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CHI Tables of Contents: 8182838586878889909192X92Y

Proceedings of Human Factors in Computer Systems 1982-03-15

Fullname:Proceedings of Human Factors in Computing Systems
Editors:Michael Schneider
Location:Gaithersburg, Maryland
Dates:1982-Mar-15 to 1982-Mar-17
Publisher:ACM (Washington, DC Chapter)
Standard No:oclcnum: 8572254; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI82
Papers:75
Pages:399
  1. Naming Commands
  2. Displaying Information
  3. Cognitive Aspects of Software
  4. Social Factors and Computer Systems
  5. Research Methodology
  6. Managing Dialogues
  7. Documenting and Developing Programs
  8. Evaluating Text Editors
  9. Communicating Electronically
  10. Perceptual Issues in Designing CRT Displays
  11. Human Factors in Programming
  12. User Cognition
  13. How to Really Get Human Factors in The Development Process
  14. Sociological Implications of Office Automation
  15. Teaching Human Factors in Computer Systems
  16. Using Formal Grammar to Aid Interface Design
  17. Acquiring Text Editing Skills
  18. Design Guidelines
  19. Non-Traditional Interactive Modes
  20. User Cognitive Models

Naming Commands

Learning and Remembering Interactive Commands BIB 2-7
  P. Barnard; N. Hammond; A. MacLean; J. Morton
Learning and Remembering Command Names BIB 8-11
  John B. Black; Thomas P. Moran
Evaluating the Suggestiveness of Command Names BIB 12-16
  Jarrett Rosenberg
Computer Commands Labelled by Users versus Imposed Commands and the Effect of Structuring Rules on Recall BIB 17-19
  Dominique L. Scapin
Psychological Issues in the Use of Icons in Command Menus BIB 20-23
  Kathleen Hemenway

Displaying Information

Typographic Design for Interfaces of Information Systems BIBA 26-30
  Aaron Marcus
Principles of information-oriented graphic design have been utilized in redesigning the interface for a large information management system. These principles are explained and examples of typical screen formats are shown to indicate the nature of improvements.
A Systems Analysis of Stress-Strain in VDT Operation BIB 31-35
  Steven L. Sauter; Mark S. Gottlieb; Karen C. Jones
The Design, Simulation, and Evaluation of a Menu Driven User Interface BIB 36-40
  Ricky E. Savage; James K. Habinek; Thomas W. Barnhart
Windowing vs Scrolling on a Visual Display Terminal BIB 41-44
  Kevin F. Bury; James M. Boyle; R. James Evey; Alan S. Neal
Notetaking and Comprehension for Computer-Displayed Messages: Personalized versus Fixed Formats BIBA 45-50
  Ralph E. Geiselman; Michael G. Samet
An experiment was performed to evaluate the usefulness of an option for users of an automated information system to construct their own preferred formats for receiving intelligence messages. It was hypothesized that such an option would enhance the acquisition and comprehension of intelligence data from each message. The results indicated that users who personalized the format arranged the message elements in an interpretable manner, and they took fewer notes during the subsequent paced presentation of messages in their individualized formats than users who received the messages in a reasonable, pre-experimentally fixed format. In addition, the users with personalized formats learned more with the fixed format. These data suggest that the personalization of the message format was useful and led to improved subjective organization of the intelligence data.

Cognitive Aspects of Software

Tapping Into Tacit Programming Knowledge BIB 52-57
  Elliot Soloway; Kate Ehrlich; Jeffrey Bonar
Human-Computer Interface Considerations in the Design of Personal Computer Software BIB 58-62
  Sundaresan Jayaraman; Mary Jane Lee; Milos Konopasek
Heuristics for Designing Enjoyable User Interface: Lessons from Computer Games BIBA 63-68
  Thomas W. Malone
In this paper, I will discuss two questions: (1) Why are computer games so captivating? and (2) How can the features that make computer games captivating be used to make other user interfaces interesting and enjoyable to use?
   After briefly summarizing several studies of what makes computer games fun, I will discuss some guidelines for designing enjoyable user interfaces. Even though I will focus primarily on what makes systems enjoyable, I will suggest how some of the same features that make systems enjoyable can also make them easier to learn and to use.

Social Factors and Computer Systems

Political Determinants of System Design and Content BIB 70-73
  Ronald Webb
How Acceptable are Computers to Professional Persons? BIB 74-77
  Elizabeth Zoltan
Human Relations, Scientific Management, and Human Factors Research BIB 78-79
  Philips Kraft; David Strauss

Research Methodology

Software Guideline Development: A Proposed Methodology BIB 82-84
  Richard E. Cordes
A Test-Bed for User Interface Designs BIB 85-88
  Eugene Ball; Phil Hayes
Controversies in the Design of Computer-Mediated Communication Systems: A Delphi Study BIB 89-100
  Murray Turoff; Starr Roxanne Hiltz; Elaine B. Kerr

Managing Dialogues

DMS: A Comprehensive System for Managing Human-Computer Dialogue BIB 102-105
  John Roach; H. Rex Hartson; Roger W. Ehrich; Tamer Yunten; Deborah H. Johnson
Comparison of Two Information Retrieval Methods on Videotex: Tree-Structure versus Alphabetical Directory BIB 106-110
  Jo W. Tombaugh; Scott A. McEwen
Toward the Design and Development of Style-Independent Interactive Systems BIB 111-116
  Michael B. Feldman; George T. Rogers

Documenting and Developing Programs

Indentation, Documentation and Programmer Comprehension BIB 118-120
  A. F. Norcio
An Empirical Evaluation of Software Documentation Formats BIB 121-124
  Sylvia B. Sheppard; Elizabeth Kruesi; John W. Bailey
A Theoretical Analysis of the Role of Documentation in the Comprehension of Computer Programs BIB 125-129
  Ruven Brooks
The Impact of Development Aids on the Systems Development Process BIB 130-134
  David K. Goldstein

Evaluating Text Editors

Evaluation of Text Editors BIBA 136-141
  Teresa L. Roberts; Thomas P. Moran
This paper presents a methodology for evaluating computer text editors from the viewpoint of their users -- from novices learning the editor to dedicated experts who have mastered the editor. The dimensions which this methodology addresses are:
  • - Time to perform edit tasks by experts.
  • - Errors made by experts.
  • - Learning of basic edit tasks by novices.
  • - Functionality over all possible edit tasks. The methodology is objective and thorough, yet easy to use. The criterion of objectivity implies that the evaluation scheme not be biased in favor of any particular editor's conceptual model -- its way of representing text and operations on the text. In addition, data is gathered by observing people who are equally familiar with each system. Thoroughness implies that several different aspects of editor usage be considered. Ease-of-use means that the methodology is usable by editor designers, managers of word processing centers, or other non-psychologists who need this kind of information, but have limited time and equipment resources.
       In this paper, we explain the methodology first, then give some interesting empirical results from applying it to several editors.
  • An Ease of Use Evaluation of an Integrated Document Processing System BIB 142-147
      Michael Good
    An Analysis of Line Numbering Strategies in Text Editors BIB 148-151
      M. L. Schneider; S. Nudelman; K. Hirsh-Pasek
    Can We Expect to Improve Text Editing Performance? BIB 152-156
      David W. Embley; George Nagy

    Communicating Electronically

    An Automated Office Communications Study in an Operational Setting BIB 158-162
      Randall R. Harris
    Communication and Management Support in System Development Environments BIBK 163-168
      Beverly I. Kedzierski
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Programming environments, System development support, Knowledge-based systems, Project management, Software engineering, Knowledge representation, Software psychology, Human-computer interfaces
    LAMP: Language for Active Message Protocols BIB 169-173
      Paul S. Licker
    Communication-Nets for the Specification of Operator Dialogs BIB 174-179
      W. K. Epple

    Perceptual Issues in Designing CRT Displays

    Performance-Based Evaluation of Graphic Displays for Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms BIB 182-189
      Rohn J. Petersen; William W. Banks; David I. Gertman
    User Perceptual Mechanisms in the Search of Computer Command Menus BIB 190-196
      Stuart K. Card
    The Role of Integral Displays in Decision Making BIB 197-201
      Timothy E. Goldsmith; Roger W. Schvaneveldt
    An Experimental Evaluation of Multivariate Graphical Point Representations BIB 202-209
      Leland Wilkinson

    Human Factors in Programming

    A Review of Human Factors Research on Programming Languages and Specifications BIBA 212-218
      Bill Curtis
    This paper presents a partial review of the human factors work on computer programming. It begins by giving an overview of the behavioral science approach to studying programming. Because of space limitations this review will concentrate on cognitive models of programmer problem solving and the experimental research on language characteristics and specification formats. Areas not reviewed include debugging, programming teams, individual differences, and research methods. The conclusions discuss promising directions for future theory and research.
    Cognitive Correlates of Programming Tasks in Novice Programmers BIB 219-222
      Dennis M. Irons
    Analyzer-Generated and Human-Judged Predictors of Computer Program Readability BIBA 223-228
      Gerrit E. DeYoung; Garry R. Kampen; James M. Topolski
    The readability of a computer program has recently attained a high level of interest deriving in part from its expected close relationship with program maintainability; debugging and modification expenses are understood to account for a large proportion of software costs over the life of the software. A computable measure of readability would therefore be useful to program developers during coding and to those assuming responsibility for maintenance of software developed elsewhere. In a series of Algol 68 programs, analyzer generated (machine-computable) and human-judged program factors were examined. The first two present authors found that program length and reasonable practice concerning identifier length were excellent predictors of judgments of readability. These predictors were chosen from a large set of analyzer-generated predictors including software science measures as defined by Halstead and several others; the analyzer-generated predictors were found to replicably estimate a high proportion (41 percent) of variance in readability in new readability judgments.
       While an estimate of readability based only on analyzer-generated predictors would be clearly useful, human ratings (such as quality of comments, logicality of control flow, and meaningfulness of identifier names) were examined to determine whether they could add significantly to the quality of estimates of readability. The addition of the rating of well structured control flow to the set of analyzer-generated predictors increased the proportion of replicably estimated variance in new readability judgments from 41 to 72 percent.
    The Subjective Nature of Programming Complexity BIB 229-234
      Daniel G. McNicholl; Ken Magel

    User Cognition

    Error-Correcting Strategies and Human Interaction with Computer Systems BIBA 236-238
      Adam V. Reed
    Human problem-solving strategies may be classified as error-preventing (no response is chosen until one can be selected with relatively high confidence) or error-correcting (a tentative solution is formulated immediately, subject to revision in the light of subsequent evidence). Recent work in the author's laboratory indicates a strong preference for error-correcting over error-preventing strategies on the part of human problem-solvers. Unfortunately, most contemporary computer languages and programming environments enforce an error-preventing rather than error-correcting strategy. Using Marvin Minsky's concept of a frame, an error-correcting programming strategy may be thought of as obtaining a program frame with all parameters pre-set to their default values, and then revising those values until a script corresponding to a successful solution is arrived at. The present paper defines a frame-based programming environment which can accommodate error-correcting programming strategies, and discusses the application of such environments to different types of programming languages.
    Learning Performance and Attitudes as a Function of the Reading Grade Level of a Computer-Presented Tutorial BIB 239-244
      Joan M. Roemer; Alphonse Chapanis
    Warming Up to Computers: A Study of Cognitive and Affective Interaction Over Time BIBA 245-250
      David M. Gilfoil
    This experiment studies how people learn to use computers. Four computer-naive persons performed six computer tasks at each of 20 task sessions over a one month period. Participants were allowed to choose a menu-driven or command-driven dialogue at any point during the study. Cognitive, affective, and performance variables were closely monitored. Results generally support the appropriateness of a menu-driven dialogue for novice users and the transition to a command-driven dialogue after approximately 16 - 20 hours of task experience. With experience, users were shown to a) choose b) perform better, and c) be more satisfied with a command driven dialogue. Results are explained within the context of a "cognitive schema" theory.
    Statistical Semantics: How Can a Computer Use What People Name Things to Guess What Things People Mean When They Name Things? BIB 251-253
      George W. Furnas; Louis M. Gomez; Thomas K. Landauer; Susan T. Dumais

    How to Really Get Human Factors in The Development Process

    Assessing the Climate for Change: A Methodology for Managing Human Factors in a Computerized Information System Implementation BIB 256-261
      David G. Hopelain
    IBM System/38 -- An IBM Usability Experience BIB 262-267
      David E. Peterson; J. Howard Botterill
    Some Human Factors Aspects of Computers in Air Traffic Control BIB 268-274
      David Whitfield

    Sociological Implications of Office Automation

    Experience with Advanced Office Automation Techniques for Project Management BIB 276-277
      Duncan C. Miller
    Electric Mail Usage Analysis BIB 278-280
      Harry M. Hersh
    The Impact of Electronics on Humans and Their Work Environment BIB 281-286
      Panayotis Eric DeVaris

    Teaching Human Factors in Computer Systems

    Designing the Human-Computer Interface BIB 288-291
      Albert N. Badre
    Teaching the Design and Evaluation of User-Computer Interfaces BIB 292-294
      James D. Foley
    Applying Cognitive Psychology to Computer Systems: A Graduate Seminar in Psychology BIB 295-298
      Thomas P. Moran; Stuart K. Card
    Teaching Software Psychology Experimentation Through Team Projects BIB 299-301
      Ben Shneiderman

    Using Formal Grammar to Aid Interface Design

    Further Developments Toward Using Formal Grammar as a Design Tool BIB 304-308
      Phyllis Reisner
    Towards Specifying and Evaluating the Human Factors of User-Computer Interfaces BIB 309-314
      Teresa Bleser; James D. Foley
    Using Formal Specifications in the Design of a Human-Computer Interface BIB 315-321
      Robert J. K. Jacob

    Acquiring Text Editing Skills

    The Acquisition of Text Editing Skills BIB 324-325
      Sherman W. Tyler; Steven Roth; Timothy Post
    User Models of Text Editing Command Languages BIB 326-331
      Lisa J. Folley; Robert C. Williges
    Reducing Manual Labor: An Experimental Analysis of Learning Aids for a Text Editor BIB 332-336
      Donald J. Foss; Mary Beth Rosson; Penny L. Smith
    Learner Characteristics that Predict Success in Using a Text-Editor Tutorial BIB 337-340
      Dennis E. Egan; Cheryll Bowers; Louis M. Gomez

    Design Guidelines

    Patterned Prose for Automatic Specification Generation BIB 342-346
      Sidney L. Smith
    An Exploratory, Human Engineering Study of DARCOM Human-Computer Interfaces in Management Information Systems BIB 347-349
      Daniel E. Hendricks
    The Development of Dialogue Design Guidelines for a Computer Based Local Information System to be Used by the General Public BIB 350-354
      Martin Maguire
    Decision Situations, Decision Processes, and Decision Functions: Towards a Theory-Based Framework for Decision-Aid Design BIB 355-358
      W. Zachary; R. Wherry; F. Glenn; J. Hopson

    Non-Traditional Interactive Modes

    Eyes at the Interface BIB 360-362
      Richard A. Bolt
    The Intelligent Voice-Interactive Interface BIBA 363-366
      Christopher Schmandt; Eric A. Hulteen
    "Put That There" is a voice and gesture interactive system implemented at the Architecture Machine Group at MIT. It allows a user to build and modify a graphical database on a large format video display. The goal of the research is a simple, conversational interface to sophisticated computer interaction. Natural language and gestures are used, while speech output allows the system to query the user on ambiguous input.
       This project starts from the assumption that speech recognition hardware will never be 100% accurate, and explores other techniques to increase the usefulness (i.e., the "effective accuracy") of such a system. These include: redundant input channels, syntactic and semantic analysis, and context-sensitive interpretation. In addition, we argue that recognition errors will be more tolerable if they are evident sooner through feedback and easily corrected by voice.
    Composing Letters with a Simulated Listening Typewriter BIBA 367-370
      John D. Gould; John Conti; Todd Hovanyecz
    Speech recognition is not yet advanced enough to provide people with a reliable listening typewriter with which they could compose documents. The aim of this experiment was to determine if an imperfect listening typewriter would be useful for highly experienced dictators. Participants dictated either in isolated words or in continuous speech, and used a simulated listening typewriter which recognized a limited vocabulary as well as one which recognized an unlimited one. Results suggest that reducing the rate at which people dictate, either through limitations in vocabulary size or through speaking in isolated words, led to reductions in people's performance. For these first-time users, no version of the listening typewriter was better than traditional dictating methods.
    Presenting Information in Sound BIB 371-375
      Sara Bly

    User Cognitive Models

    Steps Toward a Cognitive Engineering: Design Rules Based on Analyses of Human Error BIBA 378-382
      Donald A. Norman
    This paper uses the analysis of human error to provide a tool for the development of principles of system design, both to minimize the occurrence of error and to minimize the effects. Eventually, it should be possible to establish a systematic set of guidelines, with explicit, quantitative cost-benefit tradeoffs that can lead toward a design discipline -- a "Cognitive Engineering." This short note starts the process.
    Analogy Considered Harmful BIB 383-386
      Frank Halasz; Thomas P. Moran
    Learning to Use a Text Processing System: Evidence from "Thinking Aloud" Protocols BIB 387-392
      Clayton Lewis; Robert Mack
    A Production-System Model of Human-Computer Interaction BIB 393-399
      John Durrett; Theron Stimmel