HCI Bibliography Home | HCI Conferences | CHI Archive | Detailed Records | RefWorks | EndNote | Hide Abstracts
CHI Tables of Contents: 909192X92Y92a92b93X93Y93a93b94-194-2a94-2b94-2c94-2d94-2e95-195-2a95-2b95-2c96-1

Proceedings of ACM CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI'94 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Celebrating Interdependence
Editors:Beth Adelson; Susan Dumais; Judith Olson
Location:Boston, Massachusetts
Dates:1994-Apr-24 to 1994-Apr-28
Volume:1
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-650-6 ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608940; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-76557-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI94-1
Papers:70
Pages:483
  1. CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 1
    1. Design in the Workplace
    2. Accessing and Exploring Information
    3. Supporting Distributed Work
    4. Multimedia in Use
    5. Expressive Interfaces
    6. Multimedia Interfaces
    7. Active Support for Interaction
    8. Studies of Communication and Cooperative Work
    9. Tools for Design
    10. Auditory Information Interfaces
    11. Accessing and Using Stored Documents
    12. Social Aspects of Design
    13. Designing Spoken Language Systems
    14. Automatic Support in Design and Use
    15. Evaluation Methods
    16. Pen Input
    17. HCI Research?
    18. Design Evaluation
    19. Information Visualization
    20. Access to Organized Data Structures
    21. GOMS Analysis
    22. Visual Interaction Techniques
    23. Designing Interaction Objects
    24. HCI in the Real World
    25. Evaluating Pointing Devices
    26. Analysis of Programming Environments
    27. Cognitive Models
    28. Interacting in 3-D

CHI 1994-04-24 Volume 1

Design in the Workplace

Scandinavian Design: Users in Product Development BIBAKPDF 3-9
  Morten Kyng
This paper presents an approach to user involvement in product development that has grown out of a Scandinavian tradition for cooperation with end-users in design. This tradition emphasizes early and continuing end-user involvement, and has over the last decade been applied successfully in several projects. Most of these projects have, however, been research projects or of the type in-house or contract development, and the claim is often made that this way of involving users is not suited for product development. In this paper I sketch the ideas behind involving users in the design process, and then present and discuss a case of product development in the CSCW area, where more traditional development activities were integrated with intensive cooperation with end-users.
Keywords: Cooperative design, Participatory design, Product development, Computer supported cooperative work
Designing Workscape: An Interdisciplinary Experience BIBAKPDF 10-15
  Joseph M. Ballay
Workscape is a clean-slate design for an office document management product. It was developed through a unique collaboration among the staffs of Digital and MAYA. From earliest concepts to current refinements and productization, Workscape has benefited from interdisciplinary design methods involving specialists from the fields of human factors, computer science, and visual design. Extensive use of mockups, in a variety of media, proved particularly effective in bridging differences of terminology and methodology between these three disciplines.
Keywords: Design, Documents, Interdisciplinary

Accessing and Exploring Information

An Improved Interface for Tutorial Dialogues: Browsing a Visual Dialogue History BIBAKPDF 16-22
  Benoit Lemaire; Johanna Moore
When participating in tutorial dialogues, human tutors freely refer to their own previous explanations. Explanation is an inherently incremental and interactive process. New information must be highlighted and related to what has already been presented. If user interfaces are to reap the benefits of natural language interaction, they must be endowed with the properties that make human natural language interaction so effective. This paper describes the design of a user interface that enables both the system and the user to refer to the past dialogue. The work is based on the notion that the dialogue history is a source of knowledge that can be manipulated like any other. In particular, we describe an interface that allows students to visualize the dialogue history on the screen, highlight its relevant parts and query and manipulate the dialogue history. We expect that these facilities will increase the effectiveness of the student learning of the tasks.
Keywords: Tutorial interactions, Dialogue history, Information visualization
Using Aggregation and Dynamic Queries for Exploring Large Data Sets BIBAKPDF 23-29
  Jade Goldstein; Steven F. Roth
When working with large data sets, users perform three primary types of activities: data manipulation, data analysis, and data visualization. The data manipulation process involves the selection and transformation of data prior to viewing. This paper addresses user goals for this process and the interactive interface mechanisms that support them. We consider three classes of data manipulation goals: controlling the scope (selecting the desired portion of the data), selecting the focus of attention (concentrating on the attributes of data that are relevant to current analysis), and choosing the level of detail (creating and decomposing aggregates of data). We use this classification to evaluate the functionality of existing data exploration interface techniques. Based on these results, we have expanded an interface mechanism called the Aggregate Manipulator (AM) and combined it with Dynamic Query (DQ) to provide complete coverage of the data manipulation goals. We use real estate sales data to demonstrate how the AM and DQ synergistically function in our interface.
Keywords: Interactive techniques, Data exploration, Data visualization, Large data sets, Graphics presentation, Intelligent interfaces
An Image Retrieval System Considering Subjective Perception BIBAKPDF 30-36
  Haruhiko Nishiyama; Sumi Kin; Teruo Yokoyama; Yutaka Matsushita
Human interface plays an important role in information retrieval system. Visual information is a good man-machine communication medium. Therefore, it is necessary to design a visual interface to interpret the pictorial information. Such a visual interface provides user-friendly operations. It is important to design advanced image database systems from a visual aspect. The algorithms of image retrieval operations have to suit user's subjective viewpoint, such as a similarity measure, etc.
   This paper proposes an image retrieval scheme based on the assumption that end-users make use of image database systems. When a human being looks graphical materials like artistic paintings, he/she memorizes them using two patterns in his/her visual memory: the first pattern is that of looking roughly the whole image, the second is that of paying attention to specific objects such as a man or a desk.
   A user can divide the canvas into several area with appropriate color freely and put icons for representing objects. Moreover, the user can set detailed attributes of each object in order to reduce the number of candidates. Thus, by means of specifying the feature of a picture in the three levels (area, objects, attributes), an image retrieval system suited for humans' sense can be realized.
Keywords: Image database, Subjective perception, Graphical user interface, Spatial relationship, Image expression model, Visual language

Supporting Distributed Work

Montage: Providing Teleproximity for Distributed Groups BIBAKPDF 37-43
  John C. Tang; Monica Rua
Montage is a research prototype that explores using video to help collaborators find opportune times to interact with each other. Physical proximity with colleagues affords walking down hallways and peeking into offices in order to find a good time to contact someone. By helping members of distributed work groups more naturally find opportunities to interact with each other, Montage aims to provide a sense of teleproximity. Montage uses momentary, reciprocal glances among networked workstations to make it easy to peek into someone's office. From a Montage glance, users can quickly start a full-featured desktop video conference. If the glance shows that the person is not in her office, Montage provides quick access to browse her on-line calendar, send her e-mail, or send her an electronic note that pops up on her screen. Preliminary usage data show that users had short, lightweight interactions through Montage, although most glances did not result in an interactive communication.
Keywords: Awareness, Remote collaboration, Media spaces, Video, Computer-supported cooperative work
Courtyard: Integrating Shared Overview on a Large Screen and Per-User Detail on Individual Screens BIBAKPDF 44-50
  Masayuki Tani; Masato Horita; Kimiya Yamaashi; Koichiro Tanikoshi; Masayasu Futakawa
The operation of complex real-world systems, such as industrial plants, requires that multiple users cooperate in monitoring and controlling large amounts of information to supervise complex processes. The Courtyard system supports such cooperative work by integrating an overview on a shared large screen and detail on individual screens. This integration is realized by two approaches: (1) providing an implicit way of transferring mouse and keyboard control between the shared and individual screens, and (2) supporting association between the overview on the shared screen and per-user detail on individual screens. Courtyard allows a user to move a mouse pointer between the shared and individual screens as though they were contiguous, and to access per-user detailed information on the user's individual screen simply by pointing to an object on the shared screen. Courtyard selects the detailed information according to the tasks assigned to the pointing user under a division of labor. The former approach results in an interface that is as simple, intuitive and consistent to use as that for a single screen. The latter enables a user to retrieve easily and quickly detailed information needed for performing the assigned tasks without being distracted by information for others.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Shared large display, Per-user detail
Distributed Collaborative Writing: A Comparison of Spoken and Written Modalities for Reviewing and Revising Documents BIBAKPDF 51-57
  Christine M. Neuwirth; Ravinder Chandhok; Davida Charney; Patricia Wojahn; Loel Kim
Previous research indicates that voice annotation helps reviewers to express the more complex and social aspects of a collaborative writing task. Little direct evidence exists, however, about the effect of voice annotations on the writers who must use such annotations. To test the effect, we designed an interface intended to alleviate some of the problems associated with the voice modality and undertook a study with two goals: to compare the nature and quantity of voice and written comments, and to evaluate how writers responded to comments produced in each mode. Writers were paired with reviewers who made either written or spoken annotations from which the writers revised. The study provides direct evidence that the greater expressivity of the voice modality, which previous research suggested benefits reviewers, produces annotations that writers also find usable. Interactions of modality with the type of annotation suggest specific advantages of each mode for enhancing the processes of review and revision.
Keywords: Computer-supported cooperative work, Collaborative writing, Annotations, Voice

Multimedia in Use

Marquee: A Tool for Real-Time Video Logging BIBAKPDF 58-64
  Karon Weber; Alex Poon
We describe Marquee, a pen-based video logging tool which enables users to correlate their personal notes and keywords with a videotape during recording. We present our observations about coordinating the task of logging in real time and describe the three phase, user-centered approach we took in designing the tool. Our early work explored the functionalities needed by users to successfully create a log. In the second phase we focused on testing our intuitions about logging by conducting user studies with paper mock-ups. In the final phase, we implemented a working prototype system and placed it in a setting to see if it supported people logging in real time.
Keywords: Video indexing, Video annotation, Gestural interfaces, Pen-based computing, User interfaces, User studies, Multimedia
A Comparison of the Use of Text and Multimedia Interfaces to Provide Information to the Elderly BIBAKPDF 65-71
  Virginia Z. Ogozalek
This report describes an experiment in which 64 elderly participants, average age 71, used (1) a text-only or (2) a multimedia computer interface to obtain information -- in this case, about prescription drugs. The participants, none of whom had used a computer before, compared the computerized information systems to a more traditional "interface" of words printed on paper. Results indicate that, for this group of elders, who were recruited from a seniors' group at a college, a multimedia presentation was better than a text-only screen or a printed leaflet, on both performance and preference measures. Difficulty with reading due to vision problems associated with aging was the most commonly cited reason for preferring the multimedia system. While men preferred both computer interfaces to the leaflet, women liked only the multimedia system and expressed very negative feelings about the text-only interface.
Keywords: Multimedia, Elderly users, Health care, Information search and retrieval, Interactive video, User interface, Aging, User study, Computers and medicine

Expressive Interfaces

Computers are Social Actors BIBAKPDF 72-78
  Clifford Nass; Jonathan Steuer; Ellen R. Tauber
This paper presents a new experimental paradigm for the study of human-computer interaction. Five experiments provide evidence that individuals' interactions with computers are fundamentally social. The studies show that social responses to computers are not the result of conscious beliefs that computers are human or human-like. Moreover, such behaviors do not result from users' ignorance or from psychological or social dysfunctions, nor from a belief that subjects are interacting with programmers. Rather, social responses to computers are commonplace and easy to generate. The results reported here present numerous and unprecedented hypotheses, unexpected implications for design, new approaches to usability testing, and direct methods for verification.
Keywords: Anthropomorphism, Agents, Voice, Speech, Social psychology, Gender, Design
Form-Giving: Expressing the Nonobvious BIBAKPDF 79-84
  Gerda Smets; Kees Overbeeke; William Gaver
The design of richly informative interfaces would benefit from an account of how visual forms convey information. In this paper we suggest that the study of form-giving in Industrial Engineering might provide a foundation for such an account. We present three studies of designed synesthesia, in which objects' forms indicate non-visible attributes such as taste or smell. These studies illustrate the rich possibilities for conveying information with form, possibilities which are routinely exploited in industrial design. We believe that similar opportunities exist for interface design, and that further studies of form-giving may help in taking advantage of them. Results of a student exercise expressing computer metaphors in 3D forms will be discussed.
Keywords: Interface design, Visualization, Form-giving, Affordances, Ecological approaches
Using a Human Face in an Interface BIBAKPDF 85-91
  Janet H. Walker; Lee Sproull; R. Subramani
We investigated subjects' responses to a synthesized talking face displayed on a computer screen in the context of a questionnaire study. Compared to subjects who answered questions presented via text display on a screen, subjects who answered the same questions spoken by a talking face spent more time, made fewer mistakes, and wrote more comments. When we compared responses to two different talking faces, subjects who answered questions spoken by a stern face, compared to subjects who answered questions spoken by a neutral face, spent more time, made fewer mistakes, and wrote more comments. They also liked the experience and the face less. We interpret this study in the light of desires to anthropomorphize computer interface and suggest that incautiously adding human characteristics, like face, voice, and facial expressions, could make the experience for users worse rather than better.
Keywords: User interface design, Multimodal interfaces, Anthropomorphism, Facial expression, Facial animation, Personable computers

Multimedia Interfaces

Designing Presentation in Multimedia Interfaces BIBAKPDF 92-98
  Alistair Sutcliffe; Peter Faraday
Current Multimedia interfaces are created primarily by intuition. Development of a method for analysis and design of Multimedia presentation interfaces is described. The study investigates task based information analysis, persistence of information, selective attention and concurrency in presentation. The method gives an agenda of issues, diagrams and techniques for specification, and guidelines for media selection and presentation scripting. Use of the method is illustrated with an example from a shipboard emergency management system.
Keywords: Multimedia, Design guidelines, Methodology
The "Starfire" Video Prototype Project: A Case History BIBAKPDF 99-105
  Bruce Tognazzini
Developing a new working computer system can now cost hundreds of millions of dollars, all expended at great risk. Company managers who must take responsibility for making development decisions are loath to do so without being able to see and understand the system they will be "buying."
   When Sunsoft launched the Starfire project to develop a next-generation interface, we turned to video prototyping, in the form of a short 35 mm film delivered in video. Not only were we thus able to show in mature form many key specifics of our new interface design, but we were able to communicate a strong sense of the resulting overall user experience. This paper describes observations and guidelines we developed during the early stages of the film, and what our experiences were in applying them.
Keywords: Film, Video, Video prototype, Prototype, Observation, Guideline, Drama, Story, Interaction, Gesture, Stylus, Mouse, Voice recognition, Anthropomorphic agent, Agent, Feedback, Social, Ethics, Privacy, Future

Active Support for Interaction

Creating Charts by Demonstration BIBAKPDF 106-111
  Brad A. Myers; Jade Goldstein; Matthew A. Goldberg
"Gold" is a new interactive editor that allows a user to draw examples of the desired picture for business graphics and the system automatically produces a visualization. To specify a custom visualization in other systems, code must be written or a bewildering array of dialog boxes and commands must be used. In Gold, as the user is drawing an example of the desired visualization, knowledge of properties of the data and the typical graphics in business charts are used to generalize the example and create a picture for the actual data. The goal is to make designing a complex, composite chart almost as easy as sketching a picture on a napkin.
Keywords: Data visualization, Demonstrational interfaces, Interactive techniques, Business charts
Note: Color plates on page 475
Interactive Graphic Design Using Automatic Presentation Knowledge BIBAKPDF 112-117
  Steven F. Roth; John Kolojejchick; Joe Mattis; Jade Goldstein
We present three novel tools for creating data graphics: (1) Sagebrush, for assembling graphics from primitive objects like bars, lines and axes, (2) SageBook, for browsing previously created graphics relevant to current needs, and (3) SAGE, a knowledge-based presentation system that automatically designs graphics and also interprets a user's specifications conveyed with the other tools. The combination of these tools supports two complementary processes in a single environment: design as a constructive process of selecting and arranging graphical elements, and design as a process of browsing and customizing previous cases. SAGE enhances user-directed design by completing partial specifications, by retrieving previously created graphics based on their appearance and data content, by creating the novel displays that users specify, and by designing alternatives when users request them. Our approach was to propose interfaces employing styles of interaction that appear to support graphic design. Knowledge-based techniques were then applied to enable the interfaces and enhance their usability.
Keywords: Graphic design, Data visualization, Automatic presentation systems, Intelligent interfaces, Design environments, Interactive techniques
Note: Color plates on page 476
Repeat and Predict -- Two Keys to Efficient Text Editing BIBAKPDF 118-123
  Toshiyuki Masui; Ken Nakayama
We propose a simple and powerful predictive interface technique for text editing tasks. With our technique called the dynamic macro creation, when a user types a special "repeat" key after doing repetitive operations in a text editor, an editing sequence corresponding to one iteration is detected, defined as a macro, and executed at the same time. Although being simple, a wide range of repetitive tasks can be performed just by typing the repeat key. When we use another special "predict" key for conventional prediction techniques in addition to the repeat key, wider range of prediction schemes can be performed depending on the order of using these two keys.
Keywords: Text editing, Predictive interface, Programming by example, PBE, Programming by demonstration, PBD, Keyboard macro, Dynamic macro creation

Studies of Communication and Cooperative Work

Communicating About Communicating: Cross-Disciplinary Design of a Media Space Interface BIBAKPDF 124-130
  Beverly Harrison; Marilyn Mantei; Garry Beirne; Tracy Narine
This paper describes both the benefits and the challenges that result from differing perspectives and methodologies in an interdisciplinary team. Our team of user interface designers, engineers, psychologists, and sociologists designed and implemented a desktop videoconferencing system for a local company. We shared a common goal of smoothly installing the technology which would support and enhance current work practices within the company. Because the project involved supporting human-human communication and work cooperation, the sociologists had much more impact on the user interface design than had been anticipated. Furthermore, since any interface design impacted subsequent work behavior in the study population, sociologists needed to understand aspects of the interface design and to regulate the HCI group's influence on and access to the user population.
Keywords: User interface design, Interdisciplinary design, Desktop videoconferencing, Videoconferencing, Media space
Informal Workplace Communication: What is It Like and How Might We Support It? BIBAKPDF 131-137
  Steve Whittaker; David Frohlich; Owen Daly-Jones
We present new findings about the nature of informal communications, derived from a naturalistic study of people's everyday working activities. We identify why such interactions are so common, and valuable and how they are achieved in the workplace. We also address weaknesses in current systems that support such interactions remotely and identify further requirements for better support. We also discuss the implications of this work for conversational theories.
Keywords: Informal communication, Audio, Video, CSCW, Workplace activity, Ethnography
A Room of Our Own: Experiences from a Direct Office Share BIBAKPDF 138-144
  Annette Adler; Austin Henderson
For nine months, the authors worked in a "direct office share" -- two offices joined by unswitched audio/video connections. This paper describes that experience. While working together, the authors were engaged in developing and architecture of use for techno-social systems -- a framework for describing distributed technology and people together at work. The paper therefore also seeks to achieve a second purpose: to present, mostly by demonstrating its use, the beginnings of such an architecture. This description comprises three complementary "sightings" on the direct office share, labeled 1, 1+1, and (1+1)+others. Each sighting captures selected aspects of technology (audio/video connections) in use by the authors at work. This capturing of experience demonstrates by example that multiple sightings provide a powerful form for describing techno-social systems, that current patterns of use both support and interfere with the use of new technology, and that only in a description that encompasses both the technical and social can the use of technology be comprehended.
Keywords: Audio/video connections, Direct office share, Architecture of use, Technology in use, Descriptions of work

Tools for Design

Methods in Search of Methodology -- Combining HCI and Object Orientation BIBAKPDF 145-151
  Susan E. McDaniel; Gary M. Olson; Judith S. Olson
Software design and user interface design and analysis methods are each insufficient methods for ensuring good software development. We propose a combination of object-oriented analysis and design, human computer interaction, and process redesign forged into one methodology. We describe the use of these methods in a project case study and conclude with a synopsis of how the methods worked and lessons we learned.
Keywords: Object-oriented methods, Human computer interaction, User-centered design, Business process redesign
Enhancing the Explanatory Power of Usability Heuristics BIBAKPDF 152-158
  Jakob Nielsen
Several published sets of usability heuristics were compared with a database of existing usability problems drawn from a variety of projects in order to determine what heuristics best explain actual usability problems. Based on a factor analysis of the explanations as well as an analysis of the heuristics providing the broadcast explanatory coverage of the problems, a new set of nine heuristics were derived: visibility of system status, match between system and real world, user control and freedom, consistency and standards, error prevention, recognition rather than recall, flexibility and efficiency of use, aesthetic and minimalist design, and helping users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors.
Keywords: Heuristic evaluation, Usability problems
Development and Evaluation of a Taxonomical Model of Behavioral Representation Techniques BIBAKPDF 159-165
  J. D. Chase; Robert S. Schulman; H. Rex Hartson; Deborah Hix
A user-centered approach to interactive system development requires a way to represent the behavior of a user interacting with an interface. While a number of behavioral representation techniques exist, not all provide the capabilities necessary to support the interaction development process. Based on observations of existing representation techniques and comments from the users of the User Action Notation (UAN), a user- and task-centered behavioral representation technique, we have developed a taxonomical model of behavioral representation techniques. Our model is an epistemological framework for discussing, analyzing, extending, and comparing existing behavioral representation techniques, as well as being a springboard for developing and evaluating new techniques. We present the model and results of our evaluation demonstrating the model's reliability and utility within the context of behavioral representation techniques.
Keywords: Usability, Behavioral representation techniques, Interaction development, Model, Empirical evaluation

Auditory Information Interfaces

Nonvisual Presentation of Graphical User Interfaces: Contrasting Two Approaches BIBAKPDF 166-172
  Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Gerhard Weber
Users who are blind currently have limited access to graphical user interfaces based on MS Windows or X Windows. Past access strategies have used speech synthesizers and braille displays to present text-based interfaces. Providing access to graphical applications creates new human interface design challenges which must be addressed to build intuitive and efficient nonvisual interfaces. Two contrasting designs have been developed and implemented in the projects Mercator and GUIB. These systems differ dramatically in their approaches to providing nonvisual interfaces to GUIs. This paper discusses four main interface design issues for access systems, and describes how the Mercator and GUIB designs have addressed these issues. It is hoped that the exploration of these interfaces will lead to better nonvisual interfaces used in low visibility and visually overloaded environments.
Keywords: Nonvisual HCI, Blind users, Graphical user interfaces, Auditory interfaces, Tactile interfaces
The Design and Evaluation of an Auditory-Enhanced ScrollBar BIBAKPDF 173-179
  Stephen A. Brewster; Peter C. Wright; Alistair D. N. Edwards
A structured method is described for the analysis of interactions to identify situations where hidden information may exist and where non-speech sound might be used to overcome the associated problems. Interactions are considered in terms of events, status and modes to find any hidden information. This is then categorised in terms of the feedback needed to present it. An auditory-enhanced scrollbar, based on the method described, was then experimentally tested. Timing and error rates were used along with subjective measures of workload. Results from the experiment show a significant reduction in time to complete one task, a decrease in the mental effort required and an overall preference for the auditory-enhanced scrollbar.
Keywords: Auditory interfaces, Multi-modal interfaces, Earcons, Sonification, Auditory-enhanced widgets

Accessing and Using Stored Documents

Protofoil: Storing and Finding the Information Worker's Paper Documents in an Electronic File Cabinet BIBAKPDF 180-185
  Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card; Walter Johnson; Leigh Klotz; Randall H. Trigg
Although the document imaging industry has taken off in the last few years, document image filing for the individual information worker is still not widespread or effective. In this paper, we focus on building an electronic filing system for paper documents that supports the ad hoc, multifarious work of information workers. Motivated by interviews with researchers and a survey of descriptive studies of paper document filing, we have focussed on minimizing or delaying costs of document filing and supporting a rich variety of methods for assessing and using stored documents. We have implemented a prototype system called Protofoil for storing, retrieving, and manipulating paper documents as electronic images that integrates many user interface -- paper and workstation -- and information retrieval technologies. Protofoil has been tested through use in our laboratory, and has been deployed in a field study at a lawyer's office.
Keywords: Document imaging, Paper user interface, Information retrieval, Filing of paper documents, Ad hoc information work
Note: Color plates on page 477
The Marks are on the Knowledge Worker BIBAKPDF 186-191
  Alison Kidd
A study of twelve knowledge workers showed that their defining characteristic is that they are changed by the information they process. Their value lies in their diversity -- companies exploit the fact that these people make different sense of the same phenomena and therefore respond in diverse ways. Knowledge workers do not carry much written information with them when they travel and rarely consult their filed information when working in their offices. Their desks are cluttered and seemingly function as a spatial holding pattern for current inputs and ideas. My explanation is that once informed (ie. given form) by some written material, these workers have no particular need to retain a copy of the informing source. However, if a piece of written material has not yet informed them, then they cannot sensibly file it anyway because its subsequent use or role in their world is still undetermined. I conclude that the valuable marks are on the knowledge worker rather than on the paper or on the electronic file and suggest how computer support for knowledge work might be better targeted on the act of informing rather than on passively filing large quantities of information in a "disembodied" form.
Keywords: Knowledge workers, Information appliances, Writing, Memory

Social Aspects of Design

Raison d'Etre: Capturing Design History and Rationale in Multimedia Narratives BIBAKPDF 192-197
  John M. Carroll; Sherman R. Alpert; John Karat; Mary Van Deusen; Mary Beth Rosson
Raison d'Etre is a hypermedia design history application. It provides access to a database of video clips containing stories and personal perspectives of design team members recorded at various times through the course of a project. The system is intended to provide a simple framework for recording and organizing the informal history and rationale that design teams create and share in the course of their collaboration. This paper describes (1) the scenarios of use we are trying to support, (2) the methods we used collecting and organizing the database, and (3) the status of our prototype.
Keywords: Documentation, Design history, Collaboration, Multimedia database, Hypermedia
Note: Color plates on page 478
Facilitating Effective HCI Design Meetings BIBAKPDF 198-204
  John L. Bennett; John Karat
Over several years we have participated as facilitators in many Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design meetings. Our focus has been on developing team results needed to achieve user-centered design of software for computer systems. We describe frameworks for partnership, stages of meetings, and team conversations that we have found useful. In order to illustrate our general approach, we select one design meeting experience as a case study. We close with observations on how facilitation skills might be developed by design team participants. This is needed in response to an emerging requirement for effective collaborative teamwork in HCI design activities.
Keywords: Methodologies, Design, Software engineering, Design process, Group work

Designing Spoken Language Systems

Interface Techniques for Minimizing Disfluent Input to Spoken Language Systems BIBAKPDF 205-210
  Sharon Oviatt
This research examines spontaneous spoken disfluencies during human-computer interaction, presents a predictive model accounting for their occurrence, and outlines interface techniques for minimizing disfluent input. Data were collected during two empirical studies in which people spoke or wrote to a highly interactive simulated system. The studies were based on a within-subject factorial design in which input modality and presentation format were varied. Two separate factors were found to be associated with an increase in speech disfluency rates: length of utterance, and lack of structure in the presentation format. A linear model based on utterance length alone was able to predict 77% of all spoken disfluencies in this research. Therefore, design techniques capable of channeling users' speech into briefer sentences potentially could eliminate most spoken disfluencies. Furthermore, changing the structure of the presentation format successfully eliminated 70% of all disfluent spoken input. The long-term goal of this research is to provide empirical guidance for the design of robust spoken language technology, which eventually may be formulated as a set of user interface guidelines.
Keywords: Speech disfluency, Predictive modeling, Interface design, Spoken language systems, Robust processing
An Object-Oriented Approach to Dialogue Management in Spoken Language Systems BIBAKPDF 211-217
  Randall Sparks; Lori Meiskey; Hans Brunner
We describe an object-oriented approach to dialog management for the design of spoken language interfaces to information services. Sophisticated dialogue management is important when relatively complex information must be accessed using relatively simple interfaces, as in the case with speech over the telephone. In our approach, dialog states are abstract objects that encapsulate the information and behavior the system needs to interact successfully with the user at any given point in an extended dialog. An inheritance hierarchy determines the properties of particular dialog states, which are instantiated dynamically during the user-system dialog as they are needed. Dialog management rules are methods that respond to different types of user inputs in a manner appropriate for the current dialog state. This approach has been used to implement a prototype of a dialogue-based information service, called the Voice Navigation System, which gives users driving directions in the Denver metropolitan area.
Keywords: Dialog management, Spoken language system, Object-oriented design, User interface

Automatic Support in Design and Use

Automatic Generation of Interactively Consistent Search Dialogs BIBAKPDF 218-224
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Walter Holladay
The problem of creating search dialogs which are consistent with normal user interface dialogs is posed. The ART user interface tool kit is presented. The features of top-down filtering of interactive events and the modeling of interactor semantics as editing variables are discussed. Two special interactor filters are described which when wrapped around an editing dialog will transform that dialog into one which edits search patterns for the same class of objects.
Keywords: User interface, Tool-kits, Searching, Automatic transformation
Automatic Generation of Help from Interface Design Models BIBAKPDF 225-231
  Roberto Moriyon; Pedro Szekely; Robert Neches
Model-based interface design can save substantial effort in building help systems for interactive applications by generating help automatically from the model used to implement the interface, and by providing a framework for developers to easily refine the automatically-generated help texts. This paper describes a system that generates hypertext-based help about data presented in application displays, commands to manipulate data, and interaction techniques to invoke commands. The refinement component provides several levels of customization, including programming-by-example techniques to let developers edit directly help windows that the system produces, and the possibility to refine help generation rules.
Keywords: Automatic help generation, Model-based interface design, Hypertext-based help, Help customization, Help generation rules
Automating Interface Evaluation BIBAKPDF 232-237
  Michael D. Byrne; Scott D. Wood; Piyawadee "Noi" Sukaviriya; James D. Foley; David Kieras
One method for user interface analysis that has proven successful is formal analysis, such as GOMS-based analysis. Such methods are often criticized for being difficult to learn, or at the very least an additional burden for the system designer. However, if the process of constructing and using formal models could be automated as part of the interface design environment, such models could be of even greater value. This paper describes an early version of such a system, called USAGE (the UIDE System for semi-Automated GOMS Evaluation). Given the application model necessary to drive the UIDE system, USAGE generates an NGOMSL model of the interface which can be "run" on a typical set of user tasks and provide execution and learning time estimates.
Keywords: GOMS, Usability, User interface design environment, Interface evaluation, Formal models of the user, UIMS

Evaluation Methods

The Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function: Display Evaluation for Direct-Walk Dynamic Information Visualizations BIBAKPDF 238-244
  Stuart K. Card; Peter Pirolli; Jock D. Mackinlay
In this paper we present a method, the Cost-of-Knowledge Characteristic Function, for characterizing information access from dynamic displays. The paper works out this method for a simple, but important, class of dynamic displays called direct-walk interactive information visualizations, in which information is accessed through a sequence of mouse selections and key selections. The method is used to characterize a simple calendar task for an application of the Information Visualizer, to compute the changes in characterization as the result of possible program variants, and to conduct empirical comparison between different systems with the same function.
Keywords: Information visualization, Dynamic displays, Methodology, Evaluation, 3D user interfaces, Information Visualizer
Comparative Usability Evaluation: Critical Incidents and Critical Threads BIBAKPDF 245-251
  Jurgen Koenemann-Belliveau; John M. Carroll; Mary Beth Rosson; Mark K. Singley
Empirical usability evaluations (particularly formative evaluations [13]) hinge on observing and interpreting critical incidents [8] of use. We proposed [3,5] augmenting critical incident methods by analysis of what we called critical threads: sets of causally related user episodes that, taken together, define major usability themes. This paper extends this work to the comparative usability analysis of a related artifact. We discuss how our earlier claims analysis was used to orient and simplify our current evaluation efforts.
Keywords: User interfaces, Evaluation methodology, Formative evaluation, Usability evaluation
Usability Testing in the Field: Bringing the Laboratory to the User BIBAKPDF 252-257
  David E. Rowley
Usability testing is not always best accomplished within the confines of a specially equipped usability laboratory. Logistics and resource constraints sometimes necessitate taking the testing out on the road. Field testing provides an opportunity to sample from a distributed customer base -- a requirement of significant relevance when competing in a global market. What's more, usability testing in the field can offer benefits in both marketing and public relations that in-house testing may miss. This paper describes some of the issues surrounding a field testing program, and gives suggestions about how such an undertaking can be accomplished under strict financial, resource and schedule limitations. A case study is presented to help illustrate the planning and evaluation process, and to provide insights into the types of problems such an endeavor is likely to encounter, as well as some valuable lessons learned along the way.
Keywords: Usability testing, Formative evaluation, Field testing, Cooperative evaluation

Pen Input

User Learning and Performance with Marking Menus BIBAKPDF 258-264
  Gordon Kurtenbach; William Buxton
A marking menu is designed to allow a user to perform a menu selection by either popping-up a radial (or pie) menu, or by making a straight mark in the direction of the desired menu item without popping-up the menu. Previous evaluations in laboratory settings have shown the potential for marking menus. This paper reports on a case study of user behavior with marking menus in a real work situation. The study demonstrates the following: First, marking menus are used as designed. When users become expert with the menus, marks are used extensively. However, the transition to using marks is not one way. Expert users still switch back to menus to refresh their memory of menu layout. Second, marking is an extremely efficient interaction technique. Using a mark on average was 3.5 times faster than using the menu. Finally, design principles can be followed that make menu item/mark associations easier to learn, and interaction efficient.
Keywords: Marking menus, Pie menus, Gestures, Pen based input, Accelerators, Input devices, Multimedia
T-Cube: A Fast, Self-Disclosing Pen-Based Alphabet BIBAKPDF 265-270
  Dan Venolia; Forrest Neiberg
An interface for entering text to a pen-based computer is described. The technique proposes a new alphabet, where each letter is a flick gesture. These flick gestures are self-disclosing using pie menus. An experiment determined the speeds of executing the flick gestures and the transition speeds between gestures. An assignment of characters to gestures is developed and evaluated. Audio feedback is used to convey whether a gesture was well- or badly-formed. A longitudinal study showed clear progress on a learning curve. The method is compared to soft keyboards, handwriting recognition systems, and unistrokes.
Keywords: Stylus, Text entry, Pen-based computing, Audio feedback
Filochat: Handwritten Notes Provide Access to Recorded Conversations BIBAKPDF 271-277
  Steve Whittaker; Patrick Hyland; Myrtle Wiley
We present a novel application which integrates handwriting and recorded audio in a semi-portable device: It allows users to straightforwardly access particular points in recorded spontaneous speech via handwritten notes using temporal indexing. Initial interviews with 23 users and 28 non-users of office audio showed a requirement for supplementing handwritten meeting notes with a verbatim speech record of the conversation, as well as problems in accessing particular points in long audio recordings. On the basis of this, we built a prototype system that combined co-indexed handwritten notes and recorded audio in a digital notebook. The prototype was tested on 67 users in field and laboratory trials. Laboratory studies showed objective benefits of combined notes and audio over notes alone. The utility of the access method was shown by improved performance over current audio technology such as dictaphones. We also found perceived benefits of higher quality meeting minutes in field trials. An unforeseen benefit was the use of this device as an audio editing tool. We discuss further technical extensions and user issues in relation to the prototype.
Keywords: Audio, "Speech-as-data", Retrieval, Handwriting, Notes, Indexing

HCI Research?

A Preliminary Analysis of the Products of HCI Research, Using Pro Forma Abstracts BIBAKPDF 278-284
  William Newman
A classification scheme for the products of engineering research is described, involving three principal categories of product: improved modelling techniques, solutions and tools. These categories can be linked to the contributions they make to engineering design. A set of pro forma abstracts are proposed as a reliable means of identifying the three categories. A preliminary sample of published engineering papers indicates that normally at least 90 percent of the papers fall into these three categories. For recent CHI and InterCHI conferences, however, only about 30 percent of papers can be thus categorized. The remainder appear mostly to describe radical solutions (solutions not derived from incremental improvements to solutions to the same problem), and experience and/or heuristics gained mostly from studies of radical solutions. Some comments are made about the reasons for these departures from normal engineering research practice.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Research methods, Research products, System design, Abstracts, Radical solutions

Design Evaluation

Supporting Knowledge-Base Evolution with Incremental Formalization BIBAKPDF 285-291
  Frank M., III Shipman; Raymond McCall
Computers require formally represented information to support users but users often cannot provide it. This paper looks at an approach called "incremental formalization", when users express information informally and the system supports them in formalizing it. Incremental formalization requires a system architecture that can integrate formal and informal representations and enable and support moving information upward in formality. The system should include tools to capture naturally available informal information and knowledge-based techniques to suggest possible formalizations of this informal information. The Hyper-Object Substrate (HOS), a system with these characteristics, has been applied to a variety of domains, including network design, archeological site analysis and neuroscience education. Users were successful in adding information informally and in incrementally formalizing that information. In particular, informal text was added, which later had attributes added and partook in inheritance relationships.
Keywords: Formalization, Structure, Hypermedia, Knowledge-based systems, Knowledge representation, Knowledge acquisition
Seeding, Evolutionary Growth and Reseeding: Supporting the Incremental Development of Design Environments BIBAKPDF 292-298
  Gerhard Fischer; Ray McCall; Jonathan Ostwald; Brent Reeves; Frank Shipman
We describe an approach to acquiring information during the creation and use of domain-oriented environments. Our model consists of three phases: seeding, evolutionary growth, and reseeding. A seed for a domain-oriented design environment is created through a participatory design process between environment developers and domain designers by incorporating domain-specific knowledge into a domain-independent architecture for design environments. Evolutionary growth takes place as domain designers use the seeded environment to undertake specific projects. Reseeding is a process that reinvolves the environment developers to help domain designers better organize, formalize, and generalize knowledge added during the use phases.
Keywords: Design, Design environments, Domain-orientation, Evolution of information spaces, Seeds, Reseeding, Annotation, Incremental formalization, Tacit knowledge, Situated cognition, End-user modifiability, Collaborative design
Talking Through Design: Requirements and Resistance in Cooperative Prototyping BIBAKPDF 299-305
  John Bowers; James Pycock
Some analyses are presented of talk between designers and a potential user in a participatory design session where a prototype application was worked with to determine future requirements. We explore the ways in which design suggestions are formulated and argued for, and how requirements emerge as a negotiated product of interaction. On this basis, we re-examine user participation in design and the relationship between prototyping and user requirements. We conclude by offering a notion (gradients of resistance in design space) to help understanding the interplay of the social and the technical in design.
Keywords: Requirements, Participatory design, Interaction analysis

Information Visualization

The Movable Filter as a User Interface Tool BIBAKPDF 306-312
  Maureen C. Stone; Ken Fishkin; Eric A. Bier
Magic Lens filters are a new user interface tool that combine an arbitrarily-shaped region with an operator that changes the view of objects viewed through that region. These tools can be interactively positioned over on-screen applications much as a magnifying glass is moved over a newspaper. They can be used to help the user understand various types of information, from text documents to scientific visualizations. Because these filters are movable and apply to only part of the screen, they have a number of advantages over traditional window-wide viewing modes: they employ an attractive metaphor based on physical lenses, show a modified view in the context of the original view, limit clutter to a small region, allow easy construction of visual macros and provide a uniform paradigm that can be extended across different types of information and applications. This paper describes these advantages in more detail and illustrates them with examples of magic lens filters in use over a variety of applications.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Methodology and techniques, Interaction techniques, Information interfaces and presentation, User interfaces, Interaction styles, Computer graphics, Picture/image generation, Viewing algorithms, Computer graphics, Graphics utilities, Graphics editors, Viewing filter, Lens, Transparent, Visualization, Editing, Macro, Graphics
Visual Information Seeking: Tight Coupling of Dynamic Query Filters with Starfield Displays BIBAKPDF 313-317
  Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman
This paper offers new principles for visual information seeking (VIS). A key concept is to support browsing, which is distinguished from familiar query composition and information retrieval because of its emphasis on rapid filtering to reduce result sets, progressive refinement of search parameters, continuous reformulation of goals, and visual scanning to identify results. VIS principles developed include: dynamic query filters (query parameters rapidly adjusted with sliders, buttons, maps, etc.), starfield displays (two-dimensional scatterplots to structure result sets and zooming to reduce clutter), and tight coupling (interrelating query components to preserve display invariants and support progressive refinement combined with an emphasis on using search output to foster search input). A FilmFinder prototype using a movie database demonstrates these principles in a VIS environment.
Keywords: Database query, Dynamic queries, Information seeking, Tight coupling, Starfield displays
Note: Color plates on pages 479-480
The Table Lens: Merging Graphical and Symbolic Representations in an Interactive Focus+Context Visualization for Tabular Information BIBAKPDF 318-322
  Ramana Rao; Stuart K. Card
We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visualization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focus areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most widespread kind of tables, the case-by-variables table. The Table Lens fuses symbolic and graphical representations into a single coherent view that can be fluidly adjusted by the user. This fusion and interactivity enables an extremely rich and natural style of direct manipulation exploratory data analysis.
Keywords: Information visualization, Exploratory data analysis, Graphical representations, Focus+context technique, Fisheye technique, Tables, Spreadsheets, Relational tables
Note: Color plates on pages 481-482

Access to Organized Data Structures

Evaluating the Influence of Interface Styles and Multiple Access Paths in Hypertext BIBAKPDF 323-329
  Pawan R. Vora; Martin G. Helander; Valerie L. Shalin
No specific guidelines exist to assist in designing usable hypertext systems. In this paper, we discuss three experiments to study usability issues in hypertext design. In the first experiment, we investigated usability of four types of hypertext interfaces: graphical with labeled links (GL), graphical with unlabeled links (GU), textual with embedded links (TE), and textual with a separate list of related items/links (TS). The results favored GL interface for novice users. However, most subjects suggested incorporating multiple access pathways to facilitate search. To determine how hypertext designers could establish, a priori, these multiple structures, we extracted organization schemes from domain experts in the second experiment. Distinctly different organization structures emerged from experts with different professional backgrounds. Therefore, we modified the hypertext to incorporate multiple organization structures. In experiment 3, we compared subjects' performance using multiple and single organization structures. Multiple structures, contrary to previous evidence, enhanced search performance. The benefits of multiple structures, however, diminished over time. These experiments provide empirical evidence in favor of GL interfaces and incorporation of multiple organization structures to improve hypertext usability.
Keywords: Hypertext, Usability, Design guidelines, Graphical vs. textual interfaces, Single vs. multiple organizations
Multitrees: Enriching and Reusing Hierarchical Structure BIBAKPDF 330-336
  George W. Furnas; Jeff Zacks
This paper introduces multitrees, a new type of structure for representing information. Multitrees are a class of directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) with the unusual property that they have large easily identifiable substructures that are trees. These subtrees have a natural semantic interpretation providing alternate hierarchical contexts for information, as well as providing a natural model for hierarchical reuse. The numerous trees found within multitrees also afford familiar, tree-based graphical interactions.
Keywords: Information graphs, Representation, Hierarchies, Reuse, Directed graphs, Hypertext structures, Graphical browsers

GOMS Analysis

A Keystroke Level Analysis of a Graphics Application: Manual Map Digitizing BIBAKPDF 337-343
  Peter Haunold; Werner Kuhn
Transforming analog graphic data, such as maps, into digital format by manual digitizing is slow and expensive, but is nevertheless widely performed. Studies of digitizing methods to find opportunities for optimization are therefore warranted. The work reported here investigates the possibility of applying the Keystroke-Level Model to the modeling and optimization of manual map digitizing tasks. We tested the suitability of the model for manual digitizing at a national mapping agency and determined unit tasks with their performance times. The paper describes the design of an experiment to measure performance times under production conditions. Two new keystroke level operators are defined for manual digitizing. The use and suitability of the model are demonstrated by analyzing the differences between predicted and measured performance times for unit tasks. The results confirm the applicability and the economic importance of keystroke-level analyses of real world tasks.
Keywords: Keystroke-level model, Graphics, Map digitizing, Geographic information systems, Interface design optimization
A GOMS Analysis of the Advanced Automated Cockpit BIBAKPDF 344-350
  Sharon Irving; Peter Polson; J. E. Irving
Using models developed to analyze office automation (e.g. [3]), we identified skills needed to perform tasks using the flight management computer on advanced commercial aircraft. Our GOMS analysis showed that all tasks carried out on the device can be described in terms of three methods. Novices who received instruction in a part-task computer based training guided by the GOMS analysis were tested in a flight simulator. Their performance was compared with pilots who received an integrated type of training representing three to ten times the amount of time on task and with pilots who had been using this equipment on the line for at least one year ("experts"). Inconsistencies revealed by the analysis were reflected in the performance of novices (experimentally and professionally trained) as well as the experts.
Keywords: Formal models, GOMS, "Glass-cockpit", Air crew training
A Validation of the GOMS Model Methodology in the Development of a Specialized, Commercial Software Application BIBAKPDF 351-357
  Richard Gong; David Kieras
A formal GOMS model approach was applied to the design and evaluation of the user interface for a specialized, commercial software application. This approach was able to identify significant usability problems embedded in the procedures by which users interact with the interface. A redesign of the interface based on the GOMS approach resulted in a 46% reduction in learning time and a 39% reduction in execution time during a formal evaluation, differences predicted by the GOMS analysis. Corrections to the GOMS time estimation techniques were necessary to obtain accurate (within 9%) predictions of absolute learning and execution times.
Keywords: GOMS, Analytical methods, Interface design, Usability, User testing, Performance prediction

Visual Interaction Techniques

A Taxonomy of See-Through Tools BIBAKPDF 358-364
  Eric A. Bier; Maureen C. Stone; Ken Fishkin; William Buxton; Thomas Baudel
In current interfaces, users select objects, apply operations, and change viewing parameters in distinct steps that require switching attention among several screen areas. Our See-Through Interface software reduces steps by locating tools on a transparent sheet that can be moved over applications with one hand using a blackball, while the other hand controls a mouse cursor. The user clicks through a tool onto application objects, simultaneously selecting an operation and an operand. Tools may include graphical filters that display a customized view of application objects. Compared to traditional interactors, these tools save steps, require no permanent screen space, reduce temporal modes, apply to multiple applications, and facilitate customization. This paper presents a taxonomy of see-through tools that considers variations in each of the steps they perform. As examples, we describe particular see-through tools that perform graphical editing and text editing operations.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Methodology and techniques, Interaction techniques, Information interfaces and presentation, User interfaces, Interaction styles, Computer graphics, Picture/image generation, Viewing algorithms, Computer graphics, Graphics utilities, Graphics editors, User interface, Control panel, Transparent, Multi-hand, Viewing filter, Button, Lens, Menu, Macro
The Alphaslider: A Compact and Rapid Selector BIBAKPDF 365-371
  Christopher Ahlberg; Ben Shneiderman
Research has suggested that rapid, serial, visual presentation of text (RSVP) may be an effective way to scan and search through lists of text strings in search of words, names, etc. The Alphaslider widget employs RSVP as a method for rapidly scanning and searching lists or menus in a graphical user interface environment. The Alphaslider only uses an area less than 7 cm x 2.5 cm. The tiny size of the Alphaslider allows it to be placed on a credit card, on a control panel for a VCR, or as a widget in a direct manipulation based database interface. An experiment was conducted with four Alphaslider designs which showed that novice Alphaslider users could locate one item in a list of 10,000 film titles in 24 seconds on average, an expert user in about 13 seconds.
Keywords: Alphaslider, Widget, Selection technology, Menus, Dynamic queries

Designing Interaction Objects

Specification of Interface Interaction Objects BIBAKPDF 372-378
  David A. Carr
User Interface Management Systems have significantly reduced the effort required to build a user interface. However, current systems assume a set of standard "widgets" and make no provisions for defining new ones. This forces user interface designers to either do without or laboriously build new widgets with code. The Interface Object Graph is presented as a method for specifying and communicating the design of interaction objects or widgets. Two sample specifications are presented, one for a secure switch and the other for a two dimensional graphical browser.
Keywords: User interface specification, User interface design
Recursive Interfaces for Reactive Objects BIBAKPDF 379-385
  Michael Travers
LiveWorld is a graphical environment designed to support research into programming with active objects. It offers novice users a world of manipulable objects, with graphical objects and elements of the programs that make them move integrated into a single interaction framework. LiveWorld is designed to support a style of programming based on rule-like agents that allow objects to be responsive to their environment. In order to make this style of programming accessible to novices, computational objects such as behavioral rules need to be just as concrete and accessible as the graphic objects. LiveWorld fills this need by using a novel object system, Framer, in which the usual structures of an object-oriented system (classes, objects, and slots) are replaced with a single one, the frame, that has a simple and intuitive graphic representation.
   This unification enables the construction of an interface that achieves elegance, simplicity and power. Allowing graphic objects and internal computational objects to be manipulated through an integrated interface can provide a conceptual scaffolding for novices to enter into programming.
Keywords: Programming environments, Objects, Direct manipulation, Visual object-oriented programming, Agents, Rules

HCI in the Real World

The Value of a Baseline in Determining Design Success BIBAKPDF 386-391
  Brenda Burkhart; Darold Hemphill; Scott Jones
This paper examines the value of a baseline for usability testing in a software development organization and the specific issues that arose during the implementations of the usability test. Specifically, this testing involved the transitioning of a character-based user interface to a graphical user interface. In order to assess the efficacy of the new design and to determine if performance improvements were achieved with the new interface, a baseline was established to enable a comparative usability assessment. This usability test focused on comparing performance on similar tasks for both interfaces. Results indicated that the new interface was faster than the old interface for similar tasks. Usability goals were established at an arbitrary 50% improvement in task time over the old system. An average of 56% improvement was achieved. Advantages of the comparative design, namely better identification of tasks to target for improvement and establishment of an archive of data, are discussed. In addition, recommendations for reducing the effort involved in staging a comparative usability test are discussed.
Keywords: Comparative testing, Baseline, CUI, Design principles, GUI, Usability testing, Usability goals
User Preferences for Task-Specific vs. Generic Application Software BIBAKPDF 392-398
  Bonnie A. Nardi; Jeff A. Johnson
We conducted an ethnographic study to investigate the use of generic vs. task-specific application software by people who create and maintain presentation slides. Sixteen people were interviewed to determine how they prepare slides; what software they use; and how well the software supports various aspects of the task. The informants varied in how central slide preparation was to their jobs. The study was motivated by our beliefs that: 1) some software programs are task-generic, intended for use in a wide variety of tasks, while others are task-specific, intended to support very specific tasks; 2) task-specific software is preferable, but is often not used because of cost, learning effort, or lack of availability; and 3) people who infrequently perform a task tend to use generic tools, while people who frequently perform a task tend to use task-specific tools. Our findings suggest that the truth is more complex: 1) task-specificity/genericness is not a simple continuum; 2) a task cannot be looked at in isolation without reference to a higher level goal; and 3) an alternative to task-specific programs is a modular collection of independent interoperable services supporting small subtasks.
Keywords: Task-specificity, Task analysis, Slidemaking, End user computing, Interoperability, Collaborative work
Surrogate Users: Mediating Between Social and Technical Interaction BIBAKPDF 399-404
  Deborah Lawrence; Michael E. Atwood; Shelly Dews
Although human machine interaction is typically studied in the context of one person interacting with a computer, people often interact with computers in support of their communication with other people. Telephone operators are an excellent example of such "surrogate users"; they use workstations to carry out a goal for a customer, such as finding a telephone number. As the customer's intermediary, the operator must construct an accurate and well-specified search, though the information offered may be incomplete or inaccurate. We have examined both the social interaction and the human-computer interaction in such situations using several different types of analysis, first in CPM-GOMS models [1,2] and more recently in dialogue analysis and analysis of dialogue timelines. Our work has alerted us to the special human performance requirements of surrogate user tasks.
Keywords: Dialogue analysis, System evaluation, Surrogate users, Database retrieval

Evaluating Pointing Devices

Children's Use of Mouse-Based Interfaces to Control Virtual Travel BIBAKPDF 405-410
  Erik Strommen
Children's performances using three different mouse interfaces to control point-of-view (POV) navigation in a prototype of a CD-ROM based "virtual forest" were assessed. Results indicate that while children readily understood POV movement and were able to use all three interfaces successfully, each interface was less than optimal for different reasons. An assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of each interface in light of the intended usage scenario was conducted, and the least problematic of the three was selected for the system.
Keywords: Children, Interface, Virtual travel
The Effect of Reducing Homing Time on the Speed of a Finger-Controlled Isometric Pointing Device BIBAKPDF 411-416
  Sarah A. Douglas; Anant Kartik Mithal
This paper describes a study of a new pointing device. Subjects' performance with two pointing devices was compared in two tasks. One task required pointing, the other both pointing and typing. One group used the standard keyboard and mouse combination. The other used a keyboard with a joystick under the 'J' key. The mouse was faster for both tasks despite the reduction in homing time shown by the joystick and keyboard combination. The experiment shows that the mouse is the faster pointing device, and that a finger controlled device complies with Fitts' law. In addition, we show that efforts to design faster pointing devices should focus on increasing the Fitts' Law Index of Performance rather than reducing the homing time.
Keywords: Fitts' law, Pointing devices, Homing time, Keystroke level model, Index of difficulty, Index of performance, Mouse, Joystick
Two-Handed Input in a Compound Task BIBAKPDF 417-423
  Paul Kabbash; William Buxton; Abigail Sellen
Four techniques for performing a compound drawing/color selection task were studied: a unimanual technique, a bimanual technique where different hands controlled independent subtasks, and two other bimanual techniques in which the action of the right hand depended on that of the left. We call this latter class of two-handed technique "asymmetric dependent," and predict that because tasks of this sort most closely conform to bimanual tasks in the everyday world, they would give rise to the best performance. Results showed that one of the asymmetric bimanual techniques, called the Toolglass technique, did indeed give rise to the best overall performance. Reasons for the superiority of the technique are discussed in terms of their implications for design. These are contrasted with other kinds of two-handed techniques, and it is shown how, if designed inappropriately, two hands can be worse than one.
Keywords: Two-handed input, GUIs, Toolglass, Palette menus, Compound tasks

Analysis of Programming Environments

In Search of Design Principles for Programming Environments BIBAKPDF 424-430
  Stephanie Houde; Royston Sellman
Software development environments are becoming progressively more advanced in their support for construction of large software applications. However, it is still tedious and time consuming for programmers to build even simple applications. This paper describes an exploratory study which identifies some common problems experienced by programmers working with a range of currently available tools. Eight professional programmers were observed while each built the same simple application using a different software development environment. Problems encountered during the authoring process were noted. Four categories of common problems emerged. Design principles implied by these categories are suggested.
Keywords: Programming environments, Authoring tools, User-centered design
Programmable Design Environments: Integrating End-User Programming with Domain-Oriented Assistance BIBAKPDF 431-437
  Michael Eisenberg; Gerhard Fischer
Programmable design environments (PDEs) are computational environments that integrate the conceptual frameworks and components of (a) design environments and (b) programmable applications. The integration of these two approaches provides elements (such as software "critics" and "query-able objects") that assist users in learning both the application and its domain; in addition, an interactive "application-enriched" end-user programming environment stresses the values of expressiveness and modifiability. By way of illustration, we present a newly-developed programmable design environment, SchemeChart, for the domain of charting and information displays.
Keywords: Programmable design environments, End-user programming, Programmable applications, Domain-oriented design environments, Critics

Cognitive Models

"Why is a Raven Like a Writing Desk?" Lessons in Interface Consistency and Analogical Reasoning from Two Cognitive Architectures BIBAKPDF 438-444
  John Rieman; Clayton Lewis; Richard M. Young; Peter G. Polson
Users who have worked with just a few pieces of application software on a computer system are often faced with the need to use a new program on the same system. Consistency between program interfaces is intended to make the new program easier to learn in this situation, but how "consistency" should be defined is not always clear. We present a model of analogical reasoning that describes how users rely on interface consistency to induce correct actions in a new situation. Versions of the model are implemented in ACT-R and Soar. The model yields a clearer and more principled understanding of design guidelines that recommend interface consistency.
Keywords: User models, Consistency, Exploratory learning, Analogy, Metaphor
A Model of the Acquisition of Menu Knowledge by Exploration BIBAKPDF 445-451
  Andrew Howes
This paper reports a mechanism that learns how to use a menu structure by exploration. The model, called Ayn, starts without any knowledge of the menus but when given a goal, explores and tries out options until the goal has been achieved. During this process it constructs a long-term, recognition-oriented, memory of its behavior so that on future occasions it will be able to achieve the same goal without exploration. The mechanism captures three aspects of human behaviour: it learns whilst interacting with the device, it speeds up with practice, and it acquires display-based knowledge.
Keywords: Exploratory learning, Cognitive models, Working memory, Practice, Menus, Display-based knowledge

Interacting in 3-D

Passive Real-World Interface Props for Neurosurgical Visualization BIBAKPDF 452-458
  Ken Hinckley; Randy Pausch; John C. Goble; Neal F. Kassell
We claim that physical manipulation of familiar real-world objects in the user's real environment is an important technique for the design of three-dimensional user interfaces. These real-world passive interface props are manipulated by the user to specify spatial relationships between interface objects. By unobtrusively embedding free-space position and orientation trackers within the props, we enable the computer to passively observe a natural user dialog in the real world, rather than forcing the user to engage in a contrived dialog in the computer-generated world.
   We present neurosurgical planning as a driving application and demonstrate the utility of a head viewing prop, a cutting-plane selection prop, and a trajectory selection prop in this domain. Using passive props in this interface exploits the surgeon's existing skills, provides direct action-task correspondence, eliminates explicit modes for separate tools, facilitates natural two-handed interaction, and provides tactile and kinesthetic feedback for the user. Our informal evaluation sessions have shown that with a cursory introduction, neurosurgeons who have never seen the interface can understand and use it without training.
Keywords: Three-dimensional interaction, Gesture input, Two-handed interaction, Haptic input, Neurosurgery, Visualization
The "Silk Cursor": Investigating Transparency for 3D Target Acquisition BIBAKPDF 459-464
  Shumin Zhai; William Buxton; Paul Milgram
This study investigates dynamic 3D target acquisition. The focus is on the relative effect of specific perceptual cues. A novel technique is introduced and we report on an experiment that evaluates its effectiveness.
   There are two aspects to the new technique. First, in contrast to normal practice, the tracking symbol is a volume rather than a point. Second, the surface of this volume is semi-transparent, thereby affording occlusion cues during target acquisition.
   The experiment shows that the volume/occlusion cues were effective in both monocular and stereoscopic conditions. For some tasks where stereoscopic presentation is unavailable or infeasible, the new technique offers an effective alternative.
Keywords: 3D interface, Interaction technique, Target acquisition, Virtual reality, Fitts' law, Input, Depth perception
Note: Color plates on page 483
Direct and Intuitive Input Device for 3-D Shape Deformation BIBAKPDF 465-470
  Tamotsu Murakami; Naomasa Nakajima
Standard input devices such as a mouse and a keyboard in present computer-aided design systems do not provide users with direct and intuitive facilities for highly 3-D shape manipulation. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new interface system for 3-D shape manipulation by adopting a real elastic object as an input device. By deforming the device with bare hands with a tactile feedback, users can manipulate a 3-D shape modeled and displayed on a computer screen quite directly and intuitively. A prototype with a cubical input device made of electrically conductive polyurethane foam is also presented.
Keywords: Human interface, Computer graphics, Input device, Computer-aided design, Free-form deformation