar section of the dataset. The paper describes how the interface can be used as a representational aid in several example application domains, overcoming many limitations of conventional planar displays.
Context-descriptive prototypes and their application to medicine administration BIBAFull-Text 297-306
  Claus Bossen; Jens Baek Jorgensen
A context-descriptive prototype is an interactive graphical animation, driven by a formal, executable engine, implemented in some programming or modelling language. The two main properties of a context-descriptive prototype are: (1) it is an integrated description that describes system, work processes, and context of use; (2) it is a formal description. Because of (1), designers, including users, are provided with a means to investigate the system in the context of the envisioned work processes. Because of (2), investigations into questions of formalisation and automation, not only of the system, but also of the work processes, can be made explicitly and become subject for discussions and further elaboration. We describe a concrete context-descriptive prototype of the hospital work process medicine administration and its support by a new pervasive system. We discuss findings from evaluation of the prototype in cooperation with nurses, and finally compare context-descriptive prototypes with other kinds of prototypes.

Exhibitions

Blendie BIBAFull-Text 309
  Kelly Dobson
Blendie is an interactive, sensitive, intelligent, voice controlled blender with a mind of its own. Materials are a 1950's Osterizer blender altered with custom made hardware and software for sound analysis and motor control. People induce the blender to spin by sounding the sounds of its motor in action. If they make their voice sufficiently blender-like, then Blendie will begin to pitch-track and power-match their voice with its own motor body. For example, a person may growl low pitch blender-like sounds to get it to spin slowly, and the person may growl blenderstyle at higher pitches to speed up Blendie. The experience for the participant is to speak the language of the machine, to resonate with the machine, and thus to more deeply understand and connect with it. The action may also bring about personal revelations in the participant, because in sounding with the blender one is likely to perform gesture and sound expressions not previously accessed which may open up unfound emotions or thoughts or feelings. An empathic opportunity is made manifest emphasizing and utilizing the aspects of motorized machines that are not what have been traditionally designed into them intentionally - i.e. their incredible sound and vibration - but that nevertheless have large roles in our interaction and approach to them. http://web.media.mit.edu/~monster/blendie.
Context photography BIBAFull-Text 310
  Layla Gaye; Lars Erik Holmquist; Maria Hakansson; Sara Ljungblad; Panajotis Mihalatos
Context photography consists of capturing sensing physical input in addition to light and this new concept, we explore alternative potentials creative tool. We have developed a working movement and represents them visually in interactive exhibition we wish to present, visitors The pictures taken by visitors would be dynamically projection on a wall. Large hardcopy photographs hung on another wall. This exhibition is meant alternative approaches to digital photography. http://www.viktoria.se/fal/projects/photo.
Dialog Table BIBAFull-Text 311
  Marek Walczak; Michael McAllister; Jakub Segen
Dialog Table is a shared interface where you use hand gestures to discover a museum's collection. Several people can gather around and together explore the table's movies, narratives and 3D journeys. The table provides an opportunity for people to discuss with each other their thoughts on what they have seen. Several teen beta-testers said they wanted their desk at home to work just like the table. The table can work in situations as varied as hospital kiosks, conference rooms, collaborative design stations, game rooms, bedrooms...Dialog Table was commissioned by the Walker Art Center through an international design competition to promote social interactions among visitors, to provide access to the Walker's multidisciplinary collections, and to facilitate learning about art. The table was designed by Marek Walczak, an artist and architect, Michael McAllister, an industrial designer and Jakub Segen, a leader in recognition systems. http://dialogtable.com.
Fashion victims BIBAFull-Text 312
  Davide Agnelli; Dario Buzzini; Tal Drori
Making the invisible visible in the world of mobile communication. The ubiquitous presence of mobile communication devices - and the fashion in which they are adopted by different cultures - is not only redefining the way people communicate but also the way they more generally behave. Mobile communication devices, particularly mobile phones, introduce a digital space overlapping the physical space of the body: the birth of this hybrid space brings along a number of social consequences, most of which still invisible, hard to map and to explain. Adopting a critical approach in creating wearable probes apt to explore and illustrate this space is here proposed as a valuable strategy in order to make the invisible visible in the world of mobile communication. In Fashion Victims we chose clothing as the medium for making this invisible world visible; we have designed a collection of garments that react (respond and change) according to the surrounding mobile phone calls. We want to see what would happen if our clothes - everyday objects that we carry on our person - were able to display this presence. The metaphor we have decided to use for visualizing mobile communication comes directly from nature: clothes, as a second skin, react to the environment and change in color. Here, as more and more phone calls are conducted in their surroundings, the clothes progressively and permanently change color. Fashion Victims subverts the expected behavior of an everyday object to create and raise awareness about the subject of mobile communication. By producing a physical result with every call, the mobile phone is revealed in all of its pervasiveness and intrusiveness: its tendency to violate the private space we potentially have within the public context. http://www.fashionvictims.org.
I am driving through sound space BIBAFull-Text 313
  Carlos A. Rocha
"I Am Driving Through Sound Space" (IADTSS) is an interactive audio-visual installation for browsing audio databases. By using sound spatialization and a strong physical interface, IADTSS simulates a driving experience through a virtual sound space. IADTSS immerses the user in a sea of sound, allowing the quick navigation of big collections of audio clips.
   The installation consists of a computer equipped with a steering wheel, running custom made software that maps individual audio clips into a virtual world using a process called sound spatialization. Additionally, the system simulates the Doppler effect, providing additional spatial clues. While the sounds are played simultaneously, the spatialization allows the user to differentiate individual sources.
   To facilitate the quick navigation through big databases, IADTSS uses a driving wheel and a set of foot pedals, simulating a driving experience. The simulation allows traveling through the database at variable speeds, allowing the user to hear the overall content in a fast and compelling manner. Furthermore, the interface creates a powerful physical control of the virtual world, engaging the full attention of the user.
   The result is a complete immersive virtual reality navigational system that does not use intensive and sophisticated computer graphics, focusing more on the use of auditory and physical interfaces.
   The system was created as part of a larger project called MIT Treehouse Studio, an ongoing effort of the Physical Language Workshop group directed by Prof. John Maeda at the MIT Media Laboratory. http://plw.media.mit.edu/people/rocha/iadtss/.
I:move BIBAFull-Text 314
  Jonathan Bachrach; Nell Breyer
I:move is a performance / installation series that explores how we perceive movement. It embeds daily activities into formal choreography and is being developed for public spaces that are bottlenecks of human motion. It has been shown at MIT's IM Pei archway and the DTW gallery space.
   Pedestrian traffic is tracked and transformed into 2-dimensional shadow play. Continuous motion trails occur like reliable yet unpredictable weather patterns. I:move captures and processes these daytime patterns, imbedding them into video projection. Pedestrians become performers. Live motion folds into the piece, revealing layers of text or motion streams that echo earlier daytime movements in the space. Through i:move, your motion reveals varying speeds, rhythms and dynamic patterns occurring at the site, over a 24-hour cycle. I:move encourages dancers and novices to explore their own movements, in relation to the routine, theater, and ritual of cycles in a public space.
   I:move considers human movements over multiple time scales, perspectives, and magnifications. Video processing is used to enhance contrast, reveal coincidences, and layer time-coded realities. Interactive video is used to engage viewers in playful experimentation. Audiences create and perform inside the motion projections. In this way, i:move celebrates the personal and collective movements of each day.
   The i:move series is rendered entirely by a stream processing lisp dialect called Gooze. Gooze is a concise, powerful, and efficient expression of time-oriented computing allowing highly profitable domain specific optimizations. It is a unique design, combining movementcentric parameters to extract the perceptual features of motion from video.
_knowscape mobile at DIS2004, Cambridge BIBAFull-Text 315
  Christian Babski; Stephane Carion; Christophe Guignard; Patrick Keller
_knowscape is a digital data territory and an experimental project: an electronic space made of links, connections, relations, knowledge. Initially _knowscape has been conceived as an alternative multi-user browser using data *tracking* and *profiling* techniques to question, to reverse them, so to finally produce open data territories, shared browsing experiences and *open users' profiles*._knowscape evolved and has become since 2003 a mobile downloadable space, a variable space with no fixed or frozen size as well as no definite location: _knowscape mobile, a mobile information architecture that has always both a temporary location in the physical space and a world wide digital one over the Internet. Based on low esthetics and close to machines visual output, _knowscape mobile builds electronic spaces with information-based "voxels" [ 3D pixels ]. Each user or agent creates its own data architecture, made of contiguous voxels, the addition of these spaces creates a shared knowledge 3D territory that can be experienced by any other connected user._knowscape mobile relation to physical space is also simple and direct: boolean. In fact, it is the first architectural space that mixes data space with physical one through the use of boolean algebraic operations. In each installation, electronic devices open windows on this re-localized data territory, which allow visitors to interact either from the physical space or from the internet._knowscape mobile is thus an architectural space temporarily associating territory of data and physical space, linking architecture, knowledge and browsing._knowscape mobile :::: fabric | ch. http://knowscape.fabric.ch/mobile/.
Rabbit field BIBAFull-Text 316
  Ben Dalton
Rabbit Field is an infestation of inflatable rabbit-like forms, filling their display space and inviting tactile interaction. They cover much of the floor, and any other available surfaces, growing in number each night. Each rabbit is self-inflating using a simple computer fan, and can sense its internal pressure state by monitoring its fan speed. If a rabbit is squeezed, and partially deflated, the rabbits around it respond, as if out of empathy, deflating themselves. In this way, a wave of deflation ripples out from the squeezed center. By connecting an entire field of forms into a network of sensors and output media, interactions between viewer and inflatable are further displayed and amplified as deflation data is passed from one rabbit to the next. The organic feel of the forms and the rhythm of their inflation and deflation in reaction to human touch are easily anthropomorphized by the audience as simple expressions of emotion. This initiates and encourages play and exploration. This piece seeks to encourage and reward a 'tangible dialogue' between viewer and inflatables, as well as hoping to establish social connection between viewers who co-interact with the system. Rabbit forms were chosen to engage and invite inquiry. These animals also have strong cultural connotations of fertility and innocence, and are prevalent images in modern eastern and western aesthetic. Use of the unique properties of inflatable structures in architecture, art and design has a long and creative history, flirting between chic design and tacky novelty. http://www.media.mit.edu/~bcd/rabbits.
Recycled soundscapes BIBAFull-Text 317
  Karmen Franinovic; Yon Visell
An interactive system collects noise from a public place and transforms it into content for a public orchestration: the noise is split in specific sounds which are recomposed through sonic interface in a new soundscape. The SoundCam is the most visible part of the Recycling Soundscapes system. It rotates scanning a public space and gives the possibility to spy and to record audio details and voices in the space, even at the big distance. Paradoxically the people in the context involuntary become the center of auditory attention, while the importance of spy fades as the voices start coming out from Sonic Bowls. The Sonic Bowls are instruments that invite passers-by to play with sounds coming from their environment: birds, footsteps, voices. These are collaboratively composed into a new soundscape through SonicBowl interface. The voices are played back randomly as surprise voice messages and build the sound memory of the place. http://www.interaction-ivrea.it/theses/2003-04/architectureofsubtraction/ReSound.htm
Soundscapes BIBAFull-Text 318
  Nigel Johnson
The inspiration for this work is loosely based on Aboriginal creation myths, which told of legendary totemic beings who wandered over the continent in the Dreamtime, singing out the names of everything that crossed their path - birds, animals, plants rocks etc. and so singing the world into existence.
   Soundscapes is a contemporary exploration of this theme, by re-synthesising and giving voice to images of the environments within which we exist, the open landscapes, cityscapes and urban sprawls the work re-interprets our surroundings through the generation of sound.
   Soundscapes consists of a database (catalogue) of looped moving image sequences of ten second durations that can be selected and onto which are superimposed five moveable 'targets' whose velocity and location can be controlled by the user. As these targets scan across the image, data is collected from the colour, tonality and patterns of the underlying image information and used within sound generation and compositional algorithms, so creating the interactive soundscape.
   Soundscapes generates its own compositions in real-time in conjunction with the image data that is being processed, as opposed to using pre-recorded or sampled sounds. Soundscapes also processes the selected image data in real-time and applies a compositional strategy (algorithm) or 'mood' that has been chosen by the user. These moods therefore form the basic building blocks of the work and can vary considerably from simple melodic forms and natural sounds to abrupt discordant passages that have little relationship to classical music scales, harmony or melody. http://www.imaging.dundee.ac.uk/people/njohnson.

Interactive posters

Friction in scheduling and coordinating lives of families: designing from an interaction metaphor BIBAFull-Text 321-324
  Stephan Hoefnagels; Erik Geelhoed; Pieter Jan Stappers; Aldo Hoeben; Remko van der Lugt
Families with working parents have busy and mobile lives. This typically causes a lot of friction in their schedules. This paper discusses two conceptual information appliances for scheduling and coordinating based on this friction and designed from user studies in the lives of these families.
   The interaction principles of the designs are based on a friction metaphor. This metaphor was explored through looking in depth at friction in mechanical constructions. This unconventional design approach led to product and interaction design that is both appropriate and expressive: the "long-term planner" is a large display that visualizes entangled family schedules and provides shared tangible interaction when scheduling new appointments; the "coordination watch" is a mobile device that allows distributed haptic interaction when changing appointments.
   These concept designs and their design process aim to inspire the design of future information appliances.
Activity wallpaper: ambient visualization of activity information BIBAFull-Text 325-328
  Tobias Skog
We present Activity Wallpaper, an ambient visualization of activity information, based on an analysis of audio data. The design of the visualization is used as example in a discussion about the requirements of information presentation for public spaces.
FIASCO: game interface for location-based play BIBAFull-Text 329-332
  Michele Chang; Elizabeth Goodman
In this paper we describe FIASCO, a location based street game that is played both on a website and on the city streets. In the current technology landscape, data is readily accessed via an array of devices and across a variety of locations. There are many resulting design opportunities, but location based computing poses challenges. With FIASCO, the authors propose game design as a research tool to explore new approaches to computing in public space. Engaging with place, promoting self expression through physical action, and reinterpreting mapping conventions are the driving goals towards an understanding of 'situated computing.' In using a pervasive gaming model FIASCO creates a support mechanism for these exploratory activities, while bringing the challenges inherent to designing for online/offline experience to the forefront.
Chat spaces BIBAFull-Text 333-336
  Werner Geyer; Andrew J. Witt; Eric Wilcox; Michael Muller; Bernard Kerr; Beth Brownholtz; David R. Millen
Chat Spaces are rich persistent chats that provide light-weight shared workspaces for small to medium-scale group activities. Chat Spaces can accommodate brief, informal interactions (similar to Instant Messaging), and can also support longer-term complex threaded conversations including large numbers of people and shared resources. Our design maps a hierarchical thread representation onto a time-ordered two-column user interface. This mapping allows a user to follow the global dynamics of the entire thread in the chronological column on the left while being able to participate in a selected topical branch in a second column on the right. We also present a dynamic thread map that provides an overview of the entire conversation and supports quick navigation of topical branches in the thread.
Active photos BIBAFull-Text 337-340
  Tim Kindberg; Ella Tallyn; Rakhi Rajani; Mirjana Spasojevic
In this paper we describe an investigation into linkages to multimedia content from individual items in photographs and other printed images. We describe prototypes for authoring and playing such "active photos", and give the results of informal trials. We conclude with lessons learned and next steps.
Intimate objects BIBAFull-Text 341-344
  Joseph 'Jofish' Kaye; Liz Goulding
We present a preliminary and ongoing study into intimate objects: technological devices for maintaining intimacy at a distance. We use the notion of critical technical practice to provide a theoretical framework on which to base our designs, building devices that differ from mass communication devices in three ways: they are for couples in a relationship to communicate with each other, not with everybody else, they are for a specific couple to use, not a generic couple, and they are for the transmission of specific intimate communication, not all-purpose communication.
   We present an overview of the study, give some examples of intimate object sketches produced by our subjects, and discuss questions posed by the study, particularly those concerning the generalizability of the results.
Speakeasy: overcoming barriers and promoting community development in an immigrant neighborhood BIBAFull-Text 345-348
  Tad Hirsch; Jeremy Liu
Speakeasy is an integrated web and telephone service that connects immigrants with multilingual volunteers who answer questions, give advice, and provide language interpretation. This system has been designed to improve access to social services and to promote community development and civic engagement in Boston's Chinatown neighborhood. This paper presents an overview of the Speakeasy system, a discussion of the design process that lead to its creation, and consideration of how interactive systems can contribute to ongoing community development efforts. The use of mobile telephones to create new forms of civic engagement is also discussed.
Rapid information architecture prototyping BIBAFull-Text 349-352
  Rashmi Sinha; Jonathan Boutelle
To create user-centered information architectures (IA), designers need a structured methodology that allows them to move rapidly from initial exploration of domain, to designing and testing information architecture. Additionally, in rapidly changing domains, design needs to flexibly incorporate future additions and evolutions. Finally, IA design should also take into account business concerns and goals. This paper describes Rapid Information Architecture Prototyping, a three-stage methodology for creating and testing IA based on user and business requirements. First, stakeholder analysis is used to understand business and organizational context, while free-listing exercises are used to explore the domain. Next, results of free-listing are used in an open card-sorting to understand user mental models and generate prototype IAs. Finally, closed card-sorting is used to evaluate and choose between candidate structures. The last two stages can be used in an iterative manner to design and test prototype IAs. The results yield a future-oriented IA that can flexibly incorporate future changes to site content and functionality, and provide design direction for years to come.
Designing full body movement interaction using modern dance as a starting point BIBAFull-Text 353-356
  Jin Kjolberg
This paper presents an ongoing doctoral project that concerns design and development of computer interfaces supporting full body movement interaction. It combines theories and experiences from dance education and HCI. The main aim is to try out a new approach to develop concepts of movement-based interaction. The work consists of an explorative case study aiming at describing the learning process that HCI students and professionals experience when attending a course in Physical Expression, based on modern dance and improvisation. A second aim is to describe the possible reflection of this experience in the design outcome. The third aim is to develop an example of a full body movement-based environment. The study is using a qualitative approach and makes use of data as interviews, video, texts and design mock-ups. Preliminary results show that the course provides new perspectives on bodily communication and may function as a "mind opener".
The information discovery framework BIBAFull-Text 357-360
  Andruid Kerne; Steven M. Smith
This paper continues the movement from technology centered to human centered approaches in the study of tasks that involve finding, understanding, and using information, and tools that support these tasks. The iterative role of information as a stimulus to cognition is considered. The information discovery framework consists of a flowchart of connected human cognitive and digital computer states and processes. The purpose of the framework is to inform the design of tools for finding and using information. Divergent thinking laboratory tasks serve as an evaluation method.

Panels

Design for hackability BIBAFull-Text 363-366
  Anne Galloway; Jonah Brucker-Cohen; Lalya Gaye; Elizabeth Goodman; Dan Hill
Design for hackability encourages designers and non-designers to critically and creatively explore interactivity, technology and media - to reclaim authorship and ownership of technologies and the social and cultural worlds in which we live. Hackability implies more than customization or adaptation - it calls for redefinition. In a world where technologies are increasingly mobile and invisible, designing for hackability means allowing and encouraging people to make technologies be what they want them to be. It cultivates reciprocity between users and designers and supports transparency and graceful responses to unanticipated uses. Before entering into a broader discussion with the audience, panelists will discuss tensions between people and artifacts, technology and play, the creative use of readily available resources, subverting traditional functions and uses of networks, and the everyday realities of corporate design practice. These discussions will be used to generate a design for hackability manifesto to guide further explorations in designing interactive systems.
Designing the future: writing, design and research on NOT-linear interaction BIBAFull-Text 367-369
  Philip van Allen; Scott Nazarian; Jen Tarara; David Keady
How can designers make more meaningful, rich and user enabling interactive systems? What are the best principles, affordances and techniques of interactive design, what are some examples, and how should designers approach this challenge? This panel explores an approach called Productive Interaction, which views interaction as a medium that enables the user as producer of her own outcomes and meanings. Productive interaction aligns the design of not-linear content, context and affordance in an open, collaborative fashion, enabling the direct manipulation of the work's material. Taking advantage of this facilitation, the user creates a custom, personally significant meaning space of their own.
   A faculty member and three students present perspectives from their work in the Graduate Media Design Program at Art Center College of Design:
  • Philip van Allen (moderator): Design principles, techniques, and experiments
       in Productive Interaction
  • Scott Nazarian: Futurism as a design methodology
  • Jen Tarara: Relationship aware systems - 2Degrees Network, a mobile
       application and service
  • David Keady: Sound as a low attention information system
  • Science friction BIBAFull-Text 370-372
      Despina Papadopoulos; Otto von Busch; Erik Sandelin; Magnus Torstensson
    Digital technology is often conceived of as tools designed to support goal-oriented tasks and activities as efficiently as possible. In the wake of the rapid proliferation of digital technology new uses and new settings of use emerge that call for a dramatically different design rationale.
       The use of digital devices for communicative and social purposes is growing steadily, and digital devices become more and more integral in the processes in which we gain and maintain social relations.
       As social beings, however, we seldom behave in specifically goal-oriented ways. On the contrary, many human strategies for communication, self-expression, and negotiation of social status rely on practical difficulty, resistances, weights, ordeals, pain, and ambiguity.
       The Science Friction panel juxtaposes examples, imagery, and concepts from the domains of fashion and interaction design to provoke discussion and challenge established assumptions of personal digital technologies and start a healthy contamination of discourses: "Are tattoos user-friendly? Is that a desirable application? How does your shirt work? What is the software equivalent of high-heeled shoes?".
    Beyond human centered design? BIBAFull-Text 373-374
      Nico Macdonald; Martyn Perks; Robert Reimann
    The concept of the user and user-centered design is central to the history of SIGCHI and the culture the Designing Interactive Systems conferences. The idea of the user and designing around user requirements and contexts of use were a radical development in relation to a culture of computing that had evolved around scarce computing power to focus on efficient use of these resources and the needs of computing technicians. But today does a diminished view of the user, and corporate cowardice, leave people short-changed with respect to the design of new products? Is user research helping designers to really understand the people for who they are designing, or blinkering designers view of possible solutions? Is user-centered design ensuring that products fit the needs and contexts of users, or acting as a bulwark to qualitative developments in interface design? How should we re-imagine humans in user-centered design?There will be four panellists in total, with a balance between practitioners, theorists, research agencies, commentators, and client 'user' representatives.