HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | DIS Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
DIS Tables of Contents: 95970002040608101214-114-2

Proceedings of DIS'00: Designing Interactive Systems 2000-08-17

Fullname:Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques
Location:Brooklyn, NY, USA
Dates:2000-Aug-17 to 2000-Aug-19
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-219-0 ACM Order Number 608002; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: DIS00
Papers:56
Pages:454
  1. Plenary Speakers
  2. New Directions for Design
  3. Design Methods
  4. Design Cases
  5. Mixed Reality Design
  6. Ethnography and Participatory Design
  7. New Perspectives on Usability
  8. Pattern Languages
  9. Design Tools
  10. User Experience
  11. Panel Sessions

Plenary Speakers

Design as Common Ground BIBAPDF 3
  Shelley Evenson
In 1945 Vannevar Bushs As We May Think envisioned a future of networked media that would create new relationships among people, their ideas and their activities. In the ensuing years much of our world has been shaped by this vision. This talk will cover some the transformations I've witnessed in my 20+ years of practice. From print to product, pc to cell phones, design and design language have emerged as the common ground for integrated business, technology and experience breakthroughs.
Making Use: Scenarios and Scenario-Based Design BIBAPDF 4
  John M. Carroll
Scenarios of human-computer interaction help us to understand and to create computer systems and applications as artifacts of human activity of human activity as things to learn from, as tools to use in ones work, as media for interacting with other people. Scenario-based design offers significant and unique leverage on some of the most characteristic and vexing challenges of design work:
   Scenarios evoke reflection in the content of design work, helping developers coordinate design action and reflection. Scenarios are at once concrete and flexible, helping developers manage the fluidity of design situations. Scenarios afford multiple views of an interaction, diverse kinds and amounts of detailing, helping developers manage the many consequences entailed by any given design move. Scenarios can also be abstracted and categorized, helping designers to recognize, capture, and reuse generalizations, and to address the challenge that technical knowledge often lags the needs of technical design. Finally, scenarios promote work-oriented communication among stakeholders, helping to make design activities more accessible to the great variety of expertise that can contribute to design, and addressing the challenge that external constraints, designers, and clients often distract attention from the needs and concerns of the people who will use the technology.
Looking and Leaping BIBAPDF 5
  Bill Gaver
Having come to design from a background in experimental psychology, I get a mischievous thrill from the way research through design can usefully break all the rules of science. Clearly articulated theories and analyses form the conceptual backbone of science - designers also draw inspiration from the popular press, contemporary art, and eccentric observations. Controlled, or at least accountable, empirical studies are science's route to understanding people; designers improvise, provoke, and take extreme, even imaginary, individuals as an audience. Science lends empirical methods to test the success of new systems; as designers we hope that our examples will seduce and stimulate those who experience them.
   Design methods based on imagination and personal engagement may seem frivolous or gratuitously provocative, but they are based on a long tradition that allows us to question aesthetic, emotional, and cultural aspects of the artefacts and systems we develop. These issues seem to fall in sciences blindspot: difficult to theorize, analyze, or study empirically, they tend to be ignored by approaches to technology built on the scientific approach. This is a dangerous situation, because if left unexamined new technologies will tend to spread the aesthetics and values of the workplace throughout our lives. In this talk, I describe recent projects that suggest new ways that technology might enter our everyday lives, in order to illustrate the strengths and the blindspots of the design approach to research.
Wrapping Up: Commentary on DIS 2000 BIBAPDF 6
  Malcolm McCullough
Malcolm McCullough explores digital media for the built environment. Beginning from computer-aided design in architecture, in which he was a pioneer in the 1980s, McCullough has consistently brought a human-centered approach to emerging practices in design. His 1996 book, Abstracting Craft found an interdisciplinary audience for the creative work practices behind the new economy. Currently he is at work on a book on location awareness.

New Directions for Design

The Social Life of Engineering Authorizations BIBAKPDF 9-19
  William A. Stubblefield; Karen S. Rogers
We may view documents, not only as containers for information, but also as active participants in organizing and sustaining communities. This paper discusses our experiences in designing a web-based tool for writing and managing engineering authorizations, and the social perspectives influence on our understanding of the problem and the design of our system. It presents observations based on our fieldwork with users, and the evaluation of a set of prototype systems. It shows how these observations changed our central metaphor for the system, moving it from a machine model to a society of agents metaphor. Finally, it illustrates the way this new metaphor changed our system functionality and architecture.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; community, design ethnography, design etnography, documents, metaphor, system design
Using a Technique from Graphic Designers to Develop Innovative System Designs BIBAKPDF 20-26
  Catalina Danis; Stephen Boies
Rapid technological change requires that system designers explore potential design spaces widely before committing to a local design space in which to evolve a problem solution. We discuss an approach for doing this, which we base on an analogy with an approach used by graphic designers. We have observed that our colleagues in the graphic design community begin exploring a problem space by generating multiple, divergent design ideas. They then proceed to elaborate them -- extending, combining and discarding -- as the problem space dictates. We illustrate our adaptation of this approach with a case study of our initial design work on a system for supporting self-service sales of information technology (IT).
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems development; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Internet communities, design space, problem space
Taking the Best from a Company History -- Designing with Interaction Styles BIBAKPDF 27-38
  Trond Are Oritsland; Jacob Buur
In architecture and industrial design, the concept of style plays a major role in education as a way of explaining the historical inheritance and comparing alternative design expressions.
   In this article we claim that interaction design can benefit greatly from an understanding of the concept of style. It can provide designers with strong visions and a sense of direction in designing new interfaces. In particular we focus on Solid User Interface design, i.e. products with small displays and a limited number of keys, because of the tight coupling between interaction and industrial design.
   The authors share the concern that interaction designers in enthusiasm with new technologies fail to preserve the qualities of use from products with outdated technologies.
   This paper attempts to formulate an aesthetics of interaction design and reports on experiments with introducing interaction style thinking in a user centred design practice in industry.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; interaction design, interaction style, quality in use, solid user interface
MoMA and the Three-Legged Stool: Fostering Creative Insight in Interactive System Design BIBAKPDF 39-47
  Lauretta Jones; Sharon L. Greene
We view the design of interactive systems as a three-legged stool. The legs are: an understanding of technology, an understanding of the users and the use context, and creative insight. As the metaphor implies, if any of the legs is missing, the stool will not stand. Although much work has gone into the effort to develop tools and methodologies to enable programmers and designers to create outstanding applications, we believe the hard truth is that good design requires skill, and creative insight is an essential ingredient that must be recognized and supported. Although it is difficult to manage, plan for, and control insight and creativity, we can create an atmosphere in which creative insight is encouraged, recognized and valued. In this design study, we offer guidelines for creating this environment and present some examples of their application to a project on which we are currently working with The Museum of Modern Art in New York. The project explores learning by discovery and grows out of our research into cognitive HCI.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); HCI, cognitive HCI, discovery learning, human-computer interaction, participatory design, prototyping, software design, software design methodology, user-centered design
Touch Me, Hit Me and I Know How You Feel: A Design Approach to Emotionally Rich Interaction BIBAKPDF 48-52
  Stephan Wensveen; Kees Overbeeke; Tom Djajadiningrat
In this paper we propose a 3-step method for designing emotionally rich interactions, illustrated by the design of an alarm clock. By emotionally rich interaction we understand interaction that heavily relies on emotion expressed through action. The method addresses three questions: What are the relevant emotional aspects for a context for experience? How can a product recognise and express these aspects? How should the product adapt its behaviour to the user on the basis of this information? The essence of our approach is that a product not only elicits emotionally expressive actions, but that the feedback is inextricably linked to these actions. The feedback should be inherent to the design, and not gratuitously added.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); emotion, product design, rich interaction, tangibility

Design Methods

Beyond the Snapshot from Speculation to Prototypes in Audiophotography BIBAKPDF 55-65
  Heather Martin; Bill Gaver
In this paper we describe techniques used to move from a wide variety of speculative concepts to three working prototypes of potentially commercial audiophotography products. Stages in this trajectory included illustrated workbooks, video envisionments, form models and technical drawings, and ended with working prototypes using microprocessors to simulate stand-alone products. These methods were useful in communicating with our partners in a multidisciplinary collaboration. At each stage, however, we left many details of our designs purposefully unresolved, in order to encourage our own and our partners' imaginations as part of the design process.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); Computer Applications - Computer-Aided Engineering (J.6); audiophoto, design methodology, design research, prototypes
Interaction Relabelling and Extreme Characters: Methods for Exploring Aesthetic Interactions BIBAKPDF 66-71
  J. P. Djajadiningrat; W. W. Gaver; J. W. Fres
Aesthetics and interaction are interwoven concepts, rather than separate entities. An aesthetics of interaction must consider richness in appearance, actions, and role. Moving beyond a narrow focus on usability in this way requires new methods for understanding design possibilities. Here we describe two: interaction relabelling, in which possible interactions with a known mechanical device are mapped to the functions of an electronic device to be designed; and extreme characters, in which fictional users with exaggerated emotional attitudes are taken as the basis of design to highlight cultural issues. These methods may help designers in considering physical interactions with products on the one hand, and the sociocultural role their products will take on the other.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Computer Applications - Computer-Aided Engineering (J.6); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); aesthetics, design techniques, interaction, product design, roles
Video Artifacts for Design: Bridging the Gap between Abstraction and Detail BIBAKPDF 72-82
  Wendy E. Mackay; Anne V. Ratzer; Paul Janecek
Video artifacts help bridge the gap between abstraction and detail in the design process. This paper describes how our use and re-use of video artifacts affected the re-design of a graphical editor for building, simulating, and analyzing Coloured Petri Nets. The two primary goals of the project were to create design abstractions that integrate recent advances in graphical interaction techniques and to explicitly support specific patterns of use of Petri nets in real-world settings.
   Using a participatory design process, we organized a series of video-based design activities that helped us manage the tension between finding useful design abstractions and specifying the details of the user interface. Video artifacts resulting from one activity became the basis for the next, facilitating communication among members of the multi-disciplinary design team. The video artifacts provided an efficient way of capturing and incorporating subtle aspects of Petri Nets In Use into our design and ensured that the implementation of our design principles was grounded in real-world work practices.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Video (e.g., tape, disk, DVI); Software -Software Engineering - Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): Petri nets; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; colored petri nets, coloured petri nets, design abstraction, design process, marking menus, participatory design, scenario-based design, toolglasses, video artifacts, video brainstorming, video prototyping
Virtually Living Together BIBAKPDF 83-91
  Konrad Tollmar; Stefan Junestrand; Olle Torgny
In this paper, we discuss the possibility of a holistic approach in the design of new media for interpersonal communication. The key argument is that if we base our design on daily practice, this may inhibit truly innovative ideas from taking form, and, on the contrary, if we design using pure intuition and visions, the design is likely to fail due to a lack of connection to daily practice. Scenario-based design was hence used to makes us envision new media while field observations such as ethnographic studies, become a tool to retain the ties with everyday life. This duality can also be implemented, as we will describe, in a design that makes a bi-language/bi-levelled understanding of a product possible.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1); emotional communication, blue-sky research, industrial design, inter-family communication, interaction design, scenario-based design, telepresence

Design Cases

Designing StoryRooms: Interactive Storytelling Spaces for Children BIBAKPDF 95-104
  Houman Alborzi; Allison Druin; Jaime Montemayor; Michele Platner; Jessica Porteous; Lisa Sherman; Angela Boltman; Gustav Taxen; Jack Best; Joe Hammer; Alex Kruskal; Abby Lal; Thomas Plaisant Schwenn; Lauren Sumida; Rebecca Wagner; Jim Hendler
Costly props, complicated authoring technologies, and limited access to space are among the many reasons why children can rarely enjoy the experience of authoring room-sized interactive stories. Typically in these kinds of environments, children are restricted to being story participants, rather than story authors. Therefore, we have begun the development of StoryRooms, room-sized immersive storytelling current technology implementation and example StoryRooms.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computer Applications - Arts and Humanities (J.5): Literature; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; augmented environments, children, cooperative inquiry, educational applications, participatory design, storytelling
Browsers with Changing Parts: A Catalog Explorer for Philip Glass' Website BIBAKPDF 105-115
  Harry Hochheiser
The development of navigational tools for a web site devoted to a catalog of musical compositions offers a variety of design challenges. A combination of techniques developed from information visualization research - including starfield displays, dynamic queries, and zoomable user interfaces (ZUIs) - was used to construct a prototype browser for possible use in a web site dedicated to the work of Philip Glass. After a discussion of the goals and potential users of the site, this paper describes several prototypes that were developed and how they informed the design of a zoomable starfield browser. Unresolved design challenges and possibilities for future work are also discussed.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4): Navigation; biography, catalog browsing, interactive visualization, music, zoomable user interfaces
The Design of the Xi-Hu Historical Landscape and Culture in Media BIBAKPDF 116-121
  Takashi Kiriyama; Ling Chen
This paper discusses a project to reconstruct in media the lost landscape and culture of Xi-Hu (West Lake), China. This work is intended to educate and entertain the user as well as stimulate his or her own creativity. We discuss the design of a user interface that enables the user to visit different landscapes of Xi-Hu (West Lake), China, as they appeared in different eras. We also discuss the artistry involved in the presentation of the work's content. Finally, we discuss a design methodology for media work based on the lessons learned from the development of this work.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Computer Applications - Arts and Humanities (J.5); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; artistry, creation, entertainment, interactivity, learning
Javelin: A Personal Communication Device Demo BIBAKPDF 122-128
  Annette Wagner
This paper describes the creation of a set of demonstration applications for a personal communication device for use at the JavaOne 99 Developers Conference. The major design issues encountered in the project are described along with the resulting impact on the project. These include defining the navigation model for the Back key, dealing with the issues that arose when the device hardware target was changed in mid-process, and managing the design process to leverage prior work when major goals were altered late in the project.
Keywords: Computer Applications - Computers in Other Systems (J.7): Consumer products; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Communications Applications (H.4.3); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2): Java; Computer Systems Organization -Computer-Communication Networks - General (C.2.0); collaboration, consumer electronics, design, highlight traversal, human interface, java technology, navigation model, pager, personal communication device, style guide, user interface, virtual machine
Design of a Social Interaction Environment for Electronic Marketplaces BIBAKPDF 129-136
  Younghee Jung; Alison Lee
This paper presents the design of an interaction environment for fostering social interactions in electronic marketplaces. The environment incorporates a novel, spatially-organized, and interactive site map. The map provides visibility of people, activities, and social interactions and incorporates mechanisms for social interactions. Four design constraints abstracted from prior findings in CSCW guided the development of the map: sociality, scalability, spatiality, and imageability. The design evolved through a process consisting of several phases and iterations. We used HCI techniques, where appropriate, to analyze and study the design problem, to enumerate, explore, and reconcile a design space, and to informally evaluate a design solution.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Computers and Society - Electronic Commerce (K.4.4); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); activities, crowds, e-commerce, imageability, interaction design, map, online communities, people, scalability, social groups, social interaction, social navigation, social visualization, sociality, spatiality
Just-in-Time Design in a Fast-Paced Product Group BIBAKPDF 137-144
  Margo Lustig Ezekiel
In real world development environments where deadlines are fixed, a designer must craft a process that works with the team and within the constraints of a project. The traditional waterfall method of writing a detailed specification for each feature before development begins is often not realistic. Instead, by using a just-in-time design method, the designer understands how much design direction is needed at each stage of the development process, and delivers that. The larger components must be well defined initially, while other parts can be left sketchy. The designer can spread the workload over the entire length of the project, using different steps to refine the design. Delivering the design in stages gives the design a chance to mature.
   Often there are many developers and few (usually 1) designers on a project. The designer is often on the critical path. To avoid being a bottleneck, the designer should use good tools and leverage the strengths of a multi-disciplinary team.
   The case study documented here should prove useful to other user interface designers facing resource and time constraints. A design process derived from this experience is summarized at the end.
Keywords: Computer Applications - Computer-Aided Engineering (J.6); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): User interface management systems (UIMS); design partners, focus groups, iterative design, multi-disciplinary teams, parallel design, usability test, user-centered design
Two-Dimensional Spatial Positioning as a Means for Reflection in Design BIBAKPDF 145-154
  Kumiyo Nakakoji; Yasuhiro Yamamoto; Shingo Takada; Brent N. Reeves
In the realm of computer support for design, developers have focused primarily on power and expressiveness that are important in framing a design solution. They assume that design is a series of calculated steps that lead to a clearly specified goal. The problem with this focus is that the resulting tools hinder the very process that is critical in early phases of a design task; the reflection-in-action process [15]. In the early phases, what is required as the most important ingredient for a design tool is the ability to interact in ways that require as little commitment as possible. This aspect is most evident in domains where two dimensions play a role, such as sketching in architecture. Surprisingly, it is equally true in linear domains such as writing. In this paper, we present our approach of using two-dimensional positioning of objects as a means for reflection in the early phases of a design task. Taking writing as an example, the ART (Amplifying Representational Talkback) system uses two dimensional positioning to support the early stages of the writing task. An eye-tracking user study illustrates important issues in the domain of computer support for design.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - General (I.2.0): Cognitive simulation; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); an alternative to sketching, cognitive models, reflection-in-action, theoretical framework for design support, two-dimensional positioning, writing support
Tightly Coupling Authoring and Evaluation in an Integrated Tool to Support Iterative Design of Interactive Hypermedia Educational Manuals BIBAKPDF 155-164
  Selma Holmquist; N. Hari Narayanan
In this paper we present a framework for the iterative design of interactive Hypermedia Educational Manuals, implemented in a software tool that integrates authoring and evaluation support in order to speed up iterative design cycles. Two unique features of our approach are the automatic generation of a structural description of the manual being designed and the automatic incorporation of interaction data logging elements in the manual during the authoring phase. These are then used by an evaluation tool to generate statistical analyses and graphical presentations of user interactions with the manual and redesign recommendations. Thus, the architecture of this tool embodies a tight coupling between the design of Hypermedia Educational Manuals and the evaluation of their instructional effectiveness. An experiment was carried out in which a prototype manual was created, tested with a group of students, redesigned based on analyses and recommendations provided by the evaluation tool, and then re-evaluated using data from a second group of students. This experiment showed that the integrated tool does help simplify the evaluation process and improve the efficiency of iterative design cycles.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Hypertext/Hypermedia (H.5.4); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - General (K.3.0); Computer Applications - Administrative Data Processing (J.1): Education; empirical study, evaluation, hypermedia authoring, interaction data analysis and visualization, iterative design tool
The Jam-O-Drum Interactive Music System: A Study in Interaction Design BIBAKPDF 165-173
  Tina Blaine; Tim Perkis
This paper will describe the multi-user interactive music system known as the Jam-O-Drum developed at Interval Research Corporation.1 By combining velocity sensitive input devices and computer graphics imagery into an integrated tabletop surface, up to six simultaneous players are able to participate in a collaborative approach to musical improvisation. We demonstrate that this interactive music system embraces both the novice and musically trained participants by taking advantage of their intuitive abilities and social interaction skills. In this paper and accompanying video, we present conclusions from user testing of this device along with examples of interaction design methods and prototypes of interpretive musical and game-like development schemes. Our research was conducted in two phases with two different development teams and will accordingly be addressed herein as Phase One and Phase Two development.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Collaborative computing; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems development; collaborative, computer graphics, input device, interaction design, interactive music system, multi-user, musical improvisation, novice, social interaction, velocity sensitive
Sound: An Emotional Element of Interactions a Case Study of a Microwave Oven BIBAKPDF 174-182
  Cheong-Hyun Lee; Soony Kim; Choong-Seong Chae; Kook-Hyun Chung
Little attention has been given to sound as an element of interaction although an interaction design utilizes five senses of the human being. While designing the portable microwave oven, we selected the sound as a topic of our study. As several sounds have already been applied to products, such as the buzz sound in the walk signal or a warning sound in the computer, the focus of research is that the sound may have to be different vis-?-vis the products functionality or locations where it is used. Conclusions have not been made a priori that a product developer should create new sounds for new products. For this purpose, the research has been conducted to develop the sound concept in nexus with the product and the outdoor environment. Developed sounds were then evaluated and analyzed by a target audience. With this analysis, we were able to adopt proper portable microwave oven sounds that allowed potential users to feel familiar, to respond pleasantly amid outdoor noises, and to expect the taste of food. During the course of the experiment, we came to the conclusion that even with the same sound and some modifications made by applying different lengths, tones, rhythms, and/or resonance allowed users to recognize the functions or features of the products. The results have changed our evaluation on the sound itself and will extend the value of sound interaction between human beings and products.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Computer Applications - Computers in Other Systems (J.7): Consumer products; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5); design, element, emotions, interaction, microwave, outdoor environment, portable, sound, taste of food, users

Mixed Reality Design

Augmented Reality as a Design Tool for Mobile Interfaces BIBAKPDF 185-192
  Olav W. Bertelsen; Christina Nielsen
This paper challenges user interface paradigms for mobile devices, by using the technical classification of augmented reality interfaces as a thinking tool to develop ideas for interaction with mobile devices. The paper presents future work scenarios from a wastewater treatment plant embodying PDA applications derived from the classification of augmented reality interfaces. The focus on physical interaction with objects of work and with the mobile device provides us with a range of interaction styles, based on e.g. gestures and manipulation of objects. Furthermore, issues of transparency and directness are addressed. The future scenarios indicate that the concepts of augmented reality support solving context problems in mobile design.
Keywords: Computer Applications - Computers in Other Systems (J.7): Process control; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computer Applications - Physical Sciences and Engineering (J.2): Earth and atmospheric sciences; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; augmented reality, mobile computing, process control, thinking tools
On the Move with a Magic Thing: Role Playing in Concept Design of Mobile Services and Devices BIBAKPDF 193-202
  Giulio Iacucci; Kari Kuutti; Mervi Ranta
Designing concepts for new mobile services and devices, poses several challenges to the design. We consider user participation as a way to address part of the challenges. We show how our effort relates to current and past research. In particular, PD (Participatory Design) has inspired us in developing two participatory techniques. The two techniques are organized around situations either staged or real where users and designers can envision and enact future scenarios: a role-playing game with toys, and SPES (Situated and Participative Enactment of Scenarios). They were developed in an industry-funded project that investigates services for the nomadic Internet user of the future. We then discuss how the techniques help in facing the design challenges.
Keywords: Computer Systems Organization -Computer-Communication Networks - Network Architecture and Design (C.2.1): Wireless communication; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Applications and Expert Systems (I.2.1): Games; acting out, games for design, mobility, participatory design
Mapping the Physical World to Psychological Reality: Creating Synthetic Environments BIBAKPDF 203-207
  Ronald W. Noel; Claudia M. Hunter
The successful creation of telepresence and virtual environments requires a change in design paradigm. We must move away from attempts to recreate reality in its entirety toward the creation of environments that are psychologically real for humans, because in fact, reality mediated through display devices is largely subjective. The experiments discussed in this paper show that a single intrinsic physical property, such as the velocity or stability of a vehicle, can give rise to a multitude of subjective perceptions-for example, that the vehicle is moving faster than it really is, or that it is more likely to tip over going into a turn. These perceptions can easily be manipulated through knowledge of the variables and relationships involved, such as the effect of camera height. Designers can use this knowledge to create systems that promote desirable behaviors and limit dangerous or unproductive behaviors.
Keywords: design paradigms, display semantics, speed perception, synthetic environments, telepresence, virtual reality
Bridge for Buttons -- A GUI Design Methodology Applied in Non-GUI Consumer Product Design BIBAKPDF 208-215
  Simo Sade; Katja Battarbee
This paper describes the experience gained in the case study of adapting the Bridge, a GUI design method to the design of non-GUI interactive consumer products.
   An industrial design consultancy was looking for an efficient way of discussing the initial design ideas for a product and its user interface (UI) with the client and the client's software design consultant. The Bridge, which is a fast participatory method for bridging the gap between user requirements and the design of object-oriented graphical user interfaces (GUI) was applied in the task of designing a smart product - an interactive consumer electronic product. The goal was to design a software and hardware user interface concept in a well-structured and fruitful manner with limited time and expenses. A further goal was to assist the industrial designers in participating in their client's strategic design decision making and in the design of the overall user experience, instead of conducting a plain project-level product design.
   The solution was an application of the Bridge method, which was user-centered, but not participatory. The approach was new to the participating companies. The results were promising, both in getting concrete design ideas in a very short time to support decision making, and in facilitating new kind of communication between the participants very early in the process.
Keywords: case study, discount usability, industrial and user interface design techniques, the bridge
PaperButtons: Expanding a Tangible User Interface BIBAKPDF 216-223
  Elin Ronby Pedersen; Tomas Sokoler; Les Nelson
Expanding the functionality of a successful system is always a challenge; the initial simplicity and ease-of-use is easily lost in the process. Experience indicates that this problem is worsened in systems with tangible interfaces: while it might be relatively easy to suggest a single successful tangible interaction component, it is notoriously hard to preserve the success when expanding with more components or more manipulation using the same component. This paper describes our approach to creating and expanding tangible interfaces. The approach consist of adherence to a set of guidelines for tangible interfaces, derived from practical tangible design and general object-oriented design, and solicitation of user requirements to the particular interaction method in question. Finally the paper describes a prototype of PaperButtons built in response to these requirements and designed in accordance to the guidelines for tangible interfaces.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); design guidelines, paper interface, tacit interaction, tangible interface, ubiquitous computing

Ethnography and Participatory Design

Informing the Design of an Information Management System with Iterative Fieldwork BIBAKPDF 227-237
  Victoria Bellotti; Ian Smith
We report on the design process of a personal information management system, Raton Laveur, and how it was influenced by an intimate relationship between iterative fieldwork and design thinking. Initially, the system was conceived as a paper-based UI to calendar, contacts, to-dos and notes. As the fieldwork progressed, our understanding of peoples practices and the constraints of their office infrastructures radically shifted our design goals away from paper-based interaction to embedded interaction with our system. By this we mean embedding information management functionality in an existing application such as email.
Keywords: Information Systems -Database Management - General (H.2.0); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); design, field study, interview, iteration, personal information management
The Development of Cooperation: Five Years of Participatory Design in the Virtual School BIBAKPDF 239-251
  John M. Carroll; George Chin; Mary Beth Rosson; Dennis C. Neale
During the past five years, our research group worked with a group of public school teachers to define, develop, and assess network-based support for collaborative learning in middle school physical science and high school physics. From the outset, we committed to a participatory design approach. This design collaboration has now existed far longer than is typical of participatory design endeavors, particularly in North America. The nature of our interactions, and in particular the nature of the role played by the teachers has changed significantly through the course of the project. We suggest that there may be a long-term developmental unfolding of roles and relationships in participatory design.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer Uses in Education (K.3.1); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; cognitive development, cooperative design, educational networks, participatory design, requirements development, requirements engineering, school culture
Creativity, Cooperation and Interactive Design BIBAKPDF 252-261
  Susanne Bødker; Christina Nielsen; Marianne Graves Petersen
This paper focuses on ways and means of stimulating idea generation in collaborative situations involving designers, engineers, software developers, users and usability people. Particularly, we investigate tools of design, i.e. tools used in design to get ideas for a new interactive application and its use.
   Based on different studies from a research project that we have been involved with over the past three years, we present specific examples of such tools and discuss how they inform design. We frame this discussion through the following (theoretical) considerations: a concern for the past and the present in informing design, for using theory as a source of inspiration in design and for making extremes and multiple voices play a role in innovation.
   These considerations are used to structure and discuss the examples, illustrating how it is important for such tools to be concrete, tangible and even caricatured.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); cooperative, iterative design, tools for idea generation
Sitemaps, Storyboards, and Specifications: A Sketch of Web Site Design Practice BIBAKPDF 263-274
  Mark W. Newman; James A. Landay
Through a study of web site design practice, we observed that designers employ multiple representations of web sites as they progress through the design process, and that these representations allow them to focus on different aspects of the design. Designers also employ multiple tools during the course of a project, including graphic design, web development, presentation, and word processing software, as well as pen and paper. Sketching on paper is especially important during the design exploration phase of a project, when designers wish to explore many design possibilities quickly without focusing on low-level details. Web site design tools intended to support the early phases of the design process should employ informal interaction techniques, should support multiple site representations, and should integrate well with other applications that designers use regularly.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Software Management (K.6.3); Software -Software Engineering - General (D.2.0); ethnography, informal interfaces, information architecture, web site design, work analysis
Case Study: User Research to Inform the Design and Development of Integrated Wearable Computers and Web-Based Services BIBAKPDF 275-279
  Jodi Forlizzi; Margaret McCormack
The competitive playing field for startup companies often does not allow for the time to understand how user needs can influence the development of a new product. This paper presents a case study of informing the design of a wearable computer with web-based services through user research. We discuss our motivation for choosing to do user research to address our multi-faceted design problem; present the methodology and technique design; and summarize lessons learned in the process of analyzing the data and communicating findings to an interdisciplinary shareholder team.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; Computer Systems Organization -Computer System Implementation - Microcomputers (C.5.3): Portable devices (e.g., laptops, personal digital assistants); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; design process, design research, interviews, participatory design, self-documentation, user research, wearable computers
Rapid Ethnography: Time Deepening Strategies for HCI Field Research BIBAKPDF 280-286
  David R. Millen
Field research methods are useful in the many aspects of Human-Computer Interaction research, including gathering user requirements, understanding and developing user models, and new product evaluation and iterative design. Due to increasingly short product realization cycles, there has been growing interest in more time efficient methods, including rapid prototyping methods and various usability inspection techniques. This paper will introduce "rapid ethnography," which is a collection of field methods intended to provide a reasonable understanding of users and their activities given significant time pressures and limited time in the field.. The core elements include limiting or constraining the research focus and scope, using key informants, capturing rich field data by using multiple observers and interactive observation techniques, and collaborative qualitative data analysis. A short case study illustrating the important characteristics of rapid ethnography will also be presented.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3); ethnography, field research methods, qualitative methods, user studies

New Perspectives on Usability

On the Contributions of Different Empirical Data in Usability Testing BIBAKPDF 289-296
  Maria R. Ebling; Bonnie E. John
Many sources of empirical data can be used to evaluate an interface (e.g., time to learn, time to perform benchmark tasks, number of errors on benchmark tasks, answers on questionnaires, comments made in verbal protocols). This paper examines the relative contributions of both quantitative and qualitative data gathered during a usability study. For each usability problem uncovered by this study, we trace each contributing piece of evidence back to its empirical source. For this usability study, the verbal protocol provided the sole source of evidence for more than one third of the most severe problems and more than two thirds of the less severe problems. Thus, although the verbal protocol provided the bulk of the evidence, other sources of data contributed disproportionately to the more critical problems. This work suggests that further research is required to determine the relative value of different forms of empirical evidence.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); empirical data, usability testing, verbal protocol
From Usability Lab to "Design Collaboratorium": Reframing Usability Practice BIBAKPDF 297-307
  Jacob Buur; Susanne Bødker
This paper presents an exploratory process in which three industrial usability groups, in cooperation with HCI researchers, worked to reframe their own work practice. The usability groups moved beyond a classical usability setting towards a new way of working which we have coined the Design Collaboratorium. This design collaboratorium is a design approach that creates an open physical and organizational space where designers, engineers, users and usability professionals meet and work alongside each other. At the same time the design collaboratorium makes use of event-driven ways of working known from participatory design. Some of these working methods are well-documented from literature but adapted to the needs of the particular project, others are new. This paper illustrates how it is possible to reframe usability work and it discusses the new usability competence required.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Design, Human Factors, Measurement, Management, Performance, Theory; collaboration, design collaboratorium, usability work, user participation
A Case Study for Evaluating Interface Design through Communicability BIBAKPDF 308-316
  Raquel O. Prates; Simone D. J. Barbosa; Clarisse S. de Souza
Communicability evaluation is a method based on semiotic engineering that aims at assessing how designers communicate to users their design intents and chosen interactive principles, and thus complements traditional usability evaluation methods.
   In this paper, we present a case study in which we evaluate how communicablity tagging of an application changes along users learning curves. Our main goal was to have indications of how communicability evaluation along a learning period helps provide valuable information about interface designs, and identify communicative and interactive problems, as users become more proficient in the application.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); communicability, interface design evaluation, semiotic engineering, users' learning curves
Improving Electronic Guidebook Interfaces Using a Task-Oriented Design Approach BIBAKPDF 319-325
  Paul M. Aoki; Allison Woodruff
Item selection is a key problem in electronic guidebook design. Many systems do not apply so-called context-awareness technologies to infer user interest, placing the entire burden of selection on the user. Conversely, to make selection easier, many systems automatically eliminate information that they infer is not of interest to the user. However, such systems often eliminate too much information, preventing the user from finding what they want.
   To realize the full potential of electronic guidebooks, designers must strike the right balance between automatic context-based inference and manual selection. In this paper, we introduce a task-oriented model of item selection for electronic guidebooks to help designers explore this continuum. We argue that item selection contains three sub-tasks and that these sub-tasks should be considered explicitly in system design. We apply our model to existing systems, demonstrating pitfalls of combining sub-tasks, and discuss how our model has improved the design of our own guidebook prototype.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); electronic guidebooks, museum tour guides
Task Based Groupware Design: Putting Theory into Practice BIBAKPDF 326-337
  Gerrit van der Veer; Martijn van Welie
Designing Groupware systems requires methods and tools that cover all aspects of Groupware systems. We present a method that utilizes known theoretical insights and makes them usable in practice. In our method, the design of Groupware systems is driven by an extensive task analysis followed by structured design and iterative evaluation using usability criteria. Using a combination of multiple complementary representations and techniques, a wide range of aspects of Groupware design is covered. The method is built on our experiences and is used in practice by several companies and educational institutes in Europe. We define the design process, the models needed and the tools that support the design process.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); DUTCH, EUTERPE, GTA, design method, groupware, task analysis, tools
Designs Conducive to the Use of Efficient Strategies BIBAKPDF 338-345
  Suresh K. Bhavnani
Studies on the widespread inefficient use of complex computer applications have suggested that users need to learn efficient strategies in addition to learning how to use tools. This paper argues that our growing understanding of strategic knowledge can be used to guide designers develop systems which are conducive to the use of efficient strategies. The paper first describes ten general strategies which appear to be useful across three computer application domains. Next, the paper discusses the functionalities required to execute the ten strategies, and what makes them conducive to strategy use. An analysis of six major computer applications in three domains reveals that these functionalities are not consistently offered, and how their absence directly affects the performance of complex tasks. The analysis leads to questions related to the generality of the results, the problem of featurism, and how strategy-conducive systems could facilitate the transfer of knowledge across applications. The paper concludes by briefly describing how we intend to use the strategy framework to develop analysis methods for designers and trainers.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Evaluation/methodology; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; Computer Applications - Computer-Aided Engineering (J.6); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); design, efficiency, strategic knowledge, strategy, training
Communicating a Task Analysis with Task Layer Maps BIBAKPDF 346-353
  Jonathan Arnowitz; Duco Fijma; Jouke Verlinden
Modern user interface design methods, regardless of their extremely diverse viewpoints, all seem to agree that a document outlining a task analysis is essential for good user interface design. However, most representations of task analysis are difficult to understand. This difficulty makes the transition to dialogue design difficult, especially for multidisciplinary design teams with few shared skills and terminology. Using techniques borrowed from the study of parallel processing, the authors have developed a technique of task analysis representation called Task Layer Maps. Task Layer Maps are both quick and easy to understand. This technique helps design teams to quickly come up with a dialogue design and also allows checking that design for conformance with the task analysis.
Keywords: Theory of Computation -Computation by Abstract Devices - Modes of Computation (F.1.2): Parallelism and concurrency; Software -Programming Techniques - Concurrent Programming (D.1.3): Parallel programming; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); design methods, flow diagrams, parallel processing, task analysis, task modeling

Pattern Languages

Lingua Francas for Design: Sacred Places and Pattern Languages BIBAKPDF 357-368
  Thomas Erickson
A central challenge in interaction design has to do with its diversity. Designers, engineers, managers, marketers, researchers and users all have important contributions to make to the design process. But at the same time they lack shared concepts, experiences and perspectives. How is the process of design-which requires communication, negotiation and compromise-to effectively proceed in the absence of a common ground? I argue that an important role for the interaction designer is to help stakeholders in the design process to construct alingua franca. To explore this issue, which has received remarkably little attention in HCI, I turn to work in urban design and architecture. I begin by discussing a case study in community design, reported by Hester [10], that demonstrates the power of alingua franca for a particular design project. I then describe the concept of pattern languages and discuss how they might be adapted to the needs of interaction design in general, and used, in particular, as meta-languages for generating lingua francas for particular design projects.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2); Software -Software Engineering - Software Architectures (D.2.11): Patterns (e.g., client/server, pipeline, blackboard); architecture, design methods, interaction design, interdisciplinary design, interdsciplinary design, pattern language, patterns, urban design
A Pattern Approach to Interaction Design BIBAKPDF 369-378
  Jan O. Borchers
To create successful interactive systems, user interface designers need to cooperate with developers and application domain experts in an interdisciplinary team. These groups, however, usually miss a common terminology to exchange ideas, opinions, and values.
   This paper presents an approach that uses pattern languages to capture this knowledge in software development, HCI, and the application domain. A formal, domain-independent definition of design patterns allows for computer support without sacrificing readability, and pattern use is integrated into the usability engineering life cycle.
   As an example, experience from building an award-winning interactive music exhibit was turned into a pattern language, which was then used to inform follow-up projects and support HCI education.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Style guides; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Theory and methods; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Training, help, and documentation; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): User-centered design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5): Modeling; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Sound and Music Computing (H.5.5): Systems; Software -Software Engineering - Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): User interfaces; Software -Software Engineering - Software Architectures (D.2.11): Patterns (e.g., client/server, pipeline, blackboard); Software -Programming Languages - Language Classifications (D.3.2); design methodologies, education, exhibits, interdisciplinary design, music, pattern languages

Design Tools

Performance Targets, Models and Innovation in Interactive System Design BIBAKPDF 381-387
  William M. Newman; Alex S. Taylor; Christopher R. Dance; Stuart A. Taylor
This paper presents an approach to designing interactive systems that enables critical performance parameters to be identified and models of performance to be constructed. The methods described are intended to enable designers to improve the performance of systems, and the provision of performance targets is expected to encourage innovation in design. An example is quoted in which digital camera technology was applied to the support of authors using paper source documents, to enable them to capture source text more rapidly and thus increase their productivity, measured in terms of words per hour. A model of the capture task was constructed, and was used to set a target time for capturing short text segments. This target was presented to a design team, who responded with an innovative interface incorporating auto-completion. A prototype auto-completion tool demonstrated that the performance target could be met.
Keywords: Computing Methodologies -Image Processing And Computer Vision - Digitization and Image Capture (I.4.1): Scanning; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): Interaction styles; auto-completion, camera-based scanning, critical parameters, innovation
Contextual Prototyping of User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 388-395
  Chris Stary
Contextual development differs from traditional user interface development in several ways: It focuses on the context of usage and the user population rather than on the technical features required for interaction. However, the latter come into play when transforming context specifications into user-interface code. Contextual development also considers design to be a non-linear process based on activities (re)engineering work processes rather than performing traditional software-engineering tasks. Consequently, contextual development requires usage-relevant (re)presentation and execution mechanisms. Although the specification of task- and user-knowledge has been recognized to be crucial for contextual user interface design, seamless development support is still lacking. The reported TADEUS (Task Analysis/Design/End User Systems) project targets toward an environment that allows contextual and seamless design and prototyping based on user and task knowledge. Due to its model-based nature TADEUS is open with respect to diagrammatic notations for specification, and different interaction platforms. As a result, different perspectives on the context, development process and its results can be kept consistent throughout development.
Keywords: Software -Software Engineering - Design Tools and Techniques (D.2.2): User interfaces; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); contextual design, customization, interactive work design, lifecycle management, model-based development, object-oriented modeling, prototyping, scamless development, seamless development, tools, usability engineering, user-centered system design
Meta-Design: Design for Designers BIBAKPDF 396-405
  Gerhard Fischer; Eric Scharff
One fundamental challenge for the design of the interactive systems of the future is to invent and design environments and cultures in which humans can express themselves and engage in personally meaningful activities. Unfortunately, a large number of new media are designed from a perspective of viewing and treating humans primarily as consumers. The possibility for humans to be and act as designers (in cases in which they desire to do so) should be accessible not only to a small group of high-tech scribes, but rather to all interested individuals and groups. Meta-design characterizes activities, processes, and objectives to create new media and environments that allow users to act as designers and be creative.
   In this paper we discuss problems addressed by our research on meta-design, provide a conceptual framework for meta-design, and illustrate our developments in the context of a particular system, the Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); consumer and designer mindsets, designing "out of the box", domain-oriented design environments, evolutionary growth, impact of new media on design, open evolvable systems, open source, reseeding model, seeding, underdesigned systems
A Dimension Space for the Design of Interactive Systems Within their Physical Environments BIBAKPDF 406-416
  T. C. Nicholas Graham; Leon A. Watts; Gaelle Calvary; Joelle Coutaz; Emmanuel Dubois; Laurence Nigay
This paper introduces a Dimension Space describing the entities making up richly interactive systems. The Dimension Space is intended to help designers understand both the physical and virtual entities from which their systems are built, and the tradeoffs involved in both the design of the entities themselves and of the combination of these entities in a physical space. Entities are described from the point of view of a person carrying out a task at a particular time, in terms of their attention received, role, manifestation, input and output capacity and informational density. The Dimension Space is applied to two new systems developed at Grenoble, exposing design tradeoffs and design rules for richly interactive systems.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Multimedia Information Systems (H.5.1): Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities; Computing Methodologies -Computer Graphics - Three-Dimensional Graphics and Realism (I.3.7): Virtual reality; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; augmented reality, dimension space, groupware, interactive system design

User Experience

The Building Blocks of Experience: An Early Framework for Interaction Designers BIBAKPDF 419-423
  Jodi Forlizzi; Shannon Ford
Design activity has recently attempted to embrace designing the user experience. Designers need to demystify how we design for user experience and how the products we design achieve specific user experience goals. This paper proposes an initial framework for understanding experience as it relates to user-product interactions. We propose a system for talking about experience, and look at what influences experience and qualities of experience. The framework is presented as a tool to understand what kinds of experiences products evoke.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; experience, interaction design, research, theory, user experience
Experience Prototyping BIBAKPDF 424-433
  Marion Buchenau; Jane Fulton Suri
In this paper, we describe "Experience Prototyping" as a form of prototyping that enables design team members, users and clients to gain first-hand appreciation of existing or future conditions through active engagement with prototypes. We use examples from commercial design projects to illustrate the value of such prototypes in three critical design activities: understanding existing experiences, exploring design ideas and in communicating design concepts.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; design, experience, methods, prototyping
User-Driven Design of a Tangible Awareness Landscape BIBAKPDF 434-440
  Simon Lock; Jennifer Allanson; Peter Phillips
This paper describes the design and evolutionary development of a system for supporting informal interactions between geographically-remote members of a group. Based on simple internet technologies, the system described enables the use of novel, tangible devices for the purpose of discrete event notification. A simple system was initially developed for use in an office environment for providing awareness events via a single notification device. Over a four month period this simple system evolved into a suite of low-cost, low-tech notification devices for public and personal use. The numerous devices utilised by the final system constitute a physical landscape of awareness which have been demonstrated to support group and individual awareness of discrete events in both fixed locations and on the move.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems development; Information Systems -Information Systems Applications - Office Automation (H.4.1): Groupware; awareness landscapes, tangible media, user-driven design

Panel Sessions

Mergers and Acquisitions: The Changing Practice of HCI and Design BIBAKPDF 442-443
  Margaret McCormack; Nico Macdonald; Christopher Pacione
This session is intended to stimulate discussion about the current trend of mergers and acquisitions that are changing the practice of Design, HCI, and technology based companies. A panel of influential leaders from the Design and HCI communities will be brought together to debate and discuss both the benefits and consequences of acquiring, being acquired and remaining independent. Half the panelists will represent mega e-powerhouses (companies that have been acquired or merged within the last 3 years) and half the panelists will represent smaller independent design and HCI companies.
Keywords: Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; HCI practice, acquisitions, design practice, design trends, mergers
Panel: Teaching Tangible Interaction Design BIBAKPDF 444-445
  Keiichi Sato; William Verplank
How do we educate the designers and engineers who will develop the interactive products and systems of the future? Computing functions are moving into physical objects; networking allows us to connect objects and spaces. As products gain more computing and information technology for power, control and interaction, they tend to lose direct and physical qualities; networking creates tangled webs of non-locality. This panel addresses a question How can we increase literacy in the physical quality of experience and enhance design students capacity for understanding the implications of embedded technologies in product innovation?
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Computers and Education - Computer and Information Science Education (K.3.2): Curriculum; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); interaction design education, interaction paradigms, physical interaction, prototyping
Stories and Storytelling in the Design of Interactive Systems BIBAKPDF 446-447
  Dan Gruen
This panel will look at how stories can be used in the design of interactive systems from two perspectives: stories that exist as the content or organizing theme within a system, and stories told around the people, settings, and activities in which an interactive system is used. Although these uses are different, they involve common themes and the use of similar tools. Examples from actual engagements using story-based design techniques suggest that the same elements that contribute to a compelling story, movie, or novel are important for a successful and compelling product or offering. Participants will discuss their use of stories, drawing from specific projects and engagements in which stories, storyboards, and other narrative techniques have played a role.
Keywords: Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2); Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design;
The Trialectical Architecture of Buildings, Intranets and Organisations BIBAKPDF 449
  Karen Mahony; Andrew Yeoh
In this paper, we explore the implications of the new dimension of the intranet to the design of organisational environments.
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Computer Applications - Arts and Humanities (J.5): Architecture; Information Systems -Models and Principles - User/Machine Systems (H.1.2); architecture, design, intranet, organisation
Reflecting on Design Practice: Exploring Video Documentary of Designers in Action BIBKPDF 450-451
  Jacob Buur; Thomas Binder; Trond Are Oritsland
Keywords: Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - User Interfaces (H.5.2): User-centered design;
Envisioning the E-Quarium: Strategic Design Planning for the Monterey Bay Aquarium's Web site BIBAKPDF 452-454
  Lauralee Alben; Michael Rigsby
This presentation focuses on the strategic design planning and vision creation process for the E-Quarium, the online complement to the Monterey Bay Aquarium. More than six months of informed investigation and analysis resulted in an ambitious redesign of the web site, which launched in October 1999. The aquarium and AlbenFaris worked in close partnership in a collaborative development process that included visitor research, establishment of a clear strategic vision, a set of goals and content objectives, identification of target audiences, scenario planning, competitive analysis, site definition and design. As a result, the new E-Quarium exemplifies the relevance of grounded design practice.
   More than a design case study, this is a thoughtful weaving of the process, perspectives and experiences the designers gained from understanding the aquariums structure, mission and culture and the needs of the aquariums key audiences. The inclusion of experts in marine biology and conservation, exhibition design and technology as members of the development team provided inspiration and insights beyond the normal boundaries of interactive design.
   This presentation is also a journey into the wonder of kelp forests and the deep sea-habitats showcased in the aquarium exhibits and the online E-Quarium. Both the physical aquarium and the E-Quarium have a profound effect on visitors, inspiring and informing them about the wonders of the oceans. And both serve as catalysts, making visitors aware of ocean conservation issues and encouraging them to join with the Monterey Bay Aquarium in the cause of ocean conservation.
Keywords: Computer Applications - Physical Sciences and Engineering (J.2): Earth and atmospheric sciences; Computer Applications - Life and Medical Sciences (J.3): Biology and genetics; Computing Milieux -Management of Computing and Information Systems - Project and People Management (K.6.1): Systems analysis and design; Computing Methodologies -Artificial Intelligence - Problem Solving, Control Methods, and Search (I.2.8): Plan execution, formation, and generation; Information Systems -Information Storage and Retrieval - Online Information Services (H.3.5): Web-based services; Information Systems -Information Interfaces and Presentation - Group and Organization Interfaces (H.5.3): Web-based interaction; collaborative design, competitive analysis, goal planning, interactive design, multimedia, online surveys, scenario planning, strategy, visitor research, web site