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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)

Fullname:CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Summary)
Note:Making the Impossible Possible
Editors:Clare-Marie Karat; Arnold Lund
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:1998-Apr-18 to 1998-Apr-23
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 1-58113-028-7 ACM Order Number 608985; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI98-2
Pages:396
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: HCI Lessons and Games
    2. Demonstrations: Avatars & Characters
    3. Demonstrations: Interaction via Play
    4. Demonstrations: Language and Object
    5. Demonstrations: Honoring our Elders
    6. Demonstrations: Dynamic Documents
    7. Demonstrations: 2D & 3D Graphics
    8. Demonstrations: Interactive Medicine
    9. Development Consortium
    10. Doctoral Consortium
    11. Panels
    12. Plenary Session: Opening
    13. Plenary Session: Health Case Application Domain
    14. Plenary Session: Entertainment Application Domain
    15. Plenary Session: Closing

CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 2

Demonstrations: HCI Lessons and Games

An Interpreted Demonstration of Computer Game Design BIBAKPDF 1-2
  Chuck Clanton
Perhaps you believe computer games have no relevance to HCI, or perhaps you are just reluctant to let your kid blast you out of warp space in seven seconds flat to find out why they spent $49.95 for a dumb game. This is your chance to find out whether game designers know something you do not, without embarrassing yourself in front of your kid.
Keywords: CD-ROM games, Entertainment software

Demonstrations: Avatars & Characters

Double Agent -- Presentation and Filtering Agents for a Digital Television Recording System BIBAKPDF 3-4
  Peter Meuleman; Anita Heister; Han Kohar; Douglas Tedd
Double Agent explores scenarios for automated selection of television programs and their presentation via anthropomorphic interfaces.
   By using two kinds of agent technology in combination with an advanced video recorder we explore solutions for both attractiveness and complexity problems that systems in this entertainment domain will be confronted with. Intelligent agents select television content in the way a user would have done if he had the overview and knowledge of the programs. Real-time controlled virtual actor agents hide the system's complexity and create the attractive and highly responsive user interface needed in this specific entertainment domain.
Keywords: Content filtering, User profiling, Television user interfaces, Anthropomorphism, Agents
Microcosm: Support for Virtual Communities via an On-Line Graphical Environment BIBAKPDF 5-6
  Ellen A. Isaacs
Microcosm is an example of a virtual world, providing long-term, primarily (but not exclusively) synchronous communication among large, distributed communities, whose members are represented by virtual identities known as avatars. It provides support for establishing an identity, social interaction, navigation, interacting with objects, customization and extensibility, and security.
Keywords: Virtual worlds, Virtual communities, Avatars

Demonstrations: Interaction via Play

Evolution of the Talking Dinosaur: The (Not So) Natural History of a New Interface for Children BIBAKPDF 7-8
  Kristin Alexander; Erik Strommen
The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate key features of the interface and content design of ActiMates Barney. ActiMates Barney operates in three different usage contexts: As a freestanding toy and, by means of a wireless radio link, with PC-based software and linear videotapes. The interface features of each mode (freestanding, with the computer, and with the television) are described, as well as how the interplay between design goals and usability research results shaped the product's final form.
Keywords: Children, Usability testing, Interaction design, Learning
Participatory Simulations: Using Computational Objects to Learn about Dynamic Systems BIBAKPDF 9-10
  Vanessa Colella; Richard Borovoy; Mitchel Resnick
New technology developed at the MIT Media Laboratory enables students to become active participants in life-sized, computational simulations of dynamic systems. These Participatory Simulations provide an individual, "first-person" perspective on the system, just as acting in Hamlet provides such a perspective on Shakespeare. Using our Thinking Tags, small, name-tag sized computers that communicate with each other via infrared, we add a thin layer of computation to participant's social interactions, transforming a group of people into participants in a dynamic simulation. Participants in these simulations get highly engaged in the activities and collaboratively study the underlying systemic model.
Keywords: Children, Education, CSCL, Augmented reality

Demonstrations: Language and Object

Grammex: Defining Grammars by Example BIBAPDF 11-12
  Henry Lieberman; Bonnie A. Nardi; David Wright
Parsers are powerful tools for computer understanding of text, whether the language is a natural language or a formal language. To make the computational power of these tools fully available to an end user, a parser should be user-extensible. Until now, a user who wished to control a parser was forced to write or edit a grammar, a text file containing rules. Editing grammars is often difficult and error-prone for end users since the effect of writing specific rules, and interaction between rules, can often be unclear.
   Grammex ["Grammars by Example"] is the first direct manipulation interface designed to allow ordinary users to define grammars interactively. Instead of writing a grammar in an abstract rule language, the user presents concrete examples of text that he or she would like the parser to recognize. The user describes the text by selecting substrings, and choosing possible interpretations of the text from popup menus of suggestions heuristically computed by Grammex. Grammex compiles grammar rules that can be used as the input to a traditional parser.
IBM RealThings BIBAK 13-14
  John Mullaly
In this demonstration we present IBM RealThings, experimental user interface objects modeled on familiar real-world objects. Traditional computer-based mechanisms are removed and replaced by controls that are theoretically more natural and intuitive, allowing users to focus more on their tasks and less on computer artifacts.[1]
   Presented are several objects designed within the theoretical framework of RealThings, demonstrating innovative aspects of design at many levels, such as: the underlying object model, the object-view structure, interaction design, and visualization issues such as stylization and use of metaphor. Also demonstrated is the robust applicability of these designs to various user environments, such as the desktop, web browser, webtop, or 3D environments.
Keywords: User interface design, Interaction design, Design theory, Industrial design, Human-computer interaction, Cognitive models, Metaphor

Demonstrations: Honoring our Elders

Augment, Bootstrap Communities, the Web: What Next? BIBAKPDF 15-16
  Douglas C. Engelbart
NLS/Augment beginning in the middle 1960s introduced many hardware and software firsts echoed in today's windowed computing and hypermedia systems such as the World Wide Web (WWW). We demonstrate key features via historic videos and a currently running implementation, discuss its philosophical underpinnings as a tool for supporting collaborative communities of knowledge workers, and point out essentials that we feel have yet to be sufficiently realized in widely available commercial systems.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Collaborative learning, Hypermedia, Virtual community, Knowledge management
Xerox Star Live Demonstration BIBAKPDF 17
  David Canfield Smith; Charles H. Irby
Seventeen years ago, in 1981, Xerox introduced the 8010 "Star" Information System [1,2] to the world. This was a personal computer designed for office professionals. While not an economic success, Star had a profound effect on the personal computer industry. Today every personal computer and many workstations incorporate elements of the Star human interface. Its technology is in daily use by over 100 million people worldwide. Indeed, it is not farfetched to state that Star was a motivating factor in the formation of the computer-human interaction discipline and the SigCHI organization.
   Yet few people have actually seen a Star computer. We will remedy that in this session. Two of the inventors of Star will give a live demonstration of a Star system and use it to illustrate some of the design principles that have become widely accepted. CHI attendees will be offered hands-on time with Star so that they can form their own opinions. The Star designers invented many of the elements of successful graphical user interfaces (GUI's), including icons, direct manipulation, the desktop metaphor, dialog boxes, universal commands, and pointing and clicking. They also popularized other GUI techniques, such as bitmapped displays, overlapping windows, the mouse, noun-verb commands, and object orientation. Star had the first true object-oriented computer interface.
   In many ways Star has been surpassed by today's graphical user interfaces, as one would hope. But in other ways, Star remains a more usable system than any other personal computer. The three most important are:
  • Icons
  • Consistency
  • Simplicity
    Keywords: User models, Interaction design, Metaphors, Design rationale
  • The Lisa User Interface BIBAKPDF 18-19
      Frank Ludolph; Roderick Perkins
    Apple's Lisa, introduced in January 1983, was the bridge between the first commercial graphical desktop system, the Xerox Star (April 1982), and the Apple Macintosh (January 1984), which popularized it. Although visually similar to current graphical user interfaces, its user model differs substantially. The live demonstration presents a broad view of the Lisa user interface and relates it to other systems. This extended abstract focuses on elements of Lisa's document-centric user model and context management that made it easier to learn and use than today's systems.
    Keywords: Desktop, Lisa, Graphical user interface, Document model

    Demonstrations: Dynamic Documents

    Classroom 2000: A System for Capturing and Accessing Multimedia Classroom Experiences BIBKPDF 20-21
      Gregory D. Abowd; Jason Brotherton; Janak Bhalodia
    Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Educational application, Capture, Integration and access of multimedia
    XLibris: The Active Reading Machine BIBAKPDF 22-23
      Morgan N. Price; Bill N. Schilit; Gene Golovchinsky
    Active reading [1] is the combination of reading with critical thinking and learning, and involves not just reading per se, but also underlining, highlighting and commenting. We have built the XLibris "Active Reading Machine" to explore the premise that computation can enhance the active reading process. XLibris uses a high-resolution pen tablet display along with a paper-like user interface to emulate the physical experience of reading a document on paper: the reader can hold a scanned image of a page in his lap and mark on it with digital ink. XLibris monitors free-form ink annotations made while reading, and uses these to organize and to search for information. Readers can review, sort and filter clippings of their annotated text in a "Reader's Notebook." Finally, XLibris searches for material related to the annotated text, and displays links unobtrusively in the margin. XLibris demonstrates that computers can help active readers organize and find information while retaining many of the advantages of reading on paper.
    Keywords: Paper-like user interface, Reading online, Affordances of paper, Pen computing, Dynamic hypertext, Document metaphor, Information retrieval

    Demonstrations: 2D & 3D Graphics

    Pegasus: A Drawing System for Rapid Geometric Design BIBAKPDF 24-25
      Takeo Igarashi; Sachiko Kawachiya; Hidehiko Tanaka; Satoshi Matsuoka
    Pegasus is a prototype drawing system for rapid geometric design. Using Pegasus, a user can construct precise geometric diagrams easily without struggling with complicated editing commands. Two novel interaction techniques are introduced: interactive beautification and predictive drawing. Interactive beautification receives the user's free stroke input and beautifies it by considering possible geometric constraints among segments by generating multiple candidates to prevent recognition errors. Predictive drawing predicts the user's next drawing operation based on the spatial relationship among existing segments on the screen.
    Keywords: Geometric design, Pen-based input, Drawing editor, Predictive interface, Beautification
    Alice: Easy to Learn Interactive 3D Graphics BIBAKPDF 26-27
      Jeffrey S. Pierce; Kevin Christiansen; Dennis Cosgrove; Matt Conway; Dan Moskowitz; Brian Stearns; Chris Sturgill; Randy Pausch
    Alice is a rapid prototyping system used to create three dimensional graphics simulations like those seen in virtual reality applications. Alice uses an interpreted language called Python as its scripting language to implement user actions. This interactive development environment allows users to explore many more design options than is possible in a compiled language environment. The beta version of Alice for Windows 95 and NT 4.0 is available for free over the Internet from http://alice.cs.cmu.edu.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, 3D graphics, Rapid prototyping, Usability engineering

    Demonstrations: Interactive Medicine

    Visualizing Medical Records with LifeLines BIBAKPDF 28-29
      Catherine Plaisant; Daniel Heller; Jia Li; Ben Shneiderman; Rich Mushlin; John Karat
    Computerized medical records pose tremendous problems to system developers, yet all the efforts to solve those problems will succeed only if appropriate attention is also given to user interface and information design [1]. Long lists to scroll, clumsy searches, endless menus and lengthy dialogs lead to user frustration and rejection. We designed a general visualization technique for personal histories called LifeLines and are currently exploring its use for medical patient records.
    Keywords: Visualization, Healthcare, Medical record, History, Timeline, Overview
    Incremental Improvements in Physician-Computer Interaction in Response to Clinical Needs and User Feedback BIBAKPDF 30-31
      Edward P. Cutolo; Nicholas A. Coblio; Paul McCright; Michael T. McCormick; Willard S. Harris
    We trace the transformation in the behavior of our resident physicians from frequent hostility toward the computer (when first introduced to clinical computing by physician order entry) to their current facility and eagerness in using it, which were recently heightened even further by 1) Web page techniques for the easy and quick implementation of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and 2) rapid online access to full-text articles from current key medical journals at the point of patient care. This striking transformation was fostered by our recurrent customization of the computer-human interface in response to clinical needs and to continuous feedback from the physician users.
    Keywords: Clinical computing, Physicians, Web page, Frames, Clinical guidelines, OVID, Bibliographic and full-text databases

    Development Consortium

    Impediments to the Integrated Use of Computers in the Classroom BIBAKPDF 32-33
      Dean Eichorn
    Despite the belief that computer technology can enhance teaching and learning in our schools, the adaptation of technology enhanced instruction practices into classroom routines has been slow. This paper explores the reasons for the impeded incorporation of technology and suggests some possible solutions.
    Keywords: Technology, Technology enhanced instruction, Professional development
    On Overcoming the Barriers to Computer Usage in High Schools BIBAKPDF 34-35
      Rocky Harris
    This paper discusses various ways that I have attempted to bring technology into the classroom. It includes some of the typical obstacles encountered and some specific experiments tried. Frustrated by a slow rate of change, I listed several suggestions that might accelerate the integration of computer technology into the high school classroom. These suggestions include the development of an integrated school information management tool, lessons to help teachers feel more in control of the technology, and specific curriculum plans that integrate the technology into lessons.
    Keywords: High schools, Technology in the schools, Technology in education, Technology in the curriculum
    Information Technology in the Czech Secondary Schools BIBAKPDF 36-37
      Bozena (Boba) Mannova
    This paper describes the situation in use of computers in the secondary schools in the Czech Republic. The overview of historical development is given and the current state is discussed. There are formulated some questions, which have to be answered. Strategies for teachers in service education are described.
    Keywords: Information technology, Teachers education, Computer use, CHI
    The Method of Teaching Expert Systems Used in the Manufacturing Process BIBAKPDF 38-39
      Cezary Orlowski
    The paper presents a new method of building, teaching and exploitation of expert systems on the basis of production processes.
    Keywords: Teaching expert systems, Computers in education, Knowledge base systems
    Activation Energy Required with Classroom Computers BIBAKPDF 40-41
      Charles Rencsok
    Change in applied instructional techniques requires extra initial effort to redirect the inertia of a pre-existent system. This effort must come both from without and within the classroom. Well concerted efforts have higher probability of success than fragmented approaches.
    Keywords: Instructional tools, Computer support, Initiating change, Risks versus benefits, Technology introduction, Instructional technology, Classroom computers
    Teaching Computers the Young and the Adults: Observations on Learning Style Differences BIBAKPDF 42-43
      Marcin Sikorski
    This paper describes differences in styles how young and adult learners familiarise themselves with computers. Presented observations resulted from the author's teaching experience and from a series of interviews with teachers of computing in public schools in Poland.
    Keywords: Learning styles, Computers in education, Poland
    What's in It for Kids? BIBAKPDF 44-45
      Cynthia Solomon
    In this paper, I raise some issues teachers are struggling with today about what are good computing activities for children.
    Keywords: K-12 education, Education applications, Learning environments, Programming, Logo, Children, WWW, Teachers
    What is Wrong with Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) -- An Educator's Point of View BIBAKPDF 46-47
      Peter Soreanu
    This position paper presents some human-computer interaction (HCI)-related issues in CMC. The expressed views are based on personal experience as an educator of K-12 classes. The following questions are raised: relevance of icons, metaphors as representations of known reality, adaptability of World Wide Web (WWW) user interface to individual needs. I propose the inclusion of inter- and cross-cultural parameters in the interface design. I also suggest that Educational Style Sheets (ESS) be developed, to enhance the efficiency of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) tools.
    Keywords: CMC, Icons, Metaphors, User interface, Adaptive systems, Adaptive interface, Virtual reality, CSCL, Course management

    Doctoral Consortium

    Graphical Style Sheets: Towards Reusable Representations of Biomedical Graphics BIBAKPDF 48-49
      Ramon M. Felciano; Russ Altman
    We propose that the design characteristics shared by a family of data graphics can be represented as declarative, knowledge-based graphical style sheets that a general-purpose visualization system can use to generate domain-specific data graphics automatically. Graphical style sheets (GSS) define the layout and drawing conventions shared by members of a particular family of data graphics. A GSS is a declarative mapping between Postscript-like graphical objects and data stored in object-oriented data structures. We describe the conceptual framework underlying our approach, and a prototype constraint-based visualization system (PALLADIO) and design representation language (P-SPEAK) we are building to evaluate this framework.
    Keywords: Visualization, Graphic design, Health-care applications, Intelligent interfaces, Constraint-based systems, User interface toolkits, UIMS, World Wide Web, Electronic publishing, Database access
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    Intelligent Tutoring Systems have Forgotten the Tutor: Adding a Cognitive Model of Human Tutors BIBAKPDF 50-51
      Neil T. Heffernan
    I propose that a more effective intelligent tutoring system (ITS) for the domain of algebra symbolization can be made by building a cognitive model of human tutors and incorporating that model into an ITS. Specifically, I will collect protocols of humans engaged in tutoring and use these to build a model of Socratic dialogue for this domain. I will then test whether the ITS is more effective with such dialogue capabilities.
    Keywords: Intelligent tutoring systems, ACT-R, User model, Algebra, Tutoring, Learning, Education, Socratic dialogue
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    The Low-Level Cognitive Processes Involved in the Visual Search of Pull-Down Menus and Computer Screens, as Revealed by Cognitive Modeling BIBAKPDF 52-53
      Anthony J. Hornof
    The field of human-computer interaction does not have an empirically validated model of the low-level perception, decision, and motor processes that people use when they look for an item on a computer screen. The goal of this dissertation is to provide such a model. The approach will be to (1) build computational cognitive models that simulate people accomplishing various specific visual search tasks, such as menu selection tasks, (2) validate the proposed visual search models by using the models to accurately predict how much time people require to accomplish the same visual search tasks, and (3) provide the field of human-computer interaction with some specific practical benefit from these models, such as explanations of how screen layout design guidelines affect the cognitive processes involved in visual search.
    Keywords: Cognitive models, Menu selection, Visual search
    Note: Student Posters: Cognition and Perception
    Toward Effective Algorithm Visualization Artifacts: Designing for Participation and Negotiation in an Undergraduate Algorithms Course BIBAKPDF 54-55
      Christopher D. Hundhausen
    Despite their intuitive appeal, computer-based algorithm visualization (AV) artifacts have failed to enter mainstream computer science education. I argue that past research into the design, evaluation, and pedagogical use of AV artifacts has been guided by an underlying theory of effectiveness that is fundamentally deficient. Inspired by an alternative pedagogy in which students construct their own AVs, and by recent research into the situated nature of communication and learning, my dissertation develops an alternative theory that stresses the value of AV artifacts both in facilitating students' participation in the Community of Algorithmaticians, and in providing students and instructors with resources for negotiating a shared understanding of algorithms.
    Keywords: Algorithm visualization, Situated action theory, Situated learning theory
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    Computational Implications of Human Navigation in Multiscale Electronic Worlds BIBAKPDF 56-57
      Susanne Jul
    In this work I seek to formulate a theory of the computational implications of certain factors that affect human navigation in multiscale electronic worlds. Specifically, I seek to describe the properties a multiscale world must satisfy to furnish useful frames of reference. I draw factors from three areas. First, understanding of spatial cognition in general and frames of reference in spatial cognition in particular. Second, theoretical characteristics of multiscale information spaces. Third, general attributes of users' task contexts. The ultimate goal of the work is to provide a basis for a theory of design of navigational aids. This project also seeks to provide a case study of integrating existing psychological theories with emerging theories of computational environments.
    Keywords: Navigation, Frame of reference, Multiscale, Spatial cognition, Pad++
    Note: Student Posters: World Wide Web
    Improving Gestures and Interaction Techniques for Pen-Based User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 58-59
      Allan Christian, Jr. Long
    The goal of this research is the improvement of pen-based user interfaces (PUIs) in two areas: ease of operation for end users, and ease of creation for designers and programmers. A promising feature of PUIs that has not yet been fully exploited is gestures: marks that activate commands rather than enter data. Users of existing PUIs are burdened with unreliable gesture recognition and have difficulty learning and remembering gestures. These problems are compounded by the inappropriate application of graphical user interface interaction techniques to PUIs.
       We are developing a tool to aid PUI designers in creating and evaluating gesture sets that are easier for computers to recognize and easier for humans to learn and remember. This work will also develop and evaluate new interaction techniques that take advantage of the unique characteristics of PUIs.
    Keywords: Pen-based user interface, Gestures, Interface design tools
    Note: Student Posters: Interaction Techniques
    Robust, End-User Programmable, Multiple-Window Coordination BIBAKPDF 60-61
      Chris North
    In current windowing environments, individual windows are treated independently, making it difficult for users to coordinate information across multiple windows. While coordinated multi-window strategies are increasingly used in visualization and web user interfaces, designs are inflexible and haphazard. I propose a generalized, end-user programmable, robust, multiple-window coordination capability. This research involves generation of guidelines for robust coordination design, development of specification languages for end-user coordination, resolution of data structures, algorithms, and software architecture issues, and empirical evaluation.
    Keywords: User interface, Coordination, Multiple window strategies, Information visualization, Window management
    Note: Student Posters: Interaction Techniques
    Designing a Programming System for Children with a Focus on Usability BIBAKPDF 62-63
      John F. Pane
    This research proposes the design of a new programming language and environment for children. Emphasis throughout the design will be on usability. I will apply prior results from empirical studies of programmers and the psychology of programming, as well as new empirical studies that investigate areas that have not yet been studied completely. My thesis is that this focus on usability will produce a system that is easier for children to learn and use than existing systems. I will evaluate this thesis through user studies comparing the new system to other programming systems for beginners.
    Keywords: Children, End-user programming, Programming environments, Psychology of programming
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    About 23 Million Documents Match your query... BIBAKPDF 64-65
      Kerry Rodden
    A simple search of a large information space, such as the World Wide Web, often leaves the user to scan millions of hits. Relevance feedback is an information retrieval technique that can be used to make a search query more specific, so that its results are more manageable and useful. However, users tend not to take advantage of relevance feedback when systems provide it. I believe that this is because the process is badly represented at the search interface, and my thesis work to date has been aimed at facilitating relevance feedback by providing a visual representation of the user's search context. An initial Java interface has been implemented, which will evolve in future to become a user-centred information workspace, supporting the search of a multimedia document collection.
    Keywords: Information access, Searching, Relevance feedback
    Note: Student Posters: World Wide Web
    Interpreting Eye Movements with Process Models BIBAKPDF 66-67
      Dario D. Salvucci
    Though eye movements provide a wealth of information about how humans interact with computers, the analysis of eye movement data can be extremely tedious and time-consuming. This paper outlines an automated approach to tracing eye movements, that is, interpreting eye movement protocols based on an underlying process model. The proposed tracing methods utilize techniques such as hidden Markov models to relate observed eye movement protocols to the predictions of the process model. These methods have been applied successfully in the domain of equation solving and will be extended to several other task domains.
    Keywords: Eye movements, Process models, Trace-based analysis, Hidden Markov models, ACT-R
    Note: Student Posters: Cognition and Perception
    Putting Power in the Hands of End Users: A Study of Programming by Demonstration, with an Application to Geographical Information Systems BIBAKPDF 68-69
      Carol Traynor
    Many software applications, especially ones that arise out of technical domains, are difficult for non-technical end users to comprehend and use. Such users are often dependent on experts who serve as intermediaries between them and the software. Geographical information systems (GIS), for example, frequently require such intermediaries. This project involves the design and evaluation of a new end-user programming environment, with an application to GISs. The project adopts a programming-by-demonstration (PBD) approach, in which the software builds a program representation based on the user's interaction with an application's user interface. The research plan includes evaluation of a prototype of the PBD environment, implementation of the environment, and evaluation of the PBD approach via empirical studies.
    Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by demonstration, Comic-strip metaphor, Visual language, Geographical information systems
    Note: Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches
    The Effect of Accompanying Media on Spatial Models Derived from Text BIBAKPDF 70-71
      David VanEsselstyn
    In a computer based experiment, groups were exposed to either a textual walking tour of the Saint John the Divine Cathedral, the same walking tour accompanied by black and white photos of the cathedral that coincided with the text, or a virtual reality experience accompanied by the same text. Participants were then tested on the factual, imagistic, and mental model knowledge they were able to obtain from the experience. In the test, participants in the text and photo groups were outperformed by the virtual group on the factual questions and the imagistic questions. The virtual group also took significantly more time inside the program than the other two groups. The text group outperformed the other groups on the mental model task. Issues around memory encoding and retrieval are discussed in relationship to the findings.
    Keywords: Virtual reality, Knowledge representation, Hypermedia, Education
    Note: Student Posters: Multimedia
    Schooling in the Digital Domain: Gendered Play and Work in the Classroom Context BIBAKPDF 72-73
      Karen Orr Vered
    This presentation demonstrates how the social setting of a co-educational elementary classroom elicits gender-specific performances with respect to free-time computer use, including game play and web-surfing. In light of recent industrial recognition of a "girls" market for electronic games, and the growing body of research about girls' preferences and habits about computing, this work presents participant observation and qualitative student interviews (ethnography) to inform these directions of game development and research.
    Keywords: Classroom ethnography, Computer games, Children, Girls, Gender, Play, Equity, Education
    Note: Student Posters: Entertainment, Health Care and Education
    Cultural Effects in Usability Assessment BIBAKPDF 74-75
      Alvin Yeo
    A study is being conducted to identify factors that may affect results of usability evaluation techniques. Preliminary results based on eight subjects are described and then implications of the findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Think aloud, Cultural issues, Malaysia
    Note: Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches
    Automated Visual Discourse Synthesis: Coherence, Versatility, and Interactivity BIBAKPDF 76-77
      Michelle X. Zhou
    We summarize the motivation, the approach, and the significance of a thesis that is concerned with automating the design of visual discourse. To synthesize effective visual discourse, three design criteria are used: coherence, versatility, and interactivity. The thesis focuses on finding comprehensive and systematic methodologies that meet these criteria, and on developing practical ways to implement visual discourse synthesis systems.
    Keywords: Automated visual presentation design, Knowledge engineering, Planning, Interaction handling
    Note: Student Posters: Design: Applications and Approaches

    Panels

    Public Information: Documents, Spectacles and the Politics of Public Participation BIBAKPDF 78-79
      Scott Minneman; S. Joy Mountford; Natalie Jeremijenko; Krzysztof Wodiczko; Anthony Turner; Mike Davis
    This proposed panel addresses the representation of the public in the information age. For the most part, new technologies delivered by corporate interests envision the 'public' as markets, separated into demographic age groups, income brackets and individual consumption behaviors. In the information age, public representation is synonymous with the market, voting and buying are conflated, and politics is a subbranch of marketing. This panel focuses on recent works that transcends categories of consumption and represents the public to itself outside of this arena. What are the possibilities for shared public experience rendered by new technologies? What interventions have been made in the political work of constructing public identity?
    Keywords: Shared viewing, Public art, Public documents, Public participation, Group work
    Human-Computer Interaction in Health Care: What Works? What Doesn't? BIBAPDF 80-81
      John Karat; Janette Coble; Pamela Jamar; John Mattison; Matthew J. Orland; Jo Carol Gordon Hiatt
    This panel will identify various ways Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) methods have been applied to health care. It will discuss successful and unsuccessful applications of HCI Techniques and discuss how HCI methods were modified to address the health care domain.
    Intelligent Interfaces in the Real World: Progress and Success Stories BIBAKPDF 82-83
      Kelly Braun; Tony Lovell; Jim Miller; Brad Weed
    It's time to hold work on intelligent interfaces to the same criterion as that used for other interface styles. That is, rather than judging them against their success at implementing the end-goal of a long-term research vector, we should judge them by their ability to meet the needs of real users in everyday, meaningful tasks. This panel will present four such systems, all of which are commercially-available products that, in their own ways, exploit the intelligent interface paradigm. Comparisons of the systems will bring out the technological progress that has been made, the interface design decisions that embody the current systems, and how these systems serve as starting points for further advances of the basic research vector.
    Keywords: Agents, Intelligent interfaces, Design, Technology transfer
    Constructing Community in Cyberspace BIBAKPDF 84-85
      Mary B. Williamson; Andrew Glassner; Margaret McLaughlin; Cheryl Chase; Marc Smith
    In this panel, a group of theorists and practitioners, each of whom has constructed tools for communicating and community building in cyberspace, present their own work and critically evaluate each others work. Our perspective explores the relationships between public events in real communities, public events involving art and politics, and the counterparts of these events in virtual communities. Each panelist presents a current project in a visual way, as a series of narrated images or as a demonstration of the project on a web site. The panelists comment on the ways in which the project might have been embedded in traditional community and on the ways in which the project might be embedded in a cyberspace community.
    Keywords: Virtual community, Social issues, World Wide Web (WWW), Telecommunications
    Distance Learning: Is It the End of Education as Most of Us Know It? BIBAKPDF 86-87
      Diana Laurillard; Jenny Preece; Ben Shneiderman; Lisa Neal; Yvonne Wærn
    The purpose of this panel is to present and discuss the key issues in distance learning from different perspectives and to envision future directions. The different views of the panelists include: professionals vs. students; large classes vs. small; distance learning university vs. introduced within regular university or as pan of a class; and different cultural perspectives.
    Keywords: Distance learning, Education, Internet, Web
    Interactive Narrative: Stepping into Our Own Stories BIBAKPDF 88-89
      Mary Flanagan; Francine Arble; Chuck Clanton; Harry Marks; Janet Murray
    In this panel, ideas about interactive narrative will be explored from four unique perspectives: interactive fiction from an academic research unit, story as seen in the gaming industry, story as created and recreated in the development of a girl's web adventure, and narrative as seen in an entertainment "role playing" game which appropriates mainstream media to create a new form of story.
    Keywords: Entertainment, Edutainment, Interactive narrative, Digital storytelling, Story
    Good Web Design: Essential Ingredient! BIBAKPDF 90-91
      Nahum Gershon; Mary Czerwinski; Wayne Neale; Jakob Nielsen; Nick Ragouzis; David Siegel
    Currently, many Web pages & applications are poorly designed even though they might visually appealing. Many people do not have a good knowledge or awareness of effective visual, textual, & information design. The panel & the audience will discuss & debate why a good design is essential to the success of the Web, and how to achieve it.
    Keywords: WWW, World Wide Web, Design, HCI, User interface, Visual media, Visualization
    Is the Web Really Different from Everything Else? BIBAKPDF 92-93
      Ben Shneiderman; Jakob Nielsen; Scott Butler; Michael Levi; Frederick Conrad
    What is so unique about using the World Wide Web? Or, is there anything unique about web use? This panel is designed to explore -- though not necessarily answer -- the question "is the web really different from everything else?"
    Keywords: World Wide Web, User experience, Design
    Famous CHI Educators Tell All BIBAKPDF 94-95
      Marian G. Williams; Andrew Sears; Alan Dix; Tom Hewett; Marilyn Mantei; Jenny Preece
    CHI educators (in academia and industry) find some CHI concepts hard to teach. This panel provides an opportunity for them to learn from the experiences of experts. We will collect questions to find out what CHI educators think it is hard to teach and what CHI students have found it hard to learn from their instructors' presentations. Then we will ask our panel of experts to talk about why the concepts are hard to teach and to describe the successful strategies and techniques they have found for teaching them.
    Keywords: HCI education, HCI professional education, Industry, Academia
    Baby Faces: User-Interface Design for Small Displays BIBAKPDF 96-97
      Aaron Marcus; Joseph V. Ferrante; Timo Kinnunen; Kari Kuutti; Erik Sparre
    User interface conferences and literature usually dwell upon projects in which large color palettes, high spatial resolution, and large-size displays are presumed to be available. Many consumer information appliances and hand-held devices are often more limited in their characteristics, yet are increasingly important to bring the power of the Web, productivity tools, databases, transactions, and entertainment to more and more people on the go, or at least not in front of higher-performance PCs, NCs, or workstations. Professionals with insight into the challenges and achievements of designing graphical user interfaces for small displays will debate the best way to design for products in which many characteristics are significantly limited, e.g., fonts, color resolution, spatial resolution, and graphics. These user interfaces, which might be called "baby faces" seem simpler in some ways, but also are actually quite complex as a design challenge when one designs to account for their limited characteristics.
    Keywords: Information appliances, Mobile phones, Personal digital assistants

    Plenary Session: Opening

    Codex, Memex, Genex: The Pursuit of Transformational Technologies BIBAKPDF 98-99
      Ben Shneiderman
    Handwritten codexes or printed books transformed society by allowing users to preserve and transmit information. Today, leather-bound volumes and illuminated manuscripts are giving way to animated image maps and hot links. Vannevar Bush's memex has inspired the World Wide Web, which provides users with vast information resources and convenient communications. In looking to the future, we might again transform society by building genexes -- generators of excellence -- to support creative exploration of ideas. Thesauri are to words, as genexes are to ideas. Such inspirational environments would empower personal and collaborative creativity by enabling users to:
  • collect information from an existing domain of knowledge,
  • create innovations using advanced tools,
  • consult with peers or mentors in the field, and then
  • disseminate the results widely. This paper describes how a framework for an integrated set of software tools might support this four-phase model of creativity in science, medicine, the arts, and beyond. Current initiatives are positive and encouraging, but they do not work in an integrated fashion, often miss vital components, and are frequently poorly designed. A well-conceived and clearly-stated framework could guide design efforts, coordinate planning, and speed development.
    Keywords: Genex, Memex, World-Wide Web, Advanced graphical user interfaces, Computer supported cooperative work, Information visualization
  • Plenary Session: Health Case Application Domain

    Keep No Secrets and Tell No Lies: Computer Interfaces in Clinical Care BIBAKPDF 100-101
      Michael G. Kahn; Janette Coble; Matthew Orland
    Physicians are accountable for the decisions they make on behalf of their patients. Likewise, computer interface designers must assume accountability for assumptions, limitations, and other unseen deficiencies that impact on the quantity, validity, integrity, and timeliness of data made accessible through their interfaces. During the development of a Web-based clinical workstation, extensive usability testing showed physicians exhibiting bewildering and conflicting simultaneous demands for both more and less information on their patients. A closer examination of these results highlighted the need for visual "accountability cues" -- visual indicators which allow physicians to assess the quantity and quality of data made available through the user interface. Interface designers must develop new methods for showing only needed information and must highlight where data integrity compromises have been made -- where there are secrets and maybe even lies.
    Keywords: Visual accountability, Clinical workstation, Health care user interfaces, Data integrity

    Plenary Session: Entertainment Application Domain

    Digital Production: Using Alien Technology BIBAKPDF 102-103
      Mark Swain
    The love and hatred of computers has been raised to new levels in the motion picture industry. Producers and Directors now demand the impossible. Film makers are addicted to the reality that computer animation and digital effects bring to their summer block busters, thus a relatively new industry -- Digital Production/Effects -- is flourishing. Box office revenues are on the increase as more movie patrons flock to the theaters than in years past. So, what's wrong? Movie budgets are sky rocketing with digital artists working around the clock to bring the directors vision to the big screen. The number of effects shots in feature films are increasing by the hundreds. The steady advancements in both computer hardware and software packages have allowed for some of this industry growth. The rest of the growth has come from artists shackled to their workstations for 10-18 hours a day, sometimes 6 to 7 days a week. This results in a burn out cycle that leaves artists tired, frustrated, and sometimes injured with repetitive stress injuries (RSI). The solution to the growing number of effects and massive budgets of feature films may not be heaping hundreds of artists on each film project, but in how the artist interacts with the computer.
    Keywords: Motion pictures, Digital production, Special effects, Computer animation, Graphical user interface (GUI), Repetitive stress injuries, Ergonomics, Alternative input devices

    Plenary Session: Closing

    Technological Humanism and Values-Driven Design BIBAKPDF 104
      Brenda Laurel
    While believing in the primacy of sensation and observation as how we know the world, humanists employ a methodology that submits these observations to reason, and, sometimes not so obviously, to ethical consideration. Humanistic work is values-driven work. It is work that one does because one thinks it is a good thing to do. It is also work that relies on empirical methods and clear-eyed observation. In this talk I will explore the application of humanistic values and methods to the design and development of interactive media, discussing specific examples from the application domain of play-oriented computer software for little girls. I will advocate an approach that is intended reconcile the seeming contradictions between empirical methods and values-driven work.
    Keywords: Humanism, Ethics, Values, Methodology, Research, Design