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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X92Y92a92b93X93Y

Proceedings of ACM CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics Interface

Fullname:Proceedings of CHI+GI'87 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems and Graphics InterfaceCHI87Proceedings of the 1987 CHI+GI Conference
Editors:John M. Carroll; Peter P. Tanner
Location:Toronto, Canada
Dates:1987-Apr-05 to 1987-Apr-09
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN 0-89791-213-6; ACM ISSN 0713-5424; ACM Order Number 608870; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI87; ISSN 0713-5424; acmdl: 29933 hcibib: CHI87
Papers:59; 58
Pages:344
Links:Conference Series Home Page
  1. Displays and Output
  2. Predictive Cognitive Modeling
  3. Panel
  4. User Interface Metaphors
  5. User Interfaces for the Physically Disabled
  6. Panel
  7. Adaptive Interfaces
  8. Graphics Algorithms
  9. Panel
  10. Design
  11. Animation
  12. Panel
  13. Training and Advice
  14. Input
  15. Panel
  16. Learning to Use Systems
  17. Graphics Systems
  18. Panel
  19. User Interface Management Systems 1
  20. User System Interaction
  21. Panel
  22. User Interface Management Systems 2
  23. Methodological Issues
  24. Panel
  25. Systems in Organizations
  26. Panel
  27. Plenary Address
  28. Doctoral Consortium

Displays and Output

Designing Optimum CRT Text Blinking for Video Image Presentation BIBAK 1-6
  Seiji Kitakaze; Yutaka Kasahara
A reference scale has been established to assist in the determination of optimum text blinking times for portions of video image texts being presented on CRT display systems. Optimum text blinking time herein is considered to be that time which most effectively catches and holds viewer attention and quickens his understanding of message import. Three experiments involving questions of the psychology of blinking time were conducted. The first experiment examined subjects' preconceived notions of optimum blinking time, i.e., what they imagined, within their own minds, such times would be for specific text portions. The second experiment determined the gap between those preconceived notions and the subjects' changed concepts of optimum blinking times, based on their experience of visual trials. The third experiment applied a scale of blinking times, based on the experience gained in the second experiment, to a new set of subjects in order to further refine our understanding of optimum intervals. For the portions of text used here, optimum blinking times centered about 1.0 second.
   Moreover, through an adaptation to the video image presentation system, the effectiveness of the optimum text blinking times and the psychological scale was confirmed.
Keywords: Text blinking, User interface, Video image presentation, Psychological scale
Why Reading Was Slower from CRT Displays Than from Paper BIBAK 7-11
  John D. Gould; Lizette Alfaro; Rich Finn; Brian Haupt; Angela Minuto; Josiane Salaun
Experiments, including our own (Gould et al., 1982; 1984; 1986), have shown that people read more slowly from CRT displays than from paper. Here we summarize results from a few of our fifteen experiments that have led us to conclude that the explanation centers on the image quality of the CRT characters. Reading speeds equivalent to those on paper were found when the CRT displays contained character fonts that resembled those on paper (rather than dot matrix fonts, for example), had a polarity of dark characters on a light background, were anti-aliased (e.g., contained grey level), and were shown on displays with relatively high resolution (e.g., 1000 x 800). Each of these variables probably contributes something to the improvement, but the trade-offs have not been determined. Other general explanations for the reading speed difference that can be excluded include some inherent defect in CRT technology itself or personal variables such as age, experience, or familiarity at reading from CRT displays.
Keywords: Reading, Displays, Productivity
On the Parameters of Human Visual Performance: An Investigation of the Benefits of Antialiasing BIBAK 13-19
  K. S. Booth; M. P. Bryden; W. B. Cowan; M. F. Morgan; B. L. Plante
A two-part experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of aliasing artifacts and screen resolution on a simple visual recognition task. The results indicate that in many cases far less realism may be necessary in synthetic computer-generated imagery than is often assumed in the literature. The first part of the experiment comprised a subjective rating of image quality, the second part measured task effectiveness of image quality. In the second part subjects were asked to discriminate between images of two types of objects built from cubes, similar to objects used in experiments involving mental rotation.
   At higher resolutions the elimination of aliasing artifacts did not significantly improve subjects' performance. At intermediate and low resolutions, comparable to what might be used for iconic menus, the reduction in aliasing artifacts resulted in improved performance. The subjective ratings indicate that for both high and low resolution the elimination of aliasing artifacts does not improve "quality," whereas images rendered at intermediate resolutions are significantly degraded by aliasing artifacts to the extent that antialiasing improves the subjective rating.
   An interpretation of these results is given in the context of an ongoing research program aimed at identifying the parameters of real-time human performance for graphics workstations.
Keywords: Antialiasing, Image quality, Vision

Predictive Cognitive Modeling

Approximate Modelling of Cognitive Activity: Towards an Expert System Design Aid BIBAK 21-26
  Phil Barnard; Michael Wilson; Allan MacLean
Constructs from theoretical psychology can be used to decompose the representational and processing resources of cognition. The decomposition supports "cognitive task analysis" through which user performance can be related to the functioning of resources. Such functional relationships have been formalised and embodied in an expert system. This builds approximate models which describe cognitive activity associated with the execution of dialogue tasks. Attributes of these "cognitive task models" can be used to predict likely properties of user performance.
Keywords: Cognitive models, Approximation, User-system dialogue, Expert systems
Transfer Between Text Editors BIBA 27-32
  Peter G. Polson; Susan Bovair; David Kieras
This paper describes a successful test of a quantitative model that accounts for large positive transfer effects between similar screen editors, between different line editors and from line editors to a screen editor, and between text and graphic editors. The model is tested in an experiment using two very similar full-screen text-editors differing only in the structure of their editing commands, verb-noun vs noun-verb. Quantitative predictions for training time were derived from a production system model based on the Polson and Kieras (1985) model of text editing.
Predicting the Time to Recall Computer Command Abbreviations BIBAK 33-40
  Bonnie E. John; Allen Newell
A GOMS theory of stimulus-response compatibility is shown to predict response-time performance on a command/abbreviation encoding task. Working with parameters that were set by an earlier study and which have rational, task-meaningful interpretations as mapping, motor, perception and retrieval operators, zero-parameter predictions were made that fit the observed performance with r² = 0.776 (p<0.05). The reasonableness of the parameters, the algorithms used to generate the predictions, and the weighting assumption used to combine algorithms into a single prediction are discussed.
Keywords: Human-computer interaction, Cognitive modeling

Panel

Voice: Technology Searching for Communication Needs BIBA 41-44
  Arlene Aucella; Robin Kinkead; Chris Schmandt; Anna Wichansky
Voice technology is just beginning to gain a foothold in the information processing world. Applications such as voice mail, credit verification, order entry and airline reservation systems are slowly being introduced. Critics of voice systems frequently point out their limitations with little understanding of their power or advantages. One key determinant of the success or failure of voice systems is the USER INTERFACE. It is important that the dialogue structure, prompts, system feedback and error messages be designed based on user input, testing and evaluation.
   Another key determinant of the success of voice systems is the careful matching of users, tasks and environment to the technology. Voice technology is often broken down into 3 major categories.

User Interface Metaphors

NoteCards in a Nutshell BIBA 45-52
  Frank G. Halasz; Thomas P. Moran; Randall H. Trigg
NoteCards is an extensible environment designed to help people formulate, structure, compare, and manage ideas. NoteCards provides the user with a "semantic network" of electronic notecards interconnected by typed links. The system provides tools to organize, manage, and display the structure of the network, as well as a set of methods and protocols for creating programs to manipulate the information in the network. NoteCards in currently being used by more than 50 people engaged in idea processing tasks ranging from writing research papers through designing parts for photocopiers.
   In this paper we briefly describe NoteCards and the conceptualization of idea processing tasks that underlies its design. We then describe the NoteCards user community and several prototypical NoteCards applications. Finally, we discuss what we have learned about the system's strengths and weaknesses from our observations of the NoteCards user community.
A Multiple, Virtual-Workspace Interface to Support User Task Switching BIBA 53-59
  Stuart K. Card; Austin, Jr. Henderson
An interface is presented that is designed to help users switch among tasks on which they are concurrently working. Nine desirable properties for such an interface are derived. It is argued that a key constraint to building interfaces that support task switching is that low user-overhead switching among tasks requires a large amount of display space, whereas actual display space is limited. A virtual workspace design is presented that greatly speeds the inevitable task-switching induced window faulting. The resulting interface is presented as a study in theory-based human-interface design. It is shown how in this case theory is important in inspiring a design, but design entailments outside the theory raise new issues that must be faced to make the design viable. These design experiences, in turn, help inspire new theory.
Experiences with the Alternate Reality Kit: An Example of the Tension between Literalism and Magic BIBAK 61-67
  Randall B. Smith
This paper presents an overview of the Alternate Reality Kit (ARK), an animated environment for creating interactive simulations. ARK is built upon a physical-world metaphor: all objects have an image, a position, a velocity, and can experience forces. Users manipulate objects with a mouse-operated "hand" which enables them to carry and throw objects, to press buttons, and to operate sliders.
   The interface features are discussed in light of a general user interface tension between literalism and magic. Literal features are defined to be those that are true to the interface's metaphor. Literal features enhance an interface's learnability. Magical features are defined to be those capabilities that deliberately violate the metaphor in order to provide enhanced functionality. Discussion of each ARK feature includes informal observations of early ARK users, an assessment of the feature's learnability, of its usefulness, and of its position on the magical-literal axis.
   Even though ARK includes magical features, applications-level users have be trained in a few minutes. Although this paper is about ARK, the tension between literalism and magic raises some interesting questions on its own. Some of these questions are presented briefly in the conclusion.
Keywords: Simulation, Visual programming, Smalltalk, Learnability, Graphical interfaces

User Interfaces for the Physically Disabled

A Case Example of Human Factors in Product Definition: Needs Finding for a Voice Output Workstation for the Blind BIBAK 69-73
  Richard M. Kane; Matthew Yuschik
Human factors efforts can contribute to product design at every design phase from conception through evaluation of a product in the field. Early human factors involvement has certain advantages. The major advantage is that it can have greater "leverage" by influencing more far-reaching aspects of a product. Input at later design phases, on the other hand, may delay product schedules or require a major re-design effort. Input at earlier stages can diminish these problems. As a case example, a needs finding study for a voice output workstation for the blind is described. Users of these workstations participated in a semi-structured interview to determine their needs. Results identified specific features needed. The findings also indicated that the original scope of the project, word processing, should be broadened to include other applications.
Keywords: Blind, Handicapped, Voice output workstation, Human factors, Needs finding, Methods
A User Interface for Deaf-Blind People (Preliminary Report) BIBA 75-80
  Richard Ladner; Randy Day; Dennis Gentry; Karin Meyer; Scott Rose
A user interface suitable for deaf-blind users is presented and justified. The interface is designed for small paperless Braille displays, large font visual displays, or other low-bandwidth displays. Some of the key properties of the interface are that it uses a hierarchical approach to structure both commands and data, has a small universal command set, and has pervasive editing capability. DBNet, a system employing the user interface, has been built and tested with deaf-blind users. DBNet will provide various communication services to the deaf-blind community including electronic news, mail, and bulletin boards.
Towards Universality of Access: Interfacing Physically Disabled Students to the Icon Educational Microcomputer BIBAK 81-87
  Gerbrand Verburg; Debbie Field; Francois St. Pierre; Stephen Naumann
A micro-processor based Interface Unit and Teacher Utility have been developed at the Hugh MacMillan Medical Centre that will facilitate physically disabled users' access to the Icon educational microcomputer. The Interface Unit allows a variety of alternate input devices to be used with the Icon computer. Evaluations of the use of the Icon by physically disabled students without and with the Interface Unit were completed. The Teacher Utility offers on-line instruction and support for teachers with physically disabled students who have problems accessing the Icon. The design of the Teacher Utility is presented from three perspectives: the teacher, the physically disabled student, and the developers.
Keywords: Alternate keyboards, Educational microcomputer, Physically disabled students, Interfacing, Trackball emulation

Panel

Psychology and Design: Contrasting Approaches BIB 89-91
  Robert L. Campbell; Peter G. Polson; John Whiteside

Adaptive Interfaces

Interface Design: A Neglected Issue in Educational Software BIBAK 93-97
  Douglas Frye; Elliot Soloway
The user interface is particularly important for educational software because 1) it must provide an entry to the content domain of the program rather than vice versa and 2) it must be sensitive to the general skill and/or developmental level of the user. In spite of these special characteristics, interface design for educational software has been given little attention. This study evaluates a representative interface from arithmetic software now used in the schools. It was found that the interface caused students a large number of difficulties. These difficulties were sufficient to interfere with the instructional effectiveness of the software. Designing interfaces that will benefit educational software will require careful study of the users of these programs along with an in-depth understanding of the domains being taught.
Keywords: Interface design, Educational software, Direct manipulation interfaces
Cognition-Sensitive Design and User Modeling for Syntax-Directed Editors BIBAK 99-102
  Lisa Rubin Neal
Syntax-directed editors were created with the intent of aiding in and improving the programming process. Despite their potential, they have not been successful, as evidenced by limited use. In general, they are perceived as being too difficult to use and the benefits of their use are outweighed by the difficulties.
   We believe that the cognitive styles and skills of the users have been ignored in the design process. In this paper we present some of our initial results which show that cognitive styles vary over a significant spectrum and that their consideration in the design of a syntax-directed editor will result in an intelligent tool that will be right for the cognitive skills and expertise of an individual user. In turn, an approach to design that takes cognitive variation into account would support the construction of syntax-directed editors which are successfully used.
Keywords: Cognition-sensitive design, Programming, Syntax-directed editors, User modeling
A Self-Regulating Adaptive System BIBAK 103-107
  Robert Trevellyan; Dermot P. Browne
The viability of providing adaptive user interfaces has been demonstrated ([3], [5]). Such systems identify differences between users in order to provide purposeful change at the user interface. Thus, adaptive systems have objectives, as indicated by the term 'purposeful'. The research reported here takes an important step forward by demonstrating that adaptive systems can be built that regulate their own behaviour by assessing whether their adaptations are being successful in meeting these objectives.
Keywords: Adaptation, Feedback, Objective, Success

Graphics Algorithms

The Definition, Editing, and Contouring of Surfaces for the Analysis of Field Problems BIBAK 109-114
  Robert R. Dickinson; Richard H. Bartels
This paper reports on an interactive system for manipulating a tensor-product B-spline approximation to field data for applications in which contours are of interest. The features of the system are: an interpolation technique for approximating fields defined from scattered or gridded data by tensor-product B-splines, an interactive display providing control-vertex manipulation of the resulting B-spline approximation, and a contouring algorithm that is designed specifically for B-spline surfaces.
Keywords: Field data, Contouring, Interactive surface editing, Tensor-product B-splines
From Contours to Surfaces: Testbed and Initial Results BIBAK 115-120
  Kenneth R., Jr. Sloan; James Painter
This paper is concerned with the problem of reconstructing the surface of three-dimensional objects, given a collection of planar contours representing cross-sections through the objects. This is an important problem, with applications in clinical medicine, bio-medical research and instruction, and industrial inspection. Current solutions to this problem have raised interesting theoretical questions about search techniques and the exploitation of domain-specific aspects of such search problems. In this paper, we survey known reconstruction techniques, describe a testbed for evaluating these techniques and present an improvement on the simple divide-and-conquer method analyzed by Fuchs, Kedem and Uselton [5].
Keywords: Computer graphics, Surface reconstruction, Triangulation, Search

Panel

Social Science and System Design: Interdisciplinary Collaborations BIBA 121-123
  Lucy Suchman; William Beeman; Michael Pear; Randy Trigg; Barbara Fox; Paul Smolensky
Contributions from the behavioral sciences to the design of computer systems have come primarily from psychology, and have focused on individual cognition. In this symposium, we consider the applicability to system design of approaches that focus on social interaction. The participants comprise pairs of researchers engaged in projects that aim to bring together systematic studies of naturally occurring human activities with the design of computer-based technology. Each of the projects emphasizes the importance of the social organization of communities, everyday communication and practice.
   The symposium participants -- anthropologists, linguists and computer scientists -- bring interdisciplinary perspectives to bear on the problem of how to design tools that incorporate the right mix of support for current work practices, solutions to recognized problems, and innovations in the way that work gets done. The aim of the symposium is to explore the possibilities for a productive relationship between research on socially organized human activities and system design.

Design

Positioning Human Factors in the User Interface Development Chain BIBAK 125-131
  Jonathan Grudin; Susan F. Ehrlich; Rick Shriner
Human factors professionals are not completely free to support the optimization of user interface design within the time span of individual software development projects. Interface design is constrained by conservative forces, such as the expectations of users of existing systems in the installed base and emerging de facto or formal standards. At the same time, human factors involvement with a particular product may ultimately have its greatest impact on future product releases. In this paper we explore an expanded time line for influencing product design. This time line brings middle- and upper-management concerns into focus, revealing critical opportunities for effectively positioning and applying human factors resources.
Keywords: User interface, Human factors, Software life cycle, Installed user base, Management
The Interface is Often Not the Problem BIBAK 133-136
  Bengt Goransson; Mats Lind; Else Pettersson; Bengt Sandblad; Patrik Schwalbe
Computer systems in the form of tools for specific functions within a work environment are becoming increasingly common. Because the users are not computer experts, and because the introduction of the new tools can dramatically change their tasks, problems arise. It is argued that even if the proper design of the MMI is very important, this will not solve all the problems. More basic problems concern what functions should be included in the system and how the users can understand what the system can do in different work situations and how the response should be evaluated in the context of the work situations. This is demonstrated by experiences from application projects. It is concluded that more research must be devoted to these problem areas. Another important result is the fact that the possibilities to develop more generally applicable computer based tools are limited. Adaptation to local circumstances and needs is usually a necessity.
Keywords: User participation, Change analysis, Man machine interaction, User interface
Designing for Designers: An Analysis of Design Practice in the Real World BIBAK 137-142
  Mary Beth Rosson; Susanne Maass; Wendy A. Kellogg
Twenty-two designers were interviewed about their design of interactive systems. They were asked to select a recent project having a significant user interface component, and were probed about the general design process involved, how the design of the user interface fit into that process, and their personal strategies for exploring ideas. Analysis of their responses pointed to two models of the design process. The relationship of these models to the type of user testing done and the strategies used for generating ideas is discussed, especially with respect to the implications for developing tools to support design.
Keywords: Design practice, Tools for design, Usability engineering

Animation

Automated Lip-Synch and Speech Synthesis for Character Animation BIBAK 143-147
  J. P. Lewis; F. I. Parke
An automated method of synchronizing facial animation to recorded speech is described. In this method, a common speech synthesis method (linear prediction) is adapted to provide simple and accurate phoneme recognition. The recognized phonemes are then associated with mouth positions to provide keyframes for computer animation of speech using a parametric model of the human face.
   The linear prediction software, once implemented, can also be used for speech resynthesis. The synthesis retains intelligibility and natural speech rhythm while achieving a "synthetic realism" consistent with computer animation. Speech synthesis also enables certain useful manipulations for the purpose of computer character animation.
Keywords: Facial animation, Speech synthesis
Story Driven Animation BIBAK 149-153
  Yosuke Takashima; Hideo Shimazu; Masahiro Tomono
An animation system has been developed which generates animations from stories written in natural language. The system consists of three modules: story understanding module, stage directing module and action generating module.
   The story understanding module extracts actions that are not explicitly described in the story and makes a scenario. The stage directing module adapts the scenario by determining the actors' positions on the stage and setting the stage. Actors are defined as 3-Dimensional articulated figures. Each component of an actor has its primitive motion method. To achieve complicated actions, primitive motions are combined. Referring to these complicated actions, the action generating module produces animated sequences from the adapted scenario. These three modules are tightly coupled with their knowledge bases. As an example, the story of the "Hare and Tortoise" from Aesop's Fables, written for elementary schoolchildren is used. This example proves that it is possible to produce computer animation directly from the story written in natural language, now in Japanese.
Keywords: Computer animation, Natural language, Story understanding, Truth maintenance system, Stage directing, Motion generating, Object oriented programming, Constraint propagation

Panel

Issues Limiting the Acceptance of User Interfaces Using Gesture Input and Handwriting Character Recognition BIBA 155-158
  John Sibert; Michael G. Buffa; Hewitt D. Crane; Wolfgang Doster; James Rhyne; Jean Renard Ward
Recently there has been increasing graphical user interfaces under the name of "gesture input". This technique actually has a long history: "sketch recognition" interfaces of 15 or more years ago were highly praised [Applicon 73], and user interfaces using handwriting input before the wide use of text keyboards were one of the first research goals in computer science [Bledsoe 59]. The underlying character and symbol recognition technologies have been a major research area in their own right since the early 1950s [Suen 80].

Training and Advice

What Kind of Minimal Instruction Manual is the Most Effective BIBAK 159-162
  John B. Black; John M. Carroll; Stuart M. McGuigan
An empirical study examined the effectiveness of four different versions of a self-instruction manual for a word processing system: a Skeletal version that explicitly states only the essential information, an Inferential version that has the users infer some of the essential information, a Rehearsal version that is like the Skeletal manual, but adds opportunities to rehearse the explicitly stated information, and a Lengthy version that adds nonessential explanatory and descriptive information to the Skeletal version. The best learning performance was obtained with the inferential approach, particularly for more realistic tasks.
Keywords: Learning, Instruction, Manual design
Intelligent Help in a One-Shot Dialog: A Protocol Study BIBAK 163-168
  Amy Aaronson; John M. Carroll
A database of 150 interactions conducted via electronic mail was analyzed. The database had been constructed as an on-line tool for users and advisors, but the interactions can also be regarded as modelling intelligent help dialog in which posing a query and providing a response are each accomplished in "one-shot". The types of questions users ask and the advisory strategies employed for incomplete queries without follow-up questioning are described. The goal is to understand this new on-line tool for advising and its implications as a model of one-shot intelligent help dialogs.
Keywords: Advisory dialog, Intelligent help
Learning a Word Processing System with Training Wheels and Guided Exploration BIBAK 169-174
  Richard Catrambone; John M. Carroll
A Training Wheels interface creates a reduced functionality system intended to prevent new users from suffering the consequences of certain types of common errors when they exercise system functions and procedures. This has been shown to be an effective training system design for learning basic text editing function [4]. We extend this result by examining the extent to which training wheels learners can transfer their skills to interaction with the full-function system. The experiment reported here indicates that training wheels subjects were better able to perform advanced full-system editing functions than subjects who were trained on the full system itself.
Keywords: Skill transfer, Error blocking, Guided exploration, Minimalist documentation, Training wheels, User training

Input

Behavioral Experiments on Handmarkings BIBAK 175-181
  John D. Gould; Josiane Salaun
Handmarkings, e.g., handwritten proofeditors' marks, can be used as direct editing commands to an interactive computer system. Three exploratory experiments studied the potential value of handmarkings for editing text and pictures. Results showed that circles are the most frequently used scoping mark and arrows are the most frequently used operator and target indicators. Experimental comparisons showed that handmarkings have the potential to be faster than keyboards and mice for editing tasks. But their ultimate value will depend upon the style and details of their user interface implementation.
Keywords: Handmarkings, Gestures, Editing, User interface techniques
An Evaluation of an Eye Tracker as a Device for Computer Input BIBAK 183-188
  Colin Ware; Harutune H. Mikaelian
Since humans direct their visual attention by means of eye movements, a device which monitors eye movements should be a natural "pick" device for selecting objects visually present on a monitor. The results from an experimental investigation of an eye tracker as a computer input device are presented. Three different methods were used to select the object looked at; these were a button press, prolonged fixation or "dwell" and an on screen select button. The results show that an eye tracker can be used as a fast selection device providing that the target size is not too small. If the targets are small speed declines and errors increase rapidly.
Keywords: Input devices, Eye movements
A Hand Gesture Interface Device BIBAK 189-192
  Thomas G. Zimmerman; Jaron Lanier; Chuck Blanchard; Steve Bryson; Young Harvill
This paper reports on the development of a hand to machine interface device that provides real-time gesture, position and orientation information. The key element is a glove and the device as a whole incorporates a collection of technologies. Analog flex sensors on the glove measure finger bending. Hand position and orientation are measured either by ultrasonics, providing five degrees of freedom, or magnetic flux sensors, which provide six degrees of freedom. Piezoceramic benders provide the wearer of the glove with tactile feedback. These sensors are mounted on the light-weight glove and connected to the driving hardware via a small cable.
   Applications of the glove and its component technologies include its use in conjunction with a host computer which drives a real-time 3-dimensional model of the hand allowing the glove wearer to manipulate computer-generated objects as if they were real, interpretation of finger-spelling, evaluation of hand impairment in addition to providing an interface to a visual programming language.
Keywords: Human interface, User interface, Motor interface, Tactile interface, Gesture recognition

Panel

Developing Computer Animation Packages BIB 193-196
  Jeffrey Graber; Kevin Lefebvre; Michael Sciulli; Donald Leich; Milan Novacek; David Ross; David Zeltzer; David Sturman

Learning to Use Systems

Learning about Hidden Events in System Interactions BIBAK 197-203
  Stephen Casner; Clayton Lewis
Understanding how to use a computer system often requires knowledge of hidden events: things which happen as a result of user actions but which produce no immediate perceptible effect. How do users learn about these events? Will learners explain the mechanism in detail or only at the level at which they are able to use it? We extend Lewis' EXPL model of causal analysis, incorporating ideas from Miyake, Draper, and Dietterich, to give an account of learning about hidden events from examples. We present experimental evidence suggesting that violations of user expectations trigger a process in which hidden events are hypothesized and subsequently linked to user actions using schemata for general classes of situations which violate user expectations.
Keywords: Explanations, Example-based learning, Models of learning
Transfer of Learning: Beyond Common Elements BIBAK 205-210
  Linda Tetzlaff
An experiment on transfer of learning using text editors revealed significant differences in performance, based on the learning experience of the subjects. The set of commands of a text editor was divided into four subsets. Different groups of subjects learned these subsets in different orders. Depending on the order of learning, subjects formed different concepts of the editor as manifest by their choice of commands, their errors, and their model of the editor, elicited by a sorting task. Pragmatic production model approaches to transfer would need significant enhancement to accommodate this result.
Keywords: Transfer, Cognitive skills, Human factors, Text editing, Production models

Graphics Systems

Sophisticated Image Rendering in Environmental Design Review BIBAK 211-217
  John W. Danahy
The Landscape Architecture Programme and the Computer Systems Research Institute at the University of Toronto undertook two studies using advanced rendering tools pioneered in the areas of computer animation and graphic art. Through two professional landscape architectural design studies we explored the potential role and impact of computer simulation in the initial, more creative phases of the design work. Advanced image rendering hardware and software were used to produce high quality computer drawings of design concepts. The techniques employed in this study are unique in their application to environmental design where they dramatically improve the designer's opportunities to simulate realistic images of proposed design alternatives and to consider the visual and spatial implications of such alternatives.
   The case studies represented in the paper were undertaken for the National Capital Commission in Ottawa, Canada. The first project is an urban design massing study called the "Parliamentary Precinct Study" and the second project is a detailed design of the "Ceremonial Routes" in Ottawa.
Keywords: Computer-aided design, Image rendering, Design review, System specification
The User Interface and Program Structure of a Graphical VLSI Layout Editor BIBAK 219-225
  Kevin S. B. Szabo; Mohamed I. Elmasry
In this paper the user interface and program organization of the SYMPLE VLSI symbolic layout editor is examined. The user interface is driven by a small interpreter that is constructed from a LISP-like language at run time and has access to a consistent library of menus and graphical information-gathering functions. To improve maintainability, the editor has been constructed in a modular form with well-defined interfaces.
Keywords: User interface, CAD/CAM, VLSI editor, Symbolic layout

Panel

Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Is This REALLY a New Field of Research? BIB 227-228
  Irene Greif; Bill Curtis; Herb Krasner; Thomas W. Malone; Ben Shneiderman

User Interface Management Systems 1

Specifying Complex Dialogs in ALGAE BIBAK 229-234
  Mark A. Flecchia; R. Daniel Bergeron
The complexity and high development costs of user interfaces has led to research into the design of User Interface Management Systems (UIMSs). At the heart of a UIMS is a facility for specifying a dialog control component, which processes user actions and coordinates program responses. This paper describes a language called ALGAE, which allows the specification of multi-threaded, event driven dialogs.
Keywords: Computer-user dialogs, Event based languages, User interface management systems
Modular Implementation of Presentations BIBAK 235-240
  Pedro Szekely
The presentation of an application program specifies how the data and operations provided by an application are presented to users. Most traditional techniques for implementing presentations lead to unstructured, unmodular implementations that are hard to construct and change. We present a model of presentation that identifies the dependencies between the presentation and functionality portions of an application. Based on this model, we show how several implementation techniques can be used to construct presentations in a modular way.
Keywords: Graphical user interfaces, User interface management systems, Semantics of interaction, Object-oriented programming
Event-Response Systems -- A Technique for Specifying Multi-Threaded Dialogues BIBAK 241-248
  Ralph D. Hill
Event-Response Systems are a technique for specifying the syntax of multi-threaded dialogues. They are based on the paradigm of specifying system responses to events generated by the user. They can compactly represent the concurrency needed to implement multi-threaded dialogues. This concurrency support also allows interfaces to be structured differently than is possible with existing dialogue specification systems based on state transition specifications or grammars. This flexibility allows many interfaces, especially direct manipulation interfaces, to be specified with a more modular structure than most existing systems allow.
   Event-Response Systems are described formally, and a dialogue specification language based on the ERS formalism is informally presented. Some example uses and implementation techniques are also described.
Keywords: Computer graphics, Methodology and techniques, Languages, Interaction techniques, Information systems, User/machine systems, Human factors, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, User interface management systems, Concurrency

User System Interaction

Towards a Model of User Perception of Computer System Response Time BIBAK 249-253
  Robert Geist; Robert Allen; Ronald Nowaczyk
The foundational structure of a new model of user perception of computer system response time is proposed. It is suggested that the development of such a model is now of central importance to the computer system configuration design effort. The new model is seen to explain the success of an earlier measure, designed for the non-interactive environment, in predicting user estimates of response time for interactive systems. The results of new empirical studies, designed to delineate specific components of the model, are also discussed.
Keywords: Models, User perception, Configuration design, Performance measures, Empirical studies
A Comparison of Rule-Based and Positionally Constant Arrangements of Computer Menu Items BIBAK 255-260
  Benjamin L. Somberg
An experiment was conducted to evaluate user performance under four different menu item arrangements: alphabetic, probability of selection (most popular choices are positioned near the beginning of the list), random, and positionally constant (consistent assignment of individual items to screen positions). During the initial stages of practice, the rule-based approaches produced faster mean search times, but after moderate amounts of practice, the positionally constant arrangement appeared to be most efficient. People seem to remember quite easily the location of items on a display, indicating that positional constancy can be an important factor in increasing the efficiency of the search of computer menus and other displays.
Keywords: Computer menus, Human-computer interaction, Visual displays, Visual search, Screen formatting
Comparing a Form-Based and a Language-Based User Interface for Instructing a Mail Program BIBAK 261-266
  Robin Jeffries; Jarrett Rosenberg
In the domain of interaction languages, forms have been found to be of value in allowing users, especially non-programmers, to specify objects and operations with a minimum of training, time, and errors. Most of that research, however, has been on the use of data base query languages. The present research found that in a procedural task of specifying mail filtering instructions, non-programmers using a form were as fast as programmers using a procedural language, although programmers using the form were faster still.
Keywords: Forms, Design trade-offs, Interaction styles

Panel

Intelligence in Interfaces BIBA 267-269
  Robert Neches; John Seely Brown; Tom Malone; Norm Sondheimer; Mike Williams
The purpose of this symposium is three-fold:
   First, by presenting a selection of our work as examples, we seek to define a model of intelligent interaction and illustrate points in the interface process where artificial intelligence can play a role.
   Second, by comparing the approaches represented in our efforts, we intend to explore a fundamental philosophical difference in the field of intelligent interfaces: the distinction between the power tools vs. the intelligent assistant paradigms. (As part of this discussion, we intend to consider how to mine the rich ground that lies between these two extremes.)
   Third, by examining the design process underlying our examples, we seek to provide a better understanding of the relationship between AI interface tools and the applications that they communicate with.

User Interface Management Systems 2

Creating Dynamic Interaction Techniques by Demonstration BIBAK 271-278
  Brad A. Myers
When creating highly-interactive, Direct Manipulation interfaces, one of the most difficult design and implementation tasks is handling the mouse and other input devices. Peridot, a new User Interface Management System, addresses this problem by allowing the user interface designer to demonstrate how the input devices should be handled by giving an example of the interface in action. The designer uses sample values for parameters, and the system automatically infers the general operation and creates the code. After an interaction is specified, it can immediately be executed and edited. This promotes extremely rapid prototyping since it is very easy to design, implement and modify mouse-based interfaces. Peridot also supports additional input devices such as touch tablets, as well as multiple input devices operating in parallel (such as one in each hand) in a natural, easy to specify manner. This is implemented using active values, which are like variables except that the objects that depend on active values are updated immediately whenever they change. Active values are a straightforward and efficient mechanism for implementing dynamic interactions.
Keywords: Programming techniques, Automatic programming, Software engineering, Tools and techniques, User interfaces, Artificial intelligence, Automatic programming, Program synthesis, Computer graphics, Methodology and techniques, Human factors, Interaction techniques, Programming by example, Visual programming, User interface design, User interface management systems, Direct manipulation
Panther: A Specification System for Graphical Controls BIBAK 279-284
  J. I. Helfman
An experimental graphical control specification system, called Panther, has been written in C for UNIX-based applications. Unlike similar systems, which focus on combining interaction techniques, Panther allows the specification of low-level interactions by invoking user-selectable subroutines for input-device transitions. A Panther interface is specified in a textual table as a set of hierarchically nested regions. Regions can model any control device, such as menu buttons, slider-bars, switches, alphanumeric displays, or even combinations of other regions. Panther does not rely on special hardware, extensive software, or interprocess communication.
Keywords: Graphical controls, Graphical user interfaces, Graphical interface specification
A Control Panel Interface for Graphics and Image Processing Applications BIBAK 285-290
  Gene L. Fisher; Kenneth I. Joy
This paper describes a graphical interface for application programs. The interface is based on the notion of a control panel. A control panel contains a browsable list of an application's parameters and a set of functions to control the application's execution. A variety of graphical knobs and gauges may be associated with any or all of the parameters to permit fine-grain execution control, including animation of an application's output. The control panel interface is integrated into the framework of an interactive programming environment for graphics and image processing applications. This integration is an important feature of the overall interface design.
Keywords: Graphical interface, Applications environment, Graphics applications, Image processing applications

Methodological Issues

The Use of Scenarios in Human-Computer Interaction Research: Turbocharging the Tortoise of Cumulative Science BIBAK 291-296
  Richard M. Young; Phil Barnard
A scenario is an idealised but detailed description of a specific instance of human-computer interaction (HCI). A set of scenarios can be used as a "filter bank" to weed out theories whose scope is too narrow for them to apply to many real HCI situations. By helping redress the balance between generality and accuracy in theories derived from cognitive psychology, this use of scenarios (1) allows the researcher to build on empirical findings already established while avoiding the tar-pits associated with the experimental methodology, (2) enables the researcher to consider a range of phenomena in a single study, thereby directly addressing the question of the scope of the theory, and (3) ensures that the resulting theory will be applicable in HCI contexts.
Keywords: Scenarios, Methodology, Research strategy, Scope and accuracy of models
Structural Analysis of Verbal Data BIBAK 297-301
  Wayne A. Bailey; Edwin J. Kay
Current methods of analyzing verbal reports (Protocol Analysis) from human-computer interactions fall short of their potential. Although there are systematic methods for collecting complete and objective verbal reports applicable to a broad range of problem-solving tasks, currently available analyses of verbal reports are ad hoc and apply only to well constrained tasks. Structural Analysis is a systematic method, currently under development, for analyzing real-world tasks involving human-computer interaction. Starting with a rule that assigns utterances to two dichotomous categories related to a behavior of interest, rules are generated that expose the goal building and evaluation underlying that behavior. The resulting data yield time distributions that characterize subjects' goal-directed behavior and that allow comparisons among tasks or among subjects.
Keywords: Protocol analysis, Verbal data, Cognitive engineering, Problem solving
Evaluating User and System Models: Applying Scaling Techniques to Problems in Human-Computer Interaction BIBAK 303-308
  Wendy A. Kellogg; Timothy J. Breen
A user's mental model of a system should be an important determinant of performance and as well as a means of understanding why particular user errors occur. In particular, experienced users' models should be in closer agreement with the system than less experienced users' models, and deviations of expert models from the system should correspond to difficulties in performance and suggest ways that system usability could be improved. The present study explored the utility of scaling techniques for defining and comparing user and system models. The results support the assertion that with experience users' mental models approach the system model. However, even experienced users had significant deviations from the system model, leading to predictions of where experts would have difficulty using the system and suggestions for improving usability.
Keywords: Mental models, User conceptual models, Psychological scaling techniques, Assessment of system usability

Panel

Issues from the 1986 Workshop on Interactive 3D Graphics BIB 309
  Henry Fuchs; Stuart Card; Frank Crow; Stephen M. Pizer
Whither (or Wither) UIMS? BIBA 311-314
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen; Mark Green; Keith A. Lantz; Andrew Schulert; John L. Sibert
The subject of User Interface Management Systems (UIMS) has been a topic of research and debate for the last several years. The goal of such systems has been to automate the production of user interface software. The problem of building quality user interfaces within available resources is a very important one as the demand for new interactive programs grows. Prototype UIMSs have been built and some software packages are presently being marketed as such. Many papers have been published on the topic.

Systems in Organizations

Evolution of an Organizational Interface: The New Business Department at a Large Insurance Firm BIBAK 315-322
  Andrew Clement; C. C. Gotlieb
This paper describes how the work organization and computer system of the New Business Department at a large life insurance firm have interacted and evolved over time. The dynamics of interaction are explained largely in terms of the economic incentive to reduce the length of transaction processing chains and the more political goal of extending managerial control. It is argued that examining the interaction of organizations and computer systems can contribute to a better theoretical understanding of the development of large computer systems and offer guidance to designers of user-computer interfaces. A graphical technique for depicting organizational interfaces is presented.
Keywords: Organizational interface, Case study, Organizational study, On line computer system, Managerial control
Social and Psychological Factors Influencing the Design of Office Communication Systems BIBAK 323-329
  Susan F. Ehrlich
Office automation is used by groups of people with complex communication needs to help them reach business goals such as scheduling, tracking, reviewing, and delegating. Effective individual and group decisions are heavily dependent on communication protocols and social conventions. Because these conventions are so ingrained, they are sometimes not readily available to conscious inspection during the design of communication systems. Even more problematic, system designers may not have first hand knowledge of the conventions and protocol for the range of environments in which their systems will be used. Nevertheless, office systems must work in tandem with these conventions. Wang Laboratories has a continuing program of research directed at identifying the psychological and social factors that come into play during the adoption and use of computer communication systems and the implications of these factors for the design of those systems. Highlights of a three year program of research are presented covering implications for voice mail, electronic mail, and electronic calendars.
Keywords: Communication, Sociology, Electronic mail, Voice mail, Office systems

Panel

The Politics of Human Factors BIB 331-332
  William Mosteller; Stephen J. Boies; Charles E. Grantham; Thomas Irby; Richard Rubinstein; Dennis Wixon

Plenary Address

Psychology as a Mother of Invention BIBA 333-335
  Thomas K. Landauer
Important progress has been made in the methodology for making computer systems easier to use. Highlights are the "Wizard-of-Oz" technique and rapid iterative developmental testing. It is argued that more fundamental advances, inventions of truly new and useful computer-based cognitive tools, will result from deeper behavioral analysis of the capabilities and limitations of human performance. Three such analysis methods are described; failure analysis, individual difference analysis, and time profile analysis. A few dramatic success stories are recounted. Promising targets for "synthesis by analysis" are proposed.
The Social Dimensions of Computerization BIBK 337-339
  Rob Kling
Keywords: Social impacts of computing, Computerization and work, Social analysis of computing

Doctoral Consortium

Summary of the CHI'87 Doctoral Consortium BIBA 341-342
  Tom Carey
Thirteen selected Ph.D students who are currently working on dissertation research in human-computer interaction met for two days prior to the CHI+GI'87 Conference in a Doctoral Consortium. The consortium was designed to provide these students with an opportunity to exchange ideas on their dissertation research and to build a cohort group of colleagues. Of particular interest for the participants was the opportunity to compare research questions, paradigms and techniques, and the consortium encourages interdisciplinary dialogue.