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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X92Y92a92b93X93Y93a93b

Proceedings of ACM CHI'89 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI'89 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:Wings for the Mind
Editors:Ken Bice; Clayton Lewis
Location:Austin, Texas
Dates:1989-Apr-30 to 1989-May-04
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-301-9; ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608890; Addison-Wesley ISBN 0-201-50400-6; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI89
Papers:76
Pages:397
  1. New Directions in Theory for Human-Computer Interaction
  2. Panel
  3. Tools for Collaborative Work
  4. Lab Reviews
  5. New Paradigms for Programming
  6. Interacting with Computer Advisors
  7. Plenary Debate
  8. Plenary Panel
  9. Panel
  10. Performing Prediction: Predicting Performance
  11. User Interface Management Systems
  12. Lab Reviews
  13. Pointing and Painting
  14. Notation for Specification
  15. Panel
  16. Design as Organizational Activity
  17. User Interface System Evaluations
  18. Panel
  19. Gesture and Language
  20. Issues in Interface Design Methods
  21. Panel
  22. Tools and Environments for Interface Design
  23. Hypermedia Systems
  24. Lab Reviews
  25. Innovations in Graphical Interface Design
  26. Using Auditory Output
  27. Panel
  28. Innovative Designs for Information Systems
  29. Interfaces to Mathematical Systems
  30. Doctoral Consortium

New Directions in Theory for Human-Computer Interaction

Generalization, Consistency, and Control BIBAK 1-5
  Clayton Lewis; D. Charles Hair; Victor Schoenberg
Easy learning of a user interface depends in part on users being able to generalize successfully about it. Philosophical doctrine, and some recent work in human-computer interaction, argues that causal analysis of interactions can support generalization. But neither the philosophical literature nor the HCI literature provides a rigorous theory of causal analysis adequate for problems in human-computer interaction. We propose such a rigorous theory here, and show how it accounts for two robust generalizations, using certain general assumptions. We then present evidence that these assumptions are accepted by people. Finally we compare this theory with other treatments of consistency.
Keywords: Causal analysis, Consistency
Artifact as Theory-Nexus: Hermeneutics Meet Theory-Based Design BIBAK 7-14
  John M. Carroll; Wendy A. Kellogg
We suggest that HCI designs characteristically embody multiple, distinct psychological claims, that virtually every aspect of a system's usability is overdetermined by independent psychological rationales inherent in its design. These myriad claims cohere in being implemented together in a running system. Thus, HCI artifacts themselves are perhaps the most effective medium for theory development in HCI. We advance a framework for articulating the psychological claims embodied by artifacts. This proposal reconciles the contrasting perspectives of theory-based design and hermeneutics, and clarifies the apparent paradox of HCI application leading HCI theory.
Keywords: Theory, Design, Task analysis
Programmable User Models for Predictive Evaluation of Interface Designs BIBAK 15-19
  Richard M. Young; T. R. G. Green; Tony Simon
A Programmable User Model (PUM) is a psychologically constrained architecture which an interface designer is invited to program to simulate a user performing a range of tasks with a proposed interface. It provides a novel way of conveying psychological considerations to the designer, by involving the designer in the process of making predictions of usability. Development of the idea leads to a complementary perspective, of the PUM as an interpreter for an "instruction language". The methodology used in this research involves the use of concrete HCI scenarios to assess different approaches to cognitive modelling. The research findings include analyses of the cognitive processes involved in the use of interactive computer systems, and a number of issues to be resolved in future cognitive models.
Keywords: User models, Predictive evaluation, Interface design

Panel

Experience with Contextual Field Research BIB 21-24
  Michael Good; Robert Campbell; Gene Lynch; Peter Wright
Color in User Interface Design: Functionality and Aesthetics BIB 25-27
  Aaron Marcus; William B. Cowan; Wanda Smith

Tools for Collaborative Work

LIZA: An Extensible Groupware Toolkit BIBAK 29-35
  S. J. Gibbs
Software for supporting groups of cooperating users -- groupware -- raises a number of new issues in user interface design. This paper gives a definition of groupware and presents a model of group tools based on active objects. The model has been applied to the design and implementation of an extensible groupware toolkit known as LIZA. The paper describes the architecture of LIZA. Examples of group tools running under LIZA are used to illustrate some of the problems in the design of multi-user interfaces.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Cooperative work, Multi-user interfaces, Group interfaces, Active objects, Interface toolkits
Collaboration in KMS, A Shared Hypermedia System BIBAK 37-42
  Elise Yoder; Robert Akscyn; Donald McCracken
This paper describes how we use a hypermedia system (KMS) for our collaborative work. Based on our experience with KMS and our previous research with the ZOG system at Carnegie Mellon University, we believe that a shared-database hypermedia system provides a powerful foundation for collaboration. In this paper, we show how the shared-database capability of KMS, plus particular aspects of its data model, address six of the fundamental issues facing designers of collaborative work systems.
Keywords: Collaborative work, Conceptual data model, Hypermedia, Hypertext
The Effects of Bargaining Orientation and Communication Medium on Negotiations in the Bilateral Monopoly Task: A Comparison of Decision Room and Computer Conferencing Communication Media BIBAK 43-48
  Jim Sheffield
Pairs of subjects with either a competitive or an integrative bargaining orientation completed the Bilateral Monopoly Task in one of four communication media (text-only, text-plus-visual-access, audio-only, and audio-plus-visual-access). As hypothesized, an integrative bargaining orientation and/or an audio mode of communication led to a higher joint outcome. In addition, visual access resulted in higher joint outcomes for subjects with integrative bargaining orientations, but lower joint outcomes for those with competitive orientations. The support for negotiation offered by decision room and computer conferencing technologies is compared based on the efficiency and richness of the communication media available in each.
Keywords: Communication media, Negotiation support systems, Decision rooms, Computer conferencing

Lab Reviews

Institute of Cognitive Science, University of Colorado at Boulder BIB 49-50
  Gerhard Fischer; Stephanie Doane
What is EuroPARC? BIB 51-52
  Thomas P. Moran
Intelligent Interfaces Group, NYNEX Science and Technology Center BIB 53-54
  Michael E. Atwood
Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center BIB 55-56
  Marianne Rudisill; Douglas J. Gillan

New Paradigms for Programming

Inducing Programs in a Direct-Manipulation Environment BIBAK 57-62
  David L. Maulsby; Ian H. Witten
End users who need to program within highly interactive direct-manipulation interfaces should be able to communicate their intentions through concrete demonstration rather than in terms of symbolic abstraction. This paper describes a system that learns procedures in interactive graphics taught to it "by example" by minimally trained users. It shows how techniques of machine learning and reactive interfaces can support one another-the former providing generalization heuristics to identify constraints implicit in user actions, the latter offering immediate feedback to help the user clarify hidden constraints and correct errors before they are planted into the procedure. The teacher's attention is focused on the learning system's perceptual and inferential shortcomings through a metaphorical apprentice called Metamouse, which generalizes action sequences on the fly and eagerly carries out any actions it can predict. The success of the induction process is assessed quantitatively by counting erroneous predictions made during example tasks.
Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by example, Induction
A System for Example-Based Programming BIBAK 63-68
  Lisa Rubin Neal
We present an approach to programming environments that integrates syntax-directed editors with concepts borrowed from software reuse. We call our approach example-based programming, and we define it as programming using examples as visual aids or to fully or partially copy into programs. To implement an example-based programming environment, we augmented a syntax-directed editor with a window for example programs. The example programs, which are easily accessible, can be used as examples of language constructs, thus providing syntactic information through instantiations of templates, or as examples of algorithms or programs. The code in the example window can be viewed, totally or partially copied, or run. We discuss the motivation for example-based programming, describe our system implementing example-based programming in greater depth, and report on the results of an experiment to see how the system is used by programmers.
Keywords: Programming environments, Syntax-directed editors, Software reuse, Examples
Some Strategies of Reuse in an Object-Oriented Programming Environment BIBAK 69-73
  Beth M. Lange; Thomas G. Moher
In a single-subject study of a software developer working in an object-oriented programming environment, we found evidence of a development style characterized by pervasive software reuse. The subject employed regular strategies for template selection and coding in her work, and avoided techniques requiring deep understanding of code details or symbolic execution whenever possible. Within the limits of the design of the study, the subject's performance is related to attributes of object-oriented programming and our interpretation of the mature mental model with which she approached her task.
Keywords: Programming strategies, Object-oriented programming, Inheritance, Reusability
A Spreadsheet Interface for Logic Programming BIBAK 75-80
  Michael Spenke; Christian Beilken
We present PERPLEX, a programming environment intended for the end-user. In its design, the concepts of logic programming and spreadsheets are combined. Thus, on the one hand, logic programming becomes an interactive, incremental task where the user gets direct visual feedback, on the other hand, functionality and scope of a conventional spreadsheet program are considerably extended. In order to perform calculations and queries, constraints are imposed on the contents of the spreadsheet cells. New predicates can be defined using a programming-by-example technique: Rules are extracted from the user's solutions for example problems. Thus, concrete intermediate results take over the role of abstract logic variables in the programming process. PERPLEX has been successfully implemented on a Symbolics Lisp Machine.
Keywords: End-user programming, Programming by example, Logic programming, Graphical user-interface, Constraints, Spreadsheet, Database queries

Interacting with Computer Advisors

On-Line Tutorials: What Kind of Inference Leads to the Most Effective Learning? BIBAK 81-83
  John B. Black; J. Scott Bechtold; Marco Mitrani; John M. Carroll
This paper presents an empirical study comparing the effectiveness of four different versions of an on-line database tutorial, each of which calls upon the student to perform a different kind of inference. The general-to-specific version presents instructions in the form of general rules, from which the students expected to infer how to apply the rule in the given context. The explanation-to-specific version supplies information about the functional organization of the database program in addition to general rules. The specific-to-specific condition gives an example of the use of a command; the student must infer how to apply the command in a slightly different context. The control version gives explicit instructions. The best performance on a post-test consisting of realistic tasks was obtained from the general-to-specific and explanation-to-specific conditions.
Keywords: Learning, Instruction, Manual design
How Some Advice Fails BIBAK 85-90
  William C. Hill
Video data for thirty-four cases of advice seeking, giving and following behavior at a graphical computer interface were analyzed in detail. The evidence indicated that clients followed prescriptive advice effectively and efficiently in slightly more than half the cases. For other cases, clients performed twice as many actions as needed in three times as much time and never reached prescribed states. A hypothesis that observed advice following difficulties were correlated with advice abstractness was not supported. Rather, it seems advice did not match well with clients' knowledge of the system in particular isolated details.
Keywords: Advising, Collaboration, Hidden operator
Responding to "Huh?": Answering Vaguely Articulated Follow-Up Questions BIBAK 91-96
  Johanna D. Moore
Expert and advice-giving systems produce complex multi-sentential responses to user's queries. Results from analyses of novice/expert dialogues indicate that novices often do not understand an expert's response and rarely ask a well-formulated follow-up question. Thus systems must be able to provide further information in response to vaguely articulated questions. However, current systems cannot clarify misunderstood explanations or elaborate on previous explanations. In this paper we describe an approach to explanation generation that expands a system's explanatory capabilities and enables the production of clarifying or elaborating explanations in response to follow-up questions or indication that the explanation was not understood.
Keywords: Question-answering systems, Discourse analysis, Text generation

Plenary Debate

Protecting User Interfaces Through Copyright: The Debate BIBAK 97-103
  Pamela Samuelson
This paper will provide an overview of the legal controversy about the extent of copyright protection that is appropriate for software user interfaces. The controversy reflects different views of how traditional principles of copyright law should be applied to software. After a brief introduction to copyright principles, the paper will set forth an argument for maximal copyright protection for software user interfaces, and then an argument for minimal copyright protection for user interfaces. Both arguments apply copyright principles; they simple draw on different parts of copyright doctrine in doing so. The paper does not aim to resolve the debate, but only to familiarize the user interface design community of the legal context in which the debate is taking place.
Keywords: Copyright, Intellectual property, Lawsuits, "Look and feel," Patents

Plenary Panel

Protecting User Interfaces Through Copyright Law BIB 104
  Pamela Samuelson; Jack E. Brown; Thomas M. S. Hemnes; Michael E. Lesk

Panel

Drama and Personality in User Interface Design BIBA 105-108
  S. Joy Mountford; Bill Buxton; Myron Krueger; Brenda Laurel; Laurie Vertelney
The title of this panel immediately leaps out as being out of place. Of all the things that come to mind when one thinks of computers and user interfaces, drama and personality are among the last. The point here is not to make using computers more dramatic, per se, but to learn and borrow from the performing arts about techniques that could improve main stream interface design. The contributions described in this panel are borrowed from the theatrical world, film producing and music. In all the panelists work, the user is at the very center of creating the actual user interface experience, either through direct user participation or via engaging the individual viewer's personality. The panelists' pioneering research has produced and created several examples of new user interface experiences and designs. The discussion will focus on what techniques offer the most promise for facilitating the design of really new experiential user interfaces.

Performing Prediction: Predicting Performance

Cumulating the Science of HCI: From S-R Compatibility to Transcription Typing BIBAK 109-114
  Bonnie E. John; Allen Newell
In keeping with our claim that an applied psychology of HCI must be based on cumulative work within a unified framework, we present two extensions of the Model Human Processor. A model of immediate response behavior and stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility is presented and extended to a new domain: transcription typing. Parameters are estimated using one S-R compatibility experiment, used to make a priori predictions in four other S-R compatibility tasks, and then carried over into the area of typing. A model of expert transcription typing is described and its prediction of typing phenomena is demonstrated and summarized.
Keywords: User models, Cognitive models, GOMS, Model human processor
Learning and Transfer of Measurement Tasks BIBAK 115-120
  Adrienne Y. Lee; Peter G. Polson; Wayne A. Bailey
This study presents a theoretically motivated analysis of learning and performance on a micro-processor based oscilloscope. An analysis of the knowledge required to make basic measurements was done using the GOMS model and Cognitive Complexity Theory (CCT). From these analyses and the criterion used in Polson, Muncher, and Engelbeck (1986), tasks were selected for an experiment evaluating training order manipulations using naive users of oscilloscopes. Production system models for each training task were derived from CCT. The models successfully predicted transfer between tasks and training order effects. Implications for the design of systems with embedded micro-processors are discussed.
Keywords: GOMS, Cognitive complexity theory, Micro-processor based test instruments, Oscilloscopes, Transfer
Skilled Financial Planning: The Cost of Translating Ideas into Action BIBAK 121-126
  F. Javier Lerch; Marilyn M. Mantei; Judith R. Olson
We use GOMS models to predict error rates and mental times for translating financial concepts into equations in two widely used interface representations. The first of these, common to spreadsheet packages, is characterized by non-mnemonic naming and absolute referencing of variables. The second, common to non-procedural command-driven software, is characterized by mnemonic naming conventions and relative referencing of variables. These predictions were tested in an experiment using experienced financial analysts. Although the interface that allows mnemonic and relative names (called keyword) takes longer overall, it produces seventy-five percent fewer simple errors and requires less mental effort. Given the overall serious cost of errors in financial models, we conclude that interfaces having the keyword representation are far superior.
Keywords: GOMS models, Skilled financial planning, Error analysis

User Interface Management Systems

A Case Study of User Interface Management System Development and Application BIBAK 127-132
  Jerry M. Manheimer; Rodney C. Burnett; Jo Ann Wallers
This paper discusses the design and applications of an object-oriented user interface management system (UIMS). Specifically, the Lockheed User Interface System (LUIS) is described. LUIS is based on a user interface model that includes declarative and procedural components. The package has been used by both non-programmers and programmers in several applications at Lockheed. Experiences derived from applications of the package are used to address several key issues in the UIMS field, such as procedural versus declarative specification, separation of the user interface from applications, UIMS flexibility, and UIMS support for design evaluation.
Keywords: User interface management systems, Rapid prototyping, User interface evaluation, Task analysis
A High-Level User Interface Management System BIBAK 133-138
  Gurminder Singh; Mark Green
A high-level UIMS which automatically generates the lexical and syntactic design of graphical user interfaces is presented. The interfaces generated by the UIMS can easily and rapidly be refined by the designer by using highly interactive and graphical facilities. The UIMS accepts a high-level description of the semantic commands supported by the application, a description of the implementation device, and optionally, the end user's preferences. Based on these inputs the UIMS generates graphical user interfaces in which the commands are selected from menus and command arguments are provided through interaction with graphical interaction techniques.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, User interface design, User interface management system
Graphical Specification of User Interfaces with Behavior Abstraction BIBAK 139-144
  John F. DeSoi; William M. Lively; Sallie V. Sheppard
The Application Display Generator (ADG) is a graphical environment for the design and implementation of embedded system user interfaces. It is a major component of the Graphical Specification Subsystem (GSS) in Lockheed's Express knowledge-based software development environment. ADG gives non-programmers simple and flexible methods for graphically specifying the presentation and behavior of embedded system user interfaces. In the ADG methodology arbitrary presentations are attached to abstract object behaviors. This approach makes it possible to provide unconstrained presentations, intelligent user support, rapid prototyping, and flexible facilities for composing complex objects.
Keywords: Graphic interface, Rapid prototyping, User interface management system, Visual programming

Lab Reviews

Center for Coordination Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology BIB 145-146
  Thomas W. Malone
CHI Research at MCC BIB 147-149
  Jim Hollan; Bill Curtis
Cognitive Science and Machine Intelligence Laboratory, The University of Michigan BIB 151-152
  Gary M. Olson
The Ergonomics Psychology Protect at INRIA BIB 153-154
  Andre Bisseret

Pointing and Painting

Bat Brushes: On the Uses of Six Position and Orientation Parameters in a Paint Program BIBAK 155-160
  Colin Ware; Curtis Baxter
A geometry is described for converting hand position and orientation into six useful variables for computer input. The application is that of controlling form and color in an experimental computer "paint" program. We find that the most easily controlled parameters of hand placement are x, y and z cartesian coordinates and a twist parameter which approximates the wrist action that occurs when a dial is turned.
   The two remaining parameters are horizontal and vertical wrist rotations. In order to capture these it is necessary to correct for the rotation about the elbow which naturally occurs when the hand is translated. However, these two parameters are difficult to control independently of hand translations. Computer paint "brushes" are described which allow the real-time control of size, color and position on the screen using the hand parameters described.
Keywords: Input devices, Paint program
Circling: A Method of Mouse-Based Selection Without Button Presses BIBAK 161-166
  Jeffrey C. Jackson; Renate J. Roske-Hofstrand
A method for selecting graphical objects with a mouse by circling them is described. Circling motions are detected automatically; no button presses are required. Trials conducted on a Sun 3 workstation indicate that, for the object size and layout chosen, even users experienced with mouse selection via button presses and unfamiliar with circling are able to select pairs of objects in approximately the same amount of time with either method. The number of target misses between circling and clicking also compare well for both single and paired object cases. Furthermore, many users showed a measurable preference for the circling method when given a choice.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Computer graphics, Selection techniques, Circling, Gesture recognition, Air traffic control
Systemic Implications of Leap and an Improved Two-Part Cursor: A Case Study BIBAK 167-170
  Jef Raskin
The lowly text cursor is a non-issue for most interface designers. Nonetheless, current text cursor designs suffer from at least two problems: one-off errors and a lack of visibility of function. These problems are exacerbated in an editing environment which uses the extremely fast Leap cursor-moving technology.
   This paper presents solutions to these cursor design problems and reveals the surprising way many other aspects of system design can be improved as a consequence of designing the cursor correctly.
Keywords: Cursor, Dual cursor, Mouse, Leap, Text editor, Word processor, User interface, Blind

Notation for Specification

A Programming Language Basis for User Interface Management BIBAK 171-176
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen
The Mickey UIMS maps the user interface style and techniques of the Apple Macintosh onto the declarative constructs of Pascal. The relationships between user interfaces and the programming language control the interface generation. This imposes some restrictions on the possible styles of user interfaces but greatly enhances the usability of the UIMS.
Keywords: User interface management systems, User interface specifications, User interface generation
Statemaster: A UIMS Based on Statecharts for Prototyping and Target Implementation BIBAK 177-182
  Pierre D. Wellner
Most User Interface Management systems are state based and some use state transition diagrams for dialog specification. Although these diagrams have significant advantages, they suffer from drawbacks that make them impractical for the specification of complex user interfaces. Statecharts are a hierarchical extension of state transition diagrams and are well suited for specification of complex user interface dialogs. Statemaster is a UIMS implemented in C++ that uses statecharts for dialog specification. It has been successfully used both for rapid prototyping and target implementation of user interfaces. This paper describes the use of statecharts for dialog specification and the implementation of Statemaster.
Keywords: UIMS, User interface, State diagrams, Statecharts, Visual programming, Rapid prototyping
Task-Oriented Representation of Asynchronous User Interfaces BIBAK 183-188
  Antonio C. Siochi; H. Rex Hartson
A simple, task-oriented notation for describing user actions in asynchronous user interfaces is introduced. This User Action Notation (UAN) allows the easy association of actions with feedback and system state changes as part of a set of asynchronous interface design techniques, by avoiding the verbosity and potential vagueness of prose. Use within an actual design and implementation project showed the UAN to be expressive, concise, and highly readable because of its simplicity. The task- and user-oriented techniques are naturally asynchronous and a good match for object-oriented implementation. Levels of abstraction are readily applied to allow definition of primitive tasks for sharing and reusability and to allow hiding of details for chunking. The UAN provides a critical articulation point, bridging the gap between the task viewpoint of the behavioral domain and the event-driven nature of the object-oriented implementational domain. The potential for UAN task description analysis may address some of the difficulties in developing asynchronous interfaces,
Keywords: Notation, Interface design representation, Asynchronous user interfaces, Task-orientation, User actions, Task description analysis

Panel

Recent Progress Creating Environments with the Sense of Feel: Giving "Look and Feel" Its Missing Meaning BIBA 189-190
  Margaret Minsky; Fred Brooks; Max Behensky; Doug Milliken; Massimo Russo; Allison Druin
Several projects have made progress recently in integrating force feedback and the use of touch sensation into computing-based environments. These projects partake of the spirit of creating virtual worlds, fantasy or simulation environments that combine the emotional power of touch interfaces with the computational power of abstraction.

Design as Organizational Activity

Innovation in User Interface Development: Obstacles and Opportunities BIBAK 191-195
  Steven E. Poltrock
Case studies of two software development organizations suggest that common practices of these organizations pose obstacles to innovation. Although software development organizations have good reasons to be conservative and resist innovation, they recognize the importance of innovations to the competitiveness of their products. But organizations experienced at development of regularly scheduled releases are not well suited to development of innovations. In this research investigators worked with the user interface teams in two organizations while interviewing people throughout the organizations. Both organizations developed prototypes, but only small design changes were prototyped and tested early in development. Innovative changes were evaluated late, when resistance to iteration was great. User interface designs and prototypes were often not shown to users. Mechanisms for coordinating development were another conservative influence. Both organizations successfully overcame these obstacles by departing from established practices.
Keywords: Empirical studies, User interface design, User interface development, Innovation
User Interface Design in Large Corporations: Coordination and Communication Across Disciplines BIBAK 197-203
  Jonathan Grudin; Steven E. Poltrock
This report describes some of the results of a survey constructed to address the multidisciplinary, collaborative nature of user interface design as it is practiced in large software development organizations today. Survey forms were prepared for Software Engineers, Human Factors Engineers, Industrial Design Engineers, Technical Writers, Training Developers, and Marketing representatives. The survey was filled out by over 200 designers from multiple sites within 7 large companies. Previous interview studies of user interface design have relied on far smaller samples taken primarily from single organizations, and have focused on the individual designer's perspective, primarily that of programmers or software engineers. While surveys have limitations as information-gathering tools, the findings in this report suggest specific places where organizational change or tool development might improve the coordination or communication among the different professionals and managers who contribute to interface design in large company settings.
Keywords: Organization, Design, Coordination, Communication, User interface

User Interface System Evaluations

Behavioral Evaluation and Analysis of a Hypertext Browser BIBAK 205-210
  Dennis E. Egan; Joel R. Remde; Thomas K. Landauer; Carol C. Lochbaum; Louis M. Gomez
Students performed a variety of tasks using a statistics text presented either in conventional printed form or via the text browser "SuperBook" (Remde, Gomez and Landauer [18]). Students using SuperBook answered more search questions correctly, wrote higher quality "open-book" essays, and recalled certain incidental information better than students using the conventional text. Subjective ratings overwhelmingly favored SuperBook. The advantage of SuperBook appears to be particularly strong for questions that are not anticipated by the author's organization of a text.
Keywords: Hypertext, Text retrieval, Learning, Documentation, Browser
How Do Experienced Information Lens Users Use Rules? BIBAK 211-216
  Wendy E. Mackay; Thomas W. Malone; Kevin Crowston; Ramana Rao; David Rosenblitt; Stuart K. Card
The Information Lens provides electronic mail users with the ability to write rules that automatically sort, select, and filter their messages. This paper describes preliminary results from an eighteen-month investigation of the use of this system at a corporate test site. We report the experiences of 13 voluntary users who have each had at least three months experience with the most recent version of the system. We found that:
  • 1. People without significant computer experience are able to create and use
        rules effectively.
  • 2. Useful rules can be created based on the fields present in all messages
        (e.g., searching for distribution lists or one's own name in the address
        fields or for character strings in the subject field), even without any
        special message templates.
  • 3. People use rules both to prioritize messages before reading them and to sort
        messages into folders for storage after reading them.
  • 4. People use delete rules primarily to filter out messages from low-priority
        distribution lists, not to delete personal messages to themselves.
    Keywords: Information Lens, Rules, Filtering, Electronic mail
  • Performance, Preference, and Visual Scan Patterns on a Menu-Based System: Implications for Interface Design BIBAK 217-222
      Jeffrey J. Hendrickson
    This study was conducted to provide evidence for the nature of visual search processes with menus, and to derive design principles for menu-based natural language (MBNL) interfaces to databases. The effects of window size, window activity, and query length were investigated. It was found that longer queries were performed faster with single active windows, but multiple active windows were rated as more 'natural'. Query times increased with query length, as did eye fixation frequencies, fixation durations, and dwell times. Errors were most likely to occur on the longest query. Fixation durations also varied with window size. However, visual behavior depended on the area being viewed and on the interaction between window activity and query length. In contrast with previous studies, it was also found that menus were not scanned randomly. However, scanpaths were less deterministic with multiple active windows and became even more unconstrained as query length increased. User interface design recommendations were derived from the findings.
    Keywords: Menus, Menu-based systems, Natural language, Eyetracking, Visual search

    Panel

    "My User Interface is the Best Because..." BIB 223-225
      A. Brady Farrand; Tom Erickson; Tony Hoeber; Bill Parkhurst; Ted Wilson

    Gesture and Language

    Synergistic Use of Direct Manipulation and Natural Language BIBAK 227-233
      Philip R. Cohen; Mary Dalrymple; Douglas B. Moran; Fernando C. N. Pereira; Joseph W. Sullivan; Robert A., Jr. Gargan; Jon L. Schlossberg; Sherman W. Tyler
    This paper shows how the integration of natural language with direct manipulation produces a multimodal interface that overcomes limitations of these techniques when used separately. Natural language helps direct manipulation in being able to specify objects and actions by description, while direct manipulation enables users to learn which objects and actions are available in the system. Furthermore, graphical rendering and manipulation of context provides a partial solution to difficult problems of natural language anaphora.
    Keywords: User interfaces, Natural language, Direct manipulation
    A Synthetic Visual Environment with Hand Gesturing and Voice Input BIBAK 235-240
      David Weimer; S. K. Ganapathy
    This paper describes a practical synthetic visual environment for use in CAD and teleoperation. Instead of using expensive head mounted display systems, we use a standard display and compute smooth shaded images using an AT&T Pixel Machine. The interface uses a VPL DataGlove [9] to track the hand, bringing the synthetic world into the same space as the hand. Hand gesturing is used to implement a virtual control panel, and some 3D modeling tasks. When simple speech recognition was added it markedly improved the interface. We also outline what extensions might be needed for using this kind of interface for teleoperation.
    Keywords: Computer graphics, Computer-aided design, Teleoperation, Speech recognition, Hand gesturing, Three-dimensional interaction
    Speech and Gestures for Graphic Image Manipulation BIBAK 241-245
      Alexander G. Hauptmann
    An experiment was conducted with people using gestures and speech to manipulate graphic images on a computer screen. A human was substituted for the recognition devices. The analysis showed that people strongly prefer to use both gestures and speech for the graphics manipulation and that they intuitively use multiple hands and multiple fingers in all three dimensions. There was surprising uniformity and simplicity in the gestures and speech. The analysis of these results provides strong encouragement for future development of integrated multi-modal interaction systems.
    Keywords: Gestures, Speech, Manipulation, Input, Graphics

    Issues in Interface Design Methods

    Design Rationale: The Argument Behind the Artifact BIBAK 247-252
      Allan MacLean; Richard M. Young; Thomas P. Moran
    We assert that the product of user interface design should be not only the interface itself but also a rationale for why the interface is the way it is. We describe a representation for design based around a semi-formal notation which allows us explicitly to represent alternative design options and reasons for choosing among them. We illustrate the approach with examples from an analysis of scrolling mechanisms. We discuss the roles we expect such a representation to play in improving the coherence of designs and in communicating reasons for choices to others, whether designers, maintainers, collaborators or end users.
    Keywords: Design rationale, User interface design, Problem solving, Design capture, Tailorability, Notations, Knowledge base
    Conversational Resources for Situated Action BIBAK 253-258
      David M. Frohlich; Paul Luff
    Suchman (1987) has recently drawn attention to the situated nature of human social action and its implications for the design of interactive computer systems. In particular, she has highlighted the shortcomings of globally managing human computer dialogues by matching user actions to some idealised plan for carrying out a task. In this paper we outline a scheme for the local management of dialogues based on the findings of conversation analysis. The scheme makes available a variety of communicative resources to both user and system, including the ability to give and take turns at talk, to initiate and carry out repair work, and to continue or change the topic of conversation. An implementation of the scheme in a welfare rights Advice System is described.
    Keywords: Local management, Conversation analysis, Expert systems, Situated action, Dialogue design
    Prototyping Techniques for Different Problem Contexts BIBAK 259-264
      Oscar Gutierrez
    Rapid prototyping and other experimental techniques are playing an increasingly important role in software development. Some common issues that concern their adoption are identifying the place in a system's life cycle where they may be appropriate, and selecting which tools to use. This paper presents a model of different problem types, suggesting that a fit must be found between the nature of the problem at hand and the features associated with available techniques. Emphasis is placed on the fact that most commercial tools are suitable for only certain problem types. Some areas of further development are highlighted and implications concerning human-computer interaction discussed.
    Keywords: Experimental techniques, Information systems development, Rapid prototyping, Requirements analysis

    Panel

    The Role of Laboratory Experiments in HCI: Help, Hindrance, or Ho-Hum? BIB 265-268
      Catherine G. Wolf; John M. Carroll; Thomas K. Landauer; Bonnie E. John; John Whiteside

    Tools and Environments for Interface Design

    Design Environments for Constructive and Argumentative Design BIBAK 269-275
      Gerhard Fischer; Raymond McCall; Anders Morch
    Design Environments are computer systems which support design by enabling cooperative problem solving between designer and computer. There are two complementary problem solving activities in design: constructive design and argumentative design. We have created two computer-supported environments, CRACK and VIEWPOINTS, to support these two activities.
       CRACK is a knowledge-based critic which has knowledge about how kitchen appliances can be assembled into functional kitchens. VIEWPOINTS is a hypertext system based on the IBIS design methodology and contains useful information about the principles of kitchen design. The integration of these two types of systems will eliminate shortcomings of the individual systems.
    Keywords: Intelligent support systems, Design environments, Construction kits, Human problem-domain communication, Knowledge-based systems, Critics, Hypertext, Issue-based information systems, Kitchen design
    Generating Highly Interactive User Interfaces BIBAK 277-282
      Charles Wiecha; William Bennett; Stephen Boies; John Gould
    Developers of User Interface Management Systems (UIMS) have demonstrated that separating the application from its user interface supports device independence and customization. Interfaces produced in UIMS are typically crafted by designers expert in human factors and graphic arts. Little attention has been paid, however, to capturing the knowledge of such experts so that interfaces might be automatically generated by the application of style rules to additional applications. This paper considers how toolkits and style rules can be structured so that the resulting interfaces take advantage of the best human factors and graphic arts knowledge, and are consistently styled.
    Keywords: User interface management systems, Interface consistency, Graphic interfaces
    Directed Dialogue Protocols: Verbal Data for User Interface Design BIBAK 283-287
      Stephen T. Knox; Wayne A. Bailey; Eugene F. Lynch
    The development of an interface design tool called "directed dialogue protocols" is discussed. The tool is based upon Kato's (1986) method of verbal data collection, "question-asking protocols." Three extensions to the question-asking method are detailed: 1) an experimental procedure of atomic tasks which facilitate the quantization of verbal data; 2) interventions by the experimenter that probe the subject's expectations and prompt verbalizations; and 3) a technique for answering subject queries called sequential disclosure. Also discussed are applications of the directed dialogue that have identified design choices which build learnability and usability into a product's user-interface.
    Keywords: Usability, Learnability, Verbal data, Question-asking protocol, User-interface design

    Hypermedia Systems

    Conversational Hypertext: Information Access Through Natural Language Dialogues with Computers BIBAK 289-292
      Thomas Whalen; Andrew Patrick
    One need not create a natural language understanding system in order to create a hypertext data base that can be traversed with unconstrained natural language. The task is simplified because the computer creates a constrained context, imposes a non-negotiable topic, and elicits simple questions. Two small hypertext data bases describing the authors' organization and the terms and rules of baseball were implemented on an IBM PC. When ten untrained people were allowed to search through these data bases, 59 per cent of their queries were answered correctly by the first data base and 64 per cent by the second.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Information retrieval, Natural language interface
    Transforming Text into Hypertext for a Compact Disc Encyclopedia BIBAK 293-298
      Robert J. Glushko
    A hypertext version of a multi-volume engineering encyclopedia on a compact disc is described. The methods for characterizing the explicit and implicit structure of the document, the novel user interface to the compact disc version, and the design and development lessons that apply to any hypertext project involving realistic amounts of text and graphics are discussed.
    Keywords: Browsing, CD-ROM, Compact disc, Documents, Encyclopedia, Hypermedia, Hypertext, Searching, Text
    The Tourist Artificial Reality BIBA 299-304
      Kim Fairchild; Greg Meredith; Alan Wexelblat
    This paper describes a prototype system designed to meet the needs of the next generation of user interfaces. We address research questions of information complexity, multiple shared semantically-oriented views, and customizable tool environments. Our domain of interest is software systems that require interfaces for teams of people to large bodies of design artifacts. This prototype is built around the metaphor of tourists and tour guides.

    Lab Reviews

    Human-Computer Interaction Department, Hewlett-Packard Laboratories BIB 305-306
      Nancy Kendzierski
    "Cognitive User Interface" Laboratory, GMD - IPSI BIB 307-308
      H. U. Hoppe; R. T. King; F. Schiele; A. Tissen
    Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory, University of Maryland, Center for Automation Research BIB 309-310
      Ben Shneiderman
    Search Technology, Inc. BIB 311-312
      Ruston M. Hunt

    Innovations in Graphical Interface Design

    Planar Maps: An Interaction Paradigm for Graphic Design BIBAK 313-318
      Patrick Baudelaire; Michel Gangnet
    Compared to traditional media, computer illustration software offers superior editing power at the cost of reduced freedom in the picture construction process. To reduce this discrepancy, we propose an extension to the classical paradigm of 2D layered drawing, the map paradigm, that is conducive to a more natural drawing technique. We present the key concepts on which the new paradigm is based: a) graphical objects, called planar maps, that describe shapes with multiple colors and contours; b) a drawing technique, called map sketching, that allows the iterative construction of arbitrarily complex objects. We also discuss user interface design issues in map based illustration software.
    Keywords: Illustration software, Drawing paradigm, Planar map, Map sketching, User interface design
    Encapsulating Interactive Behaviors BIBAK 319-324
      Brad A. Myers
    Although there has been important progress in models and packages for the output of graphics to computer screens, there has been little change in the way that input from the mouse, keyboard and other input devices is handled. New graphics standards are still using a ten year old model even though it is widely accepted as inadequate, and most modern window managers simple return a stream of device-dependent input events. This paper presents a new model for how input devices can be handled for highly-interactive, direct manipulation, graphical user interfaces. This model encapsulates interactive behaviors into a few "interactor" object types. Application programs can then create instances of these interactor objects, and the details of the handling of the input devices are separated from the application and from the output graphics.
    Keywords: User interface management systems, Interaction, Object-oriented design, Input devices, Direct manipulation, Interaction techniques, Input models
    Constraint Grammars -- A New Model for Specifying Graphical Applications BIBAK 325-330
      Bradley T. Vander Zanden
    User Interface Management Systems often attempt to separate the graphical and nongraphical aspects of an application, but rarely succeed. Constraint grammars provide a new model for specifying interfaces that achieves this goal by encapsulating the data structures in a single package, and providing a powerful transformation-based editing model for manipulating them. Constraint grammars incorporate a number of important tools, such as the part-whole hierarchy, almost hierarchical structures, and multidirectional constraints, that permit designers to specify a wide variety of graphical applications, including simulation systems, program visualization systems, and visual programming environments.
    Keywords: Constraint systems, User interface management systems, Specification languages, Graphical interfaces, Encapsulation, Programming environments

    Using Auditory Output

    The Effects of Device Technology on the Usability of Advanced Telephone Functions BIBAK 331-337
      Teresa L. Roberts; George Engelbeck
    This paper presents a pilot study that addresses the effect that device technology has on the usability of advanced telephone functions. We prototyped telephone systems using three technologies: the current 12-button phone set, the current phone set augmented with speech synthesis, and a phone set augmented with a display and pointing device. The functions that we offered included call routing, call screening, and message retrieval. Experiments showed that a display-based phone was the fastest to use and was preferred; an interface that used voice-prompting was the slowest and least liked. This points out that future work on prompting interfaces will have to address user control and efficiency issues without causing learning/forgetting problems.
    Keywords: Usability, Advanced telephone functions, Device technology, Mnemonic commands, Prompting interface, Display-based interface
    An Experiment into the Use of Auditory Cues to Reduce Visual Workload BIBA 339-346
      Megan L. Brown; Sandra L. Newsome; Ephraim P. Glinert
    The potential utility of dividing the information flowing from computer to human among several sensory modalities is investigated by means of a rigorous experiment which compares the effectiveness of auditory and visual cues in the performance of a visual search task. The results indicate that a complex auditory cue can be used to replace cues traditionally presented in the visual modality. Implications for the design of multimodal workstations are discussed.
    The Design of Phone-Based Interfaces for Consumers BIBAK 347-352
      Richard Halstead-Nussloch
    This paper identifies guidelines for designing human-computer interfaces using telephones as terminals. Although they are ubiquitous and convenient to use, phones differ from screen terminals in two important ways: the information display is auditory and serial, and users do not have a pointer. The differences result in limitations for the interface designer. The guidelines focus on developing an effective interface within the limitations. Ongoing analysis, design, development, and testing work at IBM Poughkeepsie and literature are synthesized into guidelines. They present design options for user input, system output, and the system and user roles in a phone-based dialogue.
    Keywords: Phone-based interface, Interface design guidelines, Telephones, Speech output, Voice recognition, Serial user interface, Convenient workstation

    Panel

    Tools for Supporting Cooperative Work Near and Far: Highlights from the CSCW Conference BIBA 353-356
      Susan F. Ehrlich; Tora Bikson; Wendy Mackay; John C. Tang
    The second conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work has provided focus on use of computers for supporting workers that are at various levels of geographic dispersion. The participants in this panel reported case studies at that conference on group work (1) in face-to-face meetings, (2) in the same building, and (3) distributed across a number of sites. Each panelist therefore brings insight about the communication needs of their research subjects and both the value and limitations of particular technologies for supporting the communication that ties the members of the groups together as geographic distance varies.

    Innovative Designs for Information Systems

    HELGON: Extending the Retrieval Reformulation Paradigm BIBAK 357-362
      Gerhard Fischer; Helga Nieper-Lemke
    People who attempt to use a complex information store on a computer encounter a number of problems: They do not know what information exists or how to find information, they get no support in articulating a question, and they are unable to phrase their question in terms that the system understands. HELGON, an intelligent environment that supports limited cooperative problem solving, helps people deal with complex information stores. HELGON supports retrieval and editing by reformulation with multiple specification techniques, and it acquaints the user with the system model of the information store. Within the current HELGON system, a number of different information stores have been implemented. Empirical evaluations have shown that HELGON supports effective communication. In addition, the evaluations have shown interesting extensions for future work.
    Keywords: Complex information stores, Information retrieval, Retrieval by reformulation, Editing by reformulation, Cooperative problem solving systems, Visualization
    User-Interface Design for a Clinical Neurophysiological Intensive Monitoring System BIBAK 363-368
      Thomas F. Collura; Ernest C. Jacobs; Richard C. Burgess; George H. Klem
    We describe the functional requirements and design reasoning leading to a user-interface for an automated clinical neurophysiological monitoring system. The design provides a versatile, high-performance system in which computer-naive users have access to functions typically requiring dedicated training.
       The system provides real-time data acquisition, signal processing, and graphical output, specifically tailored for the diagnosis and characterization of cases of epilepsy. The development of a user-interface was based on a collaborative effort, in which designers and users worked with a common functional model, and developed working metaphors for system operations. In addition, an interactive screen was designed to facilitate the management of multiple concurrent operations in an intuitive and easy to learn fashion.
    Keywords: User-interface design, Human-computer interaction, Medical computing, Scientific workstation, Clinical neurophysiology
    A Document Layout System Using Automatic Document Architecture Extraction BIBAK 369-374
      Isamu Iwai; Miwako Doi; Koji Yamaguchi; Mika Fukui; Yoichi Takebayashi
    A document layout system based on automatic extraction of document architecture including logical and reference structures has been developed for reducing users' effort in document preparation, and has been implemented in a practical Japanese word processor. The extracted document architecture is used for both automatic text formatting and layout of text, figures and tables. Automatic text element recognition is performed by morphological analysis using keywords. Through intra-line (one sentence) and inter-line (relations between sentences) analysis, logical and reference structures are obtained. The automatic layout system effectively lays out the document using the extracted document architecture and knowledge about the layout.
    Keywords: Document processing, Text formatting, Automatic document architecture extraction, Logical structure, Reference structure, Automatic document layout

    Interfaces to Mathematical Systems

    Models of User Interactions with Graphical Interfaces: I. Statistical Graphs BIBAK 375-380
      Douglas J. Gillan; Robert Lewis; Marianne Rudisill
    Three models of human interactions with computer-displayed statistical graphics were developed and tested in an experiment which examined users' speed and accuracy on identification and comparison questions using 17 graph types. The results indicated that response time and accuracy were influenced by the perceptual and informational complexity of the graph, as well as the relation between the figure and axes, (Model 1); by the physical elements of the graph -- points, lines, and areas (Model 2); and by the data-ink ratio and data density (Model 3). The discussion focuses on the development of a single integrated model of interactions with graphics.
    Keywords: Statistical graphs, User models, Cognitive models, Performance models
    Understanding Bayesian Reasoning Via Graphical Displays BIBAK 381-386
      William G. Cole
    Bayesian reasoning, updating subjective probability in light of new information, is notoriously difficult. One factor that may contribute to this difficulty is lack of a mental model for how to combine the three key parameters in any Bayesian problem. An experiment was conducted contrasting four representations of Bayesian problems: three types of diagrams and a two by two contingency table. All four representations led to extremely good performance on a Bayesian task. This advantage also extended to a superficially dissimilar task and also persisted beyond the day of training, suggesting that graphic and tabular representation can lead to flexible and durable changes in the way people think about such problems.
    Keywords: Bayesian reasoning, Graphic representation
    Mathematical Formula Editor for CAI BIBAK 387-392
      Yasutomo Nakayama
    Many students in lower grades who study mathematics with computers have difficulty in inputting formulas by using existing methods. It would be much easier for them if they could input formulas naturally, as they appear in textbooks. This paper describes such an interface program module for use in CAI. This module makes it easy for students to input and edit complex formulas solely by key operations, without using a mouse. The difference between the module and existing mathematical expression editors is that it converts formulas into character strings syntactically. In this way, CAI programs can understand the meanings of the formulas.
    Keywords: Typesetting, CAI, User interface

    Doctoral Consortium

    Summary of the CHI'89 Doctoral Consortium BIBA 393-394
      Peter G. Polson
    The Doctoral Consortium is a meeting of Ph.D. students who are doing their dissertation research on topics in human-computer interaction. The first meeting was organized by Marilyn Mantei and held at CHI'85 in San Francisco. For CHI'89, the students who attended the consortium meeting were selected from a pool of applicants by the Consortium faculty. They spent a day and a half prior to the beginning of the CHI'89 meeting presenting their dissertations and receiving feedback from the faculty, a group of well-known researchers in the field from both academic and industrial laboratories.