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CHI Tables of Contents: 97-197-2a97-2b97-2c98-198-2a98-2b98-2c98-2d99-199-200-100-201-101-202-102-203-103-204-104-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 99 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 99 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:The CHI is the Limit
Editors:Mark W. Altom; Marian G. Williams
Location:Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Dates:1999-May-15 to 1999-May-20
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-158-5 ACM Order Number 608995; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI99-2
Papers:195
Pages:355
Links:Conference Website
  1. CHI 1999-05-15 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: tools for design
    2. Video demonstrations: tangible, dynamic, and accessible interfaces
    3. Video demonstrations: interfaces for group work
    4. Demonstrations: visual interfaces
    5. Demonstrations: free-form interaction
    6. Demonstrations: advances in graphical interaction
    7. Video demonstrations: augmenting reality
    8. Senior CHI development consortium
    9. Doctoral consortium
    10. Panel
    11. Plenary
    12. Closing plenary
    13. Tutorials
    14. Workshops
    15. Late-breaking results: seeing is understanding: new visualization techniques
    16. Late-breaking results: novel collaborative paradigms
    17. Late-breaking results: new methapors for user interfaces
    18. Late breaking results: overcoming human limitations
    19. Late-breaking results: exploring the frontiers of interface design
    20. Late-breaking results: HHI: bridging the gulf between humans and computers
    21. Late-breaking results: new interaction techniques
    22. Late-breaking results: MIT is the limit
    23. Late breaking results: the medium is the message
    24. Late breaking results: experimental answers to interaction issues
    25. Student posters
    26. Special interest group

CHI 1999-05-15 Volume 2

Demonstrations: tools for design

Specification and simulation of task models with VTMB BIBAFull-Text 1-2
  Matthias Biere; Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
In this live demonstration we present the Visual Task Model Builder (VTMB) tool [1]. Using this tool the user can create and modify rich task models, containing a hierarchical task structure, temporal relations between tasks, conditions of task execution, and objects involved while performing a task. Based on precise semantics the model can be simulated for validation with the future user and the user interface designer. Additionally, it provides the basis for the transformation of the task model into a working dialogue model.
EZ interface techniques for anytime anywhere anyone interfaces BIBAFull-Text 3-4
  Gregg C. Vanderheiden; Chris Law; David Kelso
Electronic products are being introduced at an increasingly rapid rate into our schools, workplaces, and daily living environments. Rather than taking the form of standard desktop systems, however, many of these new technologies are small mobile systems which are intended to be used in a wide variety environments. This is calling for the development of new more flexible interface strategies which can be used at various times in eyes free, hands free, silent and noisy situations and environments. In addition, the ability for people with disabilities to be able to access and use these products is an increasingly important issue which also calls for the development of flexible user selectable input and display approaches. Proposed is a package of interface techniques called "EZ Access." Together, these techniques provide users with the ability to operate in a wide range of environments and situations. They similarly are able to accommodate individuals with a wide range of abilities or constraints. The strategies have been designed so that they are flexible enough to be applied to a wide range of products from cellular phones to ATMs to pocket computers, to microwave ovens.

Video demonstrations: tangible, dynamic, and accessible interfaces

Illuminating light: a casual optics workbench BIBAFull-Text 5-6
  John Underkoffler; Hiroshi Ishii
We describe a novel system for rapid prototyping of laser-based optical and holographic layouts. Users of this experimental direct manipulation tool -- called Illuminating Light -- move physical representations of various optical elements about a workspace; the system tracks these components and projects back onto the workspace surface the simulated propagation of laser light through the evolving layout. This application is built atop the Luminous Room infrastructure, an aggregate of interlinked, computer-controlled projector-camera units called I/0 Bulbs.
Fluid links for informed and incremental hypertext browsing BIBAFull-Text 7-8
  Polle T. Zellweger; Bay Wei Chang; Jock D. Mackinlay
This paper and video present a novel user interface technique for hypertext, called fluid links, that has several advantages over current methods. Fluid links provide additional information at a link source, termed a gloss, to support readers in choosing among links and understanding the structure of a hypertext. Fluid links present glosses in a convenient location that does not obscure the content or layout of source material. The technique uses perceptually-based animation to provide a natural and lightweight feeling to readers. Fluid links provide a novel hypertext navigation paradigm that blurs the boundary between source and destination: computed glosses supply a "bring from" approach to hypertext, while multi-way links and nested glosses allow readers to skip through intermediate nodes while still attending to their original source context.
Talking to the ceiling: an interface for bed-ridden manually impaired users BIBAFull-Text 9-10
  Michael Pieper; Alfred Kobsa
Even though computer interfaces for handicapped and elderly people have already been investigated for quite some time, little attention has been paid to the special access problems of bed-ridden people. In this video and paper, we present a human-computer interface that enables a person who is almost completely paralyzed and on an artificial respirator to write literary texts on his own again. Many of the observations give clues for the design of interfaces for bed-ridden manually impaired users in general.

Video demonstrations: interfaces for group work

Mediating awareness and communication through digital but physical surrogates BIBAFull-Text 11-12
  Hideaki Kuzuoka; Saul Greenberg
Digital but physical surrogates are tangible representations of remote people positioned within an office and under digital control. Surrogates selectively collect and present awareness information about the people they represent. By having them react to physical actions of people, surrogates can control the communication capabilities of a media space. This enables the smooth transition from awareness to casual interaction while mitigating concerns about privacy.
CoMedi: using computer vision to support awareness and privacy in mediaspaces BIBAFull-Text 13-14
  Joelle Coutaz; Francois Berard; Eric Carraux; William Astier; James L. Crowley
CoMedi is a mediaspace prototype that uses computer vision to provide new solutions to the problems of visual discontinuity and privacy. CoMedi includes a robust face tracker based on cooperation of multiple vision techniques, a tele-exploration tool based on a multi-resolution fovea, and new privacy filter using eigen-space coding.
A revised human interface and educational applications on ideaboard BIBAFull-Text 15-16
  Masaki Nakagawa; Koichiro Hotta; Hirokazu Bandou; Tsuyoshi Oguni; Naoki Kato; Shin-ichi Sawada
Our video demonstrates a new style of human interface with an interactive electronic whiteboard. Its design goal is to realize easy and natural operation of a large board from an arbitrary standing position of the user with a reasonable amount of hand movement, with no hiding of the board by the user's body. We have been attempting to attain this goal by smoothly and naturally extending the current desktop GUI rather than relying on unreliable gesture commands.

Demonstrations: visual interfaces

AMORE: a world-wide web image retrieval engine BIBAFull-Text 17-18
  Sougata Mukherjea; Kyoji Hirata; Yoshinori Hara
Advanced Multimedia Oriented Retrieval Engine (AMORE) [2] is a World-Wide Web image retrieval engine integrating several techniques to facilitate effective retrieval of images from the Web. With the explosive growth of information that is available through the WWW, it is becoming increasingly difficult for the users to find the information of interest. Therefore, search engines are becoming very popular and useful. However, most of the popular search engines today are textual. Although most Web pages have images, the current image search engines on the WWW are primitive. For traditional text retrieval the only way to search for relevant documents is by specifying keywords. However, for multimedia retrieval it is essential that the user is provided with various options for retrieving the target image. AMORE allows the user to retrieve images of interest using various techniques. The effectiveness of an information retrieval engine is also dependent on the user interface to show the retrieved images. In AMORE, the retrieved images are shown using thumbnails. Like traditional WWW search engines the user can browse through pages of results. We also allow the user to click on an interesting thumbnail and retrieve similar images. This visual navigation strategy is helpful in quickly retrieving the target images. To help the user if many images are retrieved we have also developed a Query Result Visualization Environment. This interface allows the search results to be organized in various ways. We believe that the integration of information retrieval with visualization is helpful for the user's retrieval tasks.
VIDA: (Visual Information Density Adjuster) BIBAFull-Text 19-20
  Allison Woodruff; James Landay; Michael Stonebraker
Multiple studies have shown that clutter or sparsity in visual representations can have negative effects ranging from decreased user performance to diminished visual appeal. We have developed a system that assists users in the construction and navigation of visualizations with appropriate visual information density. This system, VIDA (Visual Information Density Adjuster), applies a cartographic principle to minimize clutter and sparsity in visual displays of information.

Demonstrations: free-form interaction

HyperAudio: location-awareness + adaptivity BIBAFull-Text 21-22
  Daniela Petrelli; Elena Not; Marcello Sarini; Oliviero Stock; Carlo Strapparava; Massimo Zancanaro
Multiple studies have shown that clutter or sparsity in visual representations can have negative effects ranging from decreased user performance to diminished visual appeal. We have developed a system that assists users in the construction and navigation of visualizations with appropriate visual information density. This system, VIDA (Visual Information Density Adjuster), applies a cartographic principle to minimize clutter and sparsity in visual displays of information.
A motional interface approach based on user's tempo BIBAFull-Text 23-24
  Naoko Umeki; Akira Morishita; Shunichi Numazaki; Yasunobu Yamauchi; Isao Mihara; Miwako Doi
The HyperAudio system aims at better supporting a user while visiting a museum by combining location awareness and information adaptation. This mixing of information delivery and physical space proposes new challenges for an effective human-computer-environment interaction. The HyperAudio solution interprets the visitor's behavior (i.e. physical and interactive) to create on the fly object presentations on the basis of the user model, the physical context and the history of interaction.

Demonstrations: advances in graphical interaction

Interstacks end-user "scripting" for hardware BIBAFull-Text 25-26
  Peter Lucas
More and more consumer and commercial products contain at least one microprocessor. While efforts to develop "device bus" standards to integrate the automation of these devices have increased the potential for large-scale interoperability, this potential will remain largely unfulfilled for some time. Interstacks is a modular hardware system that empowers even non-technical users to integrate bits of specialized hardware in order to automate and control the flow of information among electronic products. It reinterprets the notions of component architecture and end-user scripting in the domain of hardware devices.
Demonstrating flatland user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 27-28
  Takeo Igarashi; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; W. Keith Edwards; Anthony LaMarca
Flatland is an augmented whiteboard designed to assist informal activities in one's office environment. Current research focus is on the software architecture to support stroke-based interaction. This demonstration illustrates the user interface aspects of the board, focusing on its screen real estate management, flexible control of various behaviors working on the surface, and context based search mechanism. The combination of simple user interface based on strokes and advanced stroke management architecture can greatly enhance the basic functionality of physical whiteboards without damaging original strength of them.

Video demonstrations: augmenting reality

Bridging physical and virtual worlds with tagged documents, objects and locations BIBAFull-Text 29-30
  Beverly L. Harrison; Kenneth P. Fishkin; Anuj Gujar; Dmitriy Portnov; Roy Want
A compelling and provocative vision of the future was presented in Pierre Wellner's video and article on the Digital Desk [8, 9]. Physical office tools such as pens, erasers, books, and paper were seamlessly integrated (or at least almost seamlessly!) with computational augmentation and virtual tools, using projection and image processing. His work, and now our most recent efforts (reported in this paper and [1, 3, 5]), are directed at more seamlessly bridging the gulf between physical and virtual worlds; an area which we believe represents a key future path for the design of user interfaces. A goal of this work is to seamlessly blend the affordances and strengths of physically manipulatable objects with virtual environments or artifacts, thereby leveraging the particular strengths of each. The goal of this video is to visually present scenarios of a number of working physical prototypes we have designed and built which computationally augment everyday objects to support casual interaction using natural manipulations. Unlike previous work [2, 4, 8, 9], we have tried to build invisible interfaces that have little reliance on specialized single-user environments and/or display projection, or custom-designed objects. To this end, we start with everyday objects and embed computation in them in the ubiquitous computing tradition founded at PARC [6, 7]. We have combined four technologies (RFID identifier tags and readers, RF networking, infrared beacons, and portable computing) in a seamless and tightly integrated way. This combination has not been discussed in the literature and is only now being experimented with in research labs working on user interface design.
mediaBlocks: tangible interfaces for online media BIBAFull-Text 31-32
  Brygg Ullmer; Hiroshi Ishii
MediaBlocks is a tangible interface for physically capturing, transporting, and retrieving online digital media, as well as for physically and digitally manipulating this media. We present a description and video demonstration of mediaBlocks' function, and consider the work as a beginning towards alleviating the abstraction and complexity endemic to traditional computational interfaces.
Manipulative user interfaces: exploring physically embodied user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 33-34
  Anuj Gujar; Kenneth P. Fishkin; Beverly L. Harrison; Roy Want
There has been wide-spread interest in augmented reality and physically-based user interfaces [e.g., 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8] in the past 6 years. A goal of these efforts is to seamlessly blend the affordances and strengths of physically manipulatable objects with virtual environments or artifacts, thereby leveraging the particular strengths of each. This approach allows us to break free of indirectly manipulating tiny representations trapped within a computer display by leveraging form factor, physical motor skills, and naturalistic associations. Our work is distinguished from previous work in that we are not exploring separate input devices, but rather we employ sensor technologies to make the physical artifact become the input device. In other words we are investigating situations in which the physical manipulations are directly integrated with the device or artifact that is being controlled. We consider these user interfaces to be physically embodied. Our approach has been to experiment with various form factors of several handheld devices, implement some commonly used functions, such as navigation, and iterate on the resulting prototypes. This video shows three implementations of manipulative user interfaces on PDAs to support three simple real world tasks - navigation through long sequential lists, navigation within a book or document by pages, and document annotation. In addition to the three tasks, this document describes a fourth implementation not shown in the video - navigation within a book by "chunks" or by relative location.

Senior CHI development consortium

Making interactions visible: tools for social browsing BIBAFull-Text 35-36
  Elisabeth Davenport; Reuben Connolly; Robert Spence; Kathy Buckner; Angus Whyte; Kirsty Barr
The authors describe the problem of 'community myopia': a lack of awareness of people and resources that might assist members of a community to carry out tasks. They present a prototype social browser in two stages: a basic computer based social network diagram using off-the-shelf application software and an advanced social browser using Netmap, a proprietary analytic and visualization software tool. Tradeoffs between functional capability and ease and pleasure in use are discussed.
Building a community of history BIBAFull-Text 37-38
  Jason B. Ellis; Amy S. Bruckman
This paper describes a virtual community tentatively entitled American Timewarp, which aims to bring kids and seniors together, both online and in person, to create shared historical artifacts. The beginnings of the project and future directions are discussed.
Practices to encourage participation of older adults in research and development BIBAFull-Text 39-40
  R. Darin Ellis; Donna L. Cochran
The authors discuss issues surrounding the involvement of older adults in research and development in an urban setting. Transportation and incentive structure arose as important issues in focus groups with older adults. Experiences and insights from a participatory design project involving older adults are also shared.
Technology and learner centered design: reaching out across the life span BIBFull-Text 41-42
  Jean B. Gasen
A modern role for the village elders BIBAFull-Text 43-44
  Kay Hofmeester; Anthony Dunne; Bill Gaver; Marco Susani; Elena Pacenti
In this paper, the Presence team describes how, by thinking of older people as active participants in society, rather than as needy and dependent, innovative designs have been developed for systems that help elderly people remain part of the community. The team has done this by involving users in the design process by, engaging them in a dialogue with designers that has allowed both sides to influence each other.
Windows on the world: expanding the view from the nursing home BIBAFull-Text 45-46
  Jennifer S. Kay; Patricia A. J. Kay
About 5% of the US elderly population are institutionalized. Many of these individuals have limited mobility and feel very isolated from the outside world. They often have an acute sense of their loss of independence. While not being a panacea, we believe that the ability to access the Internet community can help to foster a feeling of self-worth and connection to the world around them.
Learning from seniors in network communities BIBAFull-Text 47-48
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Annette Adler; Mizuko Ito; Charlotte Linde; Vicki L. O'Day
We conducted an ethnographic study of SeniorNet, an organization focused on helping seniors gain access to computing technology. Our research examines the social and cultural context of access to computing, with a particular focus on the role of community. Our study of SeniorNet has helped us understand the nature of seniors as a group, as we have immersed ourselves in the uniquely supportive and cohesive communities of SeniorNet. At the same time, our stereotypes of seniors have been challenged as we have come to understand the diversity that the category of "senior" so incompletely describes. This diversity has implications for how we approach access issues for the senior population and as we consider the benefits of computing for seniors as well as benefits for others in interacting with seniors.
Teaching IT for seniors BIBAFull-Text 49-50
  Bozena (Boba) Mannova
This paper describes the information technology course for seniors which was offered for 1998/99 on the Czech Technical University in Prague. The curriculum of the course is mentioned and basic information and statistics about participants are discussed.
Technology training for older adults BIBAFull-Text 51-52
  Wendy A. Rogers
The focus of this paper will be on the importance of providing age-specific training for the use of computer technology. Evidence suggests that age-related cognitive, perceptual, and motor declines may necessitate the need for training that is designed to compensate for these deficits. Moreover, evidence suggests that agist stereotypes that older adults lack interest in new technologies are not well-supported. Many older individuals, especially the healthy and well-educated are very interested in using new technologies, provided they receive adequate training.

Doctoral consortium

Users' perception of privacy in multimedia communication BIBAFull-Text 53-54
  Anne Adams
Perceived infringements of privacy can cause breakdowns in technologically mediated interactions, leading to user rejection of the technology. This research aims to identify the impact that users' perception of privacy has on their attitudes to, and behavior within, multimedia communication environments. Using both qualitative and quantitative data from various multimedia communication settings, 3 major factors have been identified (Information Sensitivity, Receiver & Usage) and integrated into a framework. In addition, a mismatch between perceived and actual privacy risks has been identified, which increases perceived invasions of privacy and produces negative emotive responses.
Skill-specific spoken dialogs in a reading tutor that listens BIBAFull-Text 55-56
  Gregory Aist
Project LISTEN's Reading Tutor listens to children read aloud. A controlled study indicates that the Reading Tutor helps children's reading comprehension. However, the results for word attack (decoding) skills and word identification skills were not statistically better than in the control condition. Our thesis therefore proposes to develop skill-specific dialogs based on cognitive skill models and successful tutoring strategies. These dialogs will be dynamically assembled by the Reading Tutor and include text, speech, illustrations, and dialog parameters. We hypothesize that such dialogs will improve elementary students' reading abilities.
Perceptual localization of surface normal BIBAFull-Text 57-58
  Ming Hou
The objective of this study is to find an effective evaluation method for human perception of surface normal by investigating the influences of surface features on positioning accuracy of a 3D probing tool. Although stereoscopic displays allow enhanced depth perception and object identification, surface contour of objects cannot be easily determined. The research results will not only increase understanding of human visual perception with stereoscopic display, but will also provide insight into human-machine interaction in teleoperation tasks using augmented reality.
Interactive touch: haptic interfaces based upon hand movement patterns BIBAFull-Text 59-60
  Arthur E. Kirkpatrick
Haptic interfaces use specialized hardware to stimulate the user's sense of touch. The haptic sense uses both purposeful movement and sensory receptors. Previous haptic interface designs have focused entirely on producing stimuli for the sensory receptors of the human hand and arm, without taking into account the movements used in haptic perception. This research explores interaction techniques that explicitly support various movement styles used in haptic perception. The resulting interaction techniques should support more rapid and accurate virtual object identification and discrimination.
Evaluation of virtual reality systems for usability BIBAFull-Text 61-62
  Timothy Marsh
The adoption of 3D virtual interfaces is becoming more widespread. Although design guidelines and usability evaluation methods exist for the conventional 2 dimensional Graphical User Interface (GUI), they may or may not however, be appropriate in the design and the evaluation of 3 dimensional virtual interfaces. This paper describes the on-going research to find appropriate ways to evaluate virtual reality (VR) systems for usability.
Recommending expertise in an organizational setting BIBAFull-Text 63-64
  David W. McDonald
This work explores how information systems can be augmented to assist users in finding other individuals who are likely to have specialized, expert information that they need. This paper describes a field study that considers the social and cognitive mechanisms that people use to find candidate sources of expertise. These mechanisms are the basis for a recommender system that can help users find expertise.
Designing 4D contexts for construction planners BIBAFull-Text 65-66
  Kathleen McKinney Liston
Today, no context enables planners to communicate all the information necessary to evaluate a schedule. This thesis work looks at how we can use the 4D (3D + time) context to communicate and interact with descriptive, predictive, and explanative planning content by focusing on three aspects of the design of 4D contexts: 1) Defining the interactions between the elements of a 4D context and between the 4D content and the users; 2) Extending the current representation of planning content to generate these 4D contexts; and 3) Specifying and applying performance criteria to evaluate alternative 4D contexts.
Computer-supported inferential analysis under data overload BIBAFull-Text 67-68
  Emily S. Patterson
A simulation study of inferential analysis under data overload was conducted with professional analysts. Using a process tracing methodology, vulnerabilities in the analysis process were identified that point to design criteria for useful support aids.
Internet search using adaptive visualization BIBAFull-Text 69-70
  Dmitri Roussinov
Automatically created maps of concepts improve navigation in large collections of text documents. My research in progress on leveraging navigation by interactively providing the ability to modify the maps themselves has led me to believe that this functionality increases responsiveness to the user and makes searching more effective. I explored both what adaptive features users perceive to be most helpful and the overall effect of adaptation on achieving information seeking goals.
Web macros by example: users managing the WWW of applications BIBAFull-Text 71-72
  Alex Safonov
As the WWW moves from a web of documents to a web of interactive applications, hypertext organization and navigation tools such as bookmarks do not fully support user activities. I propose the concept of Web macros - parameterized, context-aware WWW navigation programs created by demonstration. Web macros can automate common tasks for their author, as well as be offered for public use with personalized parameters factored out and substituted. I am developing the model, requirements and technology for Web macros, and will investigate authoring by demonstration.
Active retrieval results: if a picture is worth a thousand words, how much is a moving picture worth? BIBAFull-Text 73-74
  Thomas Tan
This research introduces the use of animation in retrieval results presentation as the next step in the evolution of information retrieval visualisation. Some of the issues of using animation in this context are discussed. An implemented Java workbench called WebTree will be used as a framework for the design, development and evaluation of the visualisation interface.
Effective navigation of children in virtual 3D environments BIBAFull-Text 75-76
  Sabine Volbracht
The increasing development of three-dimensional environments for the World Wide Web and of three-dimensional educational software demands a better understanding of children's navigation in virtual 3D environments. This work will compare navigation mechanisms between children and adults to identify and model prerequisites which will allow children to navigate effectively in such environments.
Developing tools for efficient collaborative web browsing BIBAFull-Text 77-78
  Guillermo S. Zeballos
Collaborative web browsing can provide a practical approach for searching the vast quantities of information on the WWW. While browsers that support group web browsing exist, their support is limited to lockstep browsing, in which multiple clients are slaved to one browser. They do not permit individual collaborators to navigate separate paths while coordinating their efforts. This paper discusses my current investigation into modeling the behavior of, and developing tools to support, people making individual contributions to a coordinated group search effort.

Panel

Trust me, I'm accountable: trust and accountability online BIBAFull-Text 79-80
  Batya Friedman; John C. Thomas; Jonathan Grudin; Clifford Nass; Helen Nissenbaum; Mark Schlager; Ben Shneiderman
We live in an increasingly wired world. According to Robert Putnam, people are spending less time in persistent personal face to face interactions and more time in pursuits such as watching TV and using the Internet. At the same time, independently measured "social capital" -- the extent to which we trust and work for a common good -- is declining. In this panel, we explore: the impacts of electronic media on trust and accountability; whether and how electronic media can be designed and used to increase deserved trust and accountability; the relationship between protecting privacy and increasing the efficacy of communication; and how people's tendency to treat computers as social actors impacts these issues. In brief, how can modern technology enhance humanity's humanity?
Senior CHI: how can we make technology "elder-friendly?" BIBAFull-Text 81-82
  Beth Meyer; Dominic G. Bouwhuis; Sara J. Czaja; Wendy A. Rogers; Matthias Schneider Hufschmidt; James L. Fozard
This panel will discuss the needs of older adults in making full use of computers and similar advanced technology. The panelists include representatives from both academic research and industrial organizations; all are experts in the impact of aging on the use of technology. Questions to be addressed by the panel include: What is the most important thing a designer can do to ensure that older adults can use a product? Will there still be issues associated with aging and computer use as the current generation of computer users gets older? Are normal good design methods enough to ensure that a product will work for this population? If not, is it worth the extra effort?
Comparative evaluation of usability tests BIBAFull-Text 83-84
  Rolf Molich; Ann Damgaard Thomsen; Barbara Karyukina; Lars Schmidt; Meghan Ede; Wilma van Oel; Meeta Arcuri
Seven professional usability labs and one university student team have carried out independent, parallel usability tests of the same state-of-the-art, live, commercial web site. The web site used for the usability tests is www.hotmail.com, a major provider of free web-based e-mail. The panel will discuss similarities and differences in process, results and reporting.
Third generation computer tutors: learn from or ignore human tutors? BIBAFull-Text 85-86
  Albert Corbett; John Anderson; Art Graesser; Ken Koedinger; Kurt VanLehn
Current "second generation or "intelligent" computer tutors are approximately one-half as effective as human tutors. How will we develop the next generation of computer tutors that approaches human tutor effectiveness? Does success lie in understanding and emulating the performance of human tutors? If so, should we focus on natural language dialog or human tutor pedagogy? Alternatively, does computer technology afford effective instructional interventions, unavailable to human tutors? Can we modify learning activities and monitor student problem solving in ways that human tutors cannot.
Counting on community in cyberspace BIBAFull-Text 87-88
  Marc A. Smith; Steven M. Drucker; Robert Kraut; Barry Wellman
In this panel, a group of researchers, each of whom has either constructed tools for communicating and community building in cyberspace or studied the process, present their own work and critically evaluate each other's work. Our perspective explores the relationships between individual usage of these tools and the formation of lasting social relationships and groups. Each panelist presents a current research project that documents the empirical patterns of use and interaction with existing forms of social cyberspaces. The panelists comment on the ways in which the their findings cast new perspective on each other's findings and on the prospects for the formation of both online communities and physical communities augmented by online interaction.
Social navigation: what is it good for? BIBAFull-Text 89-90
  Alan Wexelblat; Andreas Dieberger; Paul Dourish; Kristina Höök; Paul Resnick
In this panel, a group of theorists and systems builders, each of whom has constructed a social navigation system, try to generalize beyond their own specific work and discuss what the possible applications and implications of social navigation will be for human-computer interfaces. Perspectives range from the pragmatic to the theoretical. The panelists describe ways in which future systems, influenced by social navigation ideas, might be built.
Is ActiMates Barney ethical?: the potential good, bad, and ugly of interactive plush toys BIBAFull-Text 91-92
  BJ Fogg; Allen Cypher; Allison Druin; Batya Friedman; Erik Strommen
Interactive plush toys, such as ActiMates Barney, raise new ethical concerns that we as HCI professionals need to address and understand. This panel is designed to bring those concerns to the forefront and allow panelists and audience members to debate key issues. The panel includes people with expertise in creating interactive plush toys, creating software for children, and investigating ethical issues of technology.
What makes strategic usability fail?: lessons learned from the field BIBAFull-Text 93-94
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Sarah Bloomer; Dave Rinehart; Janice Rohn; Ken Dye; Judee Humburg; Jakob Nielsen; Dennis Wixon
This panel asks a group of well-known usability practitioners what is keeping us from achieving the penetration of strategic usability within organizations. Eight panelists describe the lessons they learned while attempting to make usability pervasive in different organizational environments.

Plenary

Sci-fi @ CHI-99: science-fiction authors predict future user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 95-96
  Aaron Marcus; Elliot Soloway; Bruce Sterling; Michael Swanwick; Vernor Vinge
Similar to the Sci-Fi@CHI panel of 1992, leading science fiction authors will explore ideas about future user interfaces, their technology support, and their social context. A commentator and the audience will have an opportunity to comment upon the authors' presentations.
How to become an internet felon in three easy steps: will digital libraries become digital stores? BIBAFull-Text 97
  Barbara Simons
A few years ago Hollywood and the music industry discovered the Internet and realized, much to their horror, that the technology now exists to make arbitrary numbers of perfect copies of a digitized object. As a result, we have seen an explosion of legislative and treaty proposals. Legislation was recently passed that attempts to protect intellectual property on the Net by outlawing some devices and technologies that can be used to "circumvent" measures restricting access. This legislation has several bad features, among them the unintended side effect of making some legitimate computer security research illegal. It could even criminalize some techniques that are required to correct Y2K problems. Both the legislation that is passed and the manner in which technology is implemented will have a major impact on the rights and responsibilities of creators and users of intellectual property. How will copyright he impacted? What will happen to user rights of fair use and first sale? Are we moving from copyright protection of books and magazines on the net to contract law, and if so, what are the potential repercussions? Will free libraries become a thing of the past, to be replaced by pay-per-view?The manner in which these questions are resolved will have a significant impact on our society.

Closing plenary

Civil rights in cyberspace: how online free speech restrictions will inhibit online diversity BIBAFull-Text 98-99
  Ann Beeson
Federal, state and local governments continue to pass laws that restrict online speech. These laws threaten the quality of the medium as a true marketplace of ideas where everyone gets equal access and an equal voice.

Tutorials

Human-computer interaction: introduction and overview BIBAFull-Text 100-101
  Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, usability engineering, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
User interface design for the web BIBAFull-Text 102-103
  David Shen; Irene Au; Brian Buschmann
In this half day tutorial, we describe a variety of user interface design principles which are characteristic of Web design. These principles have been implemented by, experimented with, and validated through the experiences of the Yahoo! design team.
Task analysis meets prototyping: seeking seamless UI-development BIBAFull-Text 104-105
  Chris Stary; Gerrit C. van der Veer
This full-day tutorial introduces a seamless development approach for user interface generation, based on the user-centered Groupware Task Analysis GTA, and the task-based design technique and tool TADEUS (Task Analysis / Design / End User Systems). The seamless procedure ensures (i) for the developers consistency and semantic richness throughout analysis and design, and (ii) for end users context-sensitive and immediate feedback of analysis and design inputs through prototyping from analysis/design representations. The tutorial is held in participatory style and introduces the background, goals, experiences, methodology to be followed, methods and tools to use. It also provides hand-on experiences with existing tools to be used along the lines of development. The methodology will be explained and experienced along one or more projects the participants will identify and specify according to their interest and profile.
Practical observation skills for understanding users and their work in context BIBAFull-Text 106-107
  Susan M. Dray
This tutorial will focus why and how to do observations of users in their own worksite. It will introduce practitioners how to use ethnographic tools, and how to apply what they find to design.
Innovation in design: strategies for designing together BIBAFull-Text 108-109
  Charles D. Kukla; Thomas Binder; William L. Porter; Jacob Buur
Innovation in design is becoming increasingly important as businesses see the limits of cost reduction strategies for improving productivity, profit, and growth. To create innovation in design we will show that designing in skilled practice has an inner logic: a structure that allows it to be understood as a kind of reasoning, a form of inquiry, but that also includes and depends upon the designer's appreciative judgments. Through the use of a research technique called Design Games and a real-life problem situation, participants will explore designing with a variety of tools, techniques and methods. Participants will reflect, analyze, and evaluate their work with others and by doing so will learn how their designs can become more communicative, efficient, and foster innovation through out the design process. The Space Planning and Organizational Research Group (http://destec.mit.edu/sporg/info/) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the User Centered Design Group at Danfoss have provided research and material for this tutorial.
Practical usability methods in website design BIBAFull-Text 110-111
  Darren Gergle; Tom Brinck; Scott Wood
This tutorial presents a practical approach to applying usability methods to website design. Website projects are usually done on tight schedules, with limited resources, and without a well-defined approach for achieving usability. For many developers it's easy to dismiss usability methods as an unnecessary overhead cost. We demonstrate how usability methods can be integrated efficiently and effectively into each stage of the website design process. Employing this process, and by using forms, checklists, and other tools to improve communication and workflow, website projects can be managed successfully achieving a highly-usable product.
Visual design for E-commerce and performance tools BIBAFull-Text 112-113
  Aaron Marcus; Edward Guttman
User interface design requires good visual design of metaphors, mental models, navigation, appearance, and interaction to represent data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Techniques of simplicity, clarity, and consistency can improve the communication effectiveness of user interfaces for performance (productivity) tools, multimedia, and the Web. In particular, the use of appropriate typography, layout, color, animation, and symbolism can assist developers to achieve more efficient, effective o communication to more diverse user communities.
Successful strategies for selling usability into organisations BIBAFull-Text 114-115
  Sarah Bloomer; Susan Wolfe
Usability is successfully integrated into an organisation when a strategy is developed which leads to key usability benefits and supports overall business objectives. Usability is practised by a large number of software developers, but has yet to gain wide acceptance within organisations. Communicating the value of usability must happen across multiple levels of an organisation, and requires speaking several "languages". This practical, hands-on tutorial covers a step by step approach to convincing management or potential clients of the value of usability, in terms each group understands. It examines what is required to develop a usability strategy for a whole organisation to finding data to convince stakeholders of a single usability activity.
Cognitive factors in design: basic phenomena in human memory and problem solving BIBAFull-Text 116-117
  Thomas T. Hewett
This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge which will be useful in interpreting design guidelines and in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize basic general phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
Video brainstorming and prototyping: techniques for participatory design BIBAFull-Text 118-119
  Wendy E. Mackay; Anne Laure Fayard
This tutorial is designed for HCI designers and researchers interested in learning specific techniques for using video to support a range of participatory design activities. Based on a combination of lectures, video demonstrations and hands-on exercises, the tutorial will give participants practical experience using video to observe users in laboratory and field settings, to analyze multimedia data, to explore and capture design ideas (video brainstorming), to simulate interaction techniques with users (Wizard-of-oz and video prototyping) and to present video-based design ideas to users and managers. Participants will gain experience shooting video and will address practical issues such as maintaining video archives and ethical issues such as obtaining informed consent. Although these video techniques are applicable in a variety of design settings, the emphasis here is on participatory design, using video as a tool to help users, researchers and designers gather and communicate design ideas.
CSCW, groupware and workflow: experiences, state of art, and future trends BIBAFull-Text 120-121
  Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
Technology to support groups is rapidly coming into use and is starting to have an impact on us, our organizations, and society. This course addresses recent experiences, current possibilities, and future trends and shocks. Lecture and video illustrations are accompanied by discussions in which participants organize and present their collective experiences with and interests in groupware and workflow technologies, and CSCW issues and methods. The instructors summarize the current composition of the CSCW community and the state of the art in technology, and organize discussion of fundamental challenges that face us as users (and developers) of these technologies.
Computer-human interaction and health care: opportunities, roadblocks, tips, and tricks BIBAFull-Text 122-123
  John W. Gosbee
More and more organizations are interested in applying human factors (human-computer interaction -- HCI) to the development of health care information systems. This workshop is designed to accelerate this movement towards usable and useful health care information systems, which will, in turn, benefit end-users in hospitals, clinics, and other medical settings. Workshop participants will learn about: 1) issues in health care that are important to proper HCI design; 2) opportunities and training needed to become a specialist in HCI and healthcare; 3) barriers to accomplishing HCI activities in health care; 4) practical tips and tricks; and 5) hard-to-find case studies. This tutorial will be useful to any student, practitioner, or academic who would like to cultivate opportunities in the area of healthcare information systems (from computerized records to telemedicine). The workshop will provide valuable advice to those HCI personnel involved in medical domain, as well as newcomers to the domain.
Designing speech user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 124-125
  Nicole Yankelovich; Jennifer Lai
This tutorial focuses on techniques for designing speech interfaces. Topics covered include an introduction to speech input and output, a discussion of speech user interface design issues, and an exploration of ways to involve users in the design process.
Designing interfaces for handheld computers BIBAFull-Text 126-127
  Phillip B. Shoemaker
With the handheld computer finally becoming mainstream, there is a need for designers to become informed about the tips and techniques necessary to design effective handheld applications. Many designers are unfamiliar with the unique requirements of handheld computers, and therefore attempt to use desktop metaphors on their designs. This tutorial will introduce design concepts used by the creators of the most popular and easy-to-use handheld computers. It includes designing screens and dialog boxes, designing for speed, using progressive disclosure, and employing benchmarks. It will also demonstrate the difference between designing for the consumer market and the vertical market.
An introduction to the java foundation classes (JFC) BIBAFull-Text 128-129
  Fintan Culwin
The Java event source/listener protocols are fundamental to the construction of GUIs as the user's interactions with the interface generate events whose listeners supply the required behaviour. The Java 1.2 Java Foundation Class (JFC) user interface toolkit supplies a collection of interface components that have a richer visual appearance and increased functionality compared with the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) that it replaces. Knowledge of a widget set is necessary, but not sufficient, for the production of artefacts that have a high degree of usability. State Transition Diagrams (STDs) provide a notation for the expression of required behaviour at the initial design stage. STDs can also be used to inform the design of classes within a three (application, presentation and translation) layer architecture; can also be used to validate the behaviour of the completed artefact and used to derive usability metrics.
Design issues for next generation interfaces (NGI) BIBAFull-Text 130-131
  Anne Schur; Scott D. Decker; Richard May
The information explosion that has accompanied the technological age has created a world where people are expected to deal with vast quantities of data quickly and interact with others through technology on a daily basis. Facilitating the ability to effectively communicate and use this data requires a radical change in the way human computer interface (HCI) dialogues are provided. This tutorial will introduce new ideas, strategies, and techniques being developed around the world that can be used to create a new generation of interfaces. The characteristics, needs, and issues of NGIs will be identified. The tutorial will focus on three key areas: physical interactions, social interactions, and ambient interactions. New concepts about interaction will be introduced and illustrated by examples. Hands-on exercises will be used to assist participants' awareness and knowledge about how to apply strategies and techniques that can be used to design and think about NGIs. Emphasis will be given to efficient use of sharing interactively distributed resources including people and data in context of people performing activities as part of a small group.
Globalizing usability engineering: current status in Japan BIBAFull-Text 132-133
  Masaaki Kurosu
This half-day tutorial outlines the current status of the usability engineering in Japan by reviewing both the technology and cultural characteristics of usability engineering in Japan.
Drawing on the right side of the brain BIBAFull-Text 134
  Brian Bomeisler
Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain is one of the most effective teaching techniques for drawing ever developed. Brought about by Dr. Betty Edwards' years of research and personal experiences as a professor of art, this technique has proven itself by teaching millions to draw, worldwide. In this tutorial you will learn basic strategies for accessing the visual, perceptual mode of thinking. This type of thinking is learned through the acquisition of very basic drawing skills and the acquisition of an understanding of the nature of drawing.
Programmable user modelling analysis in theory and in practice BIBAFull-Text 135-136
  Ann Blandford; Jason Good
This tutorial provides a general introduction to cognitive modelling as it relates to work in Human-Computer Interaction and, in particular, to Programmable User Modelling Analysis (PUMA). PUMA is an approach to predictive usability evaluation that focuses on describing the user's knowledge and problem-solving behaviour. The tutorial covers underlying cognitive theory as well as the method of analysis. Examples of various sizes are used to demonstrate how PUMA can be applied within design practice.
Planning and implementing user-centred design BIBAFull-Text 137-138
  Nigel Bevan; Ian Curson
The tutorial presents a structured approach to user centred design, based on the principles of the International Standard "Human centred design processes for interactive systems" (ISO 13407) and other related standards. A core set of practical methods which support the approach are described. These have been selected by the European Usability Support Centres on the basis of their applicability, maturity, availability, and cost-effectiveness. The tutorial gives an overview of each method, and describes criteria which can be used for selecting appropriate methods. The benefits of demonstrating conformance to ISO 13407 are explained.
Contextual design: using customer work models to drive systems design BIBAFull-Text 139-140
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem--how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design. An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it in their own development process. In this tutorial we present our latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users in models, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present the process by which we build and use the models and practice key steps. We show how these methods fit into the overall design process, and summarize Contextual Design, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps. The tutorial is appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data. We use shopping as our example of work practice throughout this tutorial, since shopping is simple and understood by everyone. We encourage participants to go grocery shopping shortly before the tutorial, and bring any shopping list they may have used, their store receipt, and a drawing of the store layout and their movement through it.
Web sites that work: designing with your eyes open BIBAFull-Text 141-142
  Jared M. Spool; Will Schroeder; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder
This tutorial is inspired by our observations of users struggling with web sites and our consulting work with clients who face the many challenges of web site development. We've witnessed the effects of less-than-optimal web site design and the pain it causes users. Our client work and research have given us insights into the causes of unusable designs--we've seen similar patterns of behavior in the development processes of different organizations. Many web site designers are unaware of some of the most important factors that will affect the success of their site. By teaching web designers to think differently about their work, we can introduce changes in the development process that will lead to more usable web site designs.
Java based user interface design and development BIBAFull-Text 143-144
  Manfred Tscheligi; Verena Giller; Gernot Hueller
The objective of this tutorial is to introduce the Java platform from a design rather then from a programming perspective. It provides an exploration of key issues of the Java technology necessary to create high quality and novel web technology based application environments. Based on the experience of several Java based user interface projects the specific needs of usability engineers will be addressed. User interface potentials embedded in the Java platform will be uncovered.
Visual literacy for interface designers: tips, tools, techniques and inspiration BIBAFull-Text 145-146
  Suzanne Watzman
"To expand our ability to see means to expand our ability to understand a visual message and, even more crucial, to make a visual message." Donis DondisThough Donis Dondis (A Primer of Visual Literacy) wrote this statement in 1973, it has never been more true than today. Our world is one of non-stop messages and images. As we rapidly create and use tools that allow us to deliver more messages and images faster, we have not taken enough time to understand the implications. We make countless decisions every day based on our perception and interpretation of these things, yet we are unaware of what, why and how we respond to visual imagery. This kind of understanding, however, can give us the potential to deliver efficient, effective messages consistent with the intended meaning. The problem is that no one has given us a greater ability to use and understand all this new information. In our rush to use enticing new tools, we have forgotten our goal: that this is all about quality communication. We need to step back and evaluate this visual chaos; learn to see, not just look; learn and understand what the basic principles are to create quality communication as well as the implications of our choices. Our education has made us verbally literate; we must now become visually literate.
The usability engineering lifecycle BIBAFull-Text 147-148
  Deborah J. Mayhew
The purpose of this tutorial is to provide a lifecycle of practical usability tasks and techniques for structuring the process of designing good user interfaces to either traditional software applications or Web pages and applets. The tutorial presents techniques which can be applied at different points in a typical product development lifecycle. Techniques presented include not only requirements analysis, design and testing techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
Information visualization tutorial BIBAFull-Text 149-150
  Nahum Gershon; Stuart Card; Stephen G. Eick
Visual representation of information requires merging of data visualization methods, computer graphics, design, and imagination. This course describes the emerging field of information visualization including visualizing retrieved information from large document collections (e.g., digital libraries), the World Wide Web, and databases. The course highlights the process of producing effective visualizations, making sense of information, taking users' needs into account, and illustrating good practical visualization procedures in specific case studies.
Variations of a theme: card-based techniques for participatory analysis and design BIBAFull-Text 151-152
  Daniel Lafreniere; Tom Dayton; Michael Muller
This full-day tutorial provides hands-on experience with three card-based techniques for participatory analysis and design: CARD (Collaborative Analysis of Requirements and Design), CUTA (Collaborative Users' Task Analysis) and TOD (Task Object Design).In our tutorial, we will provide brief theoretical backgrounds on participatory design and tips and tricks on conducting successful workshops. We will then guide the participants in a walking review of three work samples illustrating the three techniques (CARD, CUTA and TOD). The participants will divide into small groups; each group will engage in a brief workshop using one of the three techniques. Groups will rotate through the three workshops, so that each participant has experience with each of the three methods. The participants will then compare and contrast their experiences in a plenary discussion, moderated by the instructors. In our closing section, we will compare these practices with other, related practices (e.g., [1,2]), locate these practices in a larger space of participatory methods (per a recent survey chapter by two of the instructors in the new Handbook of HCI [6]), and discuss how participants can adapt the methods to meet their own needs.
Conceptual design BIBAFull-Text 153-154
  Kathy Potosnak
This full-day tutorial introduces conceptual design and a simple, user-centered framework for creating conceptual designs as a basis for organizing the functionality of a product and representing it in the user interface. It covers the purpose, context, benefits, examples, process, and hands-on application of the framework to a sample project.
Designing hands-free, eyes-free, silent (or noisy) environment, and accessible interfaces BIBAFull-Text 155-156
  Gregg Vanderheiden; Shawn Lawton Henry
This full-day tutorial provides attendees with a thorough understanding of the issues and strategies for creating interfaces that do not depend on particular sensory modalities or physical capabilities. Knowledge gained will help attendees understand related topics, such as the issues of mobile computing and access by intelligent agents, as well as access by users with disabilities and older users.
Distance learning BIBAFull-Text 157-158
  Lisa Neal
This tutorial covers how to design and deliver a distance learning class. The motivation for distance learning programs is presented, along with the selection, deployment, and use of distance learning technologies. We examine how preparing and teaching a distance learning class is different from a face-to-face class and how to evaluate the effectiveness of a distance learning class. Case studies will illustrate the use of distance learning technologies and the broad range of situations and institutions in which distance learning is employed.
Speech user interface design for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 159-160
  Elisa del Galdo; Tony Rose
This half-day tutorial provides participants with an understanding of the fundamental concepts in speech recognition and how best to use this technology in the design of user interfaces for personal and mobile devices. A number of guidelines and case studies are presented and discussed. The tutorial finishes with a group exercise that allows participants to apply the design guidelines to an actual device.
Current issues in web design: building the network economy BIBAFull-Text 161-162
  Jakob Nielsen; Rolf Molich; Bruce Tog Tognazzini
On the Web, power rests with he or she who clicks the mouse. Make your site user-focused and you will get traffic; make it bloated, confusing, and useless and your hits will drop through the floor.

Workshops

Basic research symposium BIBAFull-Text 163
  John F. McGrew; Yvonne Wærn
The Basic Research Symposium is a special event with a six-year history at CHI. It is a hybrid between a mini-conference and a workshop that presents an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to share their visions by exchanging new developments and insights from their own fields. The goal of the Symposium is to provide an interactive forum to promote and enhance scientific discussions of developing research issues and areas. It has been central to the BRS to encourage the presentation of early-stage basic research to colleagues for informed feedback and critical review.
Interacting with recommender systems BIBAFull-Text 164
  Patrick Baudisch; Loren Terveen
Many people today live in information-rich worlds, constantly facing the question: what should I do next? Which papers should I read to learn about a new area I am interested in? Which movie should I go to? Which restaurant would I like? The experience of friends and colleagues is a valuable resource for making such decisions, especially friends who are familiar with the subject area and have similar tastes. The field of recommender systems (or collaborative filtering) attempts to automate this process, e.g., by supporting people in making recommendations, finding a set of people who are likely to provide good recommendations for a given person, or deriving recommendations from implicit behavior such as browsing activity, buying patterns, and time on task.
Interaction in the large: developing a framework for integrating models in HCI BIBAFull-Text 165
  Hilary Johnson; Eamonn O'Neill; Peter Johnson
With the continuing expansion of HCI concerns, the field encompasses many local models. We have, for example, models of individual users and computers; models of group settings of system use, including the modeling of social, organizational and technological features; and models of the context and environment of system use. In the course of systems development, several of these models may be used. But it is in general unclear how they are, or may be, interrelated or integrated with each other. Understandings of how such models may be related and of the semantics of their relationships are important both to HCI as a discipline and to systems development practice.
Research issues in the design of online communities BIBAFull-Text 166
  Amy Bruckman; Thomas Erickson; Wendy Kellogg; Lee Sproull; Barry Wellman
Online communities are rapidly becoming a part of how we work, play, and learn. But how are they designed? What is already known in this emerging field? What are the key questions for future research? Online communities are becoming increasingly pervasive in the personal and professional lives of people from all strata of society; however, our knowledge about them is not increasing apace. The purpose of this workshop is to bring together researchers in this new area to begin to address these questions, and to support the growth of this research field.
Designing electronic books BIBAFull-Text 167
  Gene Golovchinsky; Cathy Marshall; Bill Schilit
Science fiction introduced the idea of an electronic book; some early prototypes showed the potential of such devices (Kay and Goldberg, 1977); now we have the technology to implement these ideas (Lewis, 1998; Schilit et al., 1998). Still missing, however, is a principled look at interaction design and features that make electronic books useable and useful. This workshop will bring together practitioners, researchers, and designers to explore the future of electronic books with an emphasis on HCI issues.
Interacting with statistics: designing interfaces to statistical databases BIBFull-Text 168
  Michael D. Levi; Frederick G. Conrad
Tool support for task-based user interface design BIBAFull-Text 169-170
  Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
It is generally accepted today, that knowledge about the tasks the user has to fulfill with a computer system, plays an important role in the design process. The more knowledge about the user tasks is available during design time the more it can be exploited when defining the system's properties and features, leading to a higher degree of user acceptance and user satisfaction. Basically, this process starts with the analysis and modelling of the user's tasks and uses the output of this modelling step in the subsequent system design and evaluation phases.
An international SIGCHI research agenda BIBAFull-Text 171
  Jean C. Scholtz; Michael Muller; David Novick; Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Ben Shneiderman; Cathleen Wharton
The goal of this workshop is to articulate an HCI research agenda statement, along with plans for continued refinement with the greater CHI community and plans for disseminating the information beyond the CHI community. There are been several similar prior efforts, including:
  • 1998 Universal Access program [2]
  • European community report, "Building the European Information Society for Us
       All" [1];
  • CHI 97 workshop [5] and paper [6], "HCI Research and Practice Agenda based on
       Human Needs";
  • CHI 96 Workshop, "CHI Ten-Year View" [3];
  • 1995 US National Science Foundation report, "New Directions in Human-Computer
       Interaction" [9];
  • 1995 report from the US National Research Council [7];
  • 1991 report, "... HCI ... Serving Human Needs" [4]
  • Organizing web site information: principles and practical experience BIBAFull-Text 172
      Kate Dobroth; Paul McInerney; Sharon Smith
    As web sites continue to grow in their complexity, one of the most important usability design decisions is how to structure the web site topic hierarchy. This decision lays the groundwork for designing other aspects of the site, including the home page table of contents, common navigation elements, hypertext links, and for categorizing new documents in the topic structure over the life of the site. Organizing web sites is a timely topic as evidenced by the recent spate of publications on this topic and by NIST's recent release of a tool, WebCAT, to help users participate in organizing their web site. More significantly, the organization is probably the limiting factor on success for web sites that provide useful information.
    The hunt for usability: tracking eye movements BIBAFull-Text 173
      Keith S. Karn; Steve Ellis; Cornell Juliano
    Usability testing methods have not changed significantly since the origins of the practice. Usability studies typically address human performance at a readily observable task-level, including measures like time to complete a task, percentage of participants succeeding, type and number of errors, and subjective ratings of ease of use [3]. Certain types of questions are difficult to answer efficiently with these techniques. Imagine, for example, that we observe users spending longer than expected looking at a particular dialog of a software application or web page without making the appropriate selection to complete the task. Participants often have difficulty reporting their behavior and the experimenter is clueless about what went wrong. Is it because the user is overlooking the control? Is the user distracted by another element in the interface -- perhaps an animated graphic? Is the user seeing the control, but failing to comprehend its meaning? Different answers to these questions would clearly lead to different recommendations. If overlooking the control is a problem, increasing its salience is appropriate. If confusion of the control's function is a problem, changing the graphic or text label may be appropriate. If distraction is a problem, decreasing the salience of other stimuli may help. Without answers to these questions, design recommendations have to be implemented by trial and error. Recording the fixation pattern of the participant's eyes can offer additional information to help answer these questions. While this concept is not new, it has been confined primarily to military aircraft cockpit issues [2,4]. Only recently has eye tracking technology advanced to make it practical in the broader usability community. Usability studies of human-computer systems that have included eye tracking, e.g., [1] are beginning to show benefits of these techniques. However, important challenges remain.
    End-user programming and blended-user programming BIBAFull-Text 174
      Howie Goodell; Carol Traynor
    End-User Programming has not lived up to expectations: today's computer world is dominated by "fatware" programs with hundreds of features, not simple applications built by the users themselves. Yet a strange convergence is taking place between the roles of programmers and end-users. Professional programmers are now end users of complex IDEs (Integrated Development Environments) similar to tools for non-programmers. On the other end of the scale, end users of major applications are gradually eased into real programming by extensive customization, macro recorders, "wizards", and GUI builders. In between are the informally-trained software professionals we call "blended-user programmers" who configure computers and networks, control industrial machines, and build active Web pages and business applications. Like conventional programmers, they are paid to program full-time, and develop skills in a variety of tools. Like end-users, their knowledge is applied and experimental rather than theoretical. Many started as end users, but moved into these software careers instead of becoming "gurus" or "gardeners" [1] who help other users.
    HCI in domains: common ground and key differences BIBFull-Text 175
      Guy A. Boy; David G. Novick; Cathleen Wharton
    Designing the user interface for pen and speech multimedia applications BIBAFull-Text 176
      James A. Larson; Sharon Oviatt; David L. Ferro
    This workshop will bring together a small group of researchers and practitioners to discuss how to design applications with both a verbal user interface (the user hears and speaks to the application) and a visual user interface (the user draws/writes and sees the application). Our goal is to better understand the issues that face designers of applications with multimedia interfaces integrating both visual and verbal interaction styles, exchange ideas and information, and increase communication among the diverse groups involved in multimedia interfaces.
    The UI design process: planning, managing, and documenting UI design work BIBAFull-Text 177
      Paul McInerney; Rick Sobiesiak
    This workshop will examine best practices for managing and documenting the external aspects of UI design work. Participants will have an opportunity to share lessons learned, discuss published literature, and identify issues that remain unresolved.

    Late-breaking results: seeing is understanding: new visualization techniques

    A task-oriented view of information visualization BIBAFull-Text 178-179
      Stacie L. Hibino
    Much of the research in information visualization has primarily focused on providing new views and frameworks to aid users in exploring or accessing data. Very little work has been done to support users through their full analysis process--from transforming their raw data into a set of polished final results. In this pilot study, we conducted a task analysis on five experts' use of an existing information visualization system when analyzing a complex data set. Our preliminary results indicate that users conduct several tasks outside of data exploration--tasks such as preparing the data, collecting results, and gathering evidence for a presentation. In addition, they give these other tasks high importance ratings with respect to the analysis process.
    TimeScape: a time machine for the desktop environment BIBAFull-Text 180-181
      Jun Rekimoto
    This paper describes a new desktop metaphor/system called TimeScape. A user of TimeScape can spatially arrange information on the desktop. Any desktop item can be removed at any time, and the system supports time-travel to the past or the future of the desktop. The combination of spatial information arrangement and chronological navigation allows the user to organize and archive electric information without being bothered by document folders or file classification problems.
    Information management strategies using a spatial-temporal activity structure BIBAFull-Text 182-183
      Koichi Hayashi; Eriko Tamaru
    This paper briefly describes our temporally threaded workspace model, and provides experimental results on its effects on users' information management strategies. The model provides users with a workspace to gather, create, and organize information necessary for each of their activities. It records a series of workspace snapshots to represent the progress of an activity. Through experiments we observed that the snapshot mechanism reduces the mental barrier associated with deleting information. This leads users to represent the current state of the task more clearly. Further, we observed a novel information management strategy, which uses the time dimension, in addition to spatial dimensions.
    Exploring a database through interactive visualised similarity scaling BIBAFull-Text 184-185
      Pieter Jan Stappers; Gert Pasman
    Databases often force users to verbalize queries in terms of attribute values. In matters of taste or subjective judgement, as in picking a color, or a meal from a menu, this is difficult and distracting. In our solution, MDS-Interactive, the dialogue between user and database is mediated through a small, evolving set of sample objects, which are presented visually by a real-time multidimensional scaling (MDS) algorithm. Queries are posed by indicating positions between the samples in order to find an object having like similarities to the displayed objects. Three prototype systems have been built and evaluated.
    Visualizing the crowds at a web site BIBAFull-Text 186-187
      Nelson Minar; Judith Donath
    A visualization of the crowds of people visiting a web site is developed. Visitors are drawn as icons on a map of the web site; the animation of people's movements conveys the crowd dynamics of visitors. The visualization combines three pieces: a map of the web site, an iconic representation of individual visitors, and an interpretation of the dynamics of visitor patterns to show crowd phenomena. The effect is to make a web site look like a social, active space.
    Visualizing the stock market BIBAFull-Text 188-189
      Martin Wattenberg
    We describe a new 2-dimensional visualization algorithm capable of presenting detailed information on hundreds of items while emphasizing overall patterns in the data. This display method, which builds on Shneiderman's treemap technique, makes use of both hierarchy and similarity information. We have implemented this display in the SmartMoney Map of the Market, a web page that reports current data on over 500 publicly traded companies.

    Late-breaking results: novel collaborative paradigms

    Agora: a remote collaboration system that enables mutual monitoring BIBAFull-Text 190-191
      Hideaki Kuzuoka; Jun Yamashita; Keiichi Yamazaki; Akiko Yamazaki
    We introduce the video mediated remote collaboration system named Agora. Agora is designed so that embodiment of participants'conducts can be monitored naturally. Design principle, architecture, and initial impressions of the system is described.
    The ins and outs of collaborative walls: demonstrating the collaborage concept BIBAFull-Text 192-193
      Thomas P. Moran; Eric Saund; William van Melle; Robert Bryll; Anuj U. Gujar; Kenneth P. Fishkin; Beverly L. Harrison
    A collaborage is a collaborative collage of physically represented information on a surface that is connected with electronic information, such as a physical in/out board connected to a people-locator database. The physical surface (board) contains items that are tracked by camera and machine vision technology. Events on the board trigger electronic services. This paper motivates this concept, sketches the system, describes the first application, and presents some design issues.
    Real world teleconferencing BIBAFull-Text 194-195
      Mark Billinghurst; Hirokazu Kato
    We describe a prototype Augmented Reality conferencing application which uses the overlay of virtual images on the real world to facilitate computer supported collaborative work. Remote collaborators are represented as live video images or virtual avatars which are attached to tangible objects that can be freely positioned about a user in space. The use of augmented reality overcomes some of the limitations associated with traditional video conferencing and allows the user to conference from anywhere in their physical environment.
    A collaborative assistant for email BIBAFull-Text 196-197
      Dan Gruen; Candy Sidner; Carolyn Boettner; Charles Rich
    Software agents which communicate and collaborate with users to perform complex tasks constitute a new paradigm for human-computer interaction complementing existing graphical interfaces. We have recently completed a prototype agent of this kind for helping people with their email, based on our studies of people working with human assistants and Wizard-of-Oz studies. The prototype was constructed using application-independent software for modeling collaborative discourse (Collagen, see [4]) jointly developed by Lotus and Mitsubishi Electric and speech understanding technology from IBM Research. Users perform typical email tasks via a flexible combination of spoken language conversation with the agent and graphical interface actions (which are observed by the agent). The agent maintains a model of the user's goals and activities, and can act on its own initiative to assist the user. Having a high-level model of actions and goals allows speech to be used in a more natural, conversational, and effective manner than otherwise possible.
    Writing apart and designing together BIBAFull-Text 198-199
      Andrew L. Cohen; Debra Cash; Michael J. Muller; Curtis Culberson
    We report a qualitative study of collaboration in writing and presentation preparation. We highlight one important difference identified between the collaborative writing and the construction of presentations: When collaborating on documents, co-authors seldom constructed text synchronously. However, when collaborating on presentations, co-authors commonly engaged in synchronous construction of presentations. We conclude that tools supporting collaborative writing and presentation-development should provide real-time manipulation for presentation development, but for collaborative writing shared viewing and annotation may be sufficient.
    OwnTime: a system for timespace management BIBAFull-Text 200-201
      Roy Rodenstein; Gregory Abowd; Richard Catrambone
    We describe OwnTime, a system for facilitating timespace management, and discuss the results of a user study comparing the disruptiveness of meeting establishment without and with the system. The study indicates that the OwnTime system shows potential for improving users' time management. We also raise relevant issues about computer mediation in traditionally interpersonal tasks and note further work to be done in areas such as context-aware and wearable computing.

    Late-breaking results: new methapors for user interfaces

    The SIT book: audio as affective imagery for interactive storybooks BIBAFull-Text 202-203
      Maribeth Back; Rich Gold; Dana Kirsch
    We describe a working prototype built as part of our continuing research focus on new document genres and the crossmodal affordances of interactive audio. Our experimental SIT (Sound-Image-Text) Book is a personal interactive reading experience that combines the look and feel of a real book -- a beautiful cover, paper pages and printed images and text -- with the rich, evocative quality of a movie soundtrack. The soundtrack is multi-track and includes music and sound effects. The SIT Book uses electric field sensors located in the book binding to sense the reader's casual book handling and fingering of the page; these sensors control the ambient audio. The particular point of the SIT Book is to explore the use of background sound to provide a sense of place, and to add affect to the experience of reading a book without interrupting the flow of the story.
    Employing the periphery: the window as interface BIBAFull-Text 204-205
      Roy Rodenstein
    This paper describes work which employs a room's window as a location for a peripheral interface. Windows have several properties which make them well-suited to unobtrusive display including their transparency, their positive associations for people and natural peripheral use by them, and their nature as a clean and pleasing interface between spaces. We have initially explored the display of graphical weather forecasts, of activity in the space outside the window, and of historical images of the space outside the window, to augment users' sense of spatial and temporal context in their daily lives.
    TransWorld: paper world as avatar of electronic world BIBAFull-Text 206-207
      Noriko Ito; Naotake Fujita; Hideo Shimazu; Noboru Nakajima; Keiji Yamada
    Today, most of paper documents in offices are just like avatars of electronic documents because such paper documents are computer print-outs of original digital data in office computers. We propose a document management model, called TransWorld which supports integration of the paper world and the electronic world. In the model, users' actions to paper documents are automatically reflected to their original electronic documents observed by desk-mounted scanners and vice versa. An experimental system based on the TransWorld model is also described.
    StuPad: integrating student notes with class lectures BIBAFull-Text 208-209
      Khai N. Truong; Gregory D. Abowd
    A classroom environment contains both private (student-generated) and public (teacher-generated) streams of information. This paper discusses a system, StuPad, that integrates publicly available streams of information, such as a lecture presented by an instructor, with notes captured by individual students. We discuss the motivation for StuPad within the Classroom 2000 project and present a prototype to support capture and access/review activities.
    Notable: an annotation system for networked handheld devices BIBAFull-Text 210-211
      Michelle Baldonado; Steve Cousins; Brian Lee; Andreas Paepcke
    This paper describes Notable, an annotation system for networked handheld devices. Notable's key features are its separation of the annotation platform from the reading platform and its use of search to link annotations and documents. We outline the scenario that inspired this system, then describe its interaction design, architecture, and prototype implementation.
    Swept-frequency, magnetically-coupled resonant tags for realtime, continuous, multiparameter control BIBAFull-Text 212-213
      Joseph Paradiso; Kai Yuh Hsiao
    We have developed a passive tag reader optimized for applications in human-computer interaction. It sweeps through a 50-300 kHz read frequency, flagging any magnetically-coupled resonators in that range. It is a minimally-complicated circuit, and is able to provide the center frequency, resonance width, and amplitude for each detected tag over a serial line at 30 Hz continuous updates. The tags are easily fashioned, consisting only of an inductor and capacitor or magnetostrictor tag cut to appropriate length. We have written an engaging musical application to demonstrate this system, tagging over 11 different objects and tracking their proximity and state, launching or modifying musical sounds in accordance.

    Late breaking results: overcoming human limitations

    User interface of a nonvisual table navigation method BIBAFull-Text 214-215
      Chieko Asakawa; Takashi Itoh
    It is fervently hoped that the World Wide Web will become a new information resource for the blind. However, although the use of tables on the Web has been increasing, the currently available talking Web browsers basically read tables horizontally, making it very hard for blind users to understand them. We therefore propose a method that allows users to navigate through a table both horizontally and vertically. Our method is characterized by three features: a table cursor, a table pointer, and a cell-jumping key. In this paper, we describe the user interface of our method, report the results of our evaluation tests, and offer some conclusions.
    A web browsing interface for small-screen computers BIBAFull-Text 216-217
      Atsushi Sugiura
    This paper describes a user interface that facilitates daily Web browsing tasks in small-screen computers. A combination of two techniques, hyperlink prediction and Web data clipping, reduces the number of scrolling operations necessary to display a desired hyperlink on the small screen.
    Auditory browser for blind and visually impaired users BIBAFull-Text 218-219
      Patrick Roth; Lori Petrucci; Thierry Pun; Andre Assimacopoulos
    This paper presents our work on the development of a multimodal auditory interface which permits blind users to work more easily and efficiently with GUI browsers. A macro-analysis phase, which can be either passive or active, informs on the global layout of HTML documents. A subsequent active micro-analysis phase allows to explore particular elements of the document. The interface is based on : (1) a mapping of the graphical HTML document into a 3D virtual sound space environment, where non-speech auditory cues differentiate HTML elements; (2) the transcription into sound not only of text, but also of images; (3) the use of a touch-sensitive screen to facilitate user interaction. Moreover, in order to validate the sonification model of the images, we have created an audio "memory game", that can be used as a pedagogical tool to help blind pupils learn spatial exploration cues.
    Supporting memory for spatial location while reading from small displays BIBAFull-Text 220-221
      Kenton O'Hara; Abigail Sellen; Richard Bentley
    Research has shown that when people read paper documents, they develop an incidental memory for the location of information within those documents. However, this kind of spatial memory is undermined in conventional on-line scrolling interfaces. We report on an experiment in which we show that careful design of the interface can reinstate memory for spatial location. As we will show, this has particular implications for the design of interfaces for small screen displays.
    The integrated communication 2 draw (IC2D): a drawing program for the visually impaired BIBAFull-Text 222-223
      Hesham M. Kamel; James A. Landay
    This paper addresses the problem of computer-aided drawing for the visually impaired without using special purpose external devices. We introduce the Integrated Communication 2 Draw (IC2D) system, which has a user interface that enables navigation and drawing on the screen using audio feedback. Navigation and point selection are done via a new recursive scheme based on the layout of the telephone keypad.
    Maximising screen-space on mobile computing devices BIBAFull-Text 224-225
      Stephen A. Brewster; Peter G. Cryer
    One major problem with mobile computing devices is lack of screen space. One way to overcome this is to reduce the size of the graphical components on screen and present information in sound. This paper describes a small pilot study to investigate the usability of sonically-enhanced buttons of different sizes. Results showed that sounds improved usability for both standard and small button sizes and that the most sophisticated sounds were the most effective.

    Late-breaking results: exploring the frontiers of interface design

    Redirecting direct manipulation or what happens when the goal is in front of you but the interface says to turn left? BIBAFull-Text 226-227
      Wai Tat Fu; Wayne D. Gray
    The feeling of directness arises when the interface permits the user to manipulate an interface object in a way analogous to manipulating the real object. However, we argue here that the essence of direct manipulation is not directness per se, but manipulation of task relevant objects in a task relevant manner. The research reported studies users of HyperCard after 20 hours of practice. We found that when users deviated from taught strategies that 25% of the time they invented new strategies that attempted a more direct manipulation of the task object than that permitted by the design of the interface.
    Developing task models from informal scenarios BIBAFull-Text 228-229
      Fabio Paterno; Cristiano Mancini
    The difficulties that designers and developers often have during the development of task models is a strong limitation to their use. Usually the main problem is to identify what is useful for the development of such task models from a lot of informal information. We propose a method, with a related tool, supporting the development of task models able to describe concurrent dynamic activities using an informal scenario as input.
    Setting the stage for improvised video scenarios BIBAFull-Text 230-231
      Thomas Binder
    This paper presents and discusses how users in collaboration with designers can create improvised use scenarios in their own setting. The paper suggests that videotaping such improvisations is a way for the users to contribute to the design process with their own design artifacts.
    Using HTML to create early prototypes BIBAFull-Text 232-233
      Jaya Vaidyanathan; Jason E. Robbins; David F. Redmiles
    This paper discusses the use of HTML for creating early prototypes of interactive systems. The HTML prototyping technique uses an iterative approach for the creation of early prototypes. Low fidelity prototypes are iteratively refined into higher fidelity versions. The prototypes are easily accessible to project stakeholders. We evaluate the HTML prototyping technique with respect to criteria published in the CHI community.
    Visual instruments for an interactive mural BIBAFull-Text 234-235
      Terry Winograd; François Guimbretière
    We present a design for interacting with a prototype device combining a large, high-resolution wall-mounted display and an optically tracked laser pointer. Interactions are supported by an object-based multi-layer open-GL-based graphic system, Millefeuille. We focus here on use-based design considerations for an experimental interface based on visual instruments, currently being implemented.
    Evaluating two-handed input techniques: rectangle editing and navigation BIBAFull-Text 236-237
      Didier Casalta; Yves Guiard; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
    This paper reports our ongoing design and evaluation of two-handed input techniques for several common tasks found in desktop interfaces: specifying simple geometric shapes, navigating in a large document and navigating between windows on a desktop.

    Late-breaking results: HHI: bridging the gulf between humans and computers

    Effects of the form of representation and number of computer agents on conformity BIBAFull-Text 238-239
      Eun Ju Lee; Clifford Nass
    In this paper, we demonstrate that the form of representation (character vs. text box) and the number (one vs. four) of computer agents affect people's conformity as well as attitudes toward the agent. A text box, as compared to a simple stick figure, induced more opinion change as well as eliciting more conformity. Interestingly, one text box was rated better than four text boxes in terms of social attractiveness, social presence, and trustworthiness, while the opposite was true of character.
    Printertainment: printing with interactive cover sheets BIBAFull-Text 240-241
      Jason Hong; Morgan N. Price; Bill N. Schilit; Gene Golovchinsky
    We explored a new type of user interface, interactive cover sheets: computer forms laid out on the banner pages of print jobs that people can mark on, scan back into a multifunction printer/scanner, and use as input to applications. Cover sheets are commonly strewn around printer rooms; with interactivity, they can let people see what others have to say, add their own comments, or play games, all while waiting for their print jobs. We designed three prototype applications and deployed them briefly in our research lab. We found that interactive cover sheets can be very appealing, that the sheets must be designed so that people can still identify these pages as cover sheets, and that the slow interaction cycle favors asynchronous applications.
    This computer responds to user frustration BIBAFull-Text 242-243
      Jonathan Klein; Youngme Moon; Rosalind W. Picard
    A human-computer interaction (HCI) agent was designed and built to support users in their ability to recover from negative emotional states, particularly frustration. The agent uses social-affective feedback strategies delivered to the user with text-only interaction. The agent's effectiveness was evaluated against two control conditions: (1) user's emotions were ignored, and (2) users were able to report problems and "vent" their feelings and thoughts to the computer. Behavioral results showed that the agent was significantly more effective than the control conditions in helping relieve frustration levels.
    Face-to-face interfaces BIBAFull-Text 244-245
      Scott Prevost; Peter Hodgson; Linda Cook; Elizabeth Churchill
    Recent work on the social nature of human-computer interactions [3] has prompted research on animated, anthropomorphic characters in user interfaces. Such interfaces may simplify user interactions by allowing them to use and interpret natural face-to-face communication techniques such as speech, gestures and facial expressions. We describe our initial implementation, a character that controls the A/V facilities in a state-of-the-art conference room, and outline the goals of our ongoing project.
    Presentation of personalized information using anthropomorphous agents BIBAFull-Text 246-247
      Tomonari Kamba; Yuichi Koike
    This paper proposes a method to present personalized information effectively using multiple anthropomorphous agents that know the user's preferences. Conventionally, techniques such as filtering and sorting are used to show the information customized for each user, but it is difficult to naturally reflect human multi-dimensional preferences in such a presentation format. In the proposed method, each agent has a specific viewpoint and interactively points at the contents that the user will be interested in. This technique has been applied to an Internet-based information service for registered PC users.
    Effects of computer/television convergence on users' perception of content, equipment and affect BIBAFull-Text 248-249
      Hadyn K. Kernal
    This 2 x 2 between subjects experiment examined the effects of label (computer or television) on users' evaluation of identical equipment and content (comedy show or web page). Content was evaluated more positively on key traits (humor and intelligence) when viewed via the traditional medium. The "computer" was perceived as superior on picture clarity, competence, and quality. "Computer" participants reported greater feelings of involvement, while "television" participants reported greater feelings of ease. "Television" participants demonstrated better memory for traditional television content than "computer" participants. These results extend prior research on labels and technology showing that there are important psychological implications for digital convergence.

    Late-breaking results: new interaction techniques

    Sweeping away disorder with the broom alignment tool BIBAFull-Text 250-251
      Jason Robbins; Michael Kantor; David Redmiles
    Design diagrams play an important role in many disciplines. Many types of diagrams use spacing and alignment to communicate implicit relationships between objects within the diagram. We describe and evaluate a direct manipulation alignment tool based on a push-broom metaphor.
    Prosodic font: translating speech into graphics BIBAFull-Text 252-253
      Tara Rosenberger; Ronald L. MacNeil
    The proliferation of speech recognition as input to Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) systems opens up new possibilities for the design of typographic forms. Designers can use the musical expressiveness of the speaking voice to shape letterforms in real time. Letters formed by speech are more representative of the emotional and contextualized person speaking than are fonts now. Prosodic Font is an object-oriented font that assumes a dynamic, temporal form. It emulates the tonal and rhythmic motion in the speaking voice. Preliminary user testing results show that people are able to identify Prosodic Fonts as representative of particular prosodic variations.
    Rhythmic menus: toward interaction based on rhythm BIBAFull-Text 254-255
      Sebastien Maury; Sylvie Athenes; Stephane Chatty
    In this paper, we evaluate an interaction style based on visual and auditory rhythms. We describe this rhythmic interactor and experimentally compare it to the pull-down menus found in current graphical user interfaces. The main result is that, for short and medium length menus, sound-enhanced rhythmic menus are faster than pull-down menus.
    Amplifying spatial rotations in 3D interfaces BIBAFull-Text 256-257
      Ivan Poupyrev; Suzanne Weghorst; Takahiro Otsuka; Tadao Ichikawa
    We have derived the generic equations for the zero-order control-display gain that allow for linear and non-linear amplification of spatial rotations in 3D user interfaces. Sample 3D interaction techniques have been implemented for 3D viewpoint control and object manipulation.
    Privacy critics: UI components to safeguard users' privacy BIBAFull-Text 258-259
      Mark S. Ackerman; Lorrie Cranor
    Creating usable systems to protect online privacy is an inherently difficult problem. Privacy critics are semi-autonomous agents that help people protect their online privacy by offering suggestions and warnings. Two sample critics are presented.
    TICLE: a tangible interface for collaborative learning environments BIBAFull-Text 260-261
      Lori L. Scarlatos; Yuliya Dushkina; Shalva Landy
    This work explores new ways that technology can enhance education. We are developing a system that "watches" students as they play with a Tangram puzzle on a physical tabletop, and offers help at appropriate times. Thus instead of making the computer a central part of the educational experience, our system acts as a "guide on the side" that students may either turn to for occasional help or ignore completely. This system will be installed and evaluated at the Goudreau Museum of Mathematics in Art and Science during spring 1999.

    Late-breaking results: MIT is the limit

    Expression glasses: a wearable device for facial expression recognition BIBAFull-Text 262-263
      Jocelyn Scheirer; Raul Fernandez; Rosalind W. Picard
    Expression Glasses provide a wearable "appliance-based" alternative to general-purpose machine vision face recognition systems. The glasses sense facial muscle movements, and use pattern recognition to identify meaningful expressions such as confusion or interest. A prototype of the glasses has been built and evaluated. The prototype uses piezoelectric sensors hidden in a visor extension to a pair of glasses, providing for compactness, user control, and anonymity. On users who received no training or feedback, the glasses initially performed at 94% accuracy in detecting an expression, and at 74% accuracy in recognizing whether the expression was confusion or interest. Significant improvement beyond these numbers appears to be possible with extended use, and with-a small amount of feedback (letting the user see the output of the system).
    TouchTags: using touch to retrieve information stored in a physical object BIBAFull-Text 264-265
      Benjamin Vigoda; Neil Gershenfeld
    Information can be stored in inexpensive electronic "tag" microchips which can be embedded in physical objects. We have invented a new tag reader technology which allows information to be transferred into or out of these tag microchips through the human body via touch. Our technology has enabled us to create a novel user interface which can recognize when physical icons are touched, and a wearable system that can inventory packages when they are touched.
    GuideShoes: navigation based on musical patterns BIBAFull-Text 266-267
      Paul Nemirovsky; Glorianna Davenport
    One of the most ubiquitous tasks we have to perform is the need to find our way to unknown destinations. We are left alone to deal with maps, ask people for directions, and understand their instructions. How can we avoid this frustrating and time-consuming process? How can we help all the people who can't or won't use printed or spoken instructions (little kids, the visually-impaired, or users occupied with other urgent tasks)?This paper describes GuideShoes, a wearable system that uses aesthetic forms of expression for direct information delivery. This is a first tool to utilize music as an information medium and musical patterns as a means for navigation in an open space, such as a street. GuideShoes provides musical navigational cues in the background, thus reducing the problem of cognitive information overload. The system consists of a pair of shoes, equipped with a GPS, wireless modem, MIDI synthesizer, CPU, and a base station that acts as the central unit for data processing.
    Bringing sketching tools to keychain computers with an acceleration-based interface BIBAFull-Text 268-269
      Golan Levin; Paul Yarin
    We report the use of an embedded accelerometer as a gestural interface for an extremely small ("keychain") computer. This tilt- and shake-sensitive interface captures the expressive nuances of continuously varying spatio-temporal input, making possible a set of applications heretofore difficult or impossible to implement in such a small device. We provide examples of such applications, including a paint program and some simple animation authoring systems.
    Sensory puzzles BIBAFull-Text 270-271
      Tamara M. Lackner; Kelly Dobson; Roy Rodenstein; Luke Weisman
    Traditional jigsaw puzzles provide interesting visual stimulation, but hold diminished rewards for visually impaired users. We have built a puzzle whose pieces play portions of music and include a tangible topology representing their contents, giving auditory and tactile feedback about the pieces' role in the puzzle's overall solution. In addition to providing entertainment, the puzzle pieces support learning about music, experimentation, and social, collaborative construction. By employing multiple senses --hearing, touch, vision-- our sensory puzzle provides a rich interaction, play and learning space accessible to individuals with various sensory abilities.
    StoryMat: a play space for collaborative storytelling BIBAFull-Text 272-273
      Kimiko Ryokai; Justine Cassell
    In this paper, we present the design and prototype of StoryMat: a soft interactive play mat that records and recalls children's storytelling activities.

    Late breaking results: the medium is the message

    Evolving use of a system for education at a distance BIBAFull-Text 274-275
      Stephen A. White; Anoop Gupta; Jonathan Grudin; Harry Chesley; Greg Kimberly; Elizabeth Sanocki
    Networked computers increasingly support distributed, real-time audio and video presentations. Flatland is an extensible system that provides instructors and students a wide range of interaction capabilities [3]. We studied Flatland use over multi-session training courses. Even with prior coaching, participants required experience to understand and exploit the features. Effective design and use will require understanding the complex evolution of personal and social conventions for these new technologies.
    Design lessons from deployment of on-demand video BIBAFull-Text 276-277
      Liwei He; Anoop Gupta; Stephen A. White; Jonathan Grudin
    Streaming video to the desktop is increasingly widespread. A key application is in training, making information available over the Internet or corporate intranets, in real time or as archived presentations. How should a presentation be redesigned for retrieval and viewing on demand? Detailed examination of usage logs of 6000 corporate on-demand video sessions provides suggestions.
    Annotations for streaming video on the web BIBAFull-Text 278-279
      David Bargeron; Anoop Gupta; Jonathan Grudin; Elizabeth Sanocki
    Streaming video on the World Wide Web is being widely deployed, and workplace training and distance education are two key applications. The ability to annotate video presentations on the Web can add significant value by enabling "in context" note-taking and asynchronous collaboration through annotation sharing. We present preliminary data on the use of MRAS, a prototype collaborative video annotation system, for personal note-taking and for sharing notes.
    Managing temporal detail in virtual environments: relating system responsiveness to feedback BIBAFull-Text 280-281
      Benjamin Watson; Neff Walker; Bill Ribarsky; Victoria Spaulding
    Recent research has enabled control of the level of graphical detail in virtual environments, and thus system responsiveness (SR). Given such control, what SR is appropriate? This is a preliminary report of the first of a series of experiments addressing this question. Previous research has demonstrated that 2D interactive tasks needing higher levels of feedback require better SR. However, research results for 3D tasks have not been as clear. We present an experiment confirming the SR/feedback relationship for 3D tasks.
    Multimodal interaction techniques for the virtual workbench BIBAFull-Text 282-283
      A. Fleming Seay; David Krum; Bill Ribarsky; Larry Hodges
    The present study investigated the differential levels of effectiveness of various interaction techniques on a simple rotation and translation task on the virtual workbench. Manipulation time and number of collisions were measured for subjects using four device sets (unimanual glove, bimanual glove, unimanual stick, and bimanual stick). Participants were also asked to subjectively judge each device's effectiveness. Performance results indicated a main effect for device but not for number of hands. Subjective results supported these findings, as users expressed a preference for the stick(s).
    Superimposing display space on workspace in the context of endoscopic surgery BIBAFull-Text 284-285
      Regan L. Mandryk; Christine L. MacKenzie
    An experiment was conducted to determine how performance of an endoscopic surgery task is influenced by the location of the image display. Two tasks were performed under two display conditions. The endoscopic camera view of the workspace was displayed either on a monitor in front of the subject or projected directly above the workspace. Timing results revealed significant order by display interactions. Overall, both tasks were faster when the superimposed display was used first. A post-test questionnaire revealed that image quality was perceived to be superior on the monitor. Results are discussed in terms of the subjects' ability to calibrate the display space with the workspace. Implications for surgical operating theatres are discussed.

    Late breaking results: experimental answers to interaction issues

    An analysis of the index finger as a pointing device BIBAFull-Text 286-287
      Mehmet Gokturk; John L. Sibert
    We have conducted three related experiments in order to analyze the performance of the index finger as a pointing device. The results indicate that the performance of the index finger is significantly better as a direct pointing device [1] than as an indirect pointing device using an isometric finger-controlled joystick (Trackpoint). We included a mouse as a "control" condition and in two of the three experiments, the mouse and the finger exhibited similar performance.
    Exploring the divide between two unified theories of cognition: modeling visual attention in menu selection BIBAFull-Text 288-289
      Erik Nilsen; Jake Evans
    Two cognitive modeling efforts (EPIC & ACT-R) have proposed computational models of a simple menu selection task involving searching for a single digit in an unordered, pull down menu. This paper presents an empirical study which extends the menu selection task in two dimensions (distance between menu items and whether the items are digits or words). Each of these manipulations should make a difference in selection time according to one of the models but not the other. An analysis of response times reveals that both factors produce significant differences in the direction predicted by the cognitive models. The magnitude of these differences, however, are smaller than predicted (7% for distance and only 3% for word vs. digit). Implications for future modeling of visual attention is briefly addressed.
    Natural language and direct manipulation search tools in a multimodal information system BIBAFull-Text 290-291
      Sheryl L. Miller; J. Gregory Trafton
    This study evaluated the usability of an existing, information-dense workspace, which places burdensome search requirements on its users. Direct manipulation principles were contrasted with natural language and multimodal interaction. The results indicated that natural language was an effective and usable search tool in a complex information workspace.
    Learning where to look BIBAFull-Text 292-293
      Brian D. Ehret
    Knowledge of object locations in direct manipulation interfaces improves performance by restricting visual search. This paper explores the effects of label representativeness and practice on the learning of object locations. Results showed that as label representativeness decreased, location knowledge increased. All participants were shown to have learned locations to some extent, however, even those using an interface which offered little benefit to doing so, indicating that such learning is pervasive.
    Secondary navigation in software wizards BIBAFull-Text 294-295
      Mary Burton; Daina Pupons Wickham; Lori Phelps; Kelly Spain; Janna Crews; Nicki Rich
    The authors conducted a study of three approaches to secondary navigation in software wizards. Secondary navigation refers to user interface navigation controls that are in addition to the standard "Back" and "Next" buttons in a software wizard. We tested three secondary navigation controls: table of contents, tabs, and drop down menu. The goal of this study was to assess the benefits of secondary navigation controls in terms of user success with and user preference for the controls in the context of a software wizard. Thirty participants across three IBM sites tested prototypes of wizards with secondary navigation controls. We found that study participants were more successful with and preferred the table of contents secondary navigation control, participants continued to rely on the Back and Next buttons for navigation in the wizard, and participants preferred a secondary navigation control to having no secondary navigation control in a wizard.
    Audiophotography: practice and prospects BIBAFull-Text 296-297
      David Frohlich; Ella Tallyn
    The value and practice of recording sound with still photographs was explored in an audiocamera field trial. The findings challenge the current industry view that the value of sound capture lies in the voice labelling of photos. Instead they suggest that ambient sounds-of-the-moment have far higher value as a way of bringing photos to life and improving human memory for events.

    Student posters

    A visual language for a sketch-based UI prototyping tool BIBAFull-Text 298-299
      James Lin
    We describe the design of the visual language for SILK 2.0, a sketch-based tool for prototyping user interfaces. The new SILK visual language has been designed to allow user interface designers to quickly prototype the behavior of a user interface. This includes behavior that depends on the state of certain UI elements and the ability to create "sketchy" components to be reused in other sketches.
    Quantifying human coordination in HCI BIBAFull-Text 300-301
      Maurice R. Masliah
    This poster provides a conceptual contribution to the understanding of how to evaluate performance for computer applications that require users to simultaneously control multiple degrees of freedom (dofs). Whereas previous metrics from the literature, efficiency and integrality, are measurements in the space and time domains respectively, coordination should be measured in both dimensions. This poster proposes a definition of coordination and hypothesizes as to what will be found.
    Hand posture recognition in a body-face centered space BIBAFull-Text 302-303
      Sebastien Marcel
    We propose to use a neural network model to recognize a hand posture in an image. Hand gestures are segmented using a space discretisation based on face location and body anthropometry.
    Novice heuristic evaluations of a complex interface BIBAFull-Text 304-305
      Aleksandra Slavkovic; Karen Cross
    In this paper, we describe the ability of evaluators with limited experience to use Heuristic Evaluation (HE) in assessing a complex interface. We analyze our results in terms of the proportion of problems found by different sets of evaluators in different areas of the interface. Our results illustrate that the 5-10 evaluator size advocated by Nielsen and Molich [3] does not generalize to assessing complex interfaces. Evaluators tend to focus on certain sections of the interface and ignore others. Our results suggest that modification to HE is necessary to most efficiently produce a complete set of usability problems in an interface.
    Reservations about the usability of airline web sites BIBAFull-Text 306-307
      Paula Selvidge
    Designing effective and usable web sites is important to survival in the e-commerce market. The focus of this study was to identify general usability issues on major airline web sites. Seven web sites were compared on the task of locating flight and fare information. Finding flight information across the web sites was a difficult task for many users in this study. Numerous usability issues were identified including problems with logon procedures, non-descriptive and redundant links, round-trip options, and unfamiliar technical language.
    Synchronous collaborative navigation on the WWW BIBAFull-Text 308-309
      Yann Laurillau
    We describe an ongoing research effort in designing synchronous collaborative navigational techniques on the WWW. The goal of the research program is to provide usable tools to collaboratively search information on the WWW. We begin by studying collaborative navigational techniques in the search results space defined by a WWW search engine. We first present our design method. We then characterize four types of collaborative navigation that are embedded in the current prototype, Co-Vitesse.
    The importance of coordination devices in text-based, task-oriented conversations BIBAFull-Text 310-311
      Jeff Hancock
    The present experiment compared the effects of two different interfaces on text-based, computer-mediated communication occurring in real time. In one condition, dyads attempted to solve a figure-matching task while using a WYSIWIS interface in which messages are transmitted character by character. In the other condition, dyads used a standard IRC (Internet Relay Chat) interface in which messages are composed privately and then sent as a message unit. Comparison of the two conditions revealed superior task performance in the IRC condition and more frequent use of verbal turn coordination devices in the WYSIWIS condition. The results are interpreted as evidence for the importance of turn coordination devices in text-based CMC.
    Visualizing learning activities to support tutors BIBAFull-Text 312-313
      Christian Hardless; Urban Nulden
    This paper describes difficulties when tutoring in virtual learning environments. Activity Visualization (AV) is proposed as technology support for greater awareness and understanding of learning processes. Evaluations based on rich experiences from a course have been conducted. The results are positive confirming a need for technology support and indicating that AV is a promising approach.
    Icon size as a function of display screen BIBAFull-Text 314-315
      Josey Chu; Mikael Goldstein; Mikael Anneroth
    As wireless and mobile computing advances, user interface designers are faced with the challenge of designing an interface for miniaturized devices that may be capable of performing Windows applications. The present study attempted to define the optimal icon size for small display with a psychophysical approach -- the method of adjustment. Participants were asked to adjust the icon size in descending and ascending order to satisfy the operational criteria of (1) adjusting the icon to its smallest size, and (2) maintaining recognition of the icon image. Three display areas, 40x40 ram, 120x70 turn and 180x100 mm were used. Results from this study show that icon =5.0 mm may be recommended for displays with limited area.
    An alternative to scrollbars on small screens BIBAFull-Text 316-317
      Staffan Bjork; Johan Redstrom
    This paper describes a web-browser based on the focus+context technique Flip Zooming. A prototype was developed and evaluated against an ordinary web-browser that used scrollbars on a small screen with a resolution of 160*160 pixels. A preliminary evaluation show that the prototype provides better overview and makes searching for specific items easier compared to the traditional browser. These findings indicate that there are constraints that have to be acknowledged when designing the user interface on small screens.
    The BubbleBadge: a wearable public display BIBAFull-Text 318-319
      Jennica Falk; Staffan Bjork
    We are exploring the design space of wearable computers by designing "public" wearable computer displays. This paper describes our first prototype, the BubbleBadge. By effectively turning the wearer's private display "inside out", the BubbleBadge transforms the wearable computing concept by making digital information public rather than private. User tests showed that the device introduces a new way to interact with information-providing devices, suggesting that it would be valuable to explore the concept further.
    comMotion: a context-aware communication system BIBAFull-Text 320-321
      Natalia Marmasse
    How many times have you gone to the grocery store but left the grocery list on the refrigerator door? Wouldn't it be more efficient to have a reminder to buy groceries and the shopping list delivered to you when you were in the vicinity of the store?We live in a world in which the information overload is part of our daily life. Many of us receive large quantities of email or voice mail messages. Yet many of these messages are relevant only in a particular context. We can use a system of reminders to keep up with all we have to do, but these reminders are often relevant only to a specific location. If reminders, to-do lists, messages and other information were delivered in the most timely and relevant context, part of the overload would be reduced. This paper describes comMotion, a context-aware communication system for a mobile or wearable computing platform.
    People, places and the newspilot BIBAFull-Text 322-323
      Per Dahlberg; Johan Redstrom; Henrik Fagrell
    This paper reports from a project, called NewsPilot, where we explore how context aware computing can be used to support mobile collaborators. An empirical study of journalists at a local radio station in Sweden has informed the design of a prototype system. The system is built using a personal digital assistant (PDA) fitted with a radio transceiver and filters information based on the users physical location in relation to geographic places and other users.
    A process for research on aging and computer use BIBAFull-Text 324-325
      Sherry E. Mead; Victoria A. Spaulding Johnson
    A process is described for producing interface design and training interventions aimed at making new technologies more accessible to older adults. This method has been used to examine the usability of three computerized systems that older adults are likely to encounter. One of the three systems, automatic teller machines (ATMs), is used an as example of how the proposed intervention design and evaluation process has been successfully carried out.
    Musbus: a personalized mouse training program for children with autism BIBAFull-Text 326-327
      Erik Eliasson; Anna Fredrikson; Martin Rybrand; Markus Wahl
    This paper presents Musbus (Mouse-fun in Swedish), a computer program which trains basic use of a computer mouse. The program is designed and developed for children with autism according to HCI principles adapted to these users. We also discuss the special needs, regarding computer programs, of children with autism and we make recommendations about how programs should be designed for these children.
    The Funki Buniz Playground: facilitating multi-cultural affective collaborative play BIBAFull-Text 328-329
      Heidy Maldonado; Antoine Picard
    The Funki Buniz Playground is an environment where children can interact with each other simultaneously in both a virtual world -- through their avatars -- and the real world, which we built to study cross cultural affective responses and multi-cultural empathy. This paper describes some of the interaction design challenges we encountered while implementing the Funki Buniz Playground, as well as the constraints and solutions we discovered.
    Virtual interaction using robust color skin detection BIBAFull-Text 330-331
      David Saxe
    Virtual Interaction refers to a low immersion virtual reality system that allows users to participate in a scene with computer-generated graphics. The system's purpose is to provide interactive environments that allow physical activity for individuals with disabilities. This extended abstract briefly describes the current silhouette-based system and discusses the ongoing work of improving the system with the incorporation of a robust skin detection algorithm. Virtual Interaction with only the user's hands is discussed with regard to both two and three-dimensional environments.
    WebStickers: using physical objects as WWW bookmarks BIBAFull-Text 332-333
      Peter Ljungstrand; Lars Erik Holmquist
    We describe a low-cost distributed method for associating web pages with physical objects, thus making the objects act as physical bookmarks to the World Wide Web. By doing this, we can inherit the physical properties of the objects, such as persistency and availability. The system utilizes stickers with pre-printed barcodes -- WebStickers -- to associate URLs with physical objects. Users can return to a desired web page by scanning the barcode attached to an object. The associations are stored in a networked server, making it easy to move and share physical bookmarks between users. Preliminary evaluations show that the system is easy to use, even for novice users.
    Design support for interactive 3D illustrations BIBAFull-Text 334-335
      Volker Paelke
    Interactive 3D illustrations of spatial and dynamic properties have many promising applications in presentation, teaching and training. The goal of this research is to analyze their design process, identify the problems that currently prevent widespread use and develop a system of techniques and tools to support their effective development.

    Special interest group

    The goms sig: troubleshooting lessons learned novel applications teaching techniques, & future research BIBAFull-Text 336
      Wayne D. Gray; Bonnie E. John; David E. Kieras; Deborah A. Boehm-Davis
    GOMS is many things to many people. It is the only validated analytic usability evaluation method (UEM) in the field of human-computer interaction. It is being used by practitioners at some of the world's largest and some of the smallest software companies. It is a research agenda that is being pursued at universities the world over. It is a task analysis technique with roots in both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. It is a flexible tool that can be used with protocol analysis. It is a technique that makes detailed profiling possible. It is an important adjunct to usability testing. It is something that can be done at the early stages of the design process. It is a way of intelligently playing what if games with interface possibilities. It is all of these things and more.
    Making minds meet in your local chapter: the case of SIGCHI.NL BIBAFull-Text 337
      Peter Boersma; Eddy Boeve; Boyd de Groot
    SIGCHI.NL, the local chapter of SIGCHI in the Netherlands, decided at its first conference in January 1998 that most, if not all, communication to and between members should take place electronically. This also meant that the website should play a vital role in supporting the local HCI community in Holland. The newly appointed website committee was given the tough job of building the 'perfect' website for an opiniated audience of 500 usability experts. The website committee soon learned that in this case 'designing by committee' didn't prove effective enough. A 'surgical team' of two members was formed, joined by a member of the board to generate enough momentum to build the site in just a few months time. Despite the fact that the site had to be designed and built in the scarce free hours of its members, the surgical team managed to introduce the new website at the second SIGCHI.NL conference on September 7th, 1998.The website (http://sigchi.nl) was well received by the members and is visited by approximately 40 people per day with only mouth-to-mouth (or better: mail-to-mail) promotion. Here is what we feel worked good when we designed and built the website
  • Rapid (online) prototyping to quickly get feedback from all of the committees
       of SIGCHI.NL
  • The surgical team did the 'cutting' while other members gave comments and
       support
  • Community support = adding 'real' interactivity to a website
  • Frequent updates: at this moment 4-6 updates a month Soon to be introduced are password-protected area's for internal reports and documentation and a password-protected update system, where committees can change pages when necessary, meanwhile enforcing the necessary layout and navigational guidelines.
  • Visual interaction design SIG BIBAFull-Text 338
      Karen Graham
    The purpose of this Special Interest Group is to provide a forum for visual interaction designers and other interested CHI attendees to meet others with similar interests. This SIG provides for informal discussions and presentations on the following:
  • Ideas and happenings within the field of visual interaction design
  • Issues for the future of our SIG
  • Current applied works and the lessons learned The Visual Interaction Design SIG has been meeting at CHI since 1992 (excepting 1998). The attendees represent many aspects of visual interaction design such as: graphical user interface designers, human factors professionals, multimedia and web designers, industrial and graphic designers, design educators and students, and other CHI attendees interested in the visual representation of interactive software applications and presentations. The Visual Interaction Design SIG's discussions continue through out the year on our email distribution list:VISUAL-L DISCUSSION LIST at VISUAL-L@VTVM1.CC.VT.EDU.
  • Computer supported co-operative design: towards effective solutions BIBAFull-Text 339
      Andree Woodcock; Paul Rodgers
    Many stages in the product design and development process, particularly the latter stages, are well supported by computers. Computer Supported Co-operative Design (CSCD), however, embraces the use of computers to support a greater number of various tasks such as relationships (e.g. designer to designer communications), processes (e.g. CAD/CAM) and specific design tasks (e.g. concept generation). CSCD has been developed as a means of helping organizations produce higher quality and more diverse products in the light of several significant pressures. It should be noted, however, that no one system can support the diversity of design tasks which form the fundamental basis of creative design activity.
    The impact of unified messaging on the user BIBAFull-Text 340
      Hans de Graaff; Angelien Sanderman
    In the last few years the topic Unified Messaging (UM) has become important. UM means that users can deal with messages of all kinds regardless of their location, the communication device and medium used, or the connection used. Until now much of the discussion has focused on the technical feasibility of integrating different types of messages in a single messaging box. The perspective of the user has not been given as much attention. It is often assumed that users will appreciate the fact that all their messages are handled by a single institution, and are presented in a uniform way. We do not believe that this is necessarily the case, and we want to explore this issue based on several scenarios.
    Examining computer-mediated interactions: tasks, measures and featured information BIBAFull-Text 341
      Simon Bee; Caroline Gale
    A number of conventions exist regarding how best to empirically study computer-mediated interactions. These conventions are spread across a range of disciplines. Within the general field of group communication we find sociologists studying group dynamics, psychologists investigating the structure and meaning of communication and technologists devising new platforms for multi-participant interaction. The purpose of this SIG is to bring together a diverse group of people currently studying computer-mediated interactions (CMI) with a view to discussing a variety of pertinent issues in this field.
    SIG on one size fits all?: cultural diversity in user interface design BIBAFull-Text 342
      Aaron Marcus; Nuray Aykin; Apala Lahiri Chavan; Girish V. Prabhu; Massaki Kurosu
    This SIG discusses cultural diversity in user-interface design, especially in the light of international products, new laws, and universal access to the Web. The panelists will debate whether/how to alter conventional user-interface paradigms and the tradeoffs among design tactics gained by professionals who carefully researched and/or engaged in designing cross-cultural user interfaces.
    User interfaces for electronic product catalogs BIBAFull-Text 343
      Markus Stolze; Jurgen Koenemann
    The number of Internet users and goods sold over the Internet is increasing rapidly. To keep this momentum user interfaces for electronic shops have to adapt to and anticipate the changing needs of buyers and merchants on the Internet. A CHI98 workshop on future interfaces for e-commerce [1] confirmed that electronic product catalogs are a a rapidly evolving area where advanced HCI techniques can play an important role in the creation of successful product catalogs. Only recently these catalogs have started to evolve from a static set of inter-linked web-pages into dynamic interfaces that better exploit the possibilities of the computational and networked medium. There are a number of driving forces for this development:
  • Increased competition between catalog operators makes it important to design
       catalogs in such a way that they attract customers, keep customers
       exploring, and make customers return.
  • Marketing new types of products requires new types of interfaces. For example
       selling complex products electronically will require additional support for
       buyers to make them confident in their choice.
  • The increased number of products, product options, product reviews, and
       supplier evaluations create the challenge of organizing this information in
       a way that is useful for the needs of individual buyers.
  • With the increased number of Internet users, new classes of buyers with very
       different needs and expectations become apparent. For example, a catalog
       that wants to attract shoppers that mainly come for entertainment will be
       different from a catalog that wants to attract bargain hunters. Some of
       these buyers might also be interested in new ways of buying like auctions
       and request-for-proposals, that were traditionally only available for
       professionals. A number of HCI techniques have been applied to electronic
       product catalogs. Among them direct manipulation, information visualization,
       personalization, user modeling, and anthropomorphic interface agents. The
       goal of this SIG is to deepen the understanding of the challenges that have
       to be approached by electronic product catalogs, collect information about
       prototypical systems, and to share experiences gained with applying HCI
       techniques to improve electronic product catalogs.
  • The consultants' forum BIBAFull-Text 344
      Austin Henderson; Jeff Johnson; Aaron Marcus
    The proposed SIG will provide the subcommunity of culsltants attending CHI 99 with the opportunity to share and discuss issue concerning HCI consulting.
    Consolidating a new HCI community: the brazilian experience BIBAFull-Text 345
      Raquel O. Prates; Clarisse S. de Souza; Juliana P. Salles
    In 1996 many people in Brazil were working with HCI, but most of them did not have any interaction with others. During CHI'96 in Vancouver, Brazilian participants realized the benefits of joining a wider HCI community and started thinking about creating our own national community. We started out by sending messages to the Brazilian Computing Society discussion list reporting our experience in CHI'96 and proposing to publish the names of people working with HCI in Brazil and their main area of interests. We were surprised to find out how many people were working with HCI in Brazil. This list soon turned into a discussion list and we started making plans on how to turn this group into a community.
    Current issues in assessing and improving documentation usability BIBKFull-Text 346
      Stephanie Rosenbaum
    Keywords: documentation, documentation standards, documentation usability, information design, information development, product development, usability testing
    Universal web access: delivering services to everyone BIBAKFull-Text 347
      Gary Perlman
    To deliver services to more users, developers can try to reach more diverse users (language / culture, handicapped / disabled, gender, age, etc.). By developing and sharing methods and resources to address many dimensions of diversity, developers may improve accessibility for all.
    Keywords: CHIkids, SIGCAPH, accessibility, aging, assistive technology, character set, children, disabilities, disabled, diversity, elderly, female, global, globalisation, globalization, group and individual differences, handicapped, i18n, impaired, impairment, intercultural, international, internationalisation, internationalization, male, multilingual, software localisation, software localization, special needs, translation, universal access
    HCI journals: valuable reading or wasted paper? BIBAFull-Text 348
      John Karat
    Because it is the leading conference in the field of human-computer interaction, researchers and practitioners devote considerable attention to presenting their work at the ACM SIGCHI Conference. However, CHI papers are not the only forum for disseminating interesting work related to the broad field of human-computer interaction. While conference papers are intended to be brief and timely, journals can provide for more in depth consideration of theory and practice. However, this model of synergy between conference proceedings and journal articles seems far from accurate in describing the world of HCI publications. Academic work and concerns (e.g., tenure) dominate journal content, and practitioners have little incentive to develop ideas beyond conference proceedings page limits. This SIG will bring together representatives of the editorial boards of the leading human-computer interaction journals for an overview of each journals view of its role in the community and their acquisition and review policies. The session will provide a forum for discussion of the roles of various kinds of publications in the dissemination of information in the diverse HCI community.
    SIGCHI's role in influencing technology policy BIBAFull-Text 349
      Jeff Johnson; Ben Shneiderman; Elliot Soloway; Austin Henderson; Barbara Simons
    Computer technology is having a pervasive influence on the lives of people in the developed world. The Internet is rapidly becoming mainstream. Both are having a growing impact on people's privacy, security, health, education, transportation, financial well-being, and even family life. Technology policy is therefore becoming a more important part of overall social policy. This trend will continue into the 21st Century.
    Usability in on-line/distance education S.I.G. BIBAFull-Text 350
      Matthew Tarpy; Teresa Arnold; Matt LaSaine
    As the Internet becomes ubiquitous, institutions of higher learning and major corporations are turning to this "new" medium to in the hopes that it can help them deliver high quality, on-line and distance education products. Shifting towards this new product delivery model challenges fundamental assumptions about instructional design, usability, and human-machine interaction. Today's on-line/distance education usability professional is in a desert of information hiding. This is caused by the facts that these professionals primarily work in other domains and the recent advent of this area has not provided a great deal of practical knowledge that the professional can draw upon. It must therefore follow that there are not a large number of resources that the usability professional has access to, either on the Internet (such as a research report from a University or research consortium) or through other, more traditional means, of information distribution (books or journals). The method of information "passing" is akin to oral histories: passed along by word of mouth. This S.I.G. would seek to remedy this situation by providing a forum where ideas, methodologies, and anecdotal evidence can be shared.
    CHI 99 special interest group on natural language in computer-human interaction BIBAFull-Text 351
      Nancy Green; David G. Novick
    With the growing interest in human-computer interfaces that use natural language in some way, researchers and practitioners who work on these interfaces are finding that two general fields of research, CHI and natural language processing (NLP), are complementary and converging. In the CHI research community, there have been investigations on a number of related issues such as usability of text and graphics in on-line documentation, hypertext, spoken-dialogue interfaces, and language/audio resources. In the NLP research community, there is increasing interest in use of natural language, both spoken and written, in intelligent multimodal and multimedia interfaces, e.g., International Symposium on Spoken Dialogue (ISSD-96), COOP 98 Workshop on The Use of Herbert H. Clark's Models of Language Use for the Design of Cooperative Systems, 1998 AAAI Workshop on Representations for Multi-Modal Human-Computer Interaction, and Coling-ACL'98 Workshop on Content Visualizations and Intermedia Representations (CVIR'98).Some technical issues of possible interest to both communities are: 1. For what and under what conditions is NL effective in the human-computer interface? For what types of tasks or communication? How does modality influence its effectiveness? How does its effectiveness in computer media differ from that in traditional forms of communication such as face-to-face conversation and print media? How do performance limitations of NLP technologies (e.g., .speech recognition errors) influence effectiveness? 2. What are the critical technical requirements for NLP to be effective in the human-computer interface, e.g., coordination of generated text and graphics, incremental and robust interpretation, and modeling turn-taking and initiative in dialogue? What technical requirements arise in transferring technology developed for one language to systems for users of another language (e.g., languages using different writing systems)? How should effectiveness of NLP technologies be evaluated?
    Use cases in task modeling and user interface design BIBAFull-Text 352
      Larry L. Constantine; Lucy A. D. Lockwood
    Use cases are increasingly recognized as a particularly versatile form of task model. Use cases are related to scenarios, which have a long history of application to computer-human interaction [2], but may offer distinct advantages. A use case comprises a single case of use of a system that is complete, well-defined, and meaningful from the perspective of an external user [5,8]. Concrete instances of multiple use cases can be combined into plausible sequences to form the narrative vignettes usually associated with scenario-based design, but because use cases are a finer-grained formal construct at a higher level of abstraction, they lend themselves to more rigorous definition and more systematic and structured expression. The structured narratives of use cases can be interrelated through formally defined constructs [6,8] to form a comprehensive model of the tasks to be supported by a system under design.
    Encouraging CHI collaboration in Latin America BIBAFull-Text 353
      Cleotilde Gonzalez; Alfredo Sanchez; Raquel O. Prates
    Designing truly international interfaces requires the participation of a representative international community. The perception of ACM-SIGCHI as an "American" conference is starting to change. ACM-SIGCHI has taken initial action to increase participation from international audiences by creating the International Issues Committee (IIC) (Novick, 98). However, differences in cultures, languages, and traditions, make real international collaboration a very challenging endeavor. Some differences among international research communities were originally identified in CHI '97 (Boy and Novick, 1997): language, style for writing and reviewing papers, economic disparities, lack of awareness, among others. We believe that, one way to foster international cooperation is to create "cultural clusters," that is, groups that share similar culture, problems and other characteristics.
    Measuring website usability BIBAFull-Text 354
      Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Carolyn Snyder; Will Schroeder
    Web design is still primarily an artistic endeavor. However, we are beginning to see empirical research results that tell us what pitfalls to avoid in order to create successful websites. In this SIG, we will discuss the latest research results available. Individuals designing websites can share successful strategies, and discuss questions still unanswered. This SIG also will be a forum for researchers to discuss methods and share objectives. Researchers will have an opportunity to interact with website designers to understand the research still required to identify the keys to successful design. Following the session, we intend to consolidate the discussion into a 4-to-5 page summary and send it to all participants.
    Automated data collection for evaluating collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 355
      Jill Drury; Tari Fanderclai; Frank Linton
    The purpose of this Special Interest Group (SIG) session is to share lessons learned about using automated logging techniques to collect data for evaluating collaborative (multi-user) systems. Automated logging techniques are frequently used in evaluating the human-computer interaction of single-user systems. There has been much less experience in using logging techniques for evaluating collaborative systems. We will discuss logging to collect data that are useful for evaluating collaborative systems.