HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | CHI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X

Proceedings of ACM CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Companion of CHI'95 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Mosaic of Creativity
Location:Denver, Colorado
Dates:1995-May-07 to 1995-May-11
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-755-3 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608952; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI95-2
Papers:238
Pages:486
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2
    1. Special Interest Groups (SIGs)
    2. Tutorials
    3. Videos
    4. Workshops

CHI 1995-05-07 Volume 2

Special Interest Groups (SIGs)

The CHI Tutorial Program: Just What is the "Common Ground"? BIBAKHTML 330
  Mark Altom; Marian G. Williams
The formal feedback that is traditionally available to the tutorial program planning committee comes from survey questionnaires filled out by tutorial attendees at prior conferences. The surveys are extremely valuable for helping the tutorial committee decide whether individual tutorials meet the needs of attendees. However, the theme of CHI'96, "Common Ground," suggests that we can do more to shape the content and evolution of the CHI tutorial program.
   At this SIG, we hope to gather opinions and experiences that will help us look at the tutorial program as a whole. This is not the place to compliment or zing an individual tutorial. Rather, it is a place to help shape the future of the CHI tutorial program.
   Although we are the co-chairs for the CHI'96 tutorial program, we want to make it clear that this SIG is not a CHI'96 planning meeting. Rather, we hope it will be the beginning of an on-going discussion about what the CHI tutorial program should be.
Keywords: SIGCHI, Tutorials, Common ground
Contextual Techniques: Handling the Organization BIBAKHTML 331
  Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
Contextual techniques, which ensure good system design by taking the designer out into the users' world, are revolutionizing the way organizations approach design. But since the techniques are still new and unfamiliar, practitioners still wrestle with the problem of marrying this new way of working to traditional development. This SIG gives practitioners the chance to hear others tell how they successfully overcame this challenge, to share their experience, and to get help and perspective on the specific problems they face. The SIG will interest practitioners and researchers concerned with gathering and using of field data in design, whether they do this now or would like to do it in the future.
Keywords: Design process, Contextual inquiry, Customer-centered design, Ethnography, Usability, Team design, Domain analysis
Visual Interaction Design Special Interest Area Annual Meeting BIBAKHTML 332
  Loretta Staples; Suzanne Watzman
This fifth annual gathering will provide an informal opportunity for visual communicators at CHI to meet and share ideas and work. In the past, attendees have included practitioners in graphic and industrial design, design educators and students, and those interested in the visual design of interactive digital environments.
   Most of the meeting will be devoted to informal presentations by attendees who will be invited (through a VISUAL-L announcement) to bring design work to share. These may include demonstrations of recent work or works-in-progress, student presentations, and experimental pieces. A high-end Macintosh and PC will be available.
   A portion of the meeting will be reserved to discuss a proposed project for CHI'96 -- a functional "design studio" to be located within the Interactive Experience area of the conference. The studio would be "staffed" with volunteers for the duration of the conference to offer design feedback to conference attendees and to serve as a living illustration of the visual design process from the standpoint of design development, iteration, and critique.
   Preliminary discussion about this project has already taken place in San Francisco among a small group of Bay Area CHI members. Further planning on proceeding with this particular proposal will take place at this meeting.
Keywords: Design, Graphic design, Visual design, Interaction design, Product design, Industrial design, Information design, Special interest group, Special interest area
Current Issues in Assessing and Improving Documentation Usability BIBAKHTML 333
  Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey
User documentation, whether in print or "built in" to the online user interface, is now a vital element of successful computer products. Managers and developers recognize that the common model of documentation as remediation for deficient design must not persist, but they often don't know how to build documentation usability into an ongoing product-development effort.
   Therefore, this meeting is a forum on human factors in computer documentation. With the growth of online user support and the increasing integration of documentation with the user interface, this SIG provides CHI'95 attendees a specific opportunity to discuss recent developments in documentation usability. Topics include:
  • Addressing documentation usability early in the product design process
  • Qualitative and quantitative methods for collecting documentation usability
       data
  • Roles and relationships among documentation specialists, user-interface
       designers, and software developers
  • Schedule and budget issues relating to documentation usability The structure of the SIG is informal discussion, moderated by the session leaders. If attendees have additional issues or concerns related to documentation usability, we welcome them.
       The first five minutes of the session will be used to create and prioritize a list of specific topics for discussion. We will audiotape the session and make either copies of the tape or meeting notes (depending on volunteers) available to the SIG participants after the conference.
    Keywords: Documentation, Documentation usability, Information development, Documentation standards, Usability testing, Product development
  • The Garnet and Amulet User Interface Development Environments BIBKHTML 334
      Brad A. Myers
    Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface development environments, Toolkits, Interface builders, Demonstrational interfaces, Lisp, C++
    Ergonomic Standards for Software: Economic and Design Implications BIBAK 335
      Patricia A. Billingsley
    In response to a 1990 European health and safety directive, the member nations of the European Union (EU) have begun to adopt minimum ergonomic standards for computer hardware and software used in office environments. Most EU countries have chosen to base their national ergonomic standards on the 17-part ISO 9241 standard, Ergonomic Requirements for Office Work with VDTs. However, since most of the software-related parts of the ISO 9241 standard are still incomplete, countries cannot yet formally reference the ISO software material in their national regulations.
       In this session, we will discuss the different strategies EU nations have adopted to fill this gap, and their impact on the design, development, and marketing of software for European customers. The session will also address the impact of the European initiative on national and international ergonomic standards committees as they continue their efforts to develop reasonable and meaningful standards for software user interfaces. The final half-hour of the session will be set aside for an open discussion with the audience.
    Keywords: Software user interface standards, Software ergonomics, European Union, ISO 9241
    Usability Management Maturity, Part 1: Self-Assessment -- How Do You Stack Up? BIBAKHTML 336
      George A. Flanagan; Thyra L. Rauch
    This SIG is a follow-up to the "Issues in Human Factors Organization and Practices" SIG held at CHI'94. During that session, many people expressed interest in the assessment methodology used to evaluate the maturity of usability management in organizations. The intent of this SIG is to provide a forum for participants to assess their own organizations using structured evaluation methods similar to those that the SIG leader previously used in 53 organizational assessments. Participants in this SIG may also want to attend the follow-up SIG, "Usability Management Maturity -- Part 2, Usability Techniques: What can you do?" which explores techniques available for dealing with any weaknesses identified in the self-assessment.
    Keywords: Usability, Software, Human factors, Organization, Process
    Getting Respect: Beyond Lip-Service to HCI Contributions BIBAKHTML 337
      Harold H. Miller-Jacobs
    Do you have to fight to get funding for your HCIactivities? Does your organization pay lip-service to usability? This SIG will help identify tools and techniques that have been successfully used in getting smaller organizations to recognize the need and value of HCI studies and in particular usability evaluations.
    Keywords: HCI contributions, Organizational effectiveness, HCI tools & techniques
    Usability Management Maturity, Part 2: Usability Techniques -- What Can You Do? BIBAKHTML 338
      Thyra L. Rauch; George A. Flanagan
    This session is a follow-up to both the Special Interest Group (SIG) "Usability Management Maturity, Part 1, Self Assessment: How do you stack up?" held earlier today (an opportunity to self-assess the maturity of your organization's usability activities), and to the "Issues in Human Factors Organization and Practices" SIG held at CHI'94, at which interest was expressed in discussing ways to ascend the usability maturity scale. If you are from an organization with informal or no usability teams, then this is an opportunity to explore and discuss various tools and techniques (e.g. prototyping and user selection).
    Keywords: Usability, Software, Human factors, Methodologies, Activities
    SIGKID: Multimedia and Children BIBAK 339
      Lynn Rosener; Debra Lieberman
    This SIG will focus on the design of interactive multimedia for children and teens. Its purpose is to establish a community of researchers, educators, and multimedia practitioners who want to exchange information about the goals, interface, curriculum, content, format, and evaluation of entertainment and educational multimedia for young people. At the first meeting, participants will have the opportunity to explore basic issues and share practical ideas about the design and development of children's interactive products.
       The children's software and video game market is exploding. What are the ingredients of a successful children's product? A great deal of information can be found in the research literature and in educators' and practitioners' heads about children's special needs, interests, and abilities when it comes to interactive software, yet there is no easy way to find that information and integrate it into new products. A SIG focusing on multimedia and children would provide a forum for discussing recent developments and sharing resources.
       SIG participants will raise and define the issues, which may include:
  • Information needs. What should we know about children in order to design
       engaging and effective children's multimedia?
  • Design issues. What is unique about designing multimedia for children? How
       do children differ from adults in their use and understanding of interactive
       media?
  • Usability testing. What are some techniques to use when testing software
       with children and teens?
  • Access to research results. How can we develop products that draw on the
       latest findings in the research literature?
  • Access to each other. How can we stay in touch throughout the year?
    Keywords: Children, Education, Entertainment, Interface design, Learning, Multimedia, Research, Usability testing
  • Subjective Usability Feedback from the Field over a Network BIBAKHTML 340
      Bruce Elgin
    How can good continuous feedback about the effectiveness of a computer-human interface be obtained from distributed users?
       What kinds of useful subjective usability feedback can be obtained over a network? What approaches and techniques can be used to:
  • secure the willingness and confidence of users to communicate usability
       problems and concerns,
  • assist them in recognizing useful feedback,
  • assist them in communicating feedback with minimum effort?
    Keywords: Usability, Remote evaluation, Network, User feedback, User motivation, Subjective feedback
  • Computer Systems Technical Group (CSTG) Meeting of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society (HFES) BIBAKHTML 341
      Martha E. Crosby
    This special interest group is one of the two yearly meetings of the Computer Systems Technical Group of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
    Keywords: Human aspects of interactive computer systems
    Using Speech and Audio in the Interface BIBAKHTML 342
      Stephanie Everett; Bill Gaver
    A workshop entitled The Future of Speech and Audio in the Interface [1] was held at CHI'94 with the goal of further defining the emerging area of sound in user interfaces and applications, and exploring applications, research areas, and interaction techniques that use audio in the interface. The focus of the workshop was on the "CHI perspective" of using speech and sound to exploit the audio channel for the user's benefit. This SIG is designed as a follow-on to that workshop; the focus of the workshop will provide the focus for this session as well.
    Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Speech interfaces, Multimodal interfaces, Sound, Acoustic displays, Sonification, Auditory perception
    Participatory Design Practices: A Special Interest Group BIBAK 343
      Elizabeth B.-N. Sanders; Elizabeth H. Nutter
    This special interest group will focus on participatory design and its methods, tools, and practices.
       The key idea in participatory design is that users and other stakeholders become direct participants in the design and development of systems, products, and spaces. This approach is different from more traditional design development approaches that employ users as respondents who react to and/or validate previously constructed concepts, ideas, models, and/or prototypes.
       GOALS:
  • To provide a forum for people with experience in participatory design to
       share methods, ideas, and experiences.
  • To provide an opportunity for people with an interest in, or curiosity about,
       participatory design to learn more about the field from the people who are
       currently practicing it.
  • To establish a network of participatory design practitioners who are willing
       to share what they have learned in practice in an ongoing manner.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Participation, User-centered design, Usefulness research, Exploratory research, Participatory analysis
  • Usability Lab Tools BIBAKHTML 344
      Paul Weiler; Bob Hendrich; Monty Hammontree
    This Special Interest Group (SIG) will be an update to panels and SIGs from previous conferences including CHI and the Usability Professionals Association. The intent of the SIG is to provide a forum for the exchange of new ideas and technologies in the area of usability laboratory tools. Experts in the area will meet to discuss and demonstrate recent developments in tools and talk about future plans. Topics for discussion include event logging, observation logging, video tape analysis, digital video, highlight tape production, remote usability testing, and other new techniques/technologies. Anyone involved or interested in usability testing is invited to attend.
    Keywords: Usability, Tools, Data collection, Laboratory, Testing, Logging, Video, Analysis

    Tutorials

    Introduction & Overview of Human-Computer Interaction BIBAKHTML 345-346
      Keith A. Butler; Robert J. K. Jacob; Bonnie E. John
    The objective of this special introductory seminar is to provide newcomers to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) with an introduction and overview of the field. The material will begin with a brief history of the field, followed by presentation and discussion of how good application development methods pull on the interdisciplinary technologies of HCI. The topics will include the psychology of human-computer interaction, psychologically-based design methods and tools, user interface media and tools, and introduction to user interface architecture.
    Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Usability engineering, Human performance engineering, Cognitive modeling, Analysis methods, Interaction styles, Interaction hardware, User interface software, User interface management systems
    Interactive Learning Environments: Where They've Come From & Where They're Going BIBAKHTML 347-348
      Elliot Soloway; Kate Bielaczyc
    A historical survey of the various teaching and training technologies will be given. The architectures of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems, simulations, intelligent tutoring systems (ITS), microworlds, and interactive learning environments (ILE) will be described. In addition, the types of learning outcomes that can be expected from the various technologies will also be summarized. Emphasis will be placed on how the 90's computing infrastructure (e.g., high-MIP/GIP computation, high-bandwidth networks) will impact teaching and training, e.g., what is the role of multimedia, computer-aided design systems, ubiquitous access to information, the home information appliance, in learning? What will the impact be as we transition from User-Centered Design to Learner-Centered Design? Case studies from real instructional systems will be used to illustrate the main points in the tutorial.
    Keywords: Education & computers, Interactive learning environments, Intelligent tutoring systems, Constructionism
    Methods of Cognitive Analysis for HCI BIBAKHTML 349-350
      Douglas J. Gillan; Nancy J. Cooke
    This tutorial teaches participants about methods used to measure cognitive content, structure, and processes in an active hands-on manner, and how to apply those methods to HCI. The structure of the tutorial centers around the phases of a design process; the areas of cognition addressed are perception, memory, language, and thinking. For the initial analytical phase of design, the tutorial describes methods for measuring visual search, the structure of semantic memory, and process tracing. Methods for measuring readability and comprehension, as well as memory recall and recognition are applied to data from the second phase -- design and diagnostic testing. For the third phase -- system testing, the discussion focuses on scaling methods and statistical techniques.
    Keywords: Cognition, Cognitive task analysis, Design, User testing
    Enabling Technology for Users with Special Needs BIBAKHTML 351-352
      Alan Edwards; Alistair D. N. Edwards; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    The field of human-computer interface design profits from understanding potential users and exploring difficult design problems. Addressing the design of enabling technology for users with special needs offers both those advantages. Adapting computer interfaces for access and use by people with various physical and cognitive impairments exposes many basic human-computer interface design issues. Likewise, these efforts will result in computer interfaces which are more attractive and usable by all.
    Keywords: Disability, Human-computer interaction, Rehabilitation engineering, Users with special needs
    Cognitive Factors in Design: Basic Phenomena in Human Memory and Problem Solving BIBAKHTML 353-354
      Thomas T. Hewett
    This tutorial provides a "hands-on" (actually, "minds-on") exploration of several basic processes and phenomena of human memory, and problem solving. The emphasis is on developing both intuitive and formal knowledge which can serve as background knowledge useful in making educated design judgments when design guidelines fail, conflict, or are nonexistent. The demonstrations used emphasize phenomena with which any theory of memory or problem solving must deal. In addition, the tutorial suggests some of the general implications of these phenomena for designing interactive computing systems.
    Keywords: Memory, Problem solving, Design, Models of the user
    Groupware and Workflow: A Survey of Systems and Behavioral Issues BIBAKHTML 355-356
      Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
    This course describes the origin and composition of groupware and workflow management, and discusses significant behavioral and social (as contrasted with technical) challenges to successful development. Recent research prototypes and commercial products are covered, focusing on advances in supporting communication, cooperation, and coordination (primarily through workflow management). Finally, we describe several approaches to addressing the behavioral and social obstacles. Video illustrations of systems and issues are used throughout the tutorial.
    Keywords: Groupware, Workflow, Computer-supported cooperative work, Computer-mediated communication, Collaborative work, Electronic mail, Computer-supported meetings, Desktop conferencing, Video conferencing, Coordination, Organizational design
    Managing the Design of the User Interface BIBAKHTML 357-358
      Deborah J. Mayhew
    The purpose of this tutorial is to provide an overview of practical methods and techniques for managing the process of designing good user interfaces. The tutorial is organized around a typical, modern project life cycle, and presents human factors methods which can be applied at different points in the development process. Methods and techniques presented include not only information gathering, design and evaluation techniques, but also organizational and managerial strategies.
    Keywords: System design, Implementation and use, Analysis methods, Managing human factors in system development, Cost-benefit analysis, Organization of human factors
    Contextual Inquiry: Grounding Your Design in Users' Work BIBAKHTML 359-360
      Anne Smith Duncan; Minette A. Beabes
    Contextual Inquiry [4] is a synthesis of ethnographic, field research, and participatory design [8] methods that provide designers with grounded and detailed knowledge of user work as a basis for their design. The tutorial provides an understanding of the fundamental principles behind Contextual Inquiry and practical experiences with methods for data gathering and data analysis.
    Keywords: Contextual inquiry, Participatory design, Ethnographic methods, Qualitative research, Requirements, System design
    Introduction to Object-Oriented Design: A Minimalist Approach BIBAKHTML 361-362
      Mary Beth Rosson; John M. Carroll
    The tutorial takes a minimalist approach to introducing object-oriented design (OOD): Students begin working on design projects immediately, creating object models of user task scenarios, and elaborating these models throughout the day to develop a complete design. The students learn methods of responsibility-driven design, as well as how to generalize from a single problem to support class and framework reuse.
    Keywords: Object-oriented design, Object-oriented programming, Scenario-based design
    Global User Interface Design BIBAKHTML 363-364
      Tony Fernandes
    Computer software products have become a world-wide commodity. Yet little thought is given to how products that are shipped internationally should be designed to maintain a high level of usability. This tutorial looks at how this issue should be addressed in the user interface through interaction design, visual design, and through an understanding of the world's cultural differences.
    Keywords: International, User interface design, Diversity, Culture; Internationalization, Globalization, Software Localization
    An Introduction to the Internet and the World Wide Web BIBAKHTML 365-366
      Bill Hefley; John "Scooter" Morris
    The Internet has become an important aspect of the profession of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), both as part of the design landscape, and as an important resource for information related to HCI and related fields and technologies. This tutorial will present an introduction to the technology and history which has led to the current Internet, discuss some of the services and tools which are commonly used to access the Internet, and provide some guidance and experience on how to begin searching the Internet for information. In addition, a specific technology which is rapidly becoming one of the central mechanisms for providing information on the Internet, the World Wide Web, will be presented and explored in detail.
    Keywords: Internet, World Wide Web (WWW), Interactive systems design, HCI resources, Hypermedia
    Tools and Trade-Offs: Making Wise Choices for User-Centered Design BIBAKHTML 367-368
      Stephanie Rosenbaum; Judith Ramey; Judee Humburg; Anne Seeley
    How can we choose among customer data collection methods when limited staff and financial resources must be spread across the whole development cycle? This tutorial helps participants understand the tradeoffs, so they can make effective choices among methods at different points during product design and development. It focuses on early user-centered intervention to gain cost-effective, reusable end-user information.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Design methodologies, Product life cycle, Product development cycle, User data collection, Customer data collection, Usability, Documentation usability, Documentation design, Functional specifications
    Practical Usability Evaluation BIBAKHTML 369-370
      Gary Perlman
    Practical Usability Evaluation is an introduction to cost-effective, low-skill, low-investment methods of usability assessment. The methods include (1) Inspection Methods (e.g., heuristic evaluation), (2) Observational Skills and Video (including user testing with think-aloud protocols), (3) Program Instrumentation, and (4) Questionnaires. The tutorial features many step-by-step procedures to aid in evaluation plan design.
    Keywords: User interface, Evaluation/methodology, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors
    Converting to Graphical User Interfaces: Design Guidelines for Success BIBAKHTML 371-372
      Arlene F. Aucella
    This tutorial reviews published research, guidelines and case studies on ease-of-use for graphical user interfaces. Many text-based user interfaces are being converted into graphical user interface platforms. This tutorial emphasizes using graphical user interface components without undermining good principles of design.
       Course topics include windows, icons, menus and dialogue boxes. Usability aspects of commercial graphical interfaces such as Apple Macintosh, Microsoft Windows and OSF Motif are compared and evaluated. In addition, techniques for collecting user feedback and usability data are discussed. A multi-part class exercise gives participants skill in converting a non-graphical menu and forms-based user interface into a pull-down menu and dialogue box interface.
    Keywords: Graphical user interface design, Windows, Scroll bars, Icons, Dialogue boxes, Pull-down menus, Input devices, Usability engineering
    Metaphor Design in User Interfaces: How to Effectively Manage Expectation, Surprise, Comprehension, and Delight BIBAKHTML 373-374
      Aaron Marcus
    User interface design requires designing metaphors, the essential terms, concepts, and images representing data, functions, tasks, roles, organizations, and people. Advanced user interfaces require consideration of new metaphors and repurposing of older ones. Awareness of semiotics principles, in particular the use of metaphors, can assist researchers and developers in achieving more efficient, effective ways to communicate to more diverse user communities.
    Keywords: Consumers, Culture, Diversity, Graphic design, Icons, Information design, Metaphors, Multimedia, Rhetoric, Semantics, Semiotics, Symbols, User interfaces, Visible language
    Teaching User Interface Development to Software Engineers BIBAKHTML 375-376
      Gary Perlman
    Teaching User Interface Development to Software Engineers is an overview of the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation topics to teach and the resources to teach them to software engineers, the people who make most of the user interface design decisions. The goal is to improve the quality of user interface development instruction for software engineers and in turn improve the quality of the user interfaces they build.
    Keywords: Computer and information science education, Curriculum, Project and people management, Staffing, Training, Human factors, Management, Education, Software engineering, User interface
    Usability Inspection Methods BIBAKHTML 377-378
      Jakob Nielsen
    Usability inspection is the generic name for a set of cost-effective ways of evaluating user interfaces to find usability problems. They are fairly informal methods and easy to use.
    Keywords: Usability engineering, Heuristic evaluation, Cognitive walkthroughs, Pluralistic walkthroughs, Feature inspection, Consistency inspection, Standards inspection
    Designing Educational Computer Environments for Children BIBAKHTML 379-380
      Allison Druin; Cynthia Solomon
    This full-day, introductory tutorial will contain lectures and a hands-on design session, for educators and other professionals who are, or would like to be, actively engaged in designing multimedia environments for children. Participants will explore the special challenges and global implications of designing educational computer environments for children. Participants will begin this full-day tutorial with an introduction to past, present, and emerging technologies for children. This will be followed by a hands-on design session where elementary school children will join participants in designing and prototyping a new educational computer environment. Participants will leave this tutorial with a historical perspective on what has been done in this field, as well as actual design experience.
    Keywords: Children, Educational theories, Design process, Prototyping, Historical perspective, Interactive textbook
    Designing Icons and Visual Symbols BIBAKHTML 381-382
      William Horton
    This one-day tutorial teaches a systematic way to develop icons and other visual symbols. It shows how designers can develop consistent sets of understandable icons by treating icons as a language and applying accepted ergonomic principles.
    Keywords: Icons, Visual symbols, Pictographs, Design, Language
    Designing Hypertext Documents for the World Wide Web BIBAKHTML 383-384
      Darrell Sano; Carl Meske; Jarrett Rosenberg
    This all-day tutorial teaches how to create hypertext documents in HTML for use with the World Wide Web, along with visual design principles to make such documents pleasant and efficient conveyors of information.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Visual design, Graphical design, User interface design, Mosaic, World-Wide Web
    Diversity and Depth in Participatory Design: Working with a Mosaic of Users and other Stakeholders in the Software Development Lifecycle BIBAKHTML 385-386
      Michael J. Muller
    This advanced-level tutorial extends conceptions of participatory activities in software development processes. Diversity in practice begins with a re-assessment of two methods for participatory design -- CARD and PICTIVE -- to include applications in participatory analysis and participatory assessment. These experiences are generalized to a broader approach called PANDA (Participatory ANalysis, Design, and Assessment). Topics in support of participatory activities cover democratic processes for small groups, as well as theoretical and heuristic approaches to working with a mosaic of dissimilar people in terms of mutual validation, learning, exchange, and respect. The tutorial's themes are integrated in a closing discussion of participatory methods in the software lifecycle.
    Keywords: Participatory design, Collaborative design, Participatory practices, Usability methods, User centered design, User interface design, Task analysis, Requirements analysis, Usability assessment, CARD, PICTIVE, Bifocals, PANDA
    Usability Evaluation with the Cognitive Walkthrough BIBAKHTML 387-388
      John Rieman; Marita Franzke; David Redmiles
    The cognitive walkthrough is a technique for evaluating the design of a user interface, with special attention to how well the interface supports "exploratory learning," i.e., first-time use without formal training. The evaluation can be performed by the system's designers in the early stages of design, before empirical user testing is possible. Early versions of the walkthrough method relied on a detailed series of questions, to be answered on paper or electronic forms. This tutorial presents a simpler method, founded in an understanding of the cognitive theory that describes a user's interactions with a system. The tutorial refines the method on the basis of recent empirical and theoretical studies of exploratory learning with display-based interfaces. The strengths and limitations of the walkthrough method are considered, and it is placed into the context of a more complete design approach.
    Keywords: Cognitive walkthroughs, Usability inspections, Exploratory learning, Software engineering
    Contextual Design: Using Customer Work Models to Drive System Design BIBAKHTML 391-392
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Field data gathering techniques such as Contextual Inquiry enable a design team to gather the detailed data they need. These techniques produce enormous amounts of information on how the customers of a system work. This creates a new problem-how to represent all this detail in a coherent, comprehensible form, which can be a suitable basis for design? An affinity diagram effectively shows the scope of the customer problem, but is less effective at capturing and coherently representing the details of how people work. Design teams need a way to organize this detail so they can use it within their own development process.
       In this tutorial we present the latest methods for representing detailed information about work practice and using these representations to drive system design. These methods have been adopted over the last few years by major product development and information systems organizations. We show how to represent the work of individual users, how to generalize these to describe a whole market or department, and how to use these to drive innovative design. We present both the representation methods and the process by which we build and use them. Participants receive extensive practice in the techniques and also in the team skills necessary to do this work as part of a design team. We show how these methods fit into the Contextual Design process, which gathers field data and uses it to drive design through a well-defined series of steps.
       The tutorial is particularly appropriate for those who have used field techniques, especially Contextual Inquiry, and would like to put more structure on the process of using field data.
    Keywords: Design process, Customer-centered design, Usability, Team design, Domain analysis, Work modeling
    CPM-GOMS: An Analysis Method for Tasks with Parallel Activities BIBAKHTML 393-394
      Bonnie E. John; Wayne D. Gray
    GOMS is a family of techniques for analyzing human performance in terms of the Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection rules necessary to perform a task. Traditionally, GOMS has approximated human performance as perceptual, cognitive, and motor activities performed sequentially. However, many tasks require users to perform activities in parallel, e.g., visually searching for information, while listening to a customer, while typing. This tutorial will teach aversion of GOMS, CPM-GOMS, that predicts performance on such tasks and saved an industrial organization millions of dollars through the evaluation of alternative system designs.
    Keywords: GOMS, User models, Cognitive models, Analytic methods
    Designing for Complex Products BIBAKHTML 395-396
      Jared M. Spool; Carolyn Snyder
    Increasingly, software interfaces bear the burden for communicating new and complex concepts to users. To do this, the designer can employ create wizards, cue cards, drag-and-drop, or other similar techniques. Interfaces contain an ever-increasing amount of functionality. But, in order for these methods to be effective, they must be properly designed. How does the designer determine which approach is called for? How can the designer determine what the user needs? How can the designer create these tools so that they are effective?
       This tutorial examines the latest interface tools and the techniques for developing them for complex products.
    Keywords: Prototyping, Low-fidelity prototyping, Process management, Product development, Contextual inquiry, Modeling, Practical techniques, Wizards, Cue cards, Guided learning, Complexity management
    Models, Prototypes, and Evaluations for HCI Design: Making the Structured Approach Practical BIBAKHTML 397-398
      George Casaday; Cynthia Rainis
    Designing human-computer interaction can be a large and complex task. One way to manage that complexity is to divide design into smaller interrelated subcomponents; this is called the structured approach. It is an excellent way for a beginner to learn design and for a team to stay on track while doing design.
       However, there are some difficult parts of the structured approach that must be handled for the approach to be practical: A good selection of subcomponents must be made, the relationships among them must be taken into account, and effort must be allocated to them in balance. This tutorial teaches a robust, practical, and learnable route to the structured approach for designing human-computer interaction.
       The tutorial offers examples, templates, and practice on a specific set of design artifacts called intermediate work products and a process for creating and evaluating them in practical team design. The presentation is accessible to beginners but the techniques are taken from real practice and can be applied immediately.
    Keywords: Design process, Structured design, Modeling, Prototyping, Formative evaluation
    Intuitive Statistics for CHI Practitioners: Developing Understanding and Avoiding Bloopers BIBAKHTML 399-400
      Jeff Johnson; Robin Jeffries
    This full-day tutorial tries a new approach to teaching statistics to CHI practitioners. The approach avoids two errors common in statistics pedagogy: 1) snowing students with mathematics and 2) handing them "recipes" to apply without understanding. Instead, this tutorial focuses on building intuition and common-sense understanding.
    Keywords: Statistics, Experimental design, Probability, Intuition, Common sense
    Interface Issues and Interaction Strategies for Information Retrieval Systems BIBAKHTML 401-402
      Scott Henninger; Nick Belkin
    The need for effective information retrieval systems becomes increasingly important as computer-based information repositories grow larger and more diverse. In this tutorial, we will present the key issues involved in the use and design of effective interfaces to information retrieval systems. The process of satisfying information needs is analyzed as a problem solving activity in which users learn and refine their needs as they interact with a repository. Current systems are analyzed in terms of key interface and interaction techniques such as querying, browsing, and relevance feedback. We will discuss the impact of information seeking strategies on the search process and what is needed to more effectively support the search process. Retrieval system evaluation techniques will be discussed in terms of their implications for users. We close by outlining some user-centered design strategies for retrieval systems.
    Keywords: Information retrieval, User interfaces, Databases, Information systems, Interaction strategies

    Videos

    Exploring Large Tables with the Table Lens BIBAKHTML 403-404
      Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card
    The Table Lens is a new technique for visualizing and making sense of large tables. By fusing symbolic and graphical representations into a single manipulable focus+context display and providing a small set of interactive operations (e.g. sorting), the Table Lens supports navigating around a large data space easily isolating and investigating interesting features and patterns. This high-bandwidth interactivity enables an extremely powerful style of direct manipulation exploratory data analysis.
    Keywords: Information visualization, Exploratory data analysis, Graphical representations, Focus+Context technique, Fisheye technique, Tables, Spreadsheets, Relational tables
    Visual Decision-Making: Using Treemaps for the Analytic Hierarchy Process BIBAKHTML 405-406
      Toshiyuki Asahi; David Turo; Ben Shneiderman
    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a decision-making method based upon division of problem spaces into hierarchies, is visualized through the use of treemaps, which pack large amounts of hierarchical information into small screen spaces. Two direct manipulation tools, presented metaphorically as a "pump" and a "hook," were developed and applied to the treemap to support AHP sensitivity analysis. The problem of construction site selection is considered in this video. Apart from its traditional use for problem/information space visualization, the treemap also serves as a potent visual tool for "what if" type analysis.
    Keywords: Visualization, Treemap, Analytic hierarchy process, AHP, Decision support
    The DragMag Image Magnifier BIBAKHTML 407-408
      Colin Ware; Marlon Lewis
    Computer image magnification often results in the loss of the contextual information. Two image magnification prototypes are presented that solve this problem. In both the base image is shown at all times with lines connecting the magnified region on the base image to the magnified image. Both prototypes allow for smooth pan, scroll, and zoom of large 2D images with both coarse and fine translation movements. The second design implements a magnifying glass metaphor whereby the degree of magnification is controlled by the distance of the enlarged image to the magnified region of the base image.
    Keywords: Data display, Pan, Scroll, Zoom
    SageTools: An Intelligent Environment for Sketching, Browsing, and Customizing Data-Graphics BIBAKHTML 409-410
      Steven Roth; John Kolojejchick; Joe Mattis; Mei C. Chuah
    Our approach views data-graphic design as two complementary processes: design as a constructive process of selecting and arranging graphical elements, and design as a process of browsing and customizing previous cases. We present three novel tools for supporting these processes. SageBrush assembles data-graphics from primitive elements like bars, lines, and axes. SageBook browses previously created data-graphics relevant to current needs. SAGE automatically designs data-graphics, interpreting the user's specifications as conveyed with the other tools. The combined environment, SageTools, enhances user-directed design by providing automatic presentation capabilities with styles of interaction that support data-graphic design.
    Keywords: Graphic design, Data visualization, Automatic presentation systems, Intelligent interfaces, Design environments, Interactive techniques
    A Taxonomy of See-Through Tools: The Video BIBAKHTML 411-412
      Eric A. Bier; Ken Fishkin; Ken Pier; Maureen C. Stone
    At the CHI'94 conference we presented a new user interface paradigm, the See-Through Interface, that allows movable tools to readily be brought to computer-based work. On a computer display, see-through tools appear on a semi-transparent sheet that can be positioned over applications using either hand. The tools are applied by clicking through them with a cursor controlled by the dominant hand. This video quickly reviews the see-through paradigm, and then illustrates a taxonomy of see-through tools [1, 4] with examples from graphical editing and text editing tasks.
    Keywords: Taxonomy, User interface, See-through, Transparent, Multi-hand, Lens, Viewing filter, Button, Menu, Control panel, Macro
    The Movable Filter as an Interface Tool: The Video BIBAKHTML 413-414
      Eric A. Bier; Ken Fishkin; Ken Pier; Maureen C. Stone
    At the CHI'94 conference we presented a new user interface tool, the Magic Lens filter, that combines an arbitrarily-shaped region with an operator that changes the view of objects viewed through that region. On a computer display, Magic Lens filters appear on a Toolglass sheet that can be positioned over applications, much as a magnifying glass is moved over a newspaper. This video quickly reviews the basics of Magic Lens filters and then illustrates their evolution with examples of Magic Lens filters in use over a variety of applications.
    Keywords: User interface, See-through, Transparent, Lens, Viewing filter, Composition, Browsing
    Building a Distributed Application Using Visual Obliq BIBAKHTML 415-416
      Krishna Bharat; Marc H. Brown
    This video shows the construction of a distributed, multi-user application using Visual Obliq. In Visual Obliq, applications are created by designing the interface with a GUI-builder and embedding callback code in an interpreted language, in much the same way as one would build a traditional (non-distributed, single-user) application with a modern user interface development environment. The resulting application can be run from within the GUI-builder for rapid turnaround or as a stand-alone executable. The Visual Obliq runtime provides abstractions and support for issues specific to distributed computing, such as replication, sharing, communication, and session management.
    Keywords: UIMS, GUI-builders, Application builders, Distributed applications, CSCW, Groupware
    Lyberworld -- A 3D Graphical User Interface for Fulltext Retrieval BIBAKHTML 417-418
      Matthias Hemmje
    LyberWorld is a prototype IR user interface. It implements visualizations of an abstract information space: fulltext. The video demonstrates a visual user interface for the probabilistic fulltext retrieval system INQUERY. Visualizations are used to communicate information search and browsing activities in a natural way by applying metaphors of spatial navigation in abstract information spaces. Visualization tools for exploring information spaces and judging relevance of information items are introduced and an example session demonstrates the prototype. The presence of a spatial model in the user's mind is regarded as an essential contribution towards natural interaction and reduction of cognitive costs during retrieval dialogues.
    Keywords: User interface, Information retrieval, Navigation, 3D, Spatial perception, Visualization
    Organization Overviews and Role Management: Inspiration for Future Desktop Environments BIBKHTML 419-420
      Catherine Plaisant; Ben Shneiderman
    Keywords: Role manager, Personal roles, Desktop metaphor, Coordination, Window management
    Ariel: Augmenting Paper Engineering Drawings BIBAHTML 421-422
      W. E. Mackay; D. S. Pagani; L. Faber; B. Inwood; P. Launiainen; L. Brenta; V. Pouzol
    Ariel is an example of a new approach to user interfaces called Augmented Reality (see Wellner et al., 1993, Mackay et al., 1993). The goal is to allow users to continue to use the ordinary, everyday objects they encounter in their daily work, and then to enhance or augment them with functionality from the computer. Ariel is designed to augment the use of a particular type of paper document: engineering drawings. Computer information (menus, multimedia annotations, access to a media space) is projected onto a drawing and users can interact with both the projected information and the paper drawing.
       The design of Ariel is based on studies of users in a distributed cooperative work setting (the construction of a bridge) combined with a scenario-based design approach in which users contribute to the development of design scenarios. This video shows the third Ariel prototype. Future versions will continue to evolve, based on input from users when the system is installed at the work site.
    SYNERGIES: A Vision of Information Products Working Together BIBAKHTML 423-424
      Steve Anderson; Shiz Kobara; Barry Mathis; Dustin Rosing; Eviatar Shafrir
    SYNERGIES is a vision of how information products designed for everyday use will serve people in extraordinary situations. The year is 2001. Los Angeles is rocked by a major earthquake. Buildings collapse. Poisons fill the air. But a new kind of emergency response is underway. Equipped with various communications and information appliances which can be rapidly tailored to meet situation needs, a Neighborhood Emergency Team volunteer, a HAZMAT (Hazardous Materials) team, and an Urban Search and Rescue squad come to the aid of the victims. At the Emergency Operations Center, the nerve center for emergency planning and response, incidents are assigned priorities, resources are dispatched and logistics are managed. The underlying premise of SYNERGIES is that the most valuable information assets are informed people. Technology's role is to give people the facts they need to make decisions, and link them together to coordinate action. The interface concepts shown allow users to share information and communicate in the most direct and task-specific way possible.
    Keywords: Future, Vision, Interfaces, Earthquake, Information appliance
    The Tablet Newspaper: A Vision for the Future BIBAKHTML 425
      Teresa A. Martin
    The Table Newspaper: A Vision for the Future overviews tomorrow's portable information appliances and the ways in which we may interact with information. It explores the role a newspaper may have in the digital era and the form a newspaper may take as an electronic product.
    Keywords: Electronic publishing, Newspaper interface design, Tablet, Information appliance, Information interface
    A Three-Step Filtering Mechanism BIBAKHTML 426-427
      Masashi Uyama
    Computer systems should help users find useful software services and integrate such services into their tasks. The three-step filtering mechanism selects services that trustworthy colleagues have recommended. It then selects services specific to the context of the user's task executions. Finally, the mechanism discloses the selected services to the user dynamically and unobtrusively. This context-sensitive disclosure allows users to try out new services in their own task context. The disclosure is unobtrusive since users can ignore the disclosure and continue with their tasks. With the task-associated press, users can reflectively learn such ignored services.
    Keywords: Innovation-decision process, Collaborative filtering, Context sensitivity, Trialability, Intelligent interface, Reflective learning
    Tactile-Based Direct Manipulation in GUIs for Blind Users BIBAKHTML 428-429
      Helen Petrie; Sarah Morley; Gerhard Weber
    The increasing use of graphical user interfaces is making computer systems more, rather than less difficult to interact with for blind users. One solution is to create interfaces for blind users which are based on auditory and tactile information rather than visual information. The GUIB Project is developing such an interface making use of a number of different information sources: synthetic and digitised speech, non-speech sounds, braille and a touchpad. This video illustrates how the GUIB interface allows users to directly manipulate interface objects using a touchpad and braille display with cursor routing buttons. This gives blind users the same sense of engagement with the interface which sighted users gain from using a mouse.
    Keywords: Users with special needs, Blind users, Alternative interaction methods
    Voice Systems: An Inventor's Guide BIBA 430-431
      Chris K. Cowley; Dylan M. Jones
    After many years of research and development, computer speech technology has finally achieved a level of sophistication conducive to commercial implementation in a wide variety of domains.
       Speech recognition, synthesis, and digitization facilities are now available at low cost for most computing systems. Widespread implementation of voice systems in the commercial and private sectors has highlighted the need for systematic research into the unique attributes of the auditory modality in human computer interaction. In order for computer speech technology to achieve its long-awaited potential, it is vital for designers to support the implementation of increasingly sophisticated technology with a solid foundation of human-factors research.
       Contemporary research in these areas in the United Kingdom is taking place in a number of institutions, including: the University of Wales School of Psychology and Dundee University's Micro centre.
       The film "Voice Systems" examines a wide range of research projects which have been conducted at these institutions, findings from which will be of benefit to speech system designers in all potential implementation domains. The film describes research and development in many areas such as:
  • Voice annotation
  • Designing voices
  • Talking with machines
  • Speech recognition and error correction
  • Perceptual centering
  • Future potential
  • Workshops

    Cognitive Architectures & HCI BIBAKHTML 432
      Susan S. Kirschenbaum; Wayne D. Gray; Richard M. Young
    This workshop will focus on appropriate use of cognitive models for the analysis and solution of HCI problems.
    Keywords: Cognitive modeling, User modeling, Simulation
    From "Model World" to "Magic World": Making Graphical Objects the Medium for Intelligent Design Assistance BIBKHTML 433
      Loren Terveen; Markus Stolze; Will Hill
    Keywords: Model worlds, Magic worlds, Agents, Design assistance, What you see is what you want, Visualization
    HCI Challenges in Government Contracting BIBAKHTML 434
      Ira S. Winkler; Elizabeth A. Buie
    Governments spend huge resources on custom computer systems, developed by contractors to government specifications under government monitoring. Although a number of these systems involve defined usability efforts, a majority of the development efforts have little requirement for system usability. For these systems, usability generally relies on the awareness, skills, and perseverance of the developers. HCI practitioners face an exceptionally daunting task in government environments, because funding allocations for the various development activities are clearly defined very early in the development process. A relatively poor understanding of usability issues by most development and acquisition managers usually gives the HCI effort short shrift. Government HCI practitioners met at a Special Interest Group (SIG) Session at CHI'94 to discuss the challenges they face in their work assignments and to explore potential approaches to the challenges.
    Keywords: User-centered design, Government contracting, Organizational context, Analysis
    Increasing Collaboration between Industry and Academia in HCI Education BIBAKHTML 435-436
      Susan B. Hornstein; Maxine S. Cohen; Laurie P. Dringus; Andrew Sears
    This workshop will continue to explore issues in HCI education. Our goal for the workshop is to identify ways to increase the collaboration between industry and academia, providing benefit to both. To accomplish this we will bring together a diverse group of participants, evenly distributed between university and industry representatives.
    Keywords: Education, Industry, Partnerships, Academic-industrial cooperation
    Knowledge-Based Support for the User Interface Design Process BIBAKHTML 437
      Uwe Malinowski; Kumiyo Nakakoji; Jonas Lowgren
    The goal of this workshop is to develop a conceptual map for various supporting techniques for the user interface design process. Rather than applying a single technique, designers can use this map to decide which combination of supporting techniques is appropriate for their current task. During the process of constructing this map, opportunities and limitations of the technical combination of different approaches will be explored. In this workshop, rather than trying to find "the best approach," we use the assumption that combining the approaches increases usefulness as a prerequisite. No discussions about "which technique is better" are allowed.
    Keywords: User-interface design support, Knowledge-based approaches, Design environments, Combination of support techniques
    Gesture at the User Interface BIBAHTML 438
      Alan Wexelblat; Marc Cavazza
    The goal of this workshop is to explore the uses of, and research issues associated with, the use of empty-handed gesture at the user interface. This workshop will help disconnected research efforts become aware of each other and jointly work to identify issues that are important for progress in making full use of this mode at the user interface. It is our belief that the current set of disconnected research efforts addresses a common set of key research questions which need to be answered in order for gestural interfaces to make progress.
    Field Oriented Design Techniques: Case Studies and Organizing Dimensions BIBKHTML 439-440
      Dennis Wixon; Judy Ramey
    Keywords: Ethnographic methods, Field research, Participatory design, Qualitative research, Requirements gathering, System design
    Formal Specification of User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 441
      Christopher Rouff
    The goals of the workshop are to bring together researchers and practitioners to discuss:
  • 1. Issues and problems surrounding current specification techniques.
  • 2. Successes and failures in specification projects.
  • 3. How current techniques could be improved.
  • 4. Areas where current research should be focusing. Through this workshop it is hoped that better techniques for specifying user interfaces can be developed.
    Keywords: Formal specifications, User interfaces
  • Designing & Testing Groupware User Interfaces BIBAKHTML 442-443
      Jean C. Scholtz; Anthony C. Salvador; James A. Larson
    The purpose of this workshop is to provide a synthesized view of the computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) and groupware knowledge and literature as specifically related to user interface design and evaluation.
    Keywords: User interface, Design, Evaluation, Groupware, Multiple-user, Multiple-use, Human-computer interaction, Human-automation interaction, Human-human interaction
    Minimizing Bias in Computer Systems BIBAKHTML 444
      Batya Friedman; Helen Nissenbaum
    A few Novembers ago I walked into my familiar voting place -- the run-down social hall of a local church in Berkeley, California. The same old voting booths on tottering legs with scant curtains greeted me. Inside, however, was something new -- a computerized voting card. With a bit of fumbling and careful reading of the directions, I think I figured the thing out. Cast my vote. Participated in the modern democracy. But nationwide, computer punch card tallying systems pose serious problems for fair elections. In particular, under-educated groups are more likely not to understand how the computerized system works and, thus, to invalidate their own votes by either not voting for a position, or by voting for more than one person per position [1]. This example begins to illustrate how the interface design of computerized voting systems can favor some groups over others. More generally, the example speaks to the problem of bias in computing technologies.
       In this workshop we are concerned with understanding bias in computer systems and developing methods to help minimize bias through the design process. The workshop builds on the organizers' previous work, presented in Amsterdam at InterCHI 1993 [2,3], which provides a framework for understanding biac in computer systems. In the workshop, we apply this framework and draw on participants' research and design experiences to (a) identify common biases in computer systems, (b) generate design guidelines for minimizing bias, and (c) gain hands-on experience with minimizing bias in a design.
       WORKSHOP GOALS
  • To share with colleagues a framework for understanding bias in computer
       systems.
  • To provide a forum (opportunity) for colleagues to discuss issues of bias in
       computer systems that have arisen from their own design experiences.
  • To work with colleagues to identify a list of common biases and means to
       minimize them. For example interface designs that rely on color to convey
       information can become biased against people who are colorblind. Such bias
       against colorblind people can be avoided by encoding the information not
       only in the hue, but in its intensity, or in some other formal unrelated to
       color.
  • To work with colleagues to generate design guidelines to minimize bias. For
       example, rapid prototyping, formative evaluation, and field testing with a
       well-conceived population of users can be an effective means to detect
       unintentional biases in a design early on in the design process.
  • To provide colleagues with a "low tech" hands-on experience with minimizing
       bias in the design of an interface.
    Keywords: Bias, Computer system design, Design methods, Ethics, Information systems, Social computing, Social impact
  • Collecting User Information on a Limited Budget BIBAKHTML 445
      Alison Popowicz
    The aim of this workshop is to investigate and propose methods of collecting user information without a large market research budget. This will be done by brainstorming methods for collecting information and by participating in an exercise during the CHI'95 conference. The skills learned during this exercise will be valid for any product or project that requires information about end-users.
    Keywords: User profiles, Usability engineering, Surveys, Questionnaires, Design, Research
    Tools & Techniques for Visual Design Development BIBAKHTML 446
      Loretta Staples
    This one-day workshop provides an opportunity for experienced practitioners in visual design to share ideas, techniques, and methods for developing visual designs for interfaces. The range of techniques is expected to include ways to generate images, represent sequences, and iterate designs with respect to media, cultural context, and technology. Toward this end, each participant is expected to share a single useful technique with the group. This technique can be shared through example, demonstration, or case history. The only requirement is that the technique be presented as concretely as possible, in a manner that allows all participants to apply the technique. Possible examples might include:
  • The use of a specific tool or technology for generating drawings of interface
       elements with a focus on the attributes that make it preferred.
  • Non-digital techniques for visualizing and representing linear and branching
       sequences.
  • The analysis of media images in advertising as a basis for developing brand
       identity in a multimedia interface.
    Keywords: User interfaces, Graphical user interfaces, Visual interaction design, Graphic design, Design methodology, Visual representation, Tools
  • CHI'95 Basic Research Symposium on Human-Computer Interaction BIBHTML 447
      Cathleen Wharton; Janni Nielsen