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COOP Tables of Contents: 020408101214

Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems
Note:From Research to Practice in the Design of Cooperative Systems: Results and Open Challenges
Editors:Julie Dugdale; Cédric Masclet; Maria Antonietta Grasso; Jean-François Boujut; Parina Hassanaly
Location:Marseille, France
Dates:2012-May-30 to 2012-Jun-01
Publisher:Springer London
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4471-4093-1 hcibib: COOP12; ISBN: 978-1-4471-4092-4 (print), 978-1-4471-4093-1 (online)
Papers:20
Pages:308
Links:Online Proceedings | Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Working in Health Care
  2. Social Environments in Support of Work
  3. Understanding Communities and Global Teams
  4. Working with Tangible User Interfaces
  5. Working with Devices
  6. Working at Distance
  7. Understanding Work and Social Settings

Working in Health Care

Establishing a Core Health Record; A Case Study from Norwegian Healthcare BIBAFull-TextPDF 1-15
  Eli Larsen; Gunnar Ellingsen
Information and communication technology (ICT) has become important for many public services as they seek to become more efficient and effective. Authorities in Norway have since 1997 formulated strategic plans for ICT in healthcare, striving to obtain seamless care and funding in varying degree have been allocated in order to achieve results. In this chapter we present several initiatives concerning the establishment of a core health record in order to reveal the effects of running ICT projects at a governmental level.
   The study adheres to an interpretive research approach. Empirical data was collected through project participation, document studies, interviews and observations.
   We found that the consequences of the authorities' influence in the information system domain in the Norwegian healthcare seem to separate the users from the system developers to an ever-increasing extent. We also found that reforms in the hospital sector have created a powerful ICT organization in the hospital sector; this organization seems to set the agenda within ICT in Norwegian healthcare, which also includes the GPs and the municipality sector.
Standardizing Work in Healthcare Through Architecture, Routines and Technologies BIBAKFull-TextPDF 17-32
  Rune Pedersen
This chapter presents an in-depth longitudinal study of hospital work. It discusses standardization after the introduction of a computer-mediated nurse-nurse/interdisciplinary handover in a cardiology ward and its effect on collaborative work activities. The standardization also plays out in the physical architecture adopted by the hospital, which impact on the "who" and "how" collaboration progress -- the impact of standardized spaces. The chapter focuses on the constant strive in health care to make work practice more effective by employing an increasingly broader approach towards standardization. The number of involved standards is central. Typically for this have been the introduction of the electronic patient record (EPR) system and a following chain of standards made feasible through possibilities from using an EPR system. Sociomateriality is used to illuminate the fact that standardization efforts cannot be investigated as isolated efforts, rather as one of several social and material interconnected ones. Particular to the case was how the physician-nurse handover was made computer mediated, which involves or alter interdisciplinary collaboration in the handover process. Although increased efficiency has been successfully achieved, the chapter discusses how altering some work impacts other processes, especially interdisciplinary collaboration, social relations, and informal learning. Further, architecture has gained sparse attention in the standardization of work processes in health care. Architecture contributes to standardized work practice when striving for efficiency and also become a conflicting standard in interdisciplinary collaboration.
Keywords: Architecture; Collaboration; Conflicting standards; Electronic Patient Record (EPR); Sociomateriality; Standardization
The Clinical Work of Secretaries: Exploring the Intersection of Administrative and Clinical Work in the Diagnosing Process BIBAKFull-TextPDF 33-47
  Naja L. Holten Møller; Signe Vikkelsø
Diagnostic work is often defined by the skill of clinicians whereas the contributions of non-clinicians, for example secretaries, tend to fade into the background. The secretaries are deeply involved in diagnostic work through the eligible administration of patients in the collaborative electronic information systems. This study explores the secretaries' role in diagnostic work, focusing specifically on the context of diagnosing cancer. It identifies four key activities of secretaries that are essential for diagnosing patients: We argue that the secretaries' role is positioned at the intersection of clinical and administrative practices and not limited to support of articulation work of clinicians and administrative work. Secretaries also carry out activities that fall under the core definition of clinical work. This clinical dimension of the secretaries' work, we argue, should be embedded in the design of collaborative systems to support the diagnosing process.
Keywords: Intersections; Diagnostic work; Electronic information systems

Social Environments in Support of Work

Exploring the Virtual Space of Academia BIBAFull-TextPDF 49-63
  Maria Menendez; Antonella de Angeli; Zeno Menestrina
The aim of this chapter is to provide a view on how researchers present themselves in a social network specifically developed for supporting academic practices, how they share information and engage in dialogues with colleagues worldwide. We analysed data from 30,428 users who have registered on a publicly available website to study the effect of academic position, university ranking and country on people's behaviour. Results suggest that the virtual network closely mirrors physical reality, reproducing the same hierarchical structure imposed by position, ranking, and country on user behaviour. Despite the potential for bridging and bonding social capital the networks have not achieved substantial changes in structures and practices of the academic context. Furthermore, our analysis highlights the need of finding new strategies to motivate the users to contribute to the community and support equal participation, as so far the community is mainly exploited as a static website.
The Not-So-Open Wikis: Structures of Collaboration At Work BIBAFull-TextPDF 65-80
  Osama Mansour
The current chapter discusses issues related to the use of the wiki technology at the workplace for social knowledge collaboration and sharing. This kind of technology is principally flexible and free in the sense of allowing people to create, edit, and shape content collaboratively. However, this chapter argues that the application and use of a wiki within an organizational setting might be influenced by social and structural properties that govern collaboration and sharing. It is based on empirical data obtained through 11 semi-structured interviews with employees working for a large multinational organization. The theory of structuration was used as a theoretical framework to guide the empirical inquiry. Eventually, the chapter concludes with discussing a number of structures associated with evolving norms, interpretations, and resources that govern and shape the use of a wiki as a tool for social and open collaboration.
Harvesting Collective Agreement in Community Oriented Surveys: The Medical Case BIBAFull-TextPDF 81-96
  Federico Cabitza
The chapter discusses the role of simple and lightweight Web-based systems in promoting a different approach to the externalization of practice-related knowledge within communities of professionals. This approach exploits common online questionnaire systems to collect the preferences of large numbers of domain experts to interesting paradigmatic work cases and proposes a statistically sound evaluation of these responses to evaluate the agreement reached within the community. We tested this approach in a case study that involved a large international medical association, that we chose as an example of a large and highly distributed community of expert professionals; in this study we challenged more than 1,000 surgeons about some border-line clinical cases where tacit notions based on life-long practice and situated experiences coexist (and sometimes clash) with scientific evidences drawn from the specialistic literature. We make the point that a sound evaluation of the collective agreement is a necessary precondition to use such lean Web-based tools in bottom-up knowledge elicitation initiatives. To this aim, existing measures of agreement and survey-related heuristics can be exploited to get a more precise picture of the "opinion of the many" in collective settings like communities of practice.

Understanding Communities and Global Teams

Classifying Communities for Design BIBAFull-TextPDF 97-110
  Sergio Herranz; David Díez; Paloma Díaz; Starr Roxanne Hiltz
Cooperative design is a complex process that usually involves participants from different cultural and social domains, with different backgrounds and experiences. In this context, the need for social structures that support sharing and common understanding is an essential requirement. The response to such a need can be found in the creation of 'Communities of Practices' and 'Communities of Interest'. Both types of structures have successfully and extensively been applied in different domains; however, a detailed analysis of these concepts points up the need for additional research that leads to their application to cooperative design. This chapter presents a review of the 'Communities of Practices' and 'Communities of Interest' concepts in order to propose a systematic process for classifying communities. This process might allow practitioners to identify which kind of structure is more suitable to support specific cooperative design processes.
The Trouble with 'Knowledge Transfer': On Conduit Metaphors and Semantic Pathologies in Our Understanding of Didactic Practice BIBAFull-TextPDF 111-121
  Lars Rune Christensen
It is a feature central to cooperative work that practitioners develop and maintain their collective competences and skills, and one will in many settings find elaborate didactic practices that reflect this state of affairs. The concept of 'knowledge transfer' that plays a key role in the knowledge management research area offers an obvious framework to the study of mutual learning. However, the notion of 'knowledge transfer' is a semantic pathology despite its widespread use in academia and everyday language, or more precisely, it is a conduit metaphor that mystify the very concept of didactic practice. The argument is that we need to abandon the conduit metaphor all together and present a viable alternative. In this paper we suggest that talking about 'didactic practice' is one such alternative and substantiate this assertion by presenting an ethnographic study of didactic practice in the building process.
Divergence and Convergence in Global Software Development: Cultural Complexities as Social Worlds BIBAFull-TextPDF 123-136
  Rasmus Eskild Jensen; Pernille Bjørn
This study reports the results of a workplace study of globally distributed software development projects in a global software company. We investigated cultural complexities as social worlds and sought to understand how differences in social worlds between geographically distributed developers become salient in their everyday interactions. By analysing both interviews and observations we identified two types of situations where social worlds become salient in the everyday interactions between developers working at different geographical locations: (1) the divergence of concept and meaning and (2) the convergence of concept but divergence of meaning. We argue that these situations are grounded in social worlds and pose a challenge to work practices in the form of miscommunication and misinterpretation of shared tasks.

Working with Tangible User Interfaces

Creating Metaphors for Tangible User Interfaces in Collaborative Urban Planning: Questions for Designers and Developers BIBAKFull-TextPDF 137-151
  Valérie Maquil; Olivier Zephir; Eric Ras
Designing tangible user interfaces (TUIs) means to deal with a complex number of issues related to the particular mixture of the physical and digital space. While a number of existing guidelines and frameworks propose issues and themes that are relevant during design, we still miss a more specific guidance on how to address such issues. This chapter analyses the difficulty of designing and developing TUIs by considering the principle of metaphors. Based on an analysis of the different types of targets of metaphors in TUIs, we identify the complexities of TUI adoption by users across physical, digital, and application domains. We propose a series of questions that support designers and developers in dealing with these complexities in the context of a TUI for collaborative planning and discussion of urban concepts. Our work is based on and illustrated through various insights collected during the development of the "ColorTable", a complex TUI for collaborative urban planning.
Keywords: Tangible user interfaces; Interaction design; Metaphor; Design processes; Urban planning
Collaborative Problem Solving with Objects: Physical Aspects of a Tangible Tabletop in Technology-based Assessment BIBAKFull-TextPDF 153-166
  Valérie Maquil; Eric Ras
This chapter analyses how the physical objects and space of a tangible user interface supports groups of participants to collaboratively solve a problem. Our aim is to understand which characteristics of the physical space support the participants in thinking collaboratively. We describe a user study with a tangible tabletop for technology-based assessment. We identify a series of patterns extracted from a video analysis using the Collaborative Learning Mechanism framework. In our discussion, we elaborate the characteristics of the TUI that support interactions based on the observed patterns: the physical interaction objects, the shareability of the space, and the non-responsive spaces.
Keywords: Tangible user interface; Interaction design; External cognition; Collaborative problem solving; Computer-based assessment; User study

Working with Devices

End-users' Integration of Applications and Devices: A Cooperation Based Approach BIBAFull-TextPDF 167-181
  Marco P. Locatelli; Carla Simone
The current organizational and technological evolution suggests to conceive tailorability and EUD also in terms of integration of off the shelf applications and devices that support collaboration. To this aim this chapter proposes an approach that leverages the ability of actors to coordinate their activities and then grounds integration on the notion of cooperation. The resulting technological environment is presented and illustrated through a case derived from an ongoing project. Some considerations derived from a short experimentation conclude the chapter.
Social Aspects of Place Experience in Mobile Work/Life Practices BIBAFull-TextPDF 183-196
  Luigina Ciolfi; Breda Gray; Anthony D'Andrea
This chapter examines the importance of "where" mobile work/life practices occur. By discussing excerpts of data collected through in-depth interviews with mobile professionals, we focus on the importance of place for mobility, and highlight the social character of place and the intrinsically social motivations of workers when making decisions regarding where to move. In order to show how the experience of mobility is grounded within place as a socially significant construct, we concentrate on three analytical themes: place as an essential component of social/collaborative work, place as expressive of organizational needs and characteristics, and place as facilitating a blending of work/life strategies and relationships.
Maintaining the Instant Connection -- Social Media Practices of Smartphone Users BIBAFull-TextPDF 197-211
  Sanna Malinen; Jarno Ojala
In the last few years, using social media via mobile phone applications has become increasingly common. However, there are only few studies exploring people's mobile application usage behavior. In order to understand users' mobile social media practices in the context of everyday life, 30 owners of high-end smartphones were interviewed for this study. The context of their mobile SNS use cases was studied through diaries kept by 15 of the participants. The results show that mobile social networking is typically about briefly checking the latest updates and news, most often while in transit and when immersive use of the internet is not possible. Also, there are more browsing activities on the mobile phone than content creation, which is better done with PC. In the use of social media, immediate access to the most interesting content, such as photos, status updates and news, is highly valued; in this respect, the mobile phone adds value to the use of social media by enabling access to it in a great variety of situations and locations. As a practical result, we present design implications for mobile SNS applications and point out that there is currently a lack of features for effective selection, storing and filtering of content produced through the various social media sites.

Working at Distance

Supporting Collaborative Work in Socio-Physical Environments: A Normative Approach BIBAKFull-TextPDF 213-228
  Catherine Garbay; Fabien Badeig; Jean Caelen
We propose a normative approach to collaborative support system design in distributed tangible environments. Based on activity theory, our goal is to mediate rather than drive human activity and to integrate components from the physical, numerical and social environments. We propose an original architecture coupling a physical space (tools supporting human activity), a processing space (agent performing activity, be it human or artificial), an informational space (traces reflecting activity), and a normative space (filters regulating activity). We further consider collaboration as a conversational process grounded in the objects of the working space. To this end, tangible objects of various kinds are designed to support multi-threaded activity. Heterogeneous trace properties may then be fused to situate activity and ground the filtering process. Interface agents are designed to provide appropriate visual feedback and support mutual awareness. Beyond the mere sharing of individual or group activity, we approach awareness as involving mutual knowledge of the activity constraints. We show through simple examples from the RISK game the potential richness of the proposed approach.
Keywords: Collaboration architectures; Tangible Distributed Interfaces; Activity Theory; Normative Multi-Agent Systems
Exploring Collaboration in Group-to-Group Videoconferencing BIBAFull-TextPDF 229-244
  Petr Slovák; Peter Novák; Pavel Troubil; Vít Rusnák; Petr Holub; Erik C. Hofer
Prior work on videoconferencing shows that various design changes can have profound impacts on group dynamics. In order to further explore the available design space, we report on a qualitative study that compares behaviour of groups in two group-to-group videoconferencing environments and face-to-face communication during a complex social dilemma game. There are pronounced differences in participant behaviour between the two videoconferencing designs, indicating higher cooperative behaviour in one of the videoconferencing conditions. Based on qualitative analysis of the gameplay, we hypothesise that the decisive factor is a discrepancy in the type of group identity that develops during the game. Our results suggest that the differences in behaviour are due to differences in design of the two videoconferencing environments. In particular, the incorporation of personal displays and individualised videostreams likely contributed to these outcomes.
Use of Graphical Modality in a Collaborative Design Distant Setting BIBAKFull-TextPDF 245-260
  Stéphane Safin; Roland Juchmes; Pierre Leclercq
In this chapter, we are interested in studying the use of the graphical modality (digital sketch and document annotations) as a tool for collective design and remote communication. This study takes place in the framework of a 3 months long collaborative architectural design studio, gathering students from Belgium and France to remotely work together in three small groups. The study focuses on the role of the graphical modality inside synchronous remote meetings supported by the Distributed Collaborative Design Studio (DCDS). The DCDS enables multimodal real-time remote exchanges, and aims at remotely re-creating the conditions of co-present meetings. This environment associates a videoconference tool (supporting verbal and non-verbal communication) and an original real-time shared digital hand-drawn sketches system (supporting graphical communication). We identify the types of digital annotations made on the imported document (thanks to the electronic pen), as well as their role in the cognitive design processes and in the collaborative and communication processes. We also identify the different practices of digital sketching, in regard to each group and its collaborative strategies. We discuss the utility of the graphical modality as an efficient support for collaborative synchronous activities and show that the DCDS environment supports different strategies of collaborative design (co-design and distributed design). We conclude on recommendations for improving the system and for designing sketch-based collaborative environments.
Keywords: CSCL; Architecture; Multimodal collaboration; Pen-based interaction

Understanding Work and Social Settings

Struggling Against Social Isolation of the Elderly -- The Design of SmartTV Applications BIBAFull-TextPDF 261-275
  Malek Alaoui; Myriam Lewkowicz
This chapter charts a work in progress in the frame of the European project AAL FoSIBLE. Our hypothesis is that virtual networks and online generational communities could offset the lack of relationship, prevent isolation and increase self-esteem for older people living alone at home. Following this purpose, we are then aiming at defining services by rethinking the use of well-known existing technologies and to broaden their scope to be more affordable by older people. This chapter describes related work on the use of the Internet for social interactions among the elderly. The living Lab approach we follow and our results on understanding the actual use and needs of the elderly are presented, followed by the SmartTV platform which is iteratively developed. The analysis of the use of this platform being designed in a user-centred approach will permit us to answer our research issues.
Examining Multiactivity Using Multi-camera Recordings: The Use of Text Chat in a Call Center BIBAFull-TextPDF 277-290
  Karine Lan Hing Ting
Call center work cannot be reducible to talking on the phone. Parallel to their talk, call center agents manage computer/screen activity and collaboration with co-workers present on the floor. The situated work activity that is achieved is an artful management of several forms of interaction occurring simultaneously. Among these parallel activities is the use of text chat. This keyboard writing of short messages is a quick and easy way to share information and coordinate action. More importantly, being a 'silent' communicative medium and modality, it allows coordination with colleagues to occur at the same time as the phone call. Focusing on text chat allows a questioning of the place and use of computer technologies in call center work. However, in order to fully understand how this artifact supports collaborative work, it is important to examine the multiactivity the agent is engaged in. The analyses of the whole situation of work presented in this chapter are based on multi-camera video extracts, giving access to the phone conversation, the screen activity and content, verbal communication and gestures with co-workers around.
Agentville: Supporting Situational Awareness and Motivation in Call Centres BIBAKFull-TextPDF 291-307
  Tommaso Colombino; Stefania Castellani; Antonietta Grasso; Jutta Willamowski
Call centres are high pressure work environments where agents work strictly according to shifts and time schedules. Typically, agents are grouped into teams with supervisors from whom they receive only periodic performance feedback. It is a challenge to maintain high motivation and performance amongst the agents in this environment. Agents may lack awareness of their individual status with respect to their objectives, and the performance of their team and the call center as a whole. In this chapter we describe the design of a system that we are building to provide the agents with real-time information on their work environment's status and on potential improvements in performance, while hopefully also improving their work experience. The solution is based on the introduction in the call centre of some game mechanics whose selection and instantiation has been informed by case studies conducted by the authors.
Keywords: Ethnography; Ethnomethodology; Game mechanics; Human Computer Interaction