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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI 96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'96 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Common Ground
Location:Vancouver, Canada
Dates:1996-Apr-14 to 1996-Apr-18
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN 0-89791-832-0; ACM Order Number 608963; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI96-2
Pages:462
Links:Conference Home Page | Online Proceedings
  1. CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2
    1. SHORT PAPERS: Collaborative Systems
    2. SHORT PAPERS: Alternative Methods of Interaction
    3. SHORT PAPERS: Children and Other Learners
    4. SHORT PAPERS: Scribbling, Sketching, Drawing, and Writing
    5. SHORT PAPERS: Design Methodology
    6. SHORT PAPERS: Supporting Awareness of Others in Groupware (Short Papers Suite)
    7. SHORT PAPERS: Models of Work Practice (Short Papers Suite)
    8. SHORT PAPERS: Technologies for Virtual Interactions
    9. SHORT PAPERS: News and Mail
    10. SHORT PAPERS: The Telephony Customer Interface (Short Papers Suite)
    11. SHORT PAPERS: Development Tools
    12. SHORT PAPERS: Models That Shape Design (Short Papers Suite)
    13. SHORT PAPERS: Models
    14. SHORT PAPERS: Working Together Near and Far
    15. SHORT PAPERS: Real World Usage Patterns
    16. SHORT PAPERS: Agents
    17. SHORT PAPERS: Thought Pieces for Interaction Technology
    18. SHORT PAPERS: Information Structure
    19. SHORT PAPERS: Usability Issues

CHI 1996-04-14 Volume 2

SHORT PAPERS: Collaborative Systems

Long-Term Interaction: Learning the 4 Rs BIBAKHTML 169-170
  Alan Dix; Devina Ramduny; Julie Wilkinson
In long-term interaction (over minutes, hours, or days) the tight cycle of action and feedback is broken. People have to remember that they have to do things, that other people should do things and why things happen when they do. This paper describes some results of a study into long-term processes associated with the running of the HCI'95 conference. The focus is on the events which trigger the occurrence of activities. However, during the study we also discovered a recurrent pattern of activities and triggers we have called the 4Rs. For a longer report see [2].
Keywords: Interruptions, Reminders, Events, Workflow
Walking the Walk is Doing the Work: Flexible Interaction Management in Video-Supported Cooperative Work BIBAKHTML 171-172
  Steinar Kristoffersen; Tom Rodden
This paper considers the effects of video-based communication systems on individual, local mobility in the everyday, practical 'space' of work. Previous academic research emphasises how video can extend and enhance space. We found, doing a focused ethnography, that video, in a trade-off between 'real' and 'virtual' mobility, restricted the use of personal, workaday, physical space. Issues thus raised for design of video-based systems are: physical mobility in workaday space during sessions; modal and temporal switching between different means of communication; individual work during collective activities; and, alternating between tasks as part of articulating the work.
Keywords: Video, Communication, Multimedia, Space, Mobility

SHORT PAPERS: Alternative Methods of Interaction

Office Monitor BIBAKHTML 173-174
  Nicole Yankelovich; Cynthia D. McLain
The Office Monitor is a walk-up speech system in an office setting. We present strategies developed to address design issues which emerged during a pre-design study. A follow-up user study showed that although effective, these strategies were inadequate; therefore, we propose design modifications.
Keywords: Conversational interaction, Speech interface design, Office automation
Visual Access for 3D Data BIBAKHTML 175-176
  David J. Cowperthwaite; M. Sheelagh; T. Carpendale; F. David Fracchia
We describe a novel solution to the problem of occlusion in viewing three-dimensional data. A distortion function is used to clear a line of sight to previously obscured interior elements.
Keywords: Distortion viewing, 3D interaction

SHORT PAPERS: Children and Other Learners

An Interface Strategy for Promoting Reflective Cognition in Children BIBAK 177-178
  Kamran Sedighian; Maria M. Klawe
We present a strategy for interface design in mathematical computer games. Our goal is to encourage children to consciously think about the underlying mathematical concepts while playing. We believe our strategy and our experiences leading to its formulation can provide useful insights for the design of educational software in general.
Keywords: Representation, Reflective cognition, Children, Education, Mathematical computer games
Design Issues Involving Entertainment Click-Ons BIBAKHTML 179-180
  Douglas Super; Marvin Westrom; Maria Klawe
Preliminary results and methodology is reported for the effectiveness of entertainment click-ons in edutainment software. Indices for findability, popularity and effectiveness are discussed. School and home use data were obtained from log files built for Counting on Frank, a CD-ROM math adventure for ages 8-12 published by EA Kids in late 1994.
Keywords: Click-ons, Edutainment, Interface design, Log files, Games, Mathematics, Children, Motivation
Children's Collaboration Styles in a Newtonian MicroWorld BIBAKHTML 181-182
  Andy Cockburn; Saul Greenberg
TurboTurtle is a animated multi-user microworld that children use to explore concepts in Newtonian physics. It is a groupware system where students, each on their own computer, can simultaneous control the microworld and gesture in a shared view. Observations of pairs of young children using TurboTurtle highlight extremes in collaboration styles, from conflict to smooth interaction.
Keywords: Computer supported collaborative learning, Microworlds
ASK Jasper: Performance Support for Students BIBAKHTML 183-184
  Ray Bareiss; Susan M. Williams
This paper describes ASK Jasper, a hypermedia performance support system that provides a structured work environment and in-context help and advice to students as they learn the concepts and skills of empirical geometry through solving a complex design problem.
Keywords: Educational applications, Performance support, Hypermedia
Designing Pedagogical Screen Savers BIBAKHTML 185-186
  Chris DiGiano; Michael Eisenberg
The burgeoning complexity of professional application software -- the proliferation of interface options, available functionality, and end-user languages -- has resulted in the need to think creatively about ways in which such software may be made more learnable. This paper describes one promising technique -- the pedagogical screen saver -- whose purpose is to introduce users to application functionality, entertainingly and unobtrusively, during the program's "idle time." We describe a running prototype of such a screen saver for a programmable charting application.
Keywords: Screen savers, Programmable applications, Software design, Chart'n'Art
Using Cognitive Dimensions in the Classroom as a Discussion Tool for Visual Language Design BIBAKHTML 187-188
  Nicholas P. Wilde
Green's cognitive dimensions framework has been put forth as a defined vocabulary for discussing HCI design [3]. To be a useful discussion tool, we must agree on common definitions of the cognitive dimensions, and the dimensions need to be such that an educated user would be able to apply them correctly and consistently. I report on using the cognitive dimensions framework as a tool for discussion in a graduate level class on visual programming languages, and the class's experience applying the framework.
Keywords: Cognitive dimensions, Visual languages, Design and evaluation techniques

SHORT PAPERS: Scribbling, Sketching, Drawing, and Writing

The Usability of Scribble Matching BIBAKHTML 189-190
  David Frohlich; Richard Hull
Scribble matching is a facility developed for pen-computers which allows users to search electronic ink. Here we report our first user evaluation of scribble matching in a scribble phonebook application. 12 users each retrieved 40 phone numbers using combinations of scribble look-up, text look-up and manual browsing. Scribble look-up was preferred to the other two methods despite problems in remembering original handwritten labels in the phonebook.
Keywords: Pen, Handwriting, Retrieval, Usability
What Architects See in Their Sketches: Implications for Design Tools BIBAKHTML 191-192
  Masaki Suwa; Barbara Tversky
Freehand sketches are essential for crystallizing ideas in the early stages of design. Through the act of putting ideas down on paper and inspecting them, designers see new relations and features that suggest ways to refine and revise their ideas. We claim that seeing different types of information in sketches is the driving force in revising design ideas. Our retrospective protocol analysis revealed that sketches make apparent to designers not only perceptual features but also inherently non-visual functional relations, allowing them to extract function from perception in sketches. This has implications for ways that future sketching tools can stimulate designers to come up with creative ideas.
Keywords: Design sketch, Sketching tools, Architectural design, Protocol analysis, Creativity
Sketching Storyboards to Illustrate Interface Behaviors BIBAKHTML 193-194
  James A. Landay; Brad A. Myers
Current user interface construction tools make it difficult for a user interface designer to illustrate the behavior of an interface. These tools focus on specifying widgets and manipulating details such as colors. They can show what the interface will look like, but make it hard to show what it will do. For these reasons, designers prefer to sketch early interface ideas on paper. We have developed a tool called SILK that allows designers to quickly sketch an interface electronically. Unlike paper sketches, this electronic sketch is interactive. The designer can illustrate behaviors by sketching storyboards, which specify how the screen should change in response to user actions.
Keywords: Gestures, Design, Sketching, Interaction techniques, SILK
EtchaPad -- Disposable Sketch Based Interfaces BIBAK 195-196
  Jonathan Meyer
This paper describes a paradigm in which the user creates simple drawings or 'sketches' of user interfaces and then interacts directly with those sketches. It introduces EtchaPad, a system utilizing this technology to implement a drawing package. Several EtchaPad widget types are described, including buttons, sliders, and compound widgets.
Keywords: User interfaces, Zoomable interfaces, Sketching, Interaction techniques, Pad++, Pen based computing
Considerations for Electronic Idea-Creation Tools BIBAKHTML 197-198
  I. M. Verstijnen; R. Stuyver; J. M. Hennessey; C. C. van Leeuwen; R. Hamel
Recent research into the psychology of paper-and-pencil sketching reveals two ongoing interacting processes during a creative process. The first of these processes can easily be performed in mental imagery and hence is not supported by sketching, the second is hard to perform before the mental eye, and hence is supported by sketching. It is argued that, in order to be intuitive, electronic sketching tools must meet the requirements of firstly not impeding the first of the two processes and secondly support and enhance the second process.
Keywords: CAD-tools, Paper & pencil sketching, Creativity, Discovery
Augmenting Real-World Objects: A Paper-Based Audio Notebook BIBAKHTML 199-200
  Lisa J. Stifelman
The Audio Notebook allows a user to capture and access an audio recording of a lecture or meeting in conjunction with notes written on paper. The audio recording is synchronized with the user's handwritten notes and page turns. As a user flips through physical pages of notes, the audio scans to the start of each page. Audio is also accessed by pointing with a pen to a location in the notes or using an audio scrollbar. A small observational study of users in real settings was performed. The prototype did not interfere with the user's normal interactions yet gave reassurance that key ideas could be accessed later. In future work, automatic segmentation of the recorded speech using acoustic cues will be combined with user activity to structure the audio.
Keywords: Speech interfaces, Speech as data

SHORT PAPERS: Design Methodology

Task Elaboration or Label Following: An Empirical Study of Representation in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 201-202
  Robert B. Terwilliger; Peter G. Polson
A study measured the time experienced Macintosh users took to create a graph from pre-existing data, including the assignment of variables to axes in a dialog box. The study revealed that the task took less time when the items in the dialog box were labeled in terms of one problem representation, even when the instructions were written in terms of another. The Kitajima and Polson model explains this as resulting from the problem representation being elaborated with task-specific schemata during the instruction comprehension process.
Keywords: Empirical studies, Cognitive models
When Using the Tool Interferes with Doing the Task BIBAKHTML 203-204
  Susan S. Kirschenbaum; Wayne D. Gray; Brian D. Ehret; Sheryl L. Miller
How much time the user spends working on a task versus fiddling with the tool is an important aspect of usability. The concept of the ratio and distribution of tool-only operations to total operations is proposed to capture this aspect.
Keywords: Problem space, Submarines, Usability

SHORT PAPERS: Supporting Awareness of Others in Groupware (Short Papers Suite)

Supporting Awareness of Others in Groupware (Suite Summary) BIBHTML 205
  Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
Peepholes: Low Cost Awareness of One's Community BIBAKHTML 206-207
  Saul Greenberg
In distributed communities, media spaces supply people with an awareness of who is around by displaying video or periodic snapshots of common areas and offices. This in turn facilitates casual interaction. Peepholes is a low cost alternative. Instead of video, iconic presence indicators show the availability of people in a virtual community. If people are absent, a user can 'ambush' them by asking the system to announce their return. When interaction is desired, people can easily contact one another because communication software is just a button-press away.
Keywords: Groupware, Contact facilitation, Awareness, Coordination
Workspace Awareness for Groupware BIBAKHTML 208-209
  Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg
Shared physical workspaces allow people to maintain up-to-the minute knowledge about others' interaction with the workspace. This knowledge is workspace awareness, part of the glue that allows groups to collaborate effectively. In this paper, we present the concept of workspace awareness as a key for groupware systems that wish to support the fluid interaction evident in face-to-face collaboration. We discuss why workspace awareness is difficult to support in groupware systems, and then present a conceptual framework that groupware designers can use as a starting point for thinking about and supporting awareness.
Keywords: Workspace awareness, Groupware, CSCW
Workspace Awareness Support with Radar Views BIBAKHTML 210-211
  Carl Gutwin; Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
Real-time groupware systems often let each participant control their own view into a shared workspace. This strategy can reduce awareness about where and how others are interacting with the document or the workspace artifacts. We have designed a number of awareness widgets to help people regain this awareness. In this paper we present several radar views that provide awareness information on top of a global overview of the workspace. Our displays give lightweight access to information about others' locations and activities, providing for richer person-to-person interaction in groupware systems.
Keywords: Radar views, Widgets, Workspace awareness
A Fisheye Text Editor for Relaxed-WYSIWIS Groupware BIBAKHTML 212-213
  Saul Greenberg
Participants in a real-time groupware conference require a sense of awareness about other people's interactions within a large shared workspace. Fisheye views can afford this awareness by assigning a focal point to each participant. The fisheye effect around these multiple focal points provides peripheral awareness by showing people's location in the global context, and by magnifying the area around their work to highlight interaction details. An adjustable magnification function lets people customize the awareness information to fit their collaboration needs. A fisheye text editor illustrates how this can be accomplished.
Keywords: Groupware, Fisheye views, Awareness, Visualization
A Usability Study of Workspace Awareness Widgets BIBAKHTML 214-215
  Carl Gutwin; Mark Roseman
Groupware systems that use large shared workspaces generally provide only limited awareness information about other collaborators in the workspace. We are designing a set of groupware widgets to provide this missing information. This paper describes a usability study of a number of such widgets. The study has both validated our intuitions about the need for workspace awareness information, and revealed the strengths and weaknesses of several current designs.
Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Awareness, Usability

SHORT PAPERS: Models of Work Practice (Short Papers Suite)

Models of Work Practice: Can they Support the Analysis of System Designs? (Suite Summary) BIBPS 216
  William Newman
Designing for User Acceptance using Analysis Techniques based on Responsibility Modelling BIBAKPS 217-218
  Richard Harper; William Newman
An initial hurdle encountered by new information systems is user acceptance, and many systems fail this test at great cost to customers and developers. We have investigated methods, based on models of users' responsibilities, for assessing a system's likelihood of acceptance or rejection. We describe an instance of testing a design heuristic based on responsibility modelling.
Keywords: Analytical models, Responsibilities, Design heuristics
Agenda Benders: Modelling the Disruptions Caused by Technology Failures in the Workplace BIBAKPS 219-220
  Margery Eldridge; William Newman
There is a need to understand the impact of technology failures on work. In the studies reported here, subjects' plans at the start of each day were compared with their eventual accomplishments, and failures to carry out plans were investigated. A number of sources of disruption were identified; they included technology failures, which had a particular tendency to act as "agenda benders," preventing the completion of important activities.
Keywords: Diary studies, Productivity, Usability, Technology failures
Modelling Last-Minute Authoring: Does Technology Add Value or Encourage Tinkering? BIBAKPS 221-222
  William Newman; Margery Eldridge; Richard Harper
To measure the productivity gained from computer-based authoring systems, account must be taken of changes in the way the work is organised. An analysis of economists' authoring work, based on diary studies, suggests that much of this is performed at the last minute, just in time to meet deadlines. Benefits gained from word processing appear to be offset by authors' tendency to tinker with documents up to the last minute.
Keywords: Documents, Authoring, Diary studies
Supporting Doctor-Patient Interaction: Using a Surrogate Application as a Basis for Evaluation BIBAKPS 223-224
  Alex Dennis; William Newman
Interactive systems to support experts in consultation with clients, such as systems for general practitioners (GPs), need to be tested under realistic conditions. However this presents risks to the client, and hence a similar but less risk-prone "surrogate" application may be chosen. We describe an attempt to conduct a comparative evaluation of three technologies for GP support by applying them to careers counselling as a surrogate. While the task appeared to be adequately supported, we were unable to measure the impact of the technologies on conversational turntaking. We make some suggestions on how to avoid this problem in future experiments of this kind.
Keywords: Medical information systems, Expert-client interaction, Evaluation

SHORT PAPERS: Technologies for Virtual Interactions

Moving Motion Metaphors BIBAKHTML 225-226
  Colin Ware
A class of visual metaphors is introduced in which simple animation conveys meaning about motion metaphorically. Antecedents in the form of static metaphors for visually conveying motion are discussed, followed by two examples of moving motion metaphors. The second is an integral part of a new heads-up flying interface for navigating 3D environments. Some concluding remarks are made concerning the practical uses of moving motion metaphors.
Keywords: Metaphors, 3D interaction
Effectiveness of Spatial Level of Detail Degradation in the Periphery of Head-Mounted Displays BIBAKHTML 227-228
  Benjamin Watson; Neff Walker; Larry F. Hodges
Many researchers have proposed degradation of peripheral visual detail as a technique that can both improve frame rates in virtual environments systems, and minimize perceptual impact. A user study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique when used with head-mounted displays. Primary dependent measures were search time on correctly performed trials and percentage of all trials performed incorrectly. Results showed that a substantial amount of peripheral detail can be eliminated before user performance is impacted. The performance impact of peripheral detail degradation will vary greatly with task difficulty, although it should be useful even in the most taxing environments.
Keywords: Immersive virtual environments, Virtual reality, Level of detail, Head-mounted displays, Usability, Search
Getting a Grasp on Virtual Reality BIBAKHTML 229-230
  Richard J. Aldridge; Karen Carr; Rupert England; John F. Meech; Tony Solomonides
This paper describes the development and initial evaluation of a novel system for providing force-feedback to a user's' hand in a virtual environment. The development addresses the problem of providing simple (robust and low cost) but effective sensory cues to assist a user in grasping virtual objects. The approach is to provide approximate but distinctive 'solidity' feedback, which together with visual cues creates the sensation of having grasped an object. The initial evaluations indicate that user response is very favourable.
Keywords: Evaluation, Input devices, Interaction technology, Touch and force feedback, Virtual reality
Fast Haptic Textures BIBAK 231-232
  Juhani O. Siira; Dinesh K. Pai
We present a fast algorithm for generating haptic texture for simulations of virtual environments. The method is based on surface roughness analysis and is usable on a variety of force feedback haptic interfaces.
Keywords: Haptic, Stochastic, Texture
Vection with Large Screen 3D Imagery BIBAKHTML 233-234
  Kathy Lowther; Colin Ware
Vection is the illusory impression of self motion that can be obtained when an observer views a large screen display containing a rotating or translating pattern. To aid in our construction of an interactive large screen interface to virtual 3D environments, we conducted studies to determine the factors which induce a sense of vection. We found that having a foreground frame and a stereo display increased vection. If subjects moved when the display was being observed then vection decreased. However, if the perspective was coupled to their head position while they moved then vection was restored.
Keywords: Vection, Virtual environments
High Fidelity for Immersive Displays BIBAKHTML 235-236
  Gernot Schaufler; Tomasz Mazuryk; Dieter Schmalstieg
Head-tracked immersive displays suffer from lag and non-uniform frame rates. A novel rendering architecture is proposed that combines head prediction with dynamic impostors for 3-D image correction and achieves bounded frame rates and significantly reduced lag.
Keywords: Virtual reality, Head tracking, Immersion, Lag, Prediction, Uniform frame rates, Impostors

SHORT PAPERS: News and Mail

Electronic Mail Previews Using Non-Speech Audio BIBAKHTML 237-238
  Scott E. Hudson; Ian Smith
Conventional (visual) glances give a quick overview of the overall properties of an object. An audio glance presents a similar overview aurally rather than visually. This paper describes an audio glance for electronic mail messages. This dynamically constructed non-speech sound is designed to summarize the important properties of a message into a concise sound so that one may quickly preview a set of email messages to determine their important properties. This allows the user to make a quick assessment of, for example, the existence of messages from particular users or groups, or of responses to a recent message of importance. Along with the audio glance technique we present a "flash card" interface which provides very rapid access to the glance.
Keywords: Non-speech audio, Audio icons, Audio glances, Email, Flash card interfaces
Grassroots: Providing a Uniform Framework for Communicating, Sharing Information, and Organizing People BIBAKHTML 239-240
  Kenichi Kamiya; Martin Roscheisen; Terry Winograd
People currently use a disparate set of systems such as e-mail, newsgroups, hypermail, shared Web hotlists, hierarchical indexes, etc. for activities which often cut across the boundaries implicit in each of these systems. Grassroots is a system that provides a uniform user-conceptual model to functionalities currently found in such systems, while not requiring people to give up other systems. It is designed to co-exist with and leverage from existing systems. A prototype implementation has been completed based on a Web http proxy.
Keywords: Activity-level interface integration, E-mail, Newsgroups

SHORT PAPERS: The Telephony Customer Interface (Short Papers Suite)

The Telephony Customer Interface: Five Perspectives on Problems and Solutions (Suite Summary) BIBAHTML 241
  John Chin; Gregory Tatchell
Collectively, this suite of five papers illustrate the diverse set of issues that should be addressed to formulate a strategic path towards resolving existing and growing usability problems found in telecommunications. Specifically, there are three main thrusts applied in developing profitable and competitive new services:
  • 1) identifying sources of usability problems
  • 2) exploring potential design solutions that address current and future user
        needs
  • 3) implementing prototypes to assess the feasibility of design concepts.
  • Problems with the Existing Telephony Customer Interface: The Pending Eclipse of Touch-Tone and Dial-Tone BIBAKHTML 242-243
      Gregory R. Tatchell
    The existing telephony customer interface is based on the input of commands to the telephone system via the touch tone pad of a standard telephone set. The services activated by these commands are hard to learn, easy to forget and confusing because of this restrictive user interface. A solution to ease of use problems (and the 30 others associated with the existing touch-tone telephony interface) requires a new interface. The success of the graphical user interface in the PC industry suggests the following question for the telephone industry: "Is it possible to achieve the same quantum increase in ease-of-use with the customer interface in the telephony industry as was achieved in the PC industry?" This and four associated mini-papers explore both the problems that exist and solutions that can be considered.
    Keywords: Phone-based interfaces, Intelligent agents, Personal agents, Voice recognition
    Making a Simple Interface Complex: Interactions among Telephone Features BIBAHTML 244-245
      Nancy Griffeth
    Without features, the telephone interface is simple and can easily be taught to a child, but the proliferation of telephone features makes the telephone's behavior hard for an adult to understand. The difficulty arises not just from the need to learn several ways of using the telephone, but also from the interactions among features, which can cause each feature to behave differently in the presence of other features. In this paper, we describe some of the problems feature interactions present to telephone users, and discuss their extent.
    From Interactions to Interfaces: Butlers, Job Descriptions and Personal Agents BIBKHTML 246-247
      Dave Darville; David Hignett
    Keywords: Communication services, Personal assistants, Interactions, Personal agents
    Personality Trait Attributions to Voice Mail User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 248-249
      John P. Chin
    The present study assesses user perceptions of current voice mail systems and identifies desirable traits that should be incorporated in future agent-based products. Both novices and experts ascribed similar personality traits to voice mail user interfaces: practical, intelligent, courteous, efficient, straight-forward, sophisticated, methodical, progressive and alert. Surprisingly, significantly more experts desired a more imaginative personality than novices. Moreover, 20% of the experts did not associate imaginative with voice mail systems tested. The results suggest that future voice mail user interface for experts should project an imaginative quality.
    Keywords: Phone-based interfaces, Voice mail, Personality, Agents
    Technical Considerations in the Design of an Intelligent Agent Using Automated Speech Recognition (ASR) BIBAK 250-251
      Don Xiangdong Cai; Kenneth Chan
    The objective of this paper is to discuss the impacts of the ASR technology on the design of an intelligent agent. Using ASR as the primary User Interface (UI) technology, the intelligent agent defines the fifth generation telephone customer interface which solves the problems with the touch-tone interface of the existing telephony services. To identify issues and search for solutions of the design of an intelligent agent, a prototype to demonstrate the concepts of the design was developed and used for customer researches. Based on our research and experiences, the technical issues identified and suggestions are presented in this paper.
    Keywords: Agents, Interface design, Prototyping, Voice recognition, Network & Communication

    SHORT PAPERS: Development Tools

    Animation in a Demonstrational Interface Builder BIBAK 252-253
      Gene L. Fisher; Hsin-Hui Sung; Suzanne H. Nguyen; Thang D. Nguyen
    This paper describes the integration of animation capabilities into a demonstrational interface builder. Basic interface behavior is defined using a technique called stimulus-response demonstration. To support animation, a number of new primitives have been added to specify paths, animated sprites, and timing control. These new capabilities have been smoothly integrated with the stimulus/response mechanism to provide high-level animation control. This integration permits animations to be manipulated in a number of useful and interesting ways.
    Keywords: Animation, Demonstrational interfaces, Interface builders, User interface management systems
    Early Prototyping Based on Executable Task Models (PostScript) BIBAKPS 254-255
      Birgit Bomsdorf; Gerd Szwillus
    Research has shown the great importance of task models for the design of human-computer interfaces. In this paper we develop a task model enriched with more complex relations between tasks. This model can be executed and dependent on the abstraction level of the development process graphical representations or early ideas of screen layout can be attached to it. With this technique, prototypes can be used very early in the design process, improving the capabilities to evaluate the model.
    Keywords: Task model, Executable task model, Temporal relations, Prototyping, User-interface design

    SHORT PAPERS: Models That Shape Design (Short Papers Suite)

    Models that Shape Design BIBAHTML 256
      Peter Johnson
    Modelling is a common ground for both research and practice in human computer interaction. For example, various human factors models are used to evaluate the quality and efficiency of interactive systems. Similarly, system designers employ a range of modelling techniques in the analysis, construction and development of interactive systems. This suite of papers considers some examples of the various classes of models that form an important part of HCI.
    Towards a Framework of Design Models BIBAHTML 257-258
      Mathilde Bekker; Stephanie Wilson
    This paper presents a framework for examining design models (e.g. task models, dialogue models) and their usage in the design process (e.g. elicitation, evaluation). The framework provides a basis for describing design methods in terms of the models they incorporate, for exploring the common ground between methods and for analysing studies of design in practice. The ideas are exemplified in a discussion of the use of task models in three design methods. Keywords Design methods, models, design support, task models.
    Task Model Support for Cooperative Analysis BIBAKHTML 259-260
      Eamonn J. O'Neill
    Software usability is a function of how well the software supports the user's situated tasks, so it is important for the software developer to acquire a sound knowledge of the user's roles, tasks and working environment. The research reported here assumes that the user is a primary source of such knowledge and examines how this knowledge may feed directly into the software developer's understanding through user-developer cooperation in analysis and modelling. This short paper briefly reports on the use of task models as representations to support cooperative analysis and concludes that task models provide a useful common ground for user-developer communication and cooperation.
    Keywords: Cooperative analysis, Task modelling
    Predictive Evaluation Using Task Knowledge Structures BIBAKHTML 261-262
      Fraser Hamilton
    Task Knowledge Structures (TKS) are models of users' domain tasks. These TKS models are being utilised within the design process to facilitate design generation and early evaluation of interactive systems. By understanding the knowledge users possess of their domain, we believe that we can support designers in generating designs in a principled manner. Often it may be desirable to change the ways in which users perform their tasks, e.g. to improve task efficiency. However, in changing the nature of users' tasks it is possible to introduce learning problems. We are attempting to produce a framework for predicting what difficulties users might have in using the new system by comparing the knowledge they currently have about their domain to the knowledge required to interact effectively with a system designed to support their goals in that domain.
    Keywords: Models, Conceptual design, TKS, Prediction, Evaluation
    Beyond Task Analysis: Exploiting Task Models in Application Implementation BIBAKHTML 263-264
      Michael J. Smith; Eamonn J. O'Neill
    This paper briefly reports how task models may be exploited in software development beyond early analysis and specifically within application implementation. We describe three ways in which task models have been used directly to support application implementation and briefly touch upon how such use impacts upon the usability of the resulting application.
    Keywords: Task models, Application implementation, Workflow
    Continuous and Explicit Dialogue Modelling BIBAKHTML 265-266
      Thomas Elwert
    Dialogue modelling represents an important stage in the User Interface (UI) development process. Existing UI development methodologies do not reflect sufficiently this importance by including an explicit dialogue model which covers all levels of dialogue modelling and uses a uniform notation. The paper argues the need for an explicit dialogue model and its continuous development to improve the homogeneity of the entire UI development process. Further, the paper outlines such a model-based approach which supports continuous and explicit dialogue modelling.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, User interface design, Dialogue model, Graphical dialogue notation

    SHORT PAPERS: Models

    Negotiating User-Initiated Cancellation and Interruption Requests BIBAKHTML 267-268
      Manuel A. Perez-Quinones; John L. Sibert
    Interruptions and cancellations are important parts of a user interface, yet they are treated as special cases in user interface design and notations. In an effort to build a dialogue notation that allows for effective definition of these commands or user turns, we present a behavioral definition of interruptions and cancellations. We show several examples of how our definition accounts for different forms of behavior. The behavioral definitions provided here are a step towards providing better support for the definition and implementation of these turns.
    Keywords: Cancellations, Interruptions, Human-computer dialogues
    An Interface Design Tool Based on Explicit Task Models BIBAKHTML 269-270
      Tom Hinrichs; Ray Bareiss; Lawrence Birnbaum; Gregg Collins
    Producing high-quality, comprehensible human interfaces is a difficult, labor-intensive process that requires experience and judgment. In this paper, we describe an approach to assisting this process by using explicit models of the user's task to drive the interface design and to serve as a functional component of the interface itself. The task model helps to ensure that the resulting interface directly and transparently supports the user in performing his task, and serves as a scaffolding for providing in-context help and advice. By crafting a library of standardized, reusable tasks and interface constructs, we believe it is possible to capture some of the design expertise and to amortize much of the labor required for building effective user interfaces.
    Keywords: Model-based interface design tools, Task analysis

    SHORT PAPERS: Working Together Near and Far

    GroupWeb: A WWW Browser as Real Time Groupware BIBAKHTML 271-272
      Saul Greenberg; Mark Roseman
    GroupWeb is a browser that allows group members to visually share and navigate World Wide Web pages in real time. Its groupware features include document and view slaving for synchronizing information sharing, telepointers for enacting gestures, and relaxed "what you see is what I see" views to handle display differences. A groupware text editor lets groups create and attach annotations to pages. An immediate application of GroupWeb is as a presentation tool for real time distance education and conferencing.
    Keywords: Word wide web, Groupware, Shared visual workspaces
    Do-I-Care: A Collaborative Web Agent BIBAKHTML 273-274
      Brian Starr; Mark S. Ackerman; Michael Pazzani
    Social filtering and collaborative resource discovery mechanisms often fail because of the extra burden, even tiny, placed on the user. This work proposes an innovative World Wide Web agent that uses a model of collaboration that leverages the natural incentives for individual users to easily provide for collaborative work.
    Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, CSCW, Social filtering, Collaboration, World Wide Web
    TeamRooms: Groupware for Shared Electronic Spaces BIBAKHTML 275-276
      Mark Roseman; Saul Greenberg
    Teams whose members are in close physical proximity often rely on team rooms to serve both as meeting places and repositories of the documents and artifacts that support the team's projects. TeamRooms is a prototype groupware system designed to fill the role of a team room for groups whose members can work both co-located and at a distance. Facilities in TeamRooms allow team members to collaborate either in real-time or asynchronously, and to customize their shared electronic space to suit their needs.
    Keywords: Groupware, CSCW, Shared electronic spaces
    Guidelines for Designing Usable World Wide Web Pages BIBAKHTML 277-278
      Jose A. Borges; Israel Morales; Nestor J. Rodriguez
    The proliferation of World Wide Web pages with poor usability is a serious problem because these pages waste user time, discourage exploration and could be responsible for a large amount of unnecessary traffic on the Internet. To alleviate this problem, we are proposing a set of simple guidelines for designing usable Web pages. The guidelines were compiled from a heuristic evaluation of existing Web sites. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the usability of home pages designed with the proposed guidelines. The experiment demonstrated that designers of Web pages can improve the usability of home pages by applying these guidelines.
    Keywords: Usability testing, Interaction design, World Wide Web, WWW pages design
    Creating User Manuals for Use in Collaborative Design BIBAKHTML 279-280
      Harold Thimbleby
    User manuals are usually written by technical authors after the design of the device has been committed for production. If the manual's review leads to insight into the design, it is too late. Meanwhile, if the design is modified, the manual may be inaccurate. This paper describes an example language for creating accurate and complete manuals from formal specifications. We show how it can be used to improve part of the Flight Crew Operating Manual for the Airbus A320 fly-by-wire airplane. The technique is easy to implement, can be generalised to other domains, and contributes to concurrent engineering practice -- increasing common ground between engineers, users and HCI practitioners.
    Keywords: User manuals, Formal specification, Concurrent engineering
    Creating Image Context Using Image Trees BIBAKHTML 281-282
      Erik Wistrand
    Presenting artwork such as paintings, graphics and other images over networks creates several problems, including loss of context, loss of image resolution and bandwidth rate problems. This paper presents a method, ImageTrees, for displaying images which attempts to solve these problems. Applications may be WWW applications, or other media where image resolution and bandwidth problems arise.
    Keywords: Visualization, ImageTree, Dynamic layout, Image display, Image context, Art, WWW

    SHORT PAPERS: Real World Usage Patterns

    Engineering Ethnography in the Home BIBAKHTML 283-284
      Michael Mateas; Tony Salvador; Jean Scholtz; Doug Sorensen
    To inform the design and development of domestic computing systems, we performed a pilot ethnographic study of the home. The resulting model of domestic activity shows that the implicit design assumptions of the personal computer are inappropriate for the home. Our model suggests that small, integrated, computational appliances are a more appropriate domestic technology than the monolithic PC.
    Keywords: Ethnography, Home computing, Ubiquitous computing
    Visualisation of Entrenched User Preferences BIBAK 285-286
      Judy Kay; Richard C. Thomas
    A group of 63 students has been studied during three years of editor use. We have examined their long term evolution and here report the variation with accumulated experience in preference between two file-write commands. It is clear that while about 75% of students fixed their preferences early, about 25% did not. We present a clear example of spontaneous, long-term changes by individuals which collectively fit a pattern.
    Keywords: Editors, Long term field studies, Temporal aspects of usability, Visualisation of behaviour

    SHORT PAPERS: Agents

    Adaptive Agents and Personality Change: Complimentary versus Similarity as Forms of Adaptation BIBAKHTML 287-288
      Youngme Moon; Clifford I. Nass
    The idea that computer agents should be adaptive is a well-accepted tenet in the software industry. The concept of adaptivity is rarely defined in explicit terms, however. On the one hand, adaptivity could mean change in the direction of similarity; on the other hand, an agent could adapt in the direction of complementarity. The question for software developers is, Which type of adaptivity -- similarity or complementarity -- does the user prefer? To investigate this question, a laboratory experiment was conducted (N=88). Results indicate that, consistent with the gain-loss literature in the field of social psychology, subjects preferred interacting with a computer that became similar to themselves over time.
    Keywords: Adaptivity, Agents, Complementarity, Personality, Similarity, Social psychology
    The Representation of Agents: Anthropomorphism, Agency, and Intelligence BIBAKHTML 289-290
      William Joseph King; Jun Ohya
    Agents have become a predominant area of research and development in human interfaces. A major issue in the development of these agents is how to represent them and their activities to the user. Anthropomorphic forms have been suggested, since they provide a great degree of subtlety and afford social interaction. However, these forms may be problematic since they may be inherently interpretted as having a high degree of agency and intelligence. An experiment is presented which supports these contentions.
    Keywords: Agents, Anthropomorphism, Facial expression, User interface design

    SHORT PAPERS: Thought Pieces for Interaction Technology

    Using Force Feedback to Enhance Human Performance in Graphical User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 291-292
      Louis Rosenberg; Scott Brave
    This project uses a force feedback joystick to enhance user interaction with standard graphical user interface paradigms. While typical joystick and mouse devices are input-only, force feedback controllers allow physical sensations to be reflected to a user. Tasks that require users to position a cursor on a given target can be enhanced by applying physical forces to the user that aid in targeting. For example, an attractive force field implemented at the location of a graphical icon can greatly facilitate target acquisition and selection of the icon. It has been shown that force feedback can enhance a users ability to perform basic functions within graphical user interfaces.
    Keywords: Force feedback, Haptic interface, Manual performance
    Cyberguide: Prototyping Context-Aware Mobile Applications BIBAKHTML 293-294
      Sue Long; Dietmar Aust; Gregory Abowd; Chris Atkeson
    We are interested in prototyping future computing environments. In this paper, we present the Cyberguide project, which is building prototypes of handheld, intelligent tour guides that provide information to a tourist based on knowledge of position and orientation. We will describe features of existing Cyberguide prototypes and discuss important research issues that have emerged in context-aware applications development in a mobile environment.
    Keywords: Mobile computing, Ubiquitous computing, Location-aware applications, Newton/PDA
    Flying Fingers: A Tool for Three-Dimensional Shared Workspace BIBAKHTML 295-296
      Akira Sakai
    This paper describes Flying Fingers, which is a tool designed for remote collaboration, such as reviewing mock-ups generated in CAD system between designers in remote places. Flying Fingers can potentially be controlled by two-dimensional pointing devices such as mice, because it employs a spherical coordinate system. Moreover, it can be implemented using narrow bandwidth communication.
    Keywords: CSCW, Shared workspace, Spherical coordinates, WYSIWIS
    SportScope: A User-Centered Design for Baseball Fans BIBAKHTML 297-298
      David S. Cortright
    The 1995 Apple Design Project asked students to design a system that would bridge the gulf between the physical and virtual worlds. SportScope, a system which augments the user's experience at a professional baseball game, was designed for this project. A binocular-like video scope is the centerpiece of the design, enabling baseball fans to obtain up-to-the-minute information from objects within the stadium environment (such as players and billboards) using a simple point-and-shoot camera metaphor. Users provided feedback on the design at all stages of the design process and participated in prototype testing.
    Keywords: User interface design, Consumer product design, Usability testing, Hardware/software integration, User-centered design, Apple design project, Baseball
    Auditory Illusions for Audio Feedback BIBAKHTML 299-300
      Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Stephane Conversy
    Sheppard-Risset tones are sounds that seem to go up (or down) indefinitely. We have designed an "elevator" sound based on this auditory illusion and have implemented it in the ENO audio system. The sound is synthesized in real-time and can be controlled in real-time through high-level parameters. We have used this sound for audio feedback when scrolling and for monitoring the progress of long system operations.
    Keywords: Non-speech audio, Auditory icons, Auditory illusions, Feedback, Notification
    Stretch Button Scrollbar BIBAKHTML 301-302
      Daniel J. Smith; Robert A. Henning
    Previous research has examined the use of a scrollbar for item selection in very large lists. This report presents an alternative design based on an understanding of the action capabilities and perceptual feedback. Experimental results show substantial performance benefits when using the Stretch Button scrollbar compared to other designs.
    Keywords: Scrollbar, Widget, Selection technology, Action/perception based control, Dynamic system

    SHORT PAPERS: Information Structure

    Finding the Cut of the Wrong Trousers: Fast Video Search Using Automatic Storyboard Generation BIBAKHTML 303-304
      Peter J. Macer; Peter J. Thomas; Nouhman Chalabi; John F. Meech
    The development of high capacity storage media and moving image file format standards (e.g. MPEG-2) have improved the quality of digital video and provided the possibility of enhanced digital video browsing techniques. This paper describes an approach to search and navigation in video databases which automatically identifies shots in a video sequence to present a single frame from each shot that best represents the shot as a whole. Using the approach a storyboard is generated which can be either visually scanned by the user, or searched using automatic techniques such as query-by-visual-example (QVE).
    Keywords: Visual search, Digital video, Video database, Query-by-visual-example, Information management
    Homer: A Pattern Discovery Support System BIBAKHTML 305-306
      Garett Dworman
    Traditional research in information retrieval concentrates on retrieving documents. This paper introduces the idea that valuable information exists within a document collection as thematic patterns that can be found without looking at individual documents in the collection. This information is valuable in its own right and as an aid to the IR process, and is often not contained in any of the collection's documents. This paper introduces a pattern discovery support system, Homer, which aids users' search for patterns and some compelling anecdotal evidence.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, Pattern discovery

    SHORT PAPERS: Usability Issues

    User Interface Evaluation in an Iterative Design Process: A Comparison of Three Techniques BIBAKHTML 307-308
      Pamela Savage
    This paper compares the results of three different user interface evaluation techniques: expert reviews, user reviews, and interactive usability testing. Results from these techniques were obtained during the iterative design of a graphical user interface for an interactive multimedia messaging application. User reviews resulted in significantly more redesign of the user interface (UI), however, they also involved the most expense and effort to conduct. Expert review feedback tended to identify areas that required further user testing. A comparison of these techniques and the user interface design changes resulting from their feedback is discussed. The relative benefits and limitations of the techniques are addressed within the framework of an iterative design process.
    Keywords: Usability inspections, Usability testing, User interface evaluation, Iterative design
    Don't Use a Product's Developers for Icon Testing BIBAKHTML 309-310
      Julie B. Holloway; John H. Bailey
    This study compared the results of 10 software developers and 10 university students for icon recognition and preferences. There were 54 icons and 15 concepts, and each concept had two to four representative icons. First, participants attempted to match each icon with one of the 15 product concepts. Next, the participants were asked to pick the best icon from the ones specifically designed to represent each concept. The students correctly recognized more icons (M = 34.7) than the developers (M = 27.8), t(18) = 2.1, p < .05. The icons recognized most often by students and developers were different for two concepts, and the icons preferred most often by students and developers were different for four concepts. We believe that the data support the hypothesis that using product developers rather than representative users can result in incorrect decisions in icon usage.
    Keywords: Icon, Developer, Student, User, Recognition, Usability, Preference
    Visualizing Efficiency: A Technique to Help Designers Judge Interface Efficiency BIBAK 311-312
      Andrew Sears
    Efficiency is an important issue to consider when designing user interfaces. However, several small studies indicate that interface designers and evaluators are not particularly good at judging the efficiency of simple single screen interfaces. This paper introduces a visualization technique that allows designers to judge efficiency of an interface layout and reports on a pilot study that demonstrates the potential of this technique.
    Keywords: Efficiency, Visualization, Evaluation
    Working with Marketing BIBAKHTML 313-314
      Mike Atyeo; Charanjit Sidhu; Gerry Cole; Simon Robinson
    This paper describes our experiences in BT working with Marketing on a number of recently released and forthcoming telecommunications products. We believe that usability professionals will find it increasingly important to work with marketing professionals, and we provide practical advice for those who do so.
    Keywords: Human factors, Marketing, Focus groups, Telecommunications