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CHI Tables of Contents: 95-2b95-2c96-196-2a96-2b96-2c97-197-2a97-2b97-2c98-198-2a98-2b98-2c98-2d99-199-200-100-201-101-2

Proceedings of ACM CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI 98 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Making the Impossible Possible
Editors:Clare-Marie Karat; Arnold Lund; Joelle Coutaz; John Karat
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:1998-Apr-18 to 1998-Apr-23
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-975-0 ACM Order Number 608981 Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-30987-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI98-1
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 1
    1. Squeezing, Stroking and Poking
    2. Web Page Design
    3. Entertainment
    4. Crafting Designs
    5. Remote Collaboration
    6. The Eyes Have It
    7. About Faces
    8. Navigation
    9. Learner Centered Design
    10. Persuasion
    11. Reading and Writing
    12. Cognitive Models
    13. Dinosaurs and Robots
    14. 3D
    15. In Touch with Interfaces
    16. Talking on the Net
    17. Supporting the Design Process
    18. Visualizing Dynamic Information
    19. Young Adult Learners
    20. CSCW
    21. Monitoring the Complexity of Real Users
    22. Usability of Groupware
    23. Software Behind the Scenes
    24. Computer Augmented Environments
    25. Hear Here!
    26. Better Health Through...
    27. It's Elementary

CHI 1998-04-18 Volume 1

Squeezing, Stroking and Poking

NaviPoint: An Input Device for Mobile Information Browsing BIBAKPDF 1-8
  Kiyokuni Kawachiya; Hiroshi Ishikawa
A mobile computing environment imposes various restrictions on users. For example, most mobile devices have a limited screen size, and it may be difficult to watch the screen closely. While the user is walking or standing in a bus or train, he or she may have only one hand free to manipulate the device. Therefore, some new operation method must be developed for comfortable information browsing in the mobile environment. In this paper, several existing methods are first introduced and compared from the viewpoint of their applicability in a mobile environment. A new input device for such an environment, named "NaviPoint," is then introduced. NaviPoint is a specialized device for mobile information browsing. By using this device, a user can perform three types of input -- "analog input," "digital input," and "click input" -- with just one finger. After an explanation of the conceptual structure and a qualitative analysis of NaviPoint, the structure of a prototype is described. Experiments using the prototype show that information browsing is possible with an overhead of less than 50% on the usual "mouse and scroll bar" method.
Keywords: Input device, Information browsing, User interface, PDAs, Hand-held devices, Mobile computing
The PadMouse: Facilitating Selection and Spatial Positioning for the Non-Dominant Hand BIBAKPDF 9-16
  Ravin Balakrishnan; Pranay Patel
A new input device called the PadMouse is described and evaluated. The PadMouse consists of a two degree-of-freedom touchpad mounted on a regular mouse base. Like the regular mouse, the PadMouse allows for spatial positioning tasks to be performed by moving the device on a planar surface. In addition, when coupled with an interaction technique we call Marking Keys, users can use the touchpad to activate modifiers and commands. An experiment shows that up to 32 modifiers/commands can be quickly and accurately activated using this technique, making it a viable device for the non-dominant hand in two-handed user interfaces. Other uses for the PadMouse and design alternatives are also discussed.
Keywords: Input devices, Marking-menus, Bimanual input, Touchpad, Mouse, Interaction techniques, Gestures, Hot-keys, Toolglass
Squeeze Me, Hold Me, Tilt Me! An Exploration of Manipulative User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 17-24
  Beverly L. Harrison; Kenneth P. Fishkin; Anuj Gujar; Carlos Mochon; Roy Want
This paper reports on the design and use of tactile user interfaces embedded within or wrapped around the devices that they control. We discuss three different interaction prototypes that we built. These interfaces were embedded onto two handheld devices of dramatically different form factors. We describe the design and implementation challenges, and user feedback and reactions to these prototypes. Implications for future design in the area of manipulative or haptic user interfaces are highlighted.
Keywords: Physical, Tactile, and haptic UIs, Pressure and tilt sensors, UI design, Interaction technology

Web Page Design

Web Page Design: Implications of Memory, Structure and Scent for Information Retrieval BIBAKPDF 25-32
  Kevin Larson; Mary Czerwinski
Much is known about depth and breadth tradeoff issues in graphical user interface menu design. We describe an experiment to see if large breadth and decreased depth is preferable, both subjectively and via performance data, while attempting to design for optimal scent throughout different structures of a website. A study is reported which modified previous procedures for investigating depth/breadth tradeoffs in content design for the web. Results showed that, while increased depth did harm search performance on the web, a medium condition of depth and breadth outperformed the broadest, shallow web structure overall.
Keywords: Information retrieval, Memory, Depth and breadth in information design, Web page design, Hypertext, Searching
Exploring Browser Design Trade-Offs Using a Dynamical Model of Optimal Information Foraging BIBAKPDF 33-40
  Peter Pirolli
Designers and researchers of human-computer interaction need tools that permit the rapid exploration and management of hypotheses about complex interactions of designs, task conditions, and user strategies. Dynamic programming is introduced as a such a tool for the analysis of information foraging technologies. The technique is illustrated in the context of the Scatter/Gather text clustering browser. Hypothetical improvements in browser speed and text clustering are examined in the context of variations in task deadlines and the quality of the document repository. A complex and non-intuitive set of tradeoffs emerge from even this simple space of factors, illustrating the general utility of the approach.
Keywords: Dynamic programming, Information foraging, Scatter/Gather, User models
Information Archiving with Bookmarks: Personal Web Space Construction and Organization BIBAKPDF 41-48
  David Abrams; Ron Baecker; Mark Chignell
Bookmarks are used as "personal Web information spaces" to help people remember and retrieve interesting Web pages. A study of personal Web information spaces surveyed 322 Web users and analyzed the bookmark archives of 50 Web users. The results of this study are used to address why people make bookmarks, and how they create, use, and organize them. Recommendations for improving the organization, visualization, representation, and integration of bookmarks are provided. The recommendations include simple mechanisms for filing bookmarks at creation time, the use of time-based visualizations with automated filters, the use of contextual information in representing bookmarks, and the combination of hierarchy formation and Web page authoring to aid in organizing and viewing bookmarks.
Keywords: WWW, Bookmark, Information space, Survey, Empirical study, Design


Triangles: Tangible Interface for Manipulation and Exploration of Digital Information Topography BIBAKPDF 49-56
  Matthew G. Gorbet; Maggie Orth; Hiroshi Ishii
This paper presents a system for interacting with digital information, called Triangles. The Triangles system is a physical/digital construction kit, which allows users to use two hands to grasp and manipulate complex digital information. The kit consists of a set of identical flat, plastic triangles, each with a microprocessor inside and magnetic edge connectors. The connectors enable the Triangles to be physically connected to each other and provide tactile feedback of these connections. The connectors also pass electricity, allowing the Triangles to communicate digital information to each other and to a desktop computer. When the pieces contact one another, specific connection information is sent back to a computer that keeps track of the configuration of the system. Specific two and three-dimensional configurations of the pieces can trigger application events.
   The Triangles system provides a physical embodiment of digital information topography. The individual tiles have a simple geometric form which does not inherit the semantics of everyday physical objects. Their shape, size, and connectors encourage rapid rearrangement and exploration of groups of Triangles. The infinitely reconfigurable 2D and 3D topographies of the Triangles system create a new language for tangible interface.
Keywords: Interface design, Tangible interface, Physical interface, Graspable interface, Digital connector, Physical connector, Magnetic connector, Tangible bits
HandJive: A Device for Interpersonal Haptic Entertainment BIBAKPDF 57-64
  BJ Fogg; Lawrence D. Cutler; Perry Arnold; Chris Eisbach
The paper describes how we designed and prototyped HandJive, a haptic device for interpersonal entertainment. HandJive is notable because it relies entirely on haptic input and output. The design process included typical steps such as analyzing user needs and performing iterative prototyping and testing. However, developing a haptic interface like HandJive also presented special challenges, such as creating rapid physical prototypes that could withstand abuse, developing a preliminary system of haptic interaction, and testing haptic interfaces through low-tech prototypes.
Keywords: Entertainment, Interaction design, Haptics, Product design, Rapid prototyping, User testing, Ubiquitous computing, Tactile feedback, Interpersonal communication
Simplifying the Controls of an Interactive Movie Game BIBAKPDF 65-72
  Jeff Johnson
Eight months before an interactive movie game was due to be shipped, its developers and funders decided that its user interface had to be radically simplified. The author was given the task of designing a new, simpler control scheme. This paper describes the redesign process, the design issues that arose and how they were resolved, the tests that were conducted to evaluate new design ideas, and concludes with an evaluation of the resulting design, lessons learned, and thoughts on user-interface design vs. game design.
Keywords: User interface, Design, Games, Usability testing, Interactive movies

Crafting Designs

Patterns of Change in Design Metaphor: A Case Study BIBAKPDF 73-80
  William A. Stubblefield
Although design metaphors play an important role in many software projects, their influence on system functionality, project methodology and the interactions among members of the development team is not well understood. This paper seeks insights into these issues by examining the development of a computer program under the influence of a particularly strong design metaphor.
Keywords: Metaphor, Software design, User-oriented design
Netscape Communicator's Collapsible Toolbars BIBAKPDF 81-86
  Irene Au; Shuang Li
This paper describes the design process used for Netscape Communicator's collapsible toolbars. To meet our design goals, we designed a new widget whose roots came from objects in the "real world" instead of the "software world". The design of this widget illustrates how rapid prototyping and tight coupling between the visual design and interaction design are imperative to a widget's success.
Keywords: Visual design, Interaction design, Collapsing widgets, Toolbars
A Study of Fonts Designed for Screen Display BIBAKPDF 87-94
  Dan Boyarski; Christine Neuwirth; Jodi Forlizzi; Susan Harkness Regli
This study examined the readability and subjective preferences of a set of fonts designed for screen display. Two new binary bitmap fonts performed well, suggesting that designers should consider incorporating similar attributes into default fonts for online type.
Keywords: On-line typography, Reading performance assessment, Legibility, Readability, CRT display, Font design, Anti-aliased, On-line help, World Wide Web

Remote Collaboration

From Documents to Discourse: Shifting Conceptions of Scholarly Publishing BIBAKPDF 95-102
  Tamara Sumner; Simon Buckingham Shum
We are looking at how new forms of document interface can be used to support new forms of scholarly discourse, and ultimately, new models of scholarly publishing. The vehicle we use to conduct this research is the Digital Document Discourse Environment (D3E). D3E is an experimental system supporting the publication of web-based documents with integrated discourse facilities and embedded interactive components. We report here on two cases -- an ejournal and a 'new form' of conference -- where we have used D3E to promote new forms of discourse between participants. We use these cases to illustrate four principles that guide our socio-technical design actions.
Keywords: Argumentation, Digital documents, Discourse, Electronic publishing, Hypertext, Scholarly publishing, Socio-technical design. World Wide Web
The Effects of Distance in Local versus Remote Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 103-108
  Youngme Moon
This study investigates the effects of distance on user attitudes and behavior in long-distance (networked) human-computer interaction. Two laboratory experiments are presented. In the first experiment (N=123), users are interviewed by a computer that they believe is either located in the same room, located a few miles away, or located a few thousand miles away. Results indicate that the greater the perceived distance, the greater the tendency to distort responses (i.e., give dishonest answers) in order to present oneself in a positive light. In the second experiment (N=23), the effects of distance in a persuasion situation are investigated. Results indicate that persuasion is significantly more likely to occur when the computer is perceived as being proximate, as opposed to distant. Implications for long-distance human-computer interaction are discussed.
Keywords: Distance, Networking, Proximity, Interviews, Data collection, Remote, Local, Internet, World Wide Web, Persuasion, Advertising, Social psychology
Design Evolution in a Multimedia Tutorial on User-Centered Design BIBAKPDF 109-116
  Tom Carey; Slade Mitchell; Dan Peerenboom; Mary Lytwyn
New modes of lifelong learning in the workplace require interface designs which support new contexts for learning. We describe here a workplace learning support system for instruction in User-centered Design [UCD]. The design evolution of this system illustrates how the "why, where, when and with whom" of use affects the "what and how" of the interaction design. The tutorial system includes a multimedia Case Study, a Methods Tour of UCD techniques, and a Test Drive in which users take simulated roles in a UCD project. This paper describes how the content and features were adapted as the target audience evolved from individual learners in a career curriculum to collaborative groups within a project team.
Keywords: Training, HCI education, User-centered design, Multimedia, Interaction design

The Eyes Have It

Evaluating the Location of Hot Spots in Interactive Scenes using the 3R Toolbox BIBAKPDF 117-123
  Andre Plante; Shoji Tanaka; Seiki Inoue
Too often in interactive pictures, movies or VR scenes where no explicit buttons exist, the user is left to find hot spots (portals, gates, links) almost at random. In any particular scene, although semantic information is present, a user may be overwhelmed by the number of possible and perfectly logical locations in which hot spots could be embedded. In this paper, we propose a new support tool based on the Highly Attractive Region Extraction Method and aimed at helping the designer identify and enhance hot spots image regions so that they become more attractive (i.e. get the user's attention). This computer tool performs an evaluation on images based on their physical features (Hue, Saturation, Lightness, Size and Contrast) and graphically shows which regions are more likely to attract a user's gaze. Based on these results, the designer can then choose to furthermore highlight a particular part of a picture or, alternatively, tone down regions that could cause confusion.
Keywords: User interface, Hot spots, Visual communications, Interactive movie, Image processing, Navigation, Support tool, Design
Providing Advice for Multimedia Designers BIBAKPDF 124-131
  Pete Faraday; Alistair Sutcliffe
The paper summarises empirical research that led to guidelines for directing the viewing/reading sequence in multimedia presentations. A method for scripting or evaluating multimedia presentations is described and illustrated with a case study. A design advisor tool based on this work is used to critique a sample MM presentation. A tool validation study with novice designers is reported.
Keywords: Presentation design, Guidelines, Tool support
101 Spots, or How do Users Read Menus? BIBAKPDF 132-139
  Antti Aaltonen; Aulikki Hyrskykari; Kari-Jouko Raiha
In modern graphical user interfaces pull-down menus are one of the most frequently used components. But still after years of research there is no clear evidence on how the users carry out the visual search process in pull-down menus. Several models have been proposed for predicting selection times. However, most observations are based only on execution times and cannot therefore explain where the time is spent. The few models that are based on eye movement research are conflicting. In this study we present an experiment where eye movement data was gathered in a menu usage task. By analyzing the scan paths of the eye, we found that menus are read in sequential sweeps. This may explain why the best models produced by previous research are hybrid models that combine systematic reading behavior with random reading behavior.
Keywords: Menu selection, Visual search process, Eye movement, Eye tracking

About Faces

Visual Tracking for Multimodal Human Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 140-147
  Jie Yang; Rainer Stiefelhagen; Uwe Meier; Alex Waibel
In this paper, we present visual tracking techniques for multimodal human computer interaction. First, we discuss techniques for tracking human faces in which human skin-color is used as a major feature. An adaptive stochastic model has been developed to characterize the skin-color distributions. Based on the maximum likelihood method, the model parameters can be adapted for different people and different lighting conditions. The feasibility of the model has been demonstrated by the development of a real-time face tracker. The system has achieved a rate of 30+ frames/second using a low-end workstation with a framegrabber and a camera. We also present a top-down approach for tracking facial features such as eyes, nostrils, and lip corners. These real-time visual tracking techniques have been successfully applied to many applications such as gaze tracking, and lipreading. The face tracker has been combined with a microphone array for extracting speech signal from a specific person. The gaze tracker has been combined with a speech recognizer in a multimodal interface for controlling a panoramic image viewer.
Keywords: Visual tracking, Multimodal human computer interaction, Skin-color modeling, Face tracking, Gaze tracking, Lip-reading, Sound localization
When my Face is the Interface: An Experimental Comparison of Interacting with One's Own Face or Someone Else's Face BIBAKPDF 148-154
  Clifford Nass; Eun-Young Kim; Eun-Ju Lee
In this paper, we demonstrate that the effects of receiving negative evaluation from audio-visual image of oneself on a computer screen are clearly different from that of receiving someone else. When seeing the self-image, subjects claimed more responsibility for the evaluation, perceived the evaluation to be more valid and objective, and showed higher public self-awareness. Self-image subjects showed less impression management and less negative bias on recognition memory. Implications for using one's own face in virtual reality and other interfaces are discussed.
Keywords: Faces, Computers are social actors, Experimental research, Self-image, Self-attribution, Impression management, Memory
Digital Smart Kiosk Project BIBAKPDF 155-162
  Andrew D. Christian; Brian L. Avery
The Digital Smart Kiosk is an "aware" information kiosk that detects and tracks prospective clients and conveys this awareness. A single-camera vision system detects and tracks people in the kiosk's vicinity. The kiosk display contains an animated talking face, a live image from the camera, and a web browser that presents graphical and textual information. The animated talking face conveys awareness of clients and invites interaction by turning and watching prospective clients and by speaking to them. The Smart Kiosk is deployed at a local cafe where we are gathering usage data.
Keywords: Public kiosk, Talking emotive avatar, Machine vision, User interface design, Information display


Worldlets: 3D Thumbnails for 3D Browsing BIBAKPDF 163-170
  T. Todd Elvins; David R. Nadeau; Rina Schul; David Kirsh
Dramatic advances in 3D Web technologies have recently led to widespread development of virtual world Web browsers and 3D content. A natural question is whether 3D thumbnails can be used to find one's way about such 3D content the way that text and 2D thumbnail images are used to navigate 2D Web content. We have conducted an empirical experiment that shows interactive 3D thumbnails, which we call worldlets, improve travelers' landmark knowledge and expedite wayfinding in virtual environments.
Keywords: 3D thumbnails, Wayfinding, VRML, Virtual reality, Empirical study
Evolving Video Skims into Useful Multimedia Abstractions BIBAKPDF 171-178
  Michael G. Christel; Michael A. Smith; C. Roy Taylor; David B. Winkler
This paper reports two studies that measured the effects of different "video skim" techniques on comprehension, navigation, and user satisfaction. Video skims are compact, content-rich abstractions of longer videos, condensations that preserve frame rate while greatly reducing viewing time. Their characteristics depend on the image- and audio-processing techniques used to create them. Results from the initial study helped refine video skims, which were then reassessed in the second experiment. Significant benefits were found for skims built from audio sequences meeting certain criteria.
Keywords: Video abstraction, Evaluation, Digital video library, Video browsing, Video skim, Empirical studies, Multimedia
Navigation Guided by Artificial Force Fields BIBAKPDF 179-186
  Dongbo Xiao; Roger Hubbold
This paper presents a new technique for controlling a user's navigation in a virtual environment. The approach introduces artificial force fields which act upon the user's virtual body such that he is guided around obstacles, rather than penetrating or colliding with them. The technique is extended to incorporate gravity into the environment. The problem of negotiating stairs during a walk-through has also been investigated with the new approach. Human subjects were tested in experiments in which they experienced three different kinds of navigation: unconstrained, simple constrained and assisted by force fields. The results demonstrate that the force-field technique is an effective approach for effective, comfortable navigation.
Keywords: 3D interfaces, Virtual environments, Collision avoidance, Navigation, Force fields

Learner Centered Design

The Design of Guided Learner-Adaptable Scaffolding in Interactive Learning Environments BIBAKPDF 187-194
  Shari L. Jackson; Joseph Krajcik; Elliot Soloway
The learner-centered design of software suggests the need to design scaffolding -- fadeable supports -- in educational tools. We describe an approach, Guided Learner-Adaptable Scaffolding (GLAS), in which the learner controls the fading of scaffolding, with guidance and support provided by the system. Using GLAS, we have developed a tool, TheoryBuilder, that supports learners in building and testing dynamic models of complex systems. We have conducted extensive classroom testing with students who used the tool several times throughout a year. An analysis of the data demonstrates the success of the GLAS approach in developing an adaptable tool to support the diverse and changing needs of learners.
Keywords: Learner-centered design, Scaffolding, Fading, Adaptable interfaces, Education applications
ARTEMIS: Learner-Centered Design of an Information Seeking Environment for K-12 Education BIBAKPDF 195-202
  Raven Wallace; Elliot Soloway; Joseph Krajcik; Nathan Bos; Joseph Hoffman; Heather Eccleston Hunter; Dan Kiskis; Elisabeth Klann; Greg Peters; David Richardson; Ofer Ronen
Learners use software for different reasons and with different skills and motivations than other users. Using concepts of learner-centered design (LCD), we developed a user interface for supporting learners as they use digital information resources in inquiry-based science classrooms. Learner needs are categorized in five areas: content knowledge, technology knowledge, strategic and metacognitive knowledge, and motivation. Results of research on problems encountered by students as they engage in information seeking are used as the basis for applying LCD, by identifying some specific problem areas learners encounter: engaging in a process, generating search terms, staying on task, and evaluating information. Solutions offered through the Artemis interface are described.
Keywords: Learner-centered design, Information seeking, Digital libraries, K-12 education
Building an Electronic Learning Community: From Design to Implementation BIBAKPDF 203-210
  Anne Rose; Wei Ding; Gary Marchionini; Josephus, Jr. Beale; Victor Nolet
The University of Maryland at College Park in cooperation with the Baltimore City Public Schools and several partners is working to build an electronic learning community that provides teachers with multimedia resources that are linked to outcome-oriented curriculum guidelines. The resource library contains approximately 1500 videos, texts, images, web sites, and instructional modules. Using the current system, teachers can explore and search the resource library, create and present instructional modules in their classrooms, and communicate with other teachers in the community. This paper discusses the iterative design process and the results of informal usability testing. Lessons learned are also presented for developers.
Keywords: Digital libraries, Learning communities, Dynamic query, Java, Video


Quantifying the Effect of User Interface Design Features on Cyberstore Traffic and Sales BIBAKPDF 211-218
  Gerald L. Lohse; Peter Spiller
Given the resources needed to launch a retail store on the Internet or change an existing online storefront design, it is important to allocate product development resources to interface features that actually improve store traffic and sales. Using a regression model, we predict store traffic and dollar sales as a function of interface design features such as number of links into the store, image sizes, number of products, and store navigation features. By quantifying the benefits of user interface features, we hope to facilitate the process of designing and evaluating alternative storefronts by identifying those features with the greatest impact on traffic and sales.
Keywords: Electronic commerce, Internet retail store design, WWW, Economic value, Regression analysis, Shopping, Marketing
Interactive Advertising: Patterns of Use and Effectiveness BIBAKPDF 219-224
  Kirsten Risden; Mary Czerwinski; Stephanie Worley; Lynda Hamilton; Joe Kubiniec; Hunter Hoffman; Nancy Mickel; Elizabeth Loftus
The number of people exploring the World Wide Web is growing dramatically. Many companies are interested in the potential of advertising on the web, but there is little research to guide their decision. The present study demonstrates the concept of a corporate sponsored website as a promising direction for web advertisers. Advertisements for products targeting 10-14 year-olds were presented as web games and inserted into a prototype website. For example, in one ad, players scored points by actively steering toward the advertised product with their web video-game car, while dodging undesirable obstacles on the road (sound effects included). For comparison, subjects also watched a TV ad for the same product embedded in a TV program. One day later, tests showed that web ads positively influenced how easily the advertised brand came to mind compared to TV ads and compared to no-ad controls. The effectiveness of interactive web ads for influencing consumers' memory in this preliminary study suggests that it merits more attention as a potentially viable medium for advertising. Factors that could contribute to the advantage for web ads are discussed.
Keywords: Interactive ads, TV, World-Wide Web, Engagement, User interface design
Persuasive Computers: Perspectives and Research Directions BIBAKPDF 225-232
  BJ Fogg
The study of computers as persuasive technologies (called "captology") was introduced at CHI 97 as a new area of inquiry. This paper proposes definitions, perspectives, and research directions for further investigation of this field. A persuasive computer is an interactive technology that attempts to change attitudes or behaviors in some way. Perspective 1 describes how computers can inherit three types of intentionality: endogenous, exogenous, and autogenous. Perspective 2 presents the "Functional Triad," which illustrates that computers can function as persuasive tools, media, and social actors. Perspective 3 presents a "levels of analysis" approach for captology, which include varying levels from individual to societal. Perspective 4 suggests a simple method for exploring the design space for persuasive computers. Perspective S highlights some ethical issues inherent in persuasive computing. The paper concludes by proposing seven directions for further research and design.
Keywords: Persuasion, Captology, Media, Computers as social actors, Ethics, Design methods, Computers as persuasive technologies

Reading and Writing

Student Readers' Use of Library Documents: Implications for Library Technologies BIBAKPDF 233-240
  Kenton O'Hara; Fiona Smith; William Newman; Abigail Sellen
We report on a study of graduate students conducting research in libraries, focusing on how they extract and record information as they read. By examining their information recording activities within the context of their work as a whole, it is possible to highlight why students choose particular strategies and styles of recording for what these activities provide both at the time of reading and at subsequent points in time. The implications of these findings for digital library technologies are discussed.
Keywords: Reading, Annotation, Note-making, Paper, Documents, Digital documents, Digital libraries, Design, Information recording
A Diary Study of Work-Related Reading: Design Implications for Digital Reading Devices BIBAKPDF 241-248
  Annette Adler; Anuj Gujar; Beverly L. Harrison; Kenton O'Hara; Abigail Sellen
In this paper we describe a diary study of how people read in the course of their daily working lives. Fifteen people from a wide variety of professions were asked to log their daily document activity for a period of 5 consecutive working days. Using structured interviews, we analysed their reading activities in detail. We examine the range of reading activities that our subjects carried out, and then present findings relating to both common characteristics and variation across the sample. From these findings, we discuss some implications for the design of digital reading devices.
Keywords: Reading, Writing, Paper documents, Digital document readers, Design, Diary study, Field study, Electronic books, Virtual paper, User behaviour
Beyond Paper: Supporting Active Reading with Free Form Digital Ink Annotations BIBAKPDF 249-256
  Bill N. Schilit; Gene Golovchinsky; Morgan N. Price
Reading frequently involves not just looking at words on a page, but also underlining, highlighting and commenting, either on the text or in a separate notebook. This combination of reading with critical thinking and learning is called active reading [2]. To explore the premise that computation can enhance active reading we have built the XLibris "active reading machine." XLibris uses a commercial high-resolution pen tablet display along with a paper-like user interface to support the key affordances of paper for active reading: the reader can hold a scanned image of a page in his lap and mark on it with digital ink. To go beyond paper, XLibris monitors the free-form ink annotations made while reading, and uses these to organize and to search for information. Readers can review, sort and filter clippings of their annotated text in a "Reader's Notebook." XLibris also searches for material related to the annotated text, and displays links to similar documents unobtrusively in the margin. XLibris demonstrates that computers can help active readers organize and find information while retaining many of the advantages of reading on paper.
Keywords: Paper-like user interface, Reading online, Affordances of paper, Pen computing, Dynamic hypertext, Document metaphor, Information retrieval

Cognitive Models

Bullseye! When Fitts' Law Doesn't Fit BIBAPDF 257-264
  Naomi Friedlander; Kevin Schlueter; Marilyn Mantei
Today's GUI interfaces require considerable visual attention for their operation. Consequently, interface events use up precious screen real estate and disenfranchise blind users from current software usage. If interfaces move to the realm of auditory and tactile designs, these problems are mitigated. However, it is not clear how much useful HCI research, particularly performance time models, will transfer from the visual to the non-visual. This paper attempts to answer a small part of this question by considering performance time models for menu selection in a non-visual bullseye menu. We chose to study non-visual bullseye menus because we have found them to be highly useful in non-visual interfaces: they can serve as effective non-visual replacements for several visual linear menus.
Cognitive Function Analysis for Human-Centered Automation of Safety-Critical Systems BIBAKPDF 265-272
  Guy A. Boy
The Cognitive Function Analysis is a methodology supported by a mediating tool for the human-centered automation of safety-critical systems [4]. It is based on a socio-cognitive model linking the artifact being designed, the user's activity, the task to be performed, and the organizational environment. Cognitive functions can be allocated to humans or machines. They are characterized by their role, context definition and associated resources. The methodology is supported by active design documents as mediating representations of the artifact, the interaction description and cognitive function descriptors being designed, redesigned and used as usability criteria to evaluate the distribution of cognitive functions among humans and machines. This methodology enhances user-centered and participatory design, and traceability of design decisions. It was successfully tested on three main applications in the aeronautics domain. One of them is presented.
Keywords: Active documents, Aeronautics, Evaluation, Function allocation, Automation, Organizational memory systems, Participatory design, Safety critical systems
Delegation and Circumvention: Two Faces of Efficiency BIBAKPDF 273-280
  Suresh K. Bhavnani; Bonnie E. John
Throughout history, inefficient methods to use devices have been replaced by more efficient ones. This shift typically occurs when users discover how to delegate work to the powers of a tool, and to circumvent its limitations. Strategies of delegation and circumvention, therefore, appear to be the core of efficient use. To show how this approach can explain the relationship between tools and strategies in complex computer systems, we describe five ways to perform a real-world drawing task with current as well as future tools. We then present five corresponding GOMS models that demonstrate the value of efficient strategies when compared to the observed behavior of a professional CAD user. We conclude by presenting a generalized framework to characterize efficient strategies and discuss its relevance to design and training.
Keywords: Strategies, CAD, GOMS, Efficiency, Productivity

Dinosaurs and Robots

Digital Manipulatives: New Toys to Think With BIBAKPDF 281-287
  Mitchel Resnick; Fred Martin; Robert Berg; Rick Borovoy; Vanessa Colella; Kwin Kramer; Brian Silverman
In many educational settings, manipulative materials (such as Cuisenaire Rods and Pattern Blocks) play an important role in children's learning, enabling children to explore mathematical and scientific concepts (such as number and shape) through direct manipulation of physical objects. Our group at the MIT Media Lab has developed a new generation of "digital manipulatives" -- computationally-enhanced versions of traditional children's toys. These new manipulatives enable children to explore a new set of concepts (in particular, "systems concepts" such as feedback and emergence) that have previously been considered "too advanced" for children to learn. In this paper, we discuss four of our digital manipulatives -- computationally-augmented versions of blocks, beads, balls, and badges.
Keywords: Education, Learning, Children, Ubiquitous computing
When the Interface is a Talking Dinosaur: Learning Across Media with ActiMates Barney BIBAKPDF 288-295
  Erik Strommen
ActiMates Barney represents a new form of interactive learning product for two- to five-year old children: a small computer that looks like an animated plush doll. He can be used as a freestanding toy and, by means of a wireless radio link, he can interact with PC-based software and linear videotapes. In each mode, Barney takes advantage of children's social expectations about playmate performance to engage the user in learning interactions. The theory and practice behind Barney's performance in each mode (freestanding, with the computer, and with the television) are described, as well as how key research results shaped the interface across the different modes.
Keywords: Learning, Interface, Children, Interactive media
PRoP: Personal Roving Presence BIBAKPDF 296-303
  Eric Paulos; John Canny
Current internet applications leave our physical presence and our real-world environment behind. This paper describes the development of several simple, inexpensive, internet-controlled, untethered tele-robots or PRoPs (Personal Roving Presences) to provide the sensation of tele-embodiment in a remote real space. These devices support at least video and two-way audio as well as mobility through the remote space they inhabit. The physical tele-robot serves both as an extension of its operator and as a visible, mobile entity with which other people can interact. PRoPs enable their users to perform a wide gamut of human activities in the remote space, such as wandering around, conversing with people, hanging out, pointing, examining objects, reading, and making simple gestures.
Keywords: Tele-action, Tele-presence, Tele-conferencing, Tele-embodiment, Telecommunications, Tele-robotics, Gesturing, Tele-work, Robotics, Computer-mediated human-human interaction


Coincident Display using Haptics and Holographic Video BIBAKPDF 304-311
  Wendy Plesniak; Ravikanth Pappu
In this paper, we describe the implementation of a novel system which enables a user to "carve" a simple free-standing electronic holographic image using a force-feedback device. The force-feedback (or haptic) device has a stylus which is held by the hand like an ordinary cutting tool. The 3D position of the stylus tip is reported by the device, and appropriate forces can be displayed to the hand as it interacts with 3D objects in the haptic workspace. The haptic workspace is spatially overlapped and registered with the holographic video display volume. Within the resulting coincident visuo-haptic workspace, a 3D synthetic cylinder is presented, spinning about its long axis, which a person can see, feel, and lathe with the stylus. This paper introduces the concept of coincident visuo-haptic display and describes the implementation of the lathe simulation. After situating the work in a research context, we present the details of system design and implementation, including the haptic and holographic modeling. Finally, we discuss the performance of this prototype system and future work.
Keywords: Haptics, Holography, Electro-holography, Autostereoscopic display, Offset display, Coincident display
The Structure of Object Transportation and Orientation in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 312-319
  Yanqing Wang; Christine L. MacKenzie; Valerie A. Summers; Kellogg S. Booth
An experiment was conducted to investigate the relationship between object transportation and object orientation by the human hand in the context of human-computer interaction (HCI). This work merges two streams of research: the structure of interactive manipulation in HCI and the natural hand prehension in human motor control. It was found that object transportation and object orientation have a parallel, interdependent structure which is generally persistent over different visual feedback conditions. The notion of concurrency and interdependence of multidimensional visuomotor control structure can provide a new framework for human-computer interface evaluation and design.
Keywords: Direct manipulation, Input device, Multi-dimensional control, Visuomotor control, Visual conditions, Information processing, Interface design, Virtual reality
Quantifying Coordination in Multiple DOF Movement and its Application to Evaluating 6 DOF Input Devices BIBAKPDF 320-327
  Shumin Zhai; Paul Milgram
Study of computer input devices has primarily focused on trial completion time and target acquisition errors. To deepen our understanding of input devices, particularly those with high degrees of freedom (DOF), this paper explores device influence on the user's ability to coordinate controlled movements in a 3D interface. After reviewing various existing methods, a new measure of quantifying coordination in multiple degrees of freedom, based on movement efficiency, is proposed and applied to the evaluation of two 6 DOF devices: a free-moving position-control device and a desk-top rate-controlled hand controller. Results showed that while the users of the free moving device had shorter completion time than the users of an elastic rate controller, their movement trajectories were less coordinated. These new findings should better inform system designers on development and selection of input devices. Issues such as mental rotation and isomorphism vs. tools operation as means of computer input are also discussed.
Keywords: Input devices, Interaction techniques, Evaluation methods, 6 DOF control, Rotation, Mental rotation, 3D interfaces, Virtual environments, Motor control, Coordination

In Touch with Interfaces

An Efficient Text Input Method for Pen-Based Computers BIBAKPDF 328-335
  Toshiyuki Masui
Pen-based computing has not yet taken off, partly because of the lack of fast and easy text input methods. The situation is even worse for people using East Asian languages, where thousands of characters are used and handwriting recognition is extremely difficult. In this paper, we propose a new fast text input method for pen-based computers, where text is not composed by entering characters one by one, but by selecting words from a menu of candidates created by filtering the dictionary and predicting from context. Using our approach, users can enter Japanese text more than twice as fast as recognition-based and other existing text input methods. User studies and detailed analysis of the method are also given.
Keywords: Input devices, Pen-based input, Predictive interface, Hand-held devices, International interfaces, POBox
A Comparison of Three Selection Techniques for Touchpads BIBAKPDF 336-343
  I. Scott MacKenzie; Aleks Oniszczak
Three methods of implementing the select operation on touchpads were compared. Two conventional methods -- using a physical button and using "lift-and-tap" -- were compared with a new method using finger pressure with tactile feedback. The latter employs a pressure-sensing touchpad with a built-in relay. The relay is energized by a signal from the device driver when the finger pressure on the pad surface exceeds a programmable threshold, and this creates both aural and tactile feedback. The pressure data are also used to signal the action of a button press to the application. In an empirical test with 12 participants, the tactile condition was 20% faster than lift-and-tap and 46% faster than using a button for selection. The result was similar on the ISO-recommended measure known as throughput. Error rates were higher with the tactile condition, however. These we attribute to limitations in the prototype, such as the use of a capacitive-sensing touchpad and poor mechanical design. In a questionnaire, participants indicated a preference for the tactile condition over the button and lift-and-tap conditions.
Keywords: Touchpads, Pointing devices, Input devices, Tactile feedback, Fitts' law
A Multiple Device Approach for Supporting Whiteboard-Based Interactions BIBAKPDF 344-351
  Jun Rekimoto
In this paper, we propose a multiple-device approach for supporting informal meetings using a digital whiteboard. Traditional digital whiteboard systems often suffer from a limited capability to enter text and the handling of existing data. The large display surface of the whiteboard also makes traditional GUI design ineffective. Our proposed approach provides a hand-held computer for each participant which serves as a tool palette and data entry palette for the whiteboard. Just as an oil painter effectively uses a palette in his/her hand, this hand-held device offers an easy way to create a new text/stroke object, to select existing data from a network, to select pen attributes, and to control the whiteboard application. This paper also reports our experience with the digital whiteboard systems using a proposed multi-device architecture.
Keywords: Multi-computer user interfaces, Pick-and-Drop, Digital whiteboard, Ubiquitous computing, CSCW

Talking on the Net

The First Noble Truth of CyberSpace: People are People (Even When They MOO) BIBAKPDF 352-359
  Diane J. Schiano; Sean White
This paper presents major findings from a large research project designed to carefully characterize what "life in LambdaMOO" (a classic social MUD) is like for many of its members. A "convergent methodologies" approach embracing qualitative and quantitative, subjective and objective procedures was used. A rich, extensive database was produced, from which robust patterns could emerge, be considered in context and assessed with some confidence. Results are discussed in terms of four broad categories of interest: 1) users and use, 2) identity 3) sociality and 4) spatiality. These data should help inform the discourse on and design of, online communities in the future.
Keywords: Virtual communities, MUDs, Social computing, Network community, Identity, Shared space, Virtual worlds
Are Newsgroups Virtual Communities? BIBAKPDF 360-367
  Teresa L. Roberts
Online groups have been described as "virtual communities," although commentators differ on the amount of group feeling that they observe online. This paper reports on a survey that investigated to what extent people who post to 30 widely-varying online groups experience community online. Results show that two-thirds of respondents did indeed perceive a sense of belonging to their group. Beyond that, dimensions analogous to those of geographic communities were studied, and differences were found among the groups in those dimensions. The best predictors of these dimensions tended to be the time and effort individuals put into the groups. These dimensions added up to a unified statistical "Community" factor. Although the newsgroups did not turn out to vary significantly with this factor, individuals' experiences in their groups did. For women, their experience could be predicted by the thoroughness with which they read the group; for men, their experience could be predicted by the prevalence of women on the group.
Keywords: Virtual community, Newsgroups, Internet, Social computing
Communication and Information: Alternative Uses of the Internet in Households BIBAKPDF 368-375
  Robert Kraut; Tridas Mukhopadhyay; Janusz Szczypula; Sara Kiesler; William Scherlis
The Internet has been characterized as a superhighway to information and as a high-tech extension of the home telephone. How are people really using the Internet? The history of previous technologies that support interpersonal communication suggests that communication may be a more important use and determinant of participants' commitment to the Internet than is information acquisition and entertainment. Operationalizing interpersonal communication as the use of electronic mail and information acquisition and entertainment as the use of the World Wide Web, we analyzed longitudinal data from a field trial of 229 individuals in 110 households during their first year on the Internet. The results show that interpersonal communication is a stronger driver of Internet use than are information and entertainment applications.
Keywords: Interpersonal communication, Family communication, Social impact, Computer-mediated communication, Internet, World Wide Web, Online services, User studies, Technology adoption, Email

Supporting the Design Process

The Vista Environment for the Coevolutinary Design of User Interfaces BIBAKPDF 376-383
  Judy Brown; T. C. Nicholas Graham; Timothy Wright
User centered design requires the creation of numerous design artifacts such as task hierarchy, task-oriented specification, user interface design, architecture design and code. It is increasingly accepted that such artifacts cannot be created in isolation, but instead incrementally coevolve, where information obtained from the development of one artifact contributes to the development of the others. In user interface development, these artifacts are typically developed by different people with different backgrounds, hindering the communication necessary for coevolution. This paper demonstrates how different design artifacts can be linked, exposing their common elements. Such links can be developed despite the differing points of view and differing levels of detail of the design artifacts. This paper describes Vista, a prototype tool for examining the links between design artifacts, and demonstrates how making these links explicit supports coevolutionary design.
Keywords: Task-analysis, Task-oriented specification, User-interface, Architecture, Methodology
Tools for Incremental Development of Educational Software Interfaces BIBAKPDF 384-391
  Wolff Daniel Dobson; Christopher K. Riesbeck
In this paper we describe the evolution of an educational software tool designed to let non-programmers build content-rich learning environments. Version 1 was a wholly model-driven authoring environment, but was unpopular with authors as they were forced them to build up-front domain representations before prototyping their interfaces. Version 2 uses a GUI method of interface development while the model is developed incrementally and as needed. In this version, authors built less of a model overall, but were more satisfied with the results. This paper discusses the natures of the two approaches to model-building and how they are authored.
Keywords: Educational software, Interface design, Interface tools, Intelligent systems, INDIE, Goal-based scenario
Visual Task Characterization for Automated Visual Discourse Synthesis BIBAKPDF 392-399
  Michelle X. Zhou; Steven K. Feiner
To develop a comprehensive and systematic approach to the automated design of visual discourse, we introduce a visual task taxonomy that interfaces high-level presentation intents with low-level visual techniques. In our approach, visual tasks describe presentation intents through their visual accomplishments, and suggest desired visual techniques through their visual implications. Therefore, we can characterize visual tasks by their visual accomplishments and implications. Through this characterization, visual tasks can guide the visual discourse synthesis process by specifying what presentation intents can be achieved and how to achieve them.
Keywords: Automated design of graphics, Visual discourse, Visual task characterization
Note: color plate on p. 643

Visualizing Dynamic Information

Visualizing the Evolution of Web Ecologies BIBAKPDF 400-407
  Ed H. Chi; James Pitkow; Jock Mackinlay; Peter Pirolli; Rich Gossweiler; Stuart K. Card
Several visualizations have emerged which attempt to visualize all or part of the World Wide Web. Those visualizations, however, fail to present the dynamically changing ecology of users and documents on the Web. We present new techniques for Web Ecology and Evolution Visualization (WEEV). Disk Trees represent a discrete time slice of the Web ecology. A collection of Disk Trees forms a Time Tube, representing the evolution of the Web over longer periods of time. These visualizations are intended to aid authors and webmasters with the production and organization of content, assist Web surfers making sense of information, and help researchers understand the Web.
Keywords: World Wide Web, Visualization, Log file analysis, Temporal analysis, Information ecologies, Hypertext, Documents
Note: color plate on pp. 644-645
Hi-Cites: Dynamically Created Citations with Active Highlighting BIBAKPDF 408-415
  Michelle Q. Wang Baldonado; Terry Winograd
The original SenseMaker interface for information exploration [2] used tables to present heterogeneous document descriptions. In contrast, printed bibliographies and World Wide Web (WWW) search engines use formatted citations to convey this information. In this paper, we discuss hi-cites, a new interface construct developed for SenseMaker that combines the benefits of tables (which encourage the comparison of descriptions) and citations (which facilitate browsing).
   Hi-cites are dynamically created citations with active highlighting. They are useful in environments where heterogeneous structured descriptions must be browsed and compared with ease. Examples beyond digital libraries include product catalogs, classified advertisements, and WWW search engines.
   We have performed an evaluation of hi-cites, tables, and citations for tasks involving single attribute comparisons in the digital-library domain. This evaluation supports our claim that hi-cites are valuable for both comparison and skimming tasks in this environment.
Keywords: Hi-cites, Dynamic citations, Highlighting, Digital libraries, Information visualization, Browsing
DIVA: Exploratory Data Analysis with Multimedia Streams BIBAKPDF 416-423
  Wendy E. Mackay; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
DIVA supports exploratory data analysis of multimedia streams, enabling users to visualize, explore and evaluate patterns in data that change over time. The underlying stream algebra provides the mathematical basis for operating on diverse kinds of streams. The streamer visualization technique provides a smooth transition between spatial and temporal views of the data. Mapping source and presentation streams into a two-dimensional space provides users with a direct manipulation, nontemporal interface for viewing and editing streams.
   DIVA was developed to help us analyze both qualitative and quantitative data collected in our research with French air traffic controllers, including video of controllers at work, audio records of telephone, radio and other conversations, output from tools such as RADAR, and coded logs based on our observations. Although our emphasis is on exploratory data analysis, DIVA's stream architecture should prove useful for a wide variety of multimedia applications.
Keywords: Exploratory data analysis, Hypermedia, Multimedia, Protocol analysis, Streams, Stream algebra, Video

Young Adult Learners

National Geographic Unplugged: Classroom-Centered Design of Interactive Nature Films BIBAKPDF 424-431
  Brian K. Smith; Brian J. Reiser
Designing computer-based learning environments must account for the context in which activity occurs, the tasks that students perform, and the tools that facilitate these tasks. When designing for school use, it is also crucial to consider how the software will be integrated into the organization of the classroom workplace and how teacher practices influence the adoption and success of interactive learning environments. This paper discusses our experiences in designing and deploying an interactive video tool to high school classrooms. We stress a classroom-centered design that tries to integrate usable software with interactions that occur "outside of the box" to alter traditional school learning.
Keywords: Children, Collaborative learning, Educational applications, Interaction design, Multimedia, Social issues, Video
New Media, New Practices: Experiences in Open Learning Course Design BIBAKPDF 432-439
  Tamara Sumner; Josie Taylor
We explore some of the complex issues surrounding the design and use of multimedia and Internet-based learning resources in distance education courses. We do so by analysing our experiences designing a diverse array of learning media for a large scale, distance learning course in introductory computing. During the project, we had to significantly rethink the design and production of our learning resources as we shifted from a paper-based teaching model to an interactive teaching model. This shift entailed changes to our design products (to promote more effective media use by learners) and changes to our design practices (to foster consistent media use and design across a large and distributed team). Course designers and course students alike needed help in breaking out of paper-based models of learning to obtain maximum benefit from the interactive teaching model.
Keywords: Design, Distance education, Educational technology, Lifelong learning, Multimedia
Investigating the Capture, Integration and Access Problem of Ubiquitous Computing in an Educational Setting BIBAKPDF 440-447
  Gregory D. Abowd; Christopher G. Atkeson; Jason Brotherton; Tommy Enqvist; Paul Gulley; Johan LeMon
In this paper, we describe efforts to develop and evaluate a large-scale experiment in ubiquitous computing applied to education. Specifically, we are concerned with the general problem of capturing a rich, multimedia experience, and providing useful access into the record of the experience by automatically integrating the various streams of captured information. We describe the Classroom 2000 project and two years of experience developing and using automated tools for the capture, integration and access to support university lecture courses. We will report on observed use of the system by both teachers and learners and how those observations have influenced and will influence the development of a capture, integration and access system for everyday use.
Keywords: Ubiquitous computing, Educational application, Capture, integration and access of multimedia


Finding and Visualizing Inter-Site Clan Graphs BIBAKPDF 448-455
  Loren Terveen; Will Hill
For many purposes, the Web page is too small a unit of interaction. Users often want to interact with larger-scale entities, particularly collections of topically related items. We report three innovations that address this user need.
  • We replaced the web page with the web site as the basic unit of interaction
       and analysis.
  • We defined a new information structure, the clan graph, that groups together
       sets of related sites.
  • We invented a new graph visualization, the auditorium visualization, that
       reveals important structural and content properties of sites within a clan
       graph. We have discovered interesting information that can be extracted from the structure of a clan graph. We can identify structurally important sites with many incoming or outgoing links. Links between sites serve important functions: they often identify "front door" pages of sites, sometimes identify especially significant pages within a site, and occasionally contain informative anchor text.
    Keywords: Social filtering, Collaborative filtering, Information access, Information retrieval, Information visualization, Human-computer interaction, Computer supported cooperative work, Social network analysis, Co-citation analysis
    Note: color plate on p. 646
  • Effects of Interfaces for Annotation on Communication in a Collaborative Task BIBAKPDF 456-463
      Patricia G. Wojahn; Christine M. Neuwirth; Barbara Bullock
    Various interfaces exist for annotations. Little is known, however, about how such interface variations affect communication. We designed an annotation interface intended to facilitate annotation and undertook a study to compare this interface to two commonly used alternatives. Results support the hypothesis that annotation interfaces aftect the number and types of problems about which collaborators communicate. Results also suggest the need for more research on interface effects within other communicative contexts.
    Keywords: Annotations, Display format, Interface design, Computer-mediated communication, Computer-supported cooperative work, Collaborative writing
    Awareness Driven Video Quality of Service in Collaborative Virtual Environments BIBAKPDF 464-471
      Gail Reynard; Steve Benford; Chris Greenhalgh; Christian Heath
    We extend previous work on texture mapping video streams into virtual environments by introducing awareness driven video QoS. This uses movements within a shared virtual world to activate different video services. In turn, these services have different settings for underlying QoS parameters such as frame-rate, resolution and compression. We demonstrate this technique through a combined conferencing/ mediaspace application which uses awareness driven video for facial expressions and for views into remote physical environments. We reflect on the issues of spatial consistency, privacy, seamless shifts in mutual involvement and making underlying QoS mechanisms more visible, malleable and flexible.
    Keywords: Video, CSCW, CVEs, Multimedia, Networks

    Monitoring the Complexity of Real Users

    Supporting Situated Actions in High Volume Conversational Data Situations BIBAKPDF 472-479
      Christopher Lueg
    The global conferencing system Usenet news offers an amount of articles per day that exceeds human cognitive capabilities by far although the articles are already organized in hierarchically structured discussion groups covering distinct topics. We report here on a situated information filtering system that significantly reduces the burden by supporting the user in acting situated. Interpreting the user's actions as situated actions, the approach complements current filtering and recommender approaches by completely avoiding the modeling of user interests; the user is the only instance for assigning (un-)interestingness to Usenet discussions.
    Keywords: Situated cognition, Situated actions, Usenet news, Information filtering
    Hear Rate Variability: Indicator of User State as an Aid to Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKPDF 480-487
      Dennis W. Rowe; John Sibert; Don Irwin
    This preliminary study explores the use of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) as an indicator of user state. In the study, a visual display is used to vary the levels of a complexity factor to assess the impact on user mental effort in a monitoring task. Mental effort is measured both subjectively and physiologically. Two findings indicate the potential value of HRV. First, user HRV showed significant discriminatory sensitivity to the manipulation of the independent variable on the basis of domain experience. Second, HRV appeared to indicate the point at which user capacity to process targets was exceeded. Results warrant further investigation but suggest the use of HRV as a tool for design and analysis of user interfaces, and as a research basis for use as component of an adaptive interface.
    Keywords: Heart rate variability, Mental effort, User state, Air traffic management, Airspace complexity, Free flight
    Evolution of the Conversation Machine: A Case Study of Bringing Advanced Technology to the Marketplace BIBAKPDF 488-495
      Catherine G. Wolf; Wlodek Zadrozny
    This paper describes the evolution of the Conversation Machine, a conversational speech system which allows users to carry out common banking transactions over the telephone using a conversational-style interface. The discussion is organized according to three phases of the project -- the demonstration, laboratory, and customer phases. The different phases of the project had different goals and brought different design issues to the forefront. In particular, the realities of working with a customer partner have affected the design of the user interface and functionality of the system in ways not anticipated at earlier stages of the project.
    Keywords: Speech recognition, Natural language, Design rationale, Requirements, Business transformation

    Usability of Groupware

    Trust Breaks Down in Electronic Contexts but Can be Repaired by Some Initial Face-to-Face Contact BIBAKPDF 496-502
      Elena Rocco
    Trust is the prerequisite for success when a collaborative task involves risk of individualistic or deceitful behaviors of others. Can trust emerge in electronic contexts? This issue is explored in an experiment in which trust emergence is measured in both face-to-face (F-t-F) and electronic contexts. In this experiment trust is revealed by the degree of cooperation the group is able to reach in solving a social dilemma, i.e. a situation in which advantages for individualistic behavior make group cooperation highly vulnerable. The experiment consists of two stages. The first stage analyzes the effects of F-t-F and electronic communication on trust. Trust succeeds only with F-t-F communication. The second stage investigates whether a pre-meeting F-t-F can promote trust in electronic contexts. Results are positive. Examination of how people converse in these two contexts sheds some light on the effects of technical characteristics and social circumstances on the emergence of trust.
    Keywords: CSCW, Trust, Cooperation and conflict, Teamwork
    Expertise, Collaboration and Bandwidth BIBAKPDF 503-510
      Alonso H. Vera; Thomas Kvan; Robert L. West; Simon Lai
    This paper describes the results of a study evaluating the effects of computer mediation on collaboratively solving architectural design problems. Pairs of graduate design students were asked to work on a landscape architecture design problem via computer terminals. In one condition they were allowed to communicate with an electronic whiteboard and a chat-line while in the other, the chat-line was substituted with video-conferencing (real-time video and audio). The protocols were evaluated according to two models. First, they were coded according to the pattern of collaboration, distinguishing meta-planning, negotiation, evaluation, and individual work. No differences were found between the two groups when coded this way. The protocols were also coded in terms of the problem-solving content, distinguishing task-related exchanges, interface-related exchanges, low-level design exchanges, and high-level design exchanges. The results showed that in the bandwidth-limited chat-line condition, participants cut down task and interface-related as well as low-level design exchanges but attempted to maintain the same amount of high-level design exchanges. When the final designs were evaluated by professional architects, no differences were found between two conditions indicating that chat-line participants implicitly compensate for the narrower bandwidth interface.
    Keywords: Cognitive models, Expertise, Collaboration, CSCW
    Effects of Awareness Support on Groupware Usability BIBAKPDF 511-518
      Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
    Collaboration in current real-time groupware systems is often an awkward and clumsy process. We hypothesize that better support for workspace awareness can improve the usability of these shared computational workspaces. We conducted an experiment that compared people's performance on two versions of a groupware interface. The interfaces used workspace miniatures to provide different levels of support for workspace awareness. The basic miniature showed information only about the local user, and the enhanced miniature showed the location and activity of others in the workspace as well. In two of three task types tested, completion times were lower with increased awareness support, and in one task type, communication was more efficient. Participants also greatly preferred the awareness-enhanced system. The study provides empirical evidence of, and underlying reasons for, the value of supporting workspace awareness in groupware.
    Keywords: Workspace awareness, Groupware, Usability

    Software Behind the Scenes

    Composing Magic Lenses BIBAKPDF 519-525
      David Fox
    Since the publication of the first paper on Magic Lenses, various methods have been proposed for implementing lenses which filter the objects seen through them. However, all the methods proposed suffer from various flaws. In particular, none of these methods solve the problem of composing lenses in a general way. A method which solves all these problems is described here. By substituting delegation for the more conventional class inheritance, a simple and elegant solution emerges. We have implemented delegation-based Magic Lenses in the Tabula Rasa zooming user interface (ZUI) system, using an object system related to CLOS.
    Keywords: Magic Lens, Pad, Filter, Portal, Lens, Transparent, Work-through interface, Delegation, Inheritance, Object-oriented, CLOS, Scheme
    Generalized Pointing: Enabling Multiagent Interaction BIBAPDF 526-533
      Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Daniel Boyarski; Thom Verratti; Matthew Phelps; Jack L. Moffett; Edson L. Lo
    We describe an architecture which allows any external agent (human or software) to point into the visual space of an interactive application. We describe the visual design of a scheme for highlighting any information in any application. This architecture requires the application to provide information about its semantic structure as part of its redraw algorithms. Based on this semantic map generalized pointer descriptions are defined and used to reference objects to be highlighted. The architecture is demonstrated using a multibookmark agent framework and several example applications.
    Scripting Graphical Applications by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 534-541
      Brad A. Myers
    Writing scripts (often called "macros") can be helpful for automating repetitive tasks. Scripting facilities for text editors like Emacs and Microsoft Word have been widely used and available. However, for graphical applications, scripting has been tried many times but has never been successful. This is mainly due to the data description problem of determining how to generalize the particular objects selected at demonstration time. Previous systems have mostly tried to solve this using inferencing, but this has a number of problems, including guessing wrong and providing appropriate feedback and control to users. Therefore, the Topaz framework does not use inferencing and instead allows the user to specify how the appropriate objects should be found. This is achieved by recording changes to which objects are selected and searches for objects, so that scripts can be written with respect to the selected object, in the same way as Emacs keyboard macros. Furthermore, all values can be explicitly generalized in a number of ways, and scripts can be invoked as a result of other commands. By leveraging off of Amulet's command object architecture, programmers get these capabilities for free in their applications. The result is that much more sophisticated scripting capabilities available in applications with no extra work for programmers.
    Keywords: Scripting, Macros, Programming by Demonstration (PBD), Command objects, Toolkits, User interface development environments, Amulet

    Computer Augmented Environments

    Illuminating Light: An Optical Design Tool with a Luminous-Tangible Interface BIBAKPDF 542-549
      John Underkoffler; Hiroshi Ishii
    We describe a novel system for rapid prototyping of laser-based optical and holographic layouts. Users of this optical prototyping tool -- called the Illuminating Light system -- move physical representations of various optical elements about a workspace, while the system tracks these components and projects back onto the workspace surface the simulated propagation of laser light through the evolving layout. This application is built atop the Luminous Room infrastructure, an aggregate of interlinked, computer-controlled projector-camera units called I/O Bulbs. Philosophically, the work embodies the emerging ideas of the Luminous Room and builds on the notions of 'graspable media'.
       We briefly introduce the I/O Bulb and Luminous Room concepts and discuss their current implementations. After an overview of the optical domain that the Illuminating Light system is designed to address, we present the overall system design and implementation, including that of an intermediary toolkit called voodoo which provides a general facility for object identification and tracking.
    Keywords: Engineering simulation, Optics, Holography, Luminous interface, Tangible interface, Augmented reality, Prototyping tool, Interactive projection, Tangible bits
    Insight Lab: An Immersive Team Environment Linking Paper, Displays, and Data BIBAKPDF 550-557
      Beth M. Lange; Mark A. Jones; James L. Meyers
    The Insight Lab is an immersive environment designed to support teams who create design requirements documents. Requirements emerge from a deep understanding of a problem domain, which is achieved through in-depth analysis of large amounts of qualitative data. The goal of the Lab is to facilitate the data analysis process through the seamless interaction of computer-based technologies with objects in the environment. Team members can use paper and whiteboards to sketch, annotate, and display their analysis work. Barcodes are used to link papers and whiteboard printouts to the multimedia data stored in the computer.
    Keywords: Interaction design, Collaboration, Analysis methods, Video analysis, Hybrid paper electronic interfaces, Digital documents, Group memory, Barcode technology
    Reinventing the Familiar: Exploring an Augmented Reality Design Space for Air Traffic Control BIBAKPDF 558-565
      Wendy E. Mackay; Anne-Laure Fayard; Laurent Frobert; Lionel Medini
    This paper describes our exploration of a design space for an augmented reality prototype. We began by observing air traffic controllers and their interactions with paper flight strips. We then worked with a multi-disciplinary team of researchers and controllers over a period of a year to brainstorm and prototype ideas for enhancing paper flight strips. We argue that augmented reality is more promising (and simpler to implement) than the current strategies that seek to replace flight strips with keyboard/monitor interfaces. We also argue that an exploration of the design space, with active participation from the controllers, is essential not only for designing particular artifacts, but also for understanding the strengths and limitations of augmented reality in general.
    Keywords: Augmented reality, Design space, Interactive paper, Participatory design, Video prototyping

    Hear Here!

    Designing Audio Aura BIBAKPDF 566-573
      Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Maribeth Back; Roy Want; Michael Baer; Jason B. Ellis
    In this paper, we describe the process behind the design of Audio Aura. The goal of Audio Aura is to provide serendipitous information, via background auditory cues, that is tied to people's physical actions in the workplace. We used scenarios to explore issues in serendipitous information such as privacy and work practice. Our sound design was guided by a number of strategies for creating peripheral sounds grouped in cohesive ecologies. Faced with an physical and software infrastructure under development in a laboratory distant from our sound studio, we prototyped different sonic landscapes in VRML worlds. In our infrastructure design, we made a number of trade-offs in our use of legacy systems and our client-server design.
    Keywords: Audio, Augmented reality, Auditory icons, Active badge, VRML. Earcons, Awareness, Periphery
    Communicating Graphical Information to Blind Users Using Music: The Role of Context BIBAKPDF 574-581
      James L. Alty; Dimitrios I. Rigas
    We describe the design and use of AUDIOGRAPH -- a tool for investigating the use of music in the communication of graphical information to blind and partially sighted users. This paper examines the use of the system to communicate complex diagrams and gives some examples of user output. Performance is not as good as expected and it is postulated that context will play an important part in the perception of diagrams communicated using music. A set of experiments are reported which indicate that context does indeed seem to play an important role in assisting meaningful understanding of the diagrams communicated. The implications for using music in auditory interface design are discussed.
    Keywords: Blind users, Music, Graphics, Interface design, Empirical
    What can I Say?: Evaluating a Spoken Language Interface to Email BIBAKPDF 582-589
      Marilyn A. Walker; Jeanne Fromer; Giuseppe Di Fabbrizio; Craig Mestel; Don Hindle
    This paper presents experimental results comparing two different designs for a spoken language interface to email. We compare a mixed-initiative dialogue style, in which users can flexibly control the dialogue, to a system-initiative dialogue style, in which the system controls the dialogue. Our results show that even though the mixed-initiative system is more efficient, as measured by number of turns, or elapsed time to complete a set of email tasks, users prefer the system-initiative interface. We posit that these preferences arise from the fact that the system initiative interface is easier to learn and more predictable.
    Keywords: Spoken language interfaces, Initiative, Email interfaces

    Better Health Through...

    Device Design Methodology for Trauma Applications BIBAKPDF 590-594
      Diane S. Brown; Susan Motte
    In this paper, we describe the unique characteristics of medical environments, particularly trauma. We describe how those characteristics challenge traditional human factors methods, and the enhanced methods that work well for each development phase of medical product design.
    Keywords: Trauma, Medical domain, Healthcare, Field studies, Design methodology, Human factors
    Voice-Enabled Structured Medical Reporting BIBAKPDF 595-602
      Mary-Marshall Teel; Rachael Sokolowski; David Rosenthal; Matt Belge
    A paradox exists in applications that generate Electronic Health Records (EHRs) -- how can data be captured from health care professionals speaking in a natural manner and in a computer readable form? This paradox is historical. Physicians are accustomed to dictating to a tape recorder and the speech is transcribed to a paper-based report. This format makes electronic access difficult and is of low value to the health care institution's needs for research and analysis.
       There is considerable interest in applying speech recognition to address this paradox. Users, many of whom are uncomfortable with computers, are attracted to a system that promises to simulate a transcriptionist. Institutional requirements are fulfilled as the data is created in an electronic form.
       However, conflicting goals arise. Doctors have very little time, want to create reports quickly and wish to use natural narration. Health care institutions, on the other hand, want to capture information in a controlled and predictable structure. This paper describes the design of a system, currently under construction, which we have named OSSIM (Open Systems Structured Information Manager). OSSIM attempts to achieve a balance between difficult ease of use goals and demanding institutional goals for computer readable structured information.
    Keywords: Speech interface design, Voice recognition, Dictation, Clinical reporting, Structured reporting, SGML, EHR
    Interactive Storytelling Environments: Coping with Cardiac Illness at Boston's Children's Hospital BIBAKPDF 603-610
      Marina Umaschi Bers; Edith Ackermann; Justine Cassell; Beth Donegan; Joseph Gonzalez-Heydrich; David Ray DeMaso; Carol Strohecker; Sarah Lualdi; Dennis Bromley; Judith Karlin
    This paper describes exploration of uses of a computational storytelling environment on the Cardiology Unit of the Children's Hospital in Boston during the summer of 1997. Young cardiac patients ranging from age 7 to 16 used the SAGE environment to tell personal stories and create interactive characters, as a way of coping with cardiac illness, hospitalizations, and invasive medical procedures. This pilot study is part of a larger collaborative effort between Children's Hospital and MERL -- A Mitsubishi Electric Research Laboratory to develop a web-based application, the Experience Journal, to assist patients and their families in dealing with serious medical illness. The focus of the paper is on young patients' uses of SAGE, on SAGE's affordances in the context of the hospital, and on design recommendations for the development of future computational play kits. Preliminary analysis of children's stories indicates that children used different modes of interaction -- direct, mediated, and differed -- depending upon what personae the narrator chooses to take on. These modes seem to vary with the mindset and health condition of the child.
    Keywords: Interactive storytelling, Authoring environments, Cardiology illness, Coping strategies, Computational play kits, Soft interfaces

    It's Elementary

    Progressive Design: Staged Evolution of Scenarios in the Design of a Collaborative Science Learning Environment BIBAKPDF 611-618
      George, Jr. Chin; Mary Beth Rosson
    Scenario-based design techniques are increasingly popular in HCI design. Although many techniques exist, we see a growing demand for more structured and systematic methods of scenario generation and development. This paper describes a case study in which a collaborative science learning environment was designed using an evolutionary scenario-based design approach. The case study has attempted to make consistent use of scenarios and claims as design representations, to integrate the design of both the system and the activities that incorporate it, and to evolve design in an organized and principled manner. We have termed this approach progressive design.
    Keywords: Scenarios, Task-artifact framework, Claims, Participatory design, Computer-supported collaborative learning
    Adapting User Interface Design Methods to the Design of Educational Activities BIBAKPDF 619-626
      Clayton Lewis; Cathy Brand; Gina Cherry; Cyndi Rader
    We have adapted the programming walkthrough technique to help design computer-supported educational activities in elementary school science. We present examples from a case study which illustrate ways in which design of an educational activity is similar to and different from design of a user interface. We have found that the walkthrough approach is useful in this new setting, and that it sheds new light on the general task-centered orientation to design.
    Keywords: Analysis methods, Children, Design techniques, Educational applications, End user programming, Task analysis
    The Progress Portfolio: Designing Reflective Tools for a Classroom Context BIBAKPDF 627-634
      Ben Loh; Josh Radinsky; Eric Russell; Louis M. Gomez; Brian J. Reiser; Daniel C. Edelson
    A great deal of effort has gone into developing open-ended inquiry activities for science education as well as complex computer tools for accessing scientific data to help students learn science. To be successful with these tools and activities, students need to learn a set of inquiry skills and to develop a new mode of classroom work: reflective inquiry. In this paper we describe the design of the Progress Portfolio, a software environment to promote reflective inquiry, and we examine the influences of the unique practices and features of classroom contexts on our design process.
    Keywords: Children, Collaborative learning, Education applications, Learner-centered design, Inquiry support tools