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COOP Tables of Contents: 020408101214

Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Design of Cooperative Systems
Location:Carry-le-Rouet, Provence, France
Dates:2008-May-20 to 2008-May-23
Standard No:hcibib: COOP08
Papers:18
Pages:273
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. Knowledge and Awareness: Problems and Solutions
  2. Studies of Work / Awareness of Work
  3. Lightweight Collaborative Applications
  4. Theory and Method
  5. Design for Team Creativity
  6. Metadata, Folksonomy, Ontology
  7. Knowledge Sharing in and Between Organizations

Knowledge and Awareness: Problems and Solutions

Anticipative Awareness in a Groupware System BIBAKPDF 5-15
  Wolfgang Prinz; Elke Hinrichs; Irina Kireyev
Using personas and scenarios is one way of working with usability in system development projects. In this paper we describe our experience of using the personas and scenarios within a large, on-going European research project called NEPOMUK. We describe the project background as well as the project work with the purpose of critically examining how the persona method has been applied within the project. Our conclusion is that the persona method has been most useful for translating the users' context to be understood by the project stakeholders and in promoting the idea of user-centred design. However, it has been less successful as a design tool.
Keywords: User-centred design, case study, field study, contextual interviews, observations, personas, scenarios
Dynamism and Data Management in Distributed, Collaborative Working Environments BIBAKPDF 16-22
  Alexander Kipp; Lutz Schubert; Matthias Assel; Terrence Fernando
Due to globalization and environmental challenges, there is a growing interest in adopting collaborative technologies to support distributed virtual enterprises to work as virtual teams, reducing time, cost and need for travel. This paper presents the approach taken by the CoSpaces project [1] in developing a collaborative technology platform for distributed engineering organizations. In particular, this paper overviews the ongoing work of the "Dynamic Session Management System" which provides the dynamic integration of decision making and communication tools within the entire CoSpaces software framework. It also reports on how data management and sharing within this dynamic infrastructure is handled while addressing the security concerns of certain individual companies.
Keywords: Collaborative Working Environments, Virtual Organizations, Dynamic Ad-Hoc Collaboration, Dynamic Service Integration, Secure Data Management, Future Internet
Enabling biomedical data analysis workflows: the Multi-Knowledge collaborative platform BIBAKPDF 23-34
  Michele Amoretti; Francesco Zanichelli; Gianni Conte
The objective of the Multi-Knowledge project is the development and validation of a collaborative IT platform for knowledge management, allowing geographically dispersed groups of researchers, dealing with different data sources as well as technological and organisational contexts, to create, exchange and manipulate new knowledge in a seamless fashion. The ambition is also to define a methodological framework that can easily be extended to include additional sources of knowledge and expertise (biomedical data, images, environmental data), and can be applied to wider sectors of medical research. After two years of work, the Multi-Knowledge platform is almost complete and the second pilot experiment is being carried out. In this paper we describe the Multi-Knowledge project, starting from user requirements which have driven the development process, then going into details of the different modules which compose the platform, and finally illustrating the experiments which are being conducted across different sites.
Keywords: collaborative platform, knowledge extraction, e-health
Finding Synergies: Web 2.0 and Collaboration Support Systems BIBAKPDF 35-41
  Carsten Ritterskamp; Michael Prilla
The prevalence and success of Web 2.0 applications in fostering collaboration raise the question whether or not traditional Collaboration Support Systems are still the tools of the trade when it comes to supporting collaborative work. In this paper, we argue that rather than replacing Collaboration Support Systems by Web 2.0 applications mechanisms from both domains may complement each other advantageously. By highlighting differences between the domains and commenting on prototypical implementations, we show possibilities for meaningful recombinations. The paper concludes with a brief outlook on the potential influence Web 2.0 may have on next generation Collaboration Support Systems.
Keywords: cscw, web 2.0, tool design

Studies of Work / Awareness of Work

'Colour, it's just a constant problem': an examination of practice, infrastructure and workflow in colour printing BIBAKPDF 44-55
  David Martin; Jacki O'Neill; Tommaso Colombino; Frederic Roulland; Jutta Willamowski
This paper examines the work to control colour in graphic design and printing focusing on the reasons why practitioners do not implement 'colour managed' (CM) workflows. CM workflows should allow for successful transfer and reproduction of colour information from e.g. computer to print. However, the technical requirements -- in terms of equipment 'set-up' and knowledge -- prove to be beyond most of those working in the industry. We examine the reasons for this and the different cooperative practices that designers and print workers use in the 'real-world' to control colour. This paper contributes to studies of cooperative work and technologies by providing a critical appraisal of infrastructure and workflow as a means of supporting cooperative work in design and printing.
Keywords: Colour printing, colour management, infrastructure, workflow, ethnography, ethnomethodology
Longstanding Success without Awareness Features: Lessons from a Collaborative Programming Tool BIBAKPDF 56-62
  Cristian Bogdan
The paper is a reflective account of a successful five-year experience with a Web-based collaborative programming environment for nomadic student programmers. While after implementing the basic functionality there were good opportunities for collecting and providing awareness information within the tool, resources did not permit that. Still, the users appreciated the tool and inferred the needed awareness information or provided for it using other channels like instant messaging. This experience suggests that well-designed basic articulation is much more important than awareness for the success of collaborative tools.
Keywords: awareness, articulation, nomadic, programming, collaborative, learning, contingency, amateur
A Study of Digital Note Sharing in Nomadic Groups BIBAKPDF 63-74
  Rob Smit; Cristian Bogdan; Chiara Rossitto; Kerstin Severinson Eklundh
We report on a study of an Anoto® digital pen and paper usage in three student project groups over three months. We have set up a system including a digital pen and paper, handwriting recognition software, and provided the conditions for wireless note sharing over Bluetooth, and thereafter we let the students use the technology as they went about their activities. Our goal was to evaluate the system's potential for student groups as usage naturally occurred and to assess how the participants integrated the technology in their work and whether it bridged the physical-digital gap. We found that even if the technology works well for individual use, collaborative use of digital pen and paper posed important issues, which we discuss in the light of our notion of nomadicity as a work condition, as well as in the light of the increasingly opportunistic nature of handwriting nowadays.
Keywords: digital pen, digital paper, sharing, nomadicity, student group, digital notes, handwriting, sketching, opportunistic
Between casual commitment and cross-media articulation -- the faith of the Napkin BIBAKPDF 75-84
  Susanne Bødker; Anja Bechmann Petersen
This paper presents an analysis of the Napkin, a collaborative technology designed to support news reporters in their struggle to handle the integrated production of news stories to multiple media platforms. The Napkin was abandoned while we studied it, and this raised the questions of what was wrong with the Napkin, and why did it fail? The Napkin suffered many of the problems known to CSCW: It lacked reciprocity of visibility and commitment between reporters and editors; it did not give sufficient overview of media processes and products, in particular it was impossible to motivate stories and overview their relationships with other stories. The casual metaphor of a Napkin was in contrast to how commitments got perceived by reporters and editors. The paper uses these discussions to revisit the notion of articulation work.
Keywords: CSCW, articulation work, overview, cooperation

Lightweight Collaborative Applications

Functions of Social Networking Services BIBAKPDF 87-98
  Alexander Richter; Michael Koch
Social Networking Services (SNS) are the fastest growing type of social software -- both in the Internet and in company-wide Intranets. Due to the fact that SNS have emerged just recently and the development speed of the services is enormous, there exist large gaps in research about this type of service. For example, so far there has been no attempt to identify and categorize the basic functionalities of SNS. This is the goal of this contribution. Six groups of functionalities for SNS are proposed and their categorization is motivated. The identification of a distinct set of SNS functions will facilitate the modularization and integration of different social network applications.
Keywords: Social Networking, Expert Finding, Yellow Pages, Knowledge Management, Web 2.0, Social Software, Enterprise 2.0
Soft peer review. Social software and distributed scientific evaluation BIBAKPDF 99-110
  Dario Taraborelli
The debate on the prospects of peer-review in the Internet age and the increasing criticism leveled against the dominant role of impact factor indicators are calling for new measurable criteria to assess scientific quality. Usage-based metrics offer a new avenue to scientific quality assessment but face the same risks as first generation search engines that used unreliable metrics (such as raw traffic data) to estimate content quality. In this article I analyze the contribution that social bookmarking systems can provide to the problem of usage-based metrics for scientific evaluation. I suggest that collaboratively aggregated metadata may help fill the gap between traditional citation-based criteria and raw usage factors. I submit that bottom-up, distributed evaluation models such as those afforded by social bookmarking will challenge more traditional quality assessment models in terms of coverage, efficiency and scalability. Services aggregating user-related quality indicators for online scientific content will come to occupy a key function in the scholarly communication system.
Keywords: peer review; rating; impact factor; citation analysis; usage factors; scholarly publishing; social bookmarking; collaborative annotation; online reference managers; social software; web 2.0; tagging; folksonomy
The wiki as an integrative tool in project work BIBAKPDF 111-122
  Birgit Rognebakke Krogstie
The paper provides insights on how wikis support project work and what characteristics of wikis make them adequate for this purpose. The findings are based on a case study of software engineering projects in an educational setting. Project wikis are found to serve an integrative role along several dimensions of project work, enabled by the flexibility and automatic support for capturing history offered by the technology. The findings demonstrate that a project wiki can serve as a knowledge repository, a means for staging the project, a coordination mechanism, and a shared workspace. To many projects in need of project management and collaboration support, project wikis should be seen as an attractive, lightweight, all-purpose alternative.
Keywords: wikis, cooperation technology, project work, software engineering
Proliferation in Enterprise Wikis BIBAPDF 123-129
  Hans-Jörg Happel; Marius Treitz
Wikis have become a popular tool for the collaborative creation of hyperlinked documents. Besides the well-known Wikipedia, enterprises are increasingly adopting wikis for internal documentation and knowledge management purposes. A typical attribute of wikis is their openness concerning the modification and creation of content and the lack of pre-defined structures. While this enables an easy access with low barriers for contributors, it also introduces certain problems -- such as redundant or outdated content -- which we subsume under the term of "wiki proliferation". In this paper, we analyze wiki proliferation in terms of its causes, consequences and common countermeasures. Our analysis is based on six qualitative interviews with companies which are using wikis internally. The interviews show that proliferation is a serious problem for these organizations which is actively addressed by different countermeasures.

Theory and Method

Reconsidering Clark's Theory in CSCW BIBAKPDF 132-143
  Nicolas Nova; Mirweis Sangin; Pierre Dillenbourg
The use of Herbert Clark's work as a theoretical framework in the Computer Supported Collaborative Work domain is often dismissed or judged as "cooked" and led to a large body of controversy. This article intends to reconsider his contribution and re-examined the criticisms he received. The main critics addressed to Clark are that his notion of Common Ground is far too mentalist and lacks "situatedness". We argue that most of these criticisms stem from the verbal conversational aspects of Clark's theory. We sustain here the idea that his broader model of the "joint action" provides a fruitful ground for research in CSCW. Through one case study of our research, we indeed show how what Clark defines as "Common Ground "could be interpreted in a situated context. The discussion also addresses how this model can serve as a design framework.
Keywords: CSCW, theory, Intersubjectivity, Clark, Common Ground, Grounding
Online Social Support: Benefits of an Interdisciplinary Approach for Studying and Designing Cooperative Computer-Mediated Solutions BIBAKPDF 144-155
  Myriam Lewkowicz; Michel Marcoccia; Hassan Atifi; Aurélien Bénel; Gérald Gaglio; Nadia Gauducheau; Matthieu Tixier
This paper deals with methodological issues about the study and the design of computer-mediated solutions for online social support. First, we expose lacks in existing studies in the field of online social support. We have identified limits on three dimensions: methodological, conceptual and instrumental. Based on this critical analysis, we then describe our proposition of an interdisciplinary methodology (called MISS), involving psychology, sociology, computer science and conversational analysis. The role of each of these disciplines is described and discussed. As an illustration, we present the first results of the analysis of a corpus taken from a forum.
Keywords: online social support, methodological issues, design, interdisciplinary
From tool to organisation: uses of a collaborative application in a high-tech SME BIBAKPDF 156-164
  Ewan Oiry; Amandine Pascal; Robert Tchobanian
Researchers and practitioners generally observe a disparity between the actual uses of information technologies in organisations and what was expected of them prior to implementation (Keen, 1981; Bowers, 1995; Boutary, 2003). In order to investigate this phenomenon, Orlikowski (2000) develops a coherent and structured framework that can be used to analyse the reasons why actors develop such different uses for a given technology. While our paper is based on her theoretical propositions for analysing uses, it seeks to extend it by integrating both the spirit of the technology and the interactions between individuals and artefacts (2.). The argument then turns to the case study of the uses of a collaborative application in a high-tech SME (3.) that will serve as a basis for an initial test of this analytical framework (4.) and for discussing the contributions it makes (5.).
Keywords: Uses in work situations, methodology, case study
Personas and scenarios: design tool or a communication device? BIBAKPDF 165-176
  Rosa Gudjonsdottir; Sinna Lindquist
Using personas and scenarios is one way of working with usability in system development projects. In this paper we describe our experience of using the personas and scenarios within a large, on-going European research project called NEPOMUK. We describe the project background as well as the project work with the purpose of critically examining how the persona method has been applied within the project. Our conclusion is that the persona method has been most useful for translating the users' context to be understood by the project stakeholders and in promoting the idea of user-centred design. However, it has been less successful as a design tool.
Keywords: User-centred design, case study, field study, contextual interviews, observations, personas, scenarios.

Design for Team Creativity

Design issues for supporting collaborative creativity BIBAKPDF 179-192
  Thomas Hermann
Researchers and practitioners generally observe a disparity between the actual uses of information technologies in organisations and what was expected of them prior to implementation (Keen, 1981; Bowers, 1995; Boutary, 2003). In order to investigate this phenomenon, Orlikowski (2000) develops a coherent and structured framework that can be used to analyse the reasons why actors develop such different uses for a given technology. While our paper is based on her theoretical propositions for analysing uses, it seeks to extend it by integrating both the spirit of the technology and the interactions between individuals and artefacts (2.). The argument then turns to the case study of the uses of a collaborative application in a high-tech SME (3.) that will serve as a basis for an initial test of this analytical framework (4.) and for discussing the contributions it makes (5.).
Keywords: Uses in work situations, methodology, case study
Collective Interaction -- Let's join forces BIBAKPDF 193-204
  Peter Gall Krogh; Marianne Graves Petersen
In this paper we introduce the concept of Collective Interaction. Collective Interaction involves designing for co-experiences among co-located people sharing collective resources for controlling interfaces. The particular approach we explore in this paper is to instrumentalize collaboration, such that the interaction itself is a matter of collective action. To illustrate this we provide an interaction model and a definition of Collective Interaction, and present two design cases based on this model, one in the context of a public library and one in a home-context. We outline design rationales, and discuss experiences from trial use of the prototypes.
Keywords: Collective interaction, interaction design, interaction model, social computing, co-located users, co-experience
Engineering 2.0: Exploring Lightweight Technologies for the Virtual Enterprise BIBAKPDF 205-216
  Andreas Larsson; Åsa Ericson; Tobias Larsson; Dave Randall
In a Virtual Enterprise setting, it becomes increasingly important to make sure that knowledge and expertise created in one discipline, domain or company is correctly understood and quickly utilized by other actors throughout the value chain. This paper discusses why lightweight technology seems like a particularly promising concept in this context, and why Virtual Enterprises could benefit from learning more about tag clouds, mashups, wikis, and other 'lightweight' technologies, as complements to the large-scale, arguably 'heavyweight', product life-cycle management (PLM) systems of current practice. The paper draws on data from a number of product development projects -- ranging from the development of manufacturing tools and industrial drive systems, to aircraft engines and armored terrain vehicles. The paper identifies both the kinds of problem typically experienced in the Virtual Enterprise, in relation to knowledge sharing, and explores ways in which lightweight technology might be adapted to solve them.
Keywords: Lightweight Technologies, Knowledge Sharing, Virtual Enterprise, Engineering 2.0, Collaboration
Asynchronous vs. synchronous cooperation in innovative design organization BIBAKPDF 217-228
  Thierry Février Quesada; Françoise Darses
Teamwork collaborative activities involve both asynchronous and synchronous cooperation. In this paper, we describe how these cooperation modes are performed during an innovative design process in the automotive industry. Asynchronous cooperation is performed through exchanges on a portal, while synchronous cooperation occurs in face-to-face meetings. We compare the cooperation modes, regarding the team's tasks. It is highlighted that synchronous cooperation marked out the project course, and is expanded through asynchronous cooperation. But some tasks are preferably performed on asynchronous mode, such as those involved in project steering. Asynchronous cooperation better supports conveyance communication processes (sharing out information), rather than convergence communication processes (shared meaning of design). In contrast, synchronous cooperation offers efficient push and pull of information, making use of both conveyance and convergence.
Keywords: Asynchronous communication, synchronous communication, collaborative design, innovative design, virtual team cooperation

Metadata, Folksonomy, Ontology

People Tagging, Ontology Maturing: Towards Collaborative Competence Management BIBAKPDF 231-241
  Simone Braun; Andreas Schmidt
Competence Management approaches suggest promising instruments for more effective resource allocation, knowledge management, learning support, and human resource development in general. However, especially on the level of individual employees, such approaches have so far not been able to show sustainable success on a larger scale. Piloting applications like expert finders have often failed in the long run because of incomplete and outdated data, apart from social and organizational barriers. To overcome these problems, we propose a collaborative competence management approach. In this approach, we combine Web 2.0-style bottom-up processes with organizational top-down processes. We addressed this problem as a collaborative ontology construction problem of which the conceptual foundation is the Ontology Maturing Process Model. In order to realize the Ontology Maturing Process Model for competence management, we have built the AJAX-based semantic social bookmarking application SOBOLEO that offers task-embedded competence ontology development and an easy-to-use interface.
Keywords: ontology maturing, people tagging, collaborative competence management, semantic social bookmarking, SOBOLEO
From the crowd to communities: New interfaces for social tagging BIBAKPDF 242-249
  Chao Zhou; Aurélien Bénel
Social tagging is intimately linked to 'tag cloud', the visualization apparatus which is intended to bring the 'wisdom of crowds'. But what is suited for the 'crowd' may be not for communities. In this article, we propose a new interface for social tagging in collaborative systems that includes several improvements: multi-viewpoints, multi-tags selection, and tags relations. We illustrate this apparatus on the collaborative analysis of a scientific archive.
Keywords: Visual Interfaces, Web 2.0, Social tagging, Scientific archives, Qualitative analysis

Knowledge Sharing in and Between Organizations

Towards Regional Clusters: Networking Events, Collaborative Research, and the Business Finder BIBAPDF 253-264
  Tim Reichling; Benjamin Moos; Markus Rohde; Volker Wulf
Networks of organizations can improve the competitiveness of their member companies. Over the past years, the IS group of the University of Siegen has performed a series of research activities to foster networking among companies in the Siegen-Wittgenstein region. Our research covers a variety of activities such as: networking events, internship programs and joint research projects together with regional companies. Based on these experiences, we developed an expertise matching tool, the Business Finder, to improve mutual awareness among small and medium enterprises (SME) in the region. In this paper, we describe the different activities as an integrated, holistic approach of network support among regional companies.
Information Spaces in Large-Scale Organization BIBAKPDF 265-273
  Torstein Elias Hjelle
Common information spaces are sometimes used to help analyse and understand collaborative work. This paper uses this concept and the 7 parameter-framework created by Claus Bossen to analyse the collaboration infrastructure in a major international oil and gas company. The paper builds on the framework by weighing different parameters by classifying their importance into one of three categories in order to identify whether some of the parameters are more or less important than others.
Keywords: Common Information Space, Large-scale IS, Bossen's parameters, analysis