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Proceedings of ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

Fullname:Extended Abstracts of CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Note:The Future is Here
Location:The Hague, The Netherlands
Dates:2000-Apr-01 to 2000-Apr-06
Volume:2
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM ISBN: 1-58113-248-4; ACM Order No.: 608001; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: CHI00-2
Papers:205
Pages:376
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. CHI 2000-04-01 Volume 2
    1. Demonstrations: learning using technology
    2. Demonstrations (video): interactions beyond the mouse
    3. Demonstrations: handheld interactions
    4. Demonstrations (video): physical and shared spaces
    5. Demonstration: persuasive agents and architectures
    6. Demonstrations (video): multimodal, fish eyes & PDAs
    7. Development consortium
    8. Doctoral consortium
    9. Interactive posters
    10. Invited session: opening plenary
    11. Invited session: interactive services
    12. Invited session
    13. Invited session: closing plenary
    14. Organization overviews: challenges to design
    15. Organization overviews: beyond the desktop: augmenting everyday places and things
    16. Organization overviews: mobile communication
    17. Organization overviews: virtual worlds and virtual communities
    18. Organization overviews: user centered design processes
    19. Panel
    20. Short talks: communication and collaboration
    21. Short talks: information retrieval and visualization
    22. Short talks: multimodal interaction
    23. Short talks: design issues
    24. Special interest groups
    25. Student posters
    26. Workshop

CHI 2000-04-01 Volume 2

Demonstrations: learning using technology

Simulation based learning environments and the use of learning histories BIBAFull-Text 2-3
  A. Rose; R. Salter; S. Keswani; N. Kositsyna; C. Plaisant; G. Rubloff; B. Shneiderman
We have developed an application framework for constructing simulation-based learning environments using dynamic simulations and visualizations to represent realistic time-dependent behavior. The development environment is described and many examples are given. In particular we will focus on the learning historian which provides users and learners with a manipulatable recording of their actions which facilitates the exchange of annotated history records among peers and mentors.
Synopsus: a personal summary tool for video BIBAFull-Text 4-5
  Amnon Dekel; Ofer Bergman
One of the more exciting developments in the personal computer world is the soon to come ubiquity of desktop video (local and online) [1]. However -- with the promise of video on every desktop, severe interaction design challenges come into focus, with the need to solve problems that up till now only had to be dealt with by motivated professional media workers. This paper and live demo presents work we have done to enable learners with very little computer experience to be able to use video materials in an effective way for their studies. Using User Centered Interface Design methodologies, we have developed an interface model for creating personal summaries of movies by novice computer users.

Demonstrations (video): interactions beyond the mouse

Multiple-computer user interfaces: "beyond the desktop" direct manipulation environments BIBAFull-Text 6-7
  Jun Rekimoto
Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are mainly designed for a single computer and a set of single input devices. However, when we simultaneously use many and different types of computers and electronic devices, such interfaces would often fail to work. As we can combine several tools to perform a task in the real world, we consider that it should be possible to dynamically combine multiple digital devices. It should also be possible to use "direct manipulation" interfaces that work across the boundary of these devices. We call this concept "multiple-computer user interfaces". This video demonstrates several interaction techniques based on this concept, including Pick-and-Drop, a digital whiteboard system with palmtop computers, and a digital table that can recognize objects placed on it.
Navigation methods for an augmented reality system BIBAFull-Text 8-9
  Morten Fjeld; Fred Voorhorst; Martin Bichsel; Helmut Krueger; Matthias Rauterberg
BUILD-IT is a planning tool based on computer vision technology, supporting complex planning and composition tasks. A group of people, seated around a table, interact with objects in a virtual scene using real bricks. A plan view of the scene is projected onto the table, where object manipulation takes place. A perspective view is projected on the wall. The views are set by virtual cameras, having spatial attributes like shift, rotation and zoom. However, planar interaction with bricks provides only position and rotation information. This paper explores two alternative methods to bridge the gap between planar interaction and three-dimensional navigation.
Welbo: an embodied conversational agent living in mixed reality space BIBAFull-Text 10-11
  Mahoro Anabuki; Hiroyuki Kakuta; Hiroyuki Yamamoto; Hideyuki Tamura
This paper introduces a new type of anthropomorphic agent that lives in a 3D space where the real and virtual worlds are seamlessly merged. In this mixed reality (MR) space, people wearing a see-through head-mounted display can interact with both physical and virtual objects in real time. In this type of MR space, an embodied conversational agent, named "Welbo," is implemented to study how agent technology contributes. This agent has several unique features, compared with the conventional desktop agent.

Demonstrations: handheld interactions

A kinesthetic array: bringing dynamic shapes to hand BIBAFull-Text 12-13
  David McIntyre; Alan M. Wing
We demonstrate a novel interface for recording and presenting shape information. A 4 x 5 x-y- array of linear motors operating in the third, z, dimension provides a set of digit spaced contactors that can be used to approximate a dynamic surface. Each contactor is force-servoed by sensed position to define surface compliance at that point. This array can serve as a tactile display (or scanner) representing (or capturing) the changing topography of palpable surfaces.
The pebbles project: using PCs and hand-held computers together BIBAFull-Text 14-15
  Brad A. Myers
Increasingly, people will be in situations where they have multiple communicating computing devices available at the same time. The Pebbles research project is investigating many ways that a hand-held computer such as a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) can serve as a useful adjunct to the PC in those situations. We have created a large set of applications to support group work in meetings and individual work at the desktop. These run on both Palm Pilots and Windows CE devices, along with a PC. As an example, each hand-held computer can control the main PC's cursor and keyboard to support collaboration. For an individual giving a slide show, the notes and controls for the show can be on the hand-held, while the main computer is running the show. This demonstration will show the large variety of Pebbles applications.

Demonstrations (video): physical and shared spaces

Private and public spaces: the use of video mediated communication in a future home environment BIBAFull-Text 16-17
  Stefan Junestrand; Konrad Tollmar; Soren Lenman; Bjorn Thuresson
This video demonstration is based on scenarios of a family's everyday activities supported by video mediated communication (VMC). It was recorded in comHOME, a concept dwelling of the future. The principal issue explored in the comHOME project, and in the video, concerns various aspects of private and public spaces using VMC. The design concept is based on the integration of different comZONES (communication zones), where the resident can be seen and/or heard. The architectural space, then, in combination with information and communication technology (ICT) solutions forms an interface to the digital world. A main observation from the making of the video is that it is a very good complementary method in a complex design-process because of the focus on the user perspective.
TouchCounters: designing interactive electronic labels for physical containers BIBAFull-Text 18-19
  Paul Yarin; Hiroshi Ishii
TouchCounters is a system of electronic labels, physical storage containers, and shelving surfaces linked by specialized hardware. The labels record and display accumulated usage information directly upon physical storage containers, thus allowing access to this information during the performance of physical tasks. A distributed communications network allows remote access to this data from the Internet. This video demonstrates the functionality of TouchCounters in supporting the shared use of physical resources.
Tivoli: integrating structured domain objects into a freeform whiteboard environment BIBAFull-Text 20-21
  Thomas P. Moran; William van Melle
Tivoli is an application program to support working meetings on an electronic whiteboard. Tivoli's user interface is based on a whiteboard metaphor. It supports freeform expression by providing pen-based drawing, wiping, and gestural editing. Tivoli recognizes the spatial structure of material on the board. It provides support for implicit structures, such as opening and closing spaces when lists are edited. It provides techniques for organizing materials on the board by grouping them into regions. Tivoli integrates domain objects, structured data that can be exchanged with external databases, into the freeform whiteboard environment. Tivoli's scripting language allows the structure, appearance, behavior, and dynamic computations of domain objects to be defined. Domain objects can be customized to create meeting tools that are finely tuned to particular meeting practices. Tivoli smoothly integrates both freeform and structured interaction techniques.

Demonstration: persuasive agents and architectures

Agent-based support for human/agent teams BIBAFull-Text 22-23
  Terry R. Payne; Terri L. Lenox; Susan Hahn; Katia Sycara; Michael Lewis
In this paper, we present an interface agent, MokSAF, which facilitates time-critical team-planning tasks for teams of both humans and heterogeneous software agents. This agent assists in the formation of teams of humans (via other MokSAF agents) and task agents that can autonomously perform team subtasks. It provides a suitable interaction mechanism to instruct the various task agents in the team; and, by monitoring the human's progress, reallocate or modify the sub-tasks if the human fails to achieve that subtask. A military domain has been used to investigate this interface agent. The task consists of three military (human) commanders that each assemble a platoon, and plan routes so that all three platoons arrive at a given rendezvous by a specified time. An experimental study has been conducted to evaluate MokSAF and the assistance provided by one of three different task agents, and the results summarized.
CommuterNews: a prototype of persuasive in-car entertainment BIBAFull-Text 24-25
  Jason Tester; BJ Fogg; Michael Maile
CommuterNews is a prototype of an in-car persuasive entertainment system developed by the Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler. The system presents daily news stories in the form of multiple-choice questions and short relevant sound clips selected from a standard broadcast story. By asking questions about the content before hearing the story, CommuterNews motivates the driver to actively engage themselves while gathering the news.

Demonstrations (video): multimodal, fish eyes & PDAs

The efficiency of multimodal interaction for a map-based task BIBAFull-Text 26-27
  Philip Cohen; David McGee; Josh Clow
This paper compares the efficiency of using a standard direct-manipulation graphical user interface (GUI) with that of using the QuickSet pen/voice multimodal interface for supporting a military task. In this task, a user places military units and control measures (e.g., various types of lines, obstacles, objectives) on a map. Four military personnel designed and entered their own simulation scenarios via both interfaces. Analyses revealed that the multimodal interface led to a 3 to 4-fold speed improvement in the average entity creation time, including all error handling. Time to repair errors also was significantly faster when interacting multimodally. These results indicate a substantial efficiency advantage for multimodal over GUI-based interaction during map-based tasks.
HishiMochi: a zooming browser for hierarchically clustered documents BIBAFull-Text 28-29
  Masashi Toyoda; Etsuya Shibayama
We propose a novel browser, HishiMochi, for searching and browsing hierarchically clustered documents. HishiMochi visualizes a hierarchy of clusters and documents as nested rectangles with multi-focus distortion views and animation. It provides suitable views for various search phases, by dynamically changing the DOI (Degree of Interest) function. Using HishiMochi, the user can easily search multiple target documents scattered in the hierarchy, and seamlessly browse their contents in a few operations.
Capstone design at the University of Washington: user interfaces for portable devices BIBAFull-Text 30-31
  Gaetano Borriello
A principal component of the undergraduate Computer Engineering program at the University of Washington is a capstone design course that integrates the students' past foundational coursework by having them take a project from concept to prototype. Each offering of the course organizes the projects around a different theme. For the winter 1998 edition, the focus was on user interfaces for portable devices. The video that accompanies this paper highlights ten of these projects, completed within the span of an 11-week quarter, in the form of approximately 30-second vignettes that show each device in use.

Development consortium

The development consortium: beyond the desktop BIBAFull-Text 32
  Ian McClelland
Each year, the Development Consortium sets out to look at the issues and directions that the HCI community and SIGCHI should develop in the coming years. For CHI 2000 the theme is "Beyond the Desktop"; the extraordinary growth of computer based devices and services world-wide that are becoming embedded in the way we live:
  • telecommunications and portable computing aids
  • home entertainment and automation
  • e-commerce and the networked home
  • personal and public transport systems
  • financial services
  • community health service People wishing to participate were invited to submit position papers that were reviewed. Sixteen position papers were accepted and can be found in this volume.
  • HeartCare housecalls: delivering web-based health informatics without desktops BIBAFull-Text 33-34
      Barrett S. Caldwell; Michelle Rogers
    In this paper, we describe issues regarding the design of non-desktop interfaces for health informatics information exchange. These issues can be described as "at the screen" CHI issues, and the potentially more critical "beyond the screen" issues of the social context of technology development.
    Beyond the desktop: diversity and artistry BIBAFull-Text 35-36
      Alan, II Turner; Lucy T. Nowell
    Two key challenges will rapidly change the character of computing: the growing divergence of computer platforms and the increasing use of rich media in engaging users. As human-computer interaction (HCI) professionals, we must consider the difficulties of designing systems that will run on both tiny hand-held devices and large wall displays. We must also keep in mind that the emerging generation of users not only expects but demands that systems be engaging, entertaining, and contain a variety of media types. The role of artists and media professionals on software development teams will increase and the skills of these team members will be necessary to deliver the values, esthetics, and overall quality of experience that future systems require.
    Conversational integration of multimedia and multimodal interaction BIBAFull-Text 37-38
      Ulrike Spierling
    Information systems are getting the majority of all computer applications -- and at an ever increasing rate. By including multimedia, video and VR in information systems, people can build upon the fundamentals for presenting content in an easy to comprehend and compelling way in the same way they use television and film technology.
       There is a need for new methods of development and for tools that support application building by non-programmers in a "storytelling" way, considering human-centered interaction techniques rather than known paradigms of the virtual desktop.
       In an example of a virtual trade show booth application, a user conversation with the information system has been conceived, and new concepts of user interface design by "Digital Storytelling" are evaluated.
    Office environments for CSCW in design and architecture BIBAFull-Text 39-40
      Barbara Freiberger; Dieter Mankau; Wolfgang Muller
    In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for office environments with the focus on the rapidly changing work processes in the fields of design and architecture. The proposed environment supports the dynamic modification of teams, the mobility of the whole system, and the interaction possibilities with others with the aid of new technological developments and the segmentation of a projected desktop. We suggest additional workflow components (with appropriate visualization techniques), which support the user in the processes of design and communication.
    Novel user interface technologies and conversational user interfaces for information appliances BIBAFull-Text 41-42
      Norbert Gerfelder; Ulrike Spierling; Wolfgang Muller
    The metaphor of a 'desktop' as a user interface was useful for the migration from mainframe applications to personal computers. But it must be re-evaluated when thinking about new concepts and implementations of user interfaces for modern working and home environments, especially mobile applications. The departure from tools that enable the user to directly manipulate content towards intelligent agent-based applications suggests a shift of paradigms. We propose a new generation of user interfaces extending the widely accepted WIMP metaphor by anthropomorphous user interface agents, conversational user interface elements, the inclusion of mobile information appliances, and appropriate multimodal interaction techniques. Initial prototype systems following this line have been successfully developed. In strategic projects with alliances of research and industry, these technologies will be further advanced into first products in the areas of mobile multimedia offices and electronic multimedia service and operation assistants.
    Beyond the desktop: and into your vehicle BIBAFull-Text 43-44
      David J. Wheatley
    Interaction with computer based systems long since moved out of the domain of the professional user in the office environment. But now neither is it solely the domain of the naive but motivated user in the home and office environment. Such interaction with complex applications and services is moving beyond the desktop and into everyday life. New challenges exist in the development of the whole user experience for mobile products, such as cellphones and especially for telematics products. The new product category of in-vehicle infotainment products presents some quite different and specific challenges to the user experience designer.
    Trust in design BIBAFull-Text 45-46
      Stephen Marsh; John Meech
    We argue that trust is an important aspect in how people make use of computers, and that designing interfaces which take trust into account and reason using trust will result in more effective, comfortable interactions for the user. One method that may provide results is the encouragement of anthropomorphism on the part of the user. Trust and anthropomorphism will play a large role in many areas, including notably e-commerce and home entertainment.
    Environmental interfaces: HomeLab BIBAFull-Text 47-48
      Chad Burkey
    Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) have become the standard way in which we interact with our computers and over the years and have greatly improved our computers' usability. However, as computational power becomes increasingly ubiquitous and becomes part of the environment around us, we find ourselves reaching the useful limits of the GUI. These limits are even more pronounced in new environments like the home where many of the tasks we need to perform would be difficult, inefficient, and awkward using a GUI. In an effort to develop a natural, intuitive interface for the home, we are developing a project called HomeLab, which is an agent-based, adaptive, sensing and responding home environment. This project represents a new breed of interface called an "environmental interface." We feel environmental interfaces are more natural because they more closely resemble the physical, social "interface" humans interact with in their daily lives. Fundamentally, environmental interfaces abandon the idea of a single concentrated interface such as we might associate with a computer screen, and instead treat the whole environment (a home in our example) as the interface, seamless and immediate. Not only do appliances, screens, chairs, etc. all act as input and output devices but the house itself is a distributed system of agents responding to us. Our former notions of interfaces were narrow and centralized in space because our computers were. In the age of ubiquitous computing the interface should be distributed and ubiquitous.
    Bringing text input beyond the desktop BIBAFull-Text 49-50
      Christina James; Michael Longe
    This paper describes the T9 Text Input product (T9), which can be used by small device designers to meet the text-entry needs of diverse populations of users. Examples are provided illustrating how this technology has been applied to Chinese text input and to augmentative and alternative communication (AAC).
    Active environments: sensing and responding to groups of people BIBAFull-Text 51-52
      Joseph F. McCarthy
    Most environments are passive -- deaf, dumb and blind, unaware of their inhabitants and unable to assist them in a meaningful way. However, with the advent of ubiquitous computing -- ever smaller, cheaper and faster computational devices embedded in a growing variety of "smart" objects -- it is becoming increasingly possible to create active environments: physical spaces that can sense and respond appropriately to the people and activities taking place within them. Most of the early UbiComp applications focus on how individuals interact with their environments as they work on foreground tasks. In contrast, this paper focuses on how groups of people affect and are affected by background aspects of their environments.
    Magic Home: exploiting the duality between the physical and the virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 53-54
      Dadong Wan
    In this paper, we present a concept prototype, called Magic Home, which illustrates what the shopping experience will be like in the new world of the hybrid reality -- a seamless integration of the physical and the virtual worlds. We introduce the concept of buyer context, and demonstrate that, by exploiting the portability and manipulability of the virtual world and, at the same time, preserving the immediateness of the physical world, we can bridge the context gaps in shopping and, as a result, achieve a new level of shopping experience.
    Context-sensitive eCommerce BIBAFull-Text 55-56
      Kelly L. Dempski
    Physical commerce has existed for thousands of years. Although the Internet is a relatively recent phenomenon, electronic commerce conducted over the Internet represents an increasing proportion of all commercial transactions. We believe that the most significant benefits to commerce can be realized through augmented commerce, a combination of the best of physical and electronic commerce worlds. In particular, we believe that ideas from the area of augmented reality, involving see-through head-mounted displays, can provide considerably more context in purchasing decisions than is possible using a desktop browser. This richer context enables more informed decisions and will lead to significantly greater levels of online transactions.
    Accessibility of telecommunications services BIBAFull-Text 57-58
      Martin Maguire
    This paper considers the problem of whether older users will be able to benefit from the new range of telecommunications and Internet services.
    The intelligent thermostat: a mixed-initiative user interface BIBAFull-Text 59-60
      D. V. Keyson; M. P. A. J. de Hoogh; A. Freudenthal; A. P. O. S. Vermeeren
    Recent advances in approaches to mixed-initiative user interfaces for desktop applications provide a number of principles, which can be used to embed intelligence in consumer products. An integration of several approaches is proposed towards building an intelligent thermostat that can reduce energy consumption. A statistical model is used to spot trends in living patterns and make suggestions. An embedded task model, containing product usage patterns, can infer user intentions and serves as input to a dialog manager. Future work includes field-testing of the prototype and concepts in residential homes.
    Beyond product usability: user satisfaction and quality management BIBAFull-Text 61-62
      Marcin Sikorski
    This paper presents an innovative concept for multicriteria analysis of interactive product quality, aimed to expand traditional evaluation scope far beyond usability. This approach is based on a model of user satisfaction, derived from "quality tree" representing hierarchy of benefits expected by the user from the product usage. AHP technique supports user-centered decision making and product quality evaluation, opening new opportunities for quality assurance programs in software domain.
    Information appliance design at Sun Microsystems BIBAFull-Text 63-64
      Mike Mohageg; Eric Bergman
    In this paper, we outline some of the design considerations driving the approach used by the consumer products user experience team at Sun Microsystems. These include simplification, accounting for the usage domain, and the claim that dedicated devices require dedicated user interfaces.

    Doctoral consortium

    The missing link: multimedia and e-commerce BIBAFull-Text 65-66
      Fabio Nemetz
    The growing presence of e-commerce has not yet been grounded on sound and systematic research in human-computer interaction. The purpose of this research is to develop principles for the design and evaluation of effective and usable multimedia e-commerce applications. It has already identified generic multimedia features to be further developed into principles, through empirical work.
    Communication and coordination through public and private representations in control rooms BIBAFull-Text 67-68
      Christer Garbis
    The design of control room systems often fail, because applications do not provide sufficient support for the extended, and sophisticated, communication and coordination mechanisms used by the operators. Based on the distributed cognition framework, the concepts of public and private representations are developed in order to better understand how various computerized artifacts can support communication and co-ordination in teams engaged in process control. The findings, based on two field studies, indicate that the importance of public representations in control rooms has not always been fully understood or been taken into account in the design of control room systems.
    An empirical investigation of boundaries to virtual public discourse structure BIBAFull-Text 69-70
      Quentin Jones
    'Virtual publics' are a type of computer mediated discourse space created by using various technologies including email, the USENET, web based bulletin boards, IRC, MUDS, etc. [3]. This paper outlines on-going field research into the boundaries to interactive virtual public discourse. In particular, it describes research aimed at mapping such boundaries via analysis of millions of user contributions to over one thousand USENET and LISTSERV based virtual publics. This effort will provide data that can be used to derive rules for the segmentation of interactive discussion groups. Such rules are of importance to those interested in the usability of computer mediated communication technologies. However, in this case usability refers to a group level concept.
    Validating effective design knowledge for re-use: HCI engineering design principles BIBAFull-Text 71-72
      Stephen Cummaford
    There is a need for more formal HCI design knowledge, such that effective design knowledge may be specified in a format which facilitates re-use. A conception of Engineering Design Principles (EDPs) is presented, as a framework within which to systematically relate design knowledge to performance. It is argued that the specification of these relations supports validation, leading to a higher likelihood that application of an EDP to an appropriate design problem will result in a satisfactory design solution. A hierarchy of classes of design problem is presented, and discussed in context of the ongoing research project.
    Design principles for non-visual interaction BIBAFull-Text 73-74
      Ben Challis
    There is a tendency for software designers to create visually dominated computer interfaces. The concept of the graphical user interface (GUI) is so deeply ingrained into our work and home environments that it is often perceived as being the logical basis for interaction in many applications. In certain circumstances it might be more productive to alleviate this visual dominance by an increased use of the haptic and auditory channels. An experimental application for the non-visual delivery of music notation to blind people is described. It is anticipated that the overall results of the study will contribute towards a set of design principles for the implementation of less visually dependant interfaces.
    Search history for user support in information-seeking interfaces BIBAFull-Text 75-76
      Anita Komlodi
    The research overview described focuses on the design of search history displays to support information seeking (IS). It examines users' IS activities, current and potential use of histories, and building on this theoretical framework, assesses prototype interfaces that integrate these histories into search systems. Preliminary results described indicate search history use in coordinated work, mental model building, and end user IS strategies. Searchers create and use external records of their actions and the corresponding results by writing/typing notes, using copy and paste functions, and making printouts. Recording user actions and results in computerized systems automates this process, and enables the creation of search history displays that support users in their IS. Existing systems provide search history capabilities, however these often do not offer enough flexibility for users. Legal information has been selected as the domain for the research.
    Providing integrated toolkit-level support for ambiguity in recognition-based interfaces BIBAFull-Text 77-78
      Jennifer Mankoff
    Recognition technologies are being used extensively in both the commercial and research worlds. But recognizers are still error-prone, and this results in performance problems and brittle dialogues. These problems are a barrier to acceptance and usefulness of recognition systems. Better interfaces to recognition systems, which can help to reduce the burden of recognition errors, are difficult to build because of lack of knowledge about the ambiguity inherent in recognition. We have extended a user interface toolkit in order to model and to provide structured support for ambiguity at the input event level [7]. This makes it possible to build re-usable interface components for resolving ambiguity and dealing with recognition errors. These interfaces can help to reduce the negative effects of recognition errors. By providing these components at a toolkit level, we make it easier for application writers to provide good support for error handling. And we can explore new types of interfaces for resolving a more varied range of ambiguity.
    Enabling the use of context in interactive applications BIBAFull-Text 79-80
      Anind K. Dey
    Context is an important, yet poorly understood and poorly utilized source of information in interactive computing. It will be of particular importance in the new millennium as users move away from their desktops and into settings where their contexts are changing rapidly. Context is difficult to use because, unlike other forms of user input, there is no common, reusable way to handle it. As a result, context-aware applications have been built in an ad hoc manner, making it difficult to build new applications or evolve existing ones. In this research, we are examining the requirements of context-aware applications, building a toolkit, which enables the use of context and fulfills these requirements, and testing the usability of this toolkit for application designers.
    Extending usability inspection techniques for collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 81-82
      Jill Drury
    Collaborative computer systems are in widespread use, but relatively little is known about how to evaluate their usability. My research focuses on extending usability inspection techniques for evaluating collaborative systems, using an iterative empirical approach. I am also looking for patterns in characteristics of collaborative systems that could provide guidance regarding the type of evaluation method that would be best applied to a given system. This project will add techniques, as well as guidance for using them, to the interactive software designer's toolkit, to help ensure that usable collaborative systems are delivered to the customer.
    Understanding algorithms through shared metaphors BIBAFull-Text 83-84
      Teresa Hubscher Younger
    User interface designers often face the problem of generating the appropriate metaphor to explain and facilitate unfamiliar, abstract processes. Determining what are the characteristics of metaphors that promote understanding abstract processes is difficult. My doctoral research studies this question by exploring what metaphors undergraduate-students use in understanding abstract processes, specifically computer algorithms, and what are the characteristics of those metaphors.
       I am also studying how these metaphors are used in a collaborative learning situation using a collaboration tool I am building. This tool helps students learn collaboratively through communicating their understanding with self-generated representations. This system will capture what metaphors the students are using, their communication concerning these metaphors and their ratings of each other's metaphors.
    The web in high school science teaching: constructing a technology in practice BIBAFull-Text 85-86
      Raven McCrory Wallace
    The Internet is becoming omnipresent as a resource for K-12 education. Teachers are a diverse set of users who must incorporate this resource into ongoing practice. Research on using the Internet in classrooms is lagging far behind deployment, and teachers are left to their own devices to figure out what works. Using case studies of three teachers, this study considers the work of teaching with the Internet as a site for understanding the challenges and problems teachers experience as they incorporate the Internet into their high school science teaching. Challenges include figuring out how to fit the Internet into the curriculum and finding time to do so; managing a new kind of discourse around Web sites; and establishing ways to hold students accountable for their work and to evaluate what they do. This research is aimed at informing system designers who provide technologies for teachers and teacher educators who prepare teachers to meet these challenges.
    A model for virtual intelligent libraries BIBAFull-Text 87-88
      Guadalupe Munoz Martin
    As the Internet and particularly the WWW (World Wide Web) expands, the need for tools to find useful information is becoming more and more pressing. Digital libraries are proving to be more suitable for managing web information than current search engines. The objective of this research is to model an architecture for digital libraries aimed at enhancement of access to documents accessible via web in two different ways. Providing a personalised acquisition and cataloguing system, and supplying a virtual reality user interface that may allow a more simple access to the system.
    Adapting to change in complex work environments BIBAFull-Text 89-90
      John R. Hajdukiewicz
    The purpose of this research is to look at the problem of how to design human-computer interfaces that help people adapt to novelty and change in complex work environments. An experimental investigation will be conducted using DURESS II, a thermal-hydraulic microworld simulation environment, controlled by human operators. Participants will use one of two different interfaces to control the process system, developed using different design principles. They will be given a great deal of practice controlling the system, and then their ability to achieve the system goals in the face of several different kinds of changes will be examined. The results will be analyzed using measures that assess adaptive performance, coupling to the work environment, and stability.
    Augmented reality displays for endoscopic orientation and navigation BIBAFull-Text 91-92
      Caroline G. L. Cao
    In endoscopy, where access to the operative site is limited, endoscopic manipulation is guided by the restricted view of the operative site displayed on a video monitor. When the displayed anatomy is not immediately distinguished by any recognisable features or landmarks, or when the image is rotated with respect to the surgeon's perspective of the operative site, surgeons often become disoriented. The objectives of this research are to examine cognitive factors related to spatial disorientation in endoscopic manipulation, to determine the informational requirements of the surgeon to effectively perform mental rotations and mappings, and, to augment the endoscopic display with this information to facilitate navigation and orientation during endoscopy.
    Consumer-centered interfaces: customizing online travel planning BIBAFull-Text 93-94
      Adriana Jurca
    A large number of online reservation systems exist currently on the Web. They all share the same implementation approach: the user has to input his/her travel preferences then choose from existing possibilities. The consumer, reduced to a passive observer, has no contribution to the search process and also no help from the system in deciding the best solution. My work is proposing new tools for improving the facilities offered by the online reservation systems. The customers, identified with active users, are involved in useful interactions with the systems. Three main steps are proposed for achieving this goal: trip configuration, tools for tradeoff and decision support and interface customization.
    Users' models of the internet BIBAFull-Text 95-96
      Louise Sheeran
    The number of Internet users is currently growing by more than 100 per cent per year, creating a large number of novice and intermediate users. Many of these users experience problems recovering from breakdown situations because their users' models of the Internet are inappropriate. This research aims to provide guidelines for Internet application design that supports users in constructing appropriate users' models of the Internet. It advocates the use of conceptual design and paying particular attention to the language used in the interface.

    Interactive posters

    Improved scroll bars BIBAFull-Text 97-98
      Sari A. Laakso; Karri-Pekka Laakso; Asko J. Saura
    In general, scroll bar designs are weak and do not offer adequate cognitive aids to help the user trying to form a mental model of the material. Several suggestions of better designs have been presented, and we have developed some of them further. In this paper, we present two components, an improved scroll bar with bookmarks and a calendar scroll bar, which we have implemented as reusable Java Beans.
    Effects of instant messaging interruptions on computing tasks BIBAFull-Text 99-100
      Edward B. Cutrell; Mary Czerwinski; Eric Horvitz
    This paper describes a study that probes the cost of interrupting users with instant messages during different phases of a computing task. We found that interrupting users during the "evaluation phase" of the task resulted in significantly longer completion times than interruptions in other phases. We also found that interruptions that were irrelevant to the task resulted in longer times to process the message and longer task resumption times than relevant messages. These initial results have implications for the principled design of intelligent interrupters and instant messages.
    "Trust me, I'm an online vendor": towards a model of trust for e-commerce system design BIBAFull-Text 101-102
      Florian N. Egger
    Consumers' lack of trust has often been cited as a major barrier to the adoption of electronic commerce (e-commerce). To address this problem, a model of trust was developed that describes what design factors affect consumers' assessment of online vendors' trustworthiness. Six components were identified and regrouped into three categories: Prepurchase Knowledge, Interface Properties and Informational Content. This model also informs the Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design of e-commerce systems in that its components can be taken as trust-specific high-level user requirements.
    Tech support engineers' communication in a chat tool BIBAFull-Text 103-104
      Eleanor T. Lewis
    Organizations are increasingly interested in facilitating collaboration in distributed groups. In this study, I examine three distributed groups of technical support engineers at a large high technology company who have integrated a real-time text chat tool into their work practice. Effective use of the chat tools in these three groups interacts with group norms and group structure. Highly collaborative group norms mean that people receive responses to questions in the chat tool. This decreases the need to know 'who knows what,' because members do not need to target their questions to receive a response. Members also adapt their use of the tool to reflect the group structure, specifically the roles within the group and the range of problems the group solves. Active participation by experts across sites increases the likelihood an individual will receive a useful answer to a question. Groups solving a bounded range of problems tend to use the tool for technical problem solving more than for workflow coordination.
    A vision-based pet robot interaction BIBAFull-Text 105-106
      Isao Mihara; Yasunobu Yamauchi; Miwako Doi
    We developed a new vision-based interface that can detect the human motion and control a pet robot interaction system. This vision-based interface is composed of the "Motion Processor (MP)" and the "Region Of Interest (ROI)". The MP is a new image input device. The MP can exclude background part and capture only the object's shape, motion and depth information in real time. The ROI is a concept in order to distinguish objects in a captured image. For detecting the ROI, the proposed method used depth information of the captured image and offered a fast and robust searching method. It enables the MP to sense a variety of object's shapes, motions, positions and so on. Therefore, our vision-based interface using the MP with the ROI can easily recognize object's motions as effective computer eyes. The user can interact with the pet robot (constructed by LEGO MINDSTORMS) using this vision-based interface.
    Animated products as a navigation aid for e-commerce BIBAFull-Text 107-108
      Luca Chittaro; Paolo Coppola
    Virtual Reality (VR) interfaces to e-commerce sites promise to make the e-shopping experience more natural, attractive, and fun for buyers. In this paper, we first briefly introduce the navigation problem, then we propose a novel navigation aid to help customers of VR stores in finding products. The proposed aid is based on 3D animated products which guide the customer towards her/his destination, and can also take into account the merchandising strategy of the store.
    A wearable authoring system using organized multimedia data BIBAFull-Text 109-110
      Kazushige Ouchi; Yoshihiro Ohmori; Soichiro Matsushita; Miwako Doi
    We developed a wearable authoring system which can record a variety of multimedia data and automatically generate daily reports and personal diary. A user can record multimedia data by context sensor without using keyboard or mouse. Recorded multimedia data are indexed and organized by recognizing spoken key words and voice annotations. Using these organized multimedia data, the system can automatically generate daily reports and statistical charts in real time without editing.
    Supporting opportunistic communication in mobile settings BIBAFull-Text 111-112
      Per Dahlberg; Fredrik Ljungberg; Johan Sanneblad
    Proxy Lady is a mobile system for informal, opportunistic face-to-face communication, running on a PDA equipped with a radio transceiver. We describe the system and some preliminary evaluation results.
    Distance education via IP videoconferencing: results from a national pilot project BIBAFull-Text 113-114
      Anna Watson; M. Angela Sasse
    Internet Protocol (IP)-based videoconferencing technology can offer a low-cost means of collaboration and resource sharing on a national or global scale. This is potentially of interest to many users, especially in non-profit sectors such as education and healthcare. However, it has been questioned whether a best-effort network service can provide the reliability and quality required to support teaching and learning activities. To evaluate the technology, a 9-month pilot project of distributed teaching activities between 13 UK universities was set up. We present and discuss the issues involved in gathering and analysing data in a large-scale project with real users engaged in learning activities. The results suggest that incorrect equipment set-up and user behaviours cause most of the perceived problems, rather than network irregularities.
    Presentation agents for speech user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 115-116
      Jaakko Hakulinen; Markku Turunen
    In this paper we introduce a presentation agent framework for speech applications. In this framework presentation agents are used to produce dynamic, adaptive and prosody rich speech outputs. Using this framework in our speech-only e-mail reader we have been able to handle multilingual issues and support different user groups. Our goal is to build unique computer 'voices' to make speech outputs more intelligible and pleasant for the users.
    The head or the heart?: measuring the impact of media quality BIBAFull-Text 117-118
      Gillian M. Wilson; M. Angela Sasse
    The number of multimedia applications is constantly increasing. Subjective methods are typically used to determine the level of media quality required in applications, yet recent findings have shown that these have limitations. This paper introduces an objective method for assessing media quality -- measuring physiological indicators of stress. An experiment examining the impact of video frame rate is presented. With low frame rates, physiological measurements indicated that users were under strain, even though subjectively most reported no differences between low and high frame rates. We conclude that the evaluation of media quality should not be conducted using solely subjective methods.
    Direct manipulation of parallel coordinates BIBAFull-Text 119-120
      Harri Siirtola
    This paper proposes the direct manipulation of parallel coordinates and introduces two novel techniques to manipulate them. The polyline averaging makes it possible to summarize dynamically a set of polylines, and the other technique visualizes correlation coefficients between polyline subsets. Both techniques were implemented on a Java-based parallel coordinate browser.
    NewsMate: providing mobile and distributed news journalists with timely information BIBAFull-Text 121-122
      Henrik Fagrell; Kerstin Forsberg; Erik Johannesson; Fredrik Ljungberg
    We describe a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) based CSCW system called NewsMate, which provides mobile and distributed news journalists with timely information.
    ComCenter: a person oriented approach to mobile communication BIBAFull-Text 123-124
      Jens Bergqvist; Fredrik Ljungberg
    The paper describes the rationale and design of ComCenter: a client/server based system for allowing WAP (Wireless Application Protocol) enabled mobile phones to become an integrated part of a company's communication network. Using person orientation, cross channel consistency and network access transparency, ComCenter realizes an activity based computing approach to mobile communication.
    Simple interfaces to complex sound in improvised music BIBAFull-Text 125-126
      John Bowers; Sten Olof Hellstrom
    We describe some interaction design principles and two interactive algorithms for the transformation of user-input from simple low degree of freedom (DOF) devices to support the synthesis of sound in music improvisation. We offer 'algorithmically mediated interaction' as an alternative to direct manipulation (DM) to describe auditory interfaces of this sort. A short performance complements this paper.
    Scenario-based evaluation of loosely-integrated collaborative systems BIBAFull-Text 127-128
      Laurie Damianos; Jill Drury; Tari Fanderclai; Lynette Hirschman; Jeff Kurtz; Beatrice Oshika
    We applied a scenario-based evaluation and data collection method to a set of loosely-integrated collaborative tools, which were in development. We learned several lessons about the interdependence of scenario development, training constraints, and tool capabilities. Testing a set of tools revealed usability issues we would not have seen by testing each tool in isolation. Our effort was the first to apply the Evaluation Working Group (EWG) methodology (described below) to a set of collaborative tools.
    The quest for the last 5%: interfaces for correcting real-time speech-generated subtitles BIBAFull-Text 129-130
      Andi Bateman; Jill Hewitt; Aladdin Ariyaeeinia; Perasiriyan Sivakumaran; Andrew Lambourne
    This paper relates to ongoing work in relation to the creation of live television subtitles by speaking them. It describes an editing interface which has been developed to rapidly correct errors produced by the speech recogniser.
    Usability remote evaluation for WWW BIBAFull-Text 131-132
      Marco A. A. Winckler; Carla M. D. S. Freitas; Jose Valdeni de Lima
    In the last few years many remote methods have been proposed for usability evaluation. For evaluation of WWW interfaces, remote methods present some advantages over traditional ones. In general, they are cheaper and faster than the traditional ones due to the fact that neither users nor evaluators need to move to take part in the tests. However, they fail to provide more accurate data for usability analysis. This paper presents a faster and low cost method for WWW evaluation that provides better data for analysis. The novelty of this method is due to the merging of tracking of users' actions and subjective information provided through questionnaires in the same evaluation tool.
    HyperPalette: a hybrid computing environment for small computing devices BIBAFull-Text 133-134
      Yuji Ayatsuka; Nobuyuki Matsushita; Jun Rekimoto
    A hybrid computing environment is described that uses small computing devices, such as PDAs (Personal Data Assistants), and a "computerized table". 3D sensors are installed in the environment and also attached to the user's PDA, so that the PDA can act as a flexible interaction device for the computerized table. The user can transfer data between the PDA and computerized table by using a specific operation on his/her PDA, and use new interaction techniques, such as scoop-and-spread. The user can also grab and move an object on the table by using the PDA.
    Age difference in the use of an on-line grocery shop: implications for design BIBAFull-Text 135-136
      Marie Sjolinder; Kristina Höök; Lars Goran Nilsson
    Navigation in hypermedia is a difficult task, and more so for some than for others. We have studied age differences in completing shopping tasks in a hierarchical on-line grocery store. Our results revealed that the elderly subjects needed twice as much time as the younger subjects to purchase the products. Furthermore, the elderly subjects had difficulties in finding their way back to products they have previously visited. We propose that design of on-line stores should take into account how elderly learn and navigate physical spaces. Through enhancing the process of creating personal landmarks and memory cues, elderly might find the on-line shopping experience both easier and subjectively less time consuming.
    Bridging reality and virtuality in vocational training BIBAFull-Text 137-138
      Kai Schmudlach; Eva Hornecker; Hauke Ernst; F. Wilhelm Bruns
    This article describes work and results of BREVIE, a project aimed at designing and evaluating a new kind of environment for vocational training in pneumatics. It is based on the concept of graspable interfaces, which allow synchronous modelling in real and virtual worlds.
    Presenting spoken advice: information pull or push? BIBAFull-Text 139-140
      Geert de Haan
    This paper describes a usability experiment concerning the intrusive nature of spoken-out advice messages in situations that closely resemble conferences, generated by an intelligent agent system (COMRIS) on the basis of context information and personal interest profiles. The results indicate that pushing spoken information may not be appropriate and information-pull is preferred.
    Overcoming unusability: developing efficient strategies in speech recognition systems BIBAFull-Text 141-142
      John Karat; Daniel B. Horn; Christine A. Halverson; Clare Marie Karat
    This paper describes changes in user error correction strategies over time in the use of large vocabulary desktop automatic speech recognition (ASR) systems. Users with minimal practice with such systems were found to have considerable difficulty with error correction [1,2]. Users with more extensive use were found to have improved overall performance compared to initial use subjects. This is attributed to development of multimodal strategies for error correction rather than to significantly improved speech recognition rates or use of speech-based error correction techniques. These results point to the importance of multimodal interaction in the acceptance of speech recognition technology.
    Qualitative usability measurement of websites by employing the repertory grid technique BIBAFull-Text 143-144
      Jouke C. Verlinden; Marc J. J. Coenders
    In this paper, we describe some initial work on measuring the subjective or qualitative usability aspects of websites. Our main motivation is to facilitate the human ability to compare parts of a website.
    Text in 3D: some legibility results BIBAFull-Text 145-146
      Kevin Larson; Maarten van Dantzich; Mary Czerwinski; George Robertson
    3D user interfaces for productivity applications often display object labels or whole documents in arrangements where the text is rotated instead of screen aligned. Rotating a document sideways saves screen real estate while allowing inspection of the document's content. This paper reports on an initial reading speed study of text rotated around a vertical axis and manipulated in size. We found that with sufficient rendering quality small text can be substantially rotated before reading performance suffers, and large text legibility is nearly unaffected by rotation. The empirically derived guidelines we present are the first published for 3D text and important for the design of 3D information visualizations.
    Using rough sets to determine construct importance in a dynamic HCI environment BIBAFull-Text 147-148
      Michael D. Coovert; Dawn Riddle; Linda R. Elliot; Samuel G. Schiflett
    Rough set analysis is used as a methodology to identify the relative importance of variables for individuals who interact with various computer and other display and communication systems aboard Airborne Warning and Control Systems (AWACS). A goal of the analysis is to determine optimal information display and interpersonal interaction strategies to minimize workload and maximize coordination among team members, including intelligent agents. Rough sets analysis yielded the rank order of importance of 15 variables on three constructs (individual experience, personality, team process) for each of three different types of AWACS operators.
    Kits for learning and a kit for kitmaking BIBAFull-Text 149-150
      Carol Strohecker; Adrienne Slaughter
    We bring together concerns in software design and learning theory through creation of a Java framework for development of software construction kits. The kits are highly visual and highly interactive, and are premised on the notion of "microworlds" as environments for learning and learning research [6]. Usage of four existing kits is informing development of the framework, which in turn we are applying to development of a new kit. The kits support construction of two-dimensional, graphical structures that behave in characteristic ways when activated. We employ design heuristics of "object permanence," "transparency," and use of multiple simultaneous views to illustrate shifts of scale, perspective, time, and representation. Broader use of the general "Kit4Kits" will help us address viability of our "elements and operations" design approach.
    Role of memory in email management BIBAFull-Text 151-152
      Sasha Jovicic
    In this paper, we describe an interface designed to manage large amounts of email. We discuss the inadequacies of present methods for managing email and provide rationale for our approach. We focus on relevant memory literature and its implications for design. Finally, we provide some directions for future work.
    "Intelligent" team decision making BIBAFull-Text 153-154
      Lori L. Foster; Michael D. Coovert
    This study investigates the effects of an intelligent agent's participation during team decision making. We compare intelligent agents and knowledgeable humans in terms of their relative influences over team judgments. Results indicate that intelligent agents exert disproportionate amounts of influence, even when they provide poor recommendations. Agents appear to have subtle influences over team discussions and subsequent decisions, and these effects are not always obvious to human team members.
    PhoneMan: the benefits of personal call histories BIBAFull-Text 155-156
      David Millen; Don Henderson
    In the PhoneMan research project we are exploring IP-based telephony control, new telephony interfaces, and non-traditional ways of merging telephony, messaging and alerting. The PhoneMan application allows complete control and monitoring of an ISDN desktop phone from a local PC and remotely from the web. Current features include enhanced screen pops, which can be configured to query local or remote directories, including corporate directories and public white page services, and email call notification, which allows remote call alerting, call logging and active management of personal call histories. User reactions to the initial release of this application, based on in-person interviews and a web-based survey, reveal the novel use of email call logs as active call reminders and email messages as phone event triggers.
    Physics-based graphical keyboard design BIBAFull-Text 157-158
      Michael Hunter; Shumin Zhai; Barton A. Smith
    Built upon the Fitts' law and digraph model developed by MacKenzie and colleague [2, 3], we introduce two physics-based methods to graphical keyboard design. One method uses physical simulation of digraph springs and the other uses the Metropolis method. Both methods produced keyboard layouts comparable to or better than existing best designs by manual trial and error methods. We also corrected an error in previous predictions and concluded that the upper bound performance of a graphical keyboard should be at 40 to 44 wpm. The effect of varying key size and the use of multiple space keys are discussed.
    Streaming thumbnails: combining low resolution navigation and RSVP displays BIBAFull-Text 159-160
      D. T. Lawton; E. J. Feigin
    We introduce Streaming Thumbnails (STs), which combine RSVP displays and low-resolution thumbnails to enable reading complex documents in very limited areas. STs improve browsing because detailed textual information can be accessed from a thumbnail without viewing a document at full resolution. STs improve RSVP reading because they provide context and navigation control. Streaming Thumbnails are directly applicable for viewing documents and web pages on hand held PDAs.
    Strategic approach to computer literacy BIBAFull-Text 161-162
      Suresh K. Bhavnani
    Despite experience, many users do not progress from a basic use of computer applications to a more efficient use. To address this problem, we designed a strategic approach to training which focused on teaching efficient strategies in addition to commands. A controlled experiment which compared this approach to traditional command-based instruction revealed that some strategies indeed require explicit training before they are learned. However, others are automatically acquired just by learning commands, and yet others may require more practice than we anticipated. These results have direct implications to instructional design. Because the strategic approach took the same time to teach as the traditional approach but did not harm learning of commands, it offers a promising alternative to command-based instruction.
    Timely reminders: a case study of temporal guidance in PIM and email tools usage BIBAFull-Text 163-164
      Jacek Gwizdka
    We describe our research in progress that explores the use of personal information management (PIM) tools in time and attempts to establish temporal attributes of information. We report on a short field study undertaken to examine relations between tools and information life-cycle. We propose four information types: prospective, ephemeral, working and retrospective. We outline relationships between PIM tools, email and different types of information. We use this framework to explain problems observed with handling information.
    How large should a digital desk be?: qualitative results of a comparative study BIBAFull-Text 165-166
      Ame Elliott; Marti A. Hearst
    Qualitative results are presented of a user study comparing a large digital desk with stylus, a digital tablet with stylus, and a standard monitor and mouse. Participants split preferences over the desk and the tablet for a sketching task, but generally preferred the monitor and mouse for an image sorting task. Participants did not object to the relatively lower resolution of the images on the digital desk. Several participants found the surface of the desk to be too large and the tablet to be too small, suggesting that either an intermediate size display is preferable, or that interfaces designed for large work surfaces should focus on putting primary information near the user and less important information in the periphery.
    A non-invasive computer vision system for reliable eye tracking BIBAFull-Text 167-168
      Antonio Haro; Irfan Essa; Myron Flickner
    Knowing what the user is attending to and what they are looking at is essential for creating attentive user interfaces. Towards this end, we are building a reliable, real-time, non-invasive eye tracker using computer vision. Our system can robustly locate and track eyes without any calibration, and estimate the user's focus of attention. We have built several higher-level processes on top of this tracking system and have done some user studies to test the viability of our approach.
    Breaking-up is hard to do: partitioning information (or not) in over-the-phone, speech-recognition interactions BIBAFull-Text 169-170
      Christopher Blade Kotelly; Philippe Farhi; Michael D. Ahnemann
    In a controlled study, subjects using over-the-phone speech-recognition systems delivering multiple pieces of distinct information preferred the breakup of the presentation of information into multiple blocks (that is, the user heard some information, then elected to hear more) than having it presented it all at once. However, when all the pieces of information considered to be of equivalent importance were presented in a single block, this resulted in the increase in the perceived speed of the system, but a decreased perception of the friendliness of the system.
    Achieving usability through software architectural styles BIBAFull-Text 171-172
      Len Bass; Bonnie E. John
    Design decisions at the architecture level can have far-reaching effects on the qualities of a computer system. Recent developments in software engineering link architectural styles to quality attribute analysis techniques to predict the effects of architectural design decisions on the eventual manifestation of quality. An Attribute-Based Architecture Style (ABAS) is a structured description of a particular software quality attribute, a particular architectural style, and the relevant qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Thus, it is a description that is meaningful to software engineers as they design or analyze proposed software architectures. We are producing a collection of ABASs that speak to the usability quality attribute. These ABASs will enable software engineers make early architectural design decisions that achieve specific usability functions.
    Agents as building-blocks for usability tests in multi-user 3D environments BIBAFull-Text 173-174
      Volker Paelke
    With the proliferation of virtual environments in real-world applications effective interface design and usability testing for virtual environments become increasingly important. Established design and test techniques from interactive system design like empirical evaluation can be applied to virtual environments, but their practical application encounters significant problems due to the special conditions of multi-user interaction. We describe an agent toolkit that simulates actions of other users to enable realistic tests with individual test subjects and without the need for extensive modification of the underlying application.
    Interfacing to the foot: apparatus and applications BIBAFull-Text 175-176
      Joseph A. Paradiso; Kai Yuh Hsiao; Ari Benbasat
    We describe a system that we have developed to capture detailed, multimodal gesture expressed at the foot. It is embodied in a pair of shoes, each of which measures 16 degrees of freedom (tactile, inertial, positional). No tethers or wires are attached to the shoes; data is directly telemetered wirelessly off each foot to a remote base station and host computer, yielding full state updates at 50 Hz. This system, having evolved over 3 years, has been used for real-time expressive performance by a diverse set of artists, including gymnasts, jugglers, and dancers. Ongoing work is exploring the extraction of high-level podiatric gesture.
    Privacy and information integrity in wearable computing and ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 177-178
      Jennica Falk; Staffan Bjork
    Wearable and ubiquitous computing are two computing paradigms with different views on privacy and information integrity. We present terms that help provide a framework for understanding these, and describe a prototype device that combines attributes from both, challenging presumptions about these paradigms. By looking at narrow application areas, we argue that it is possible to find applications that merge wearable computing and ubiquitous computing.
    Shifting from "high fidelity" to "low fidelity" algorithm visualization technology BIBAFull-Text 179-180
      Christopher Hundhausen; Sarah Douglas
    Traditional algorithm visualization software supports the creation of "high fidelity" visualizations, which depict the target algorithm for arbitrary input, and have the polished look of textbook figures. Drawing on the findings of ethnographic studies we conducted in an undergraduate algorithms course, we have developed SALSA/ALVIS, a markedly different kind of algorithm visualization software that enables students to construct and present their own "low fidelity" visualizations. Unlike "high fidelity" visualizations, "low fidelity" visualizations depict the target algorithm for a few, carefully-selected input data sets, and have an unpolished look. In addition, they can be viewed both forwards and backwards, and dynamically marked up and modified, making them well-suited for mediating student-instructor discussions about algorithms.
    Successful user interface design from efficient computer algorithms BIBAFull-Text 181-182
      Gary Marsden; Harold Thimbleby; Matt Jones; Paul Gillary
    Exploiting standard computer science algorithms, we designed a more efficient user interface for a mobile phone. In experiments, the new design was found to be not only more efficient but preferred by users.
    The sense of physically crossing paths: creating a soft initiation in HyperMirror communication BIBAFull-Text 183-184
      Osamu Morikawa; Juli Yamashita; Yukio Fukui
    In this report we discuss adding a new sensor which allows the user to perceive changes in HyperMirror space. The sensation caused by the tactile displays allows the user to perceive other users' movements. The tactile signal is not intrusive, although it works to arouse attention. It is possible to immerse oneself in the HyperMirror conversation environment without paying constant attention to the screen.
    NEM: "novice expert ratio method" a usability evaluation method to generate a new performance measure BIBAFull-Text 185-186
      Haruhiko Urokohara; Kenichi Tanaka; Kazuyoshi Furuta; Michiyo Honda; Masaaki Kurosu
    NEM is a new evaluation method that generates a quantitative measure in terms of the usability of any specific system. In this method, at each step of the operational procedure in the situation of the usability testing, the ratio of time required for a novice user to that of an expert user is used to generate an NE ratio. The time required by the expert user is thought to represent the minimum time to operate the system. Hence, regardless of the absolute amount of time required by the user, the magnitude of the ratio can be regarded as a measure to represent the difficulty in using that system for the novice user. By applying this method to the evaluation of the car navigation system, it was confirmed that this method is quite useful in identifying the procedural step that has a usability problem.
    WAP: designing for small user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 187-188
      Albrecht Schmidt; Henning Schroder; Oliver Frick
    Current and upcoming WAP-capable mobile phones introduce new user interfaces where standard methods for application design often fail. Automated translation of HTML to WML produces screen layouts and input mechanisms that are often not useable on a mobile phone.
       In this paper we suggest a structured approach for building WAP application and in particular the development of the user interface. First we give a brief summary on the discriminating feature of a phone interface and on mechanisms to build applications on WAP devices. Then we provide guidelines on how to port from Web to WAP and how to develop WAP-Applications. We finally introduce the WAP application that led to our findings.
    Evaluation criteria for scaffolding in learner-centered tools BIBAFull-Text 189-190
      Chris Quintana; Eric Fretz; Joseph Krajcik; Elliot Soloway
    Learner-centered design (LCD) is a design approach for developing software that supports learners (i.e., work novices) to do and learn new work tasks. For our LCD process, we are focusing on evaluating scaffolding, i.e., features that support the doing (and in turn, the learning) of a task in a "learning by doing" fashion. To evaluate the role of scaffolding features on a learner's developing understanding, we present a set of evaluation criteria for distilling richer evaluation data about scaffolding. We will use these criteria to evaluate Symphony, a LCD tool for students learning the science inquiry process.
    Flicking through page-based documents with thumbnail sliders and electronic dog-ears BIBAFull-Text 191-192
      Aldo Hoeben; Pieter Jan Stappers
    Current interfaces for electronic page-based documents, such as books or magazines, offer support for navigation based on explicit reference (hyperlinks) or page-numbers. These methods don't resemble the view of page-content a reader has when browsing paper documents. In this paper we describe a method for navigation based on the coarse mental image readers have of a page they have seen before. We discuss experience from using two implementations and ongoing work on a Designer's Sketchbook, where the method is further developed.
    Enabling easy access to digital geographic information: SNIG's usability history BIBAFull-Text 193-194
      Fatima Bernardo; Joana Hipolito
    The National System for Geographic Information (SNIG) is available on the Interact (http://snig.cnig.pt) since 1995. In this Interactive Poster, we present the work that has been done to adequate SNIG interface to a wider range of professional and non-professional users.
    A 15 year path of usability development in Europe BIBAFull-Text 195-196
      Martin Maguire
    This paper presents, in summary form, the development and dissemination of usability ideas and methods in Europe as experienced via a series of European Commission supported projects. In briefly presenting the projects' achievements and outstanding issues, it mirrors some of the history of usability in a wider context. Thus it is intended to inform delegates, especially those from outside Europe, of some of the usability research and development activities that have taken place while at the same time raising questions that are still live.
    A bench for all moods BIBAFull-Text 197-198
      Antonietta Grasso; Alain Karsenty; Dave Snowdon
    At XRCE we explored a new type of interface, the CommunityWall, based on public large screen displays. A CommunityWall is an interactive device that monitors and collects information and comments from a group of people sharing a physical location, be it an office setting site or a neighbourhood in a town. The CommunityWall display device is a large screen with interaction features like pen based scribbling and touch-screen manipulation. Here we describe how to extend its functionality and embed it in public benches to support community awareness. The work originated by an internal reflection at XRCE about how to augment the work setting (comprising a beautiful park) with awareness support. While the CommunityWall application has been implemented and deployed for testing in a workgroup at XRCE, the bench is at the level of system design.

    Invited session: opening plenary

    Edge effects: the design challenge of the pervasive interface BIBAFull-Text 199-200
      John Thackara
    In biology they describe as 'the edge effect' the tendency for a greater variety and density of organisms to cluster in the boundaries between communities. As in nature, so too in a networked economy: variety, density and interaction are success factors. The trouble is that most of us work inside traditional environments, not between them -- in a company, profession, or university. Stuck in boxes, we miss what's going on at the edge. My talk at CHI is therefore about two edge developments that are transforming our work in fundamental ways: pervasive computing, and social agendas for innovation.

    Invited session: interactive services

    On-line TV viewing: a new consumer experience BIBAFull-Text 201
      Hendrik A. Harwig
    In addition to reviewing the technology trends in the TV world of consumer electronics, we will discuss how these developments will influence the consumer experience. The move from one-way TV viewing to interaction within a networked environment will require new ways of user system interaction.
       The paper will address the changes in merging the world of TV with multimedia content delivery:
  • The TV experience 'today'. 'Passive viewing' of broadcasters content.
       Consumers' expectations of the interface; reliable, simple to use, providing
       a social function.
  • Likely scenario's for further development; lean backward social interaction
       through the TV versus lean forward individual interaction with the PC,
  • The impact of digital technologies and IP becoming pervasive for transport,
       projections of how TV oriented services will grow, and the likely players in
       the change from traditional broadcasting to networked access for multimedia
       content delivery,
  • From 'just TV' to distributed home entertainment systems, to real two-way
       consumer communication and attractive e-commerce services,
  • Television viewing and accessibility of services becoming more personalized
       and pervasive through a variety of devices (TV, portable communication and
       entertainment devices like Personal Information Assistants). The paper will discuss the likely impact of these developments on the consumer experience and the issues and challenges facing the consumer-oriented industries in the move to convergence:
  • Providing a secure, private and pleasant ambience through networked devices
       and applications in the home,
  • Extending the ambience of the home to the experience on the move,
  • Maintaining simplicity for the consumer in a networked environment through
       interoperability, context awareness and familiar interfaces,
  • Coping with the daily flood of content, finding what you want anytime,
       anywhere through personalization and preemptive storage and archiving. Consumers need to be involved in the process. More in-depth global consumer studies on regional attitudes and perceptions need to be done. Co-development and evaluation of solutions need to be performed in feasibility and usability labs like the Philips Home Lab under construction.
       The paper will show examples of how consumer electronics companies are dealing with these challenges and provide some insights into the type of solutions we may expect to see in homes of the near future.
  • Pervasive information access and the rise of human-information interaction BIBAFull-Text 202
      Peter Lucas
    In a world of pervasive, "invisible" computing, people will interact with information objects, not computers. We must learn to design these objects with as much care as we now design computer interfaces.

    Invited session

    The art of beyond the desktop BIBAFull-Text 203-204
      Panu Korhonen
    In this session, members from the industry representing different areas of Beyond the Desktop theme will discuss the future challenges of HCI.

    Invited session: closing plenary

    Sufficiently advanced technology: using magic to control the world BIBAFull-Text 205-206
      Kim Binsted
    Like magic, technology gives us power over the world. Human-computer interaction (HCI) research is concerned with how we wield that power. Here I look at how storytellers imagine magic, and try to apply some of these ideas to technology.

    Organization overviews: challenges to design

    The methods of our madness: research on experimental documents BIBAFull-Text 207-208
      Anne Balsamo; Matt Gorbet; Steve Harrison; Scott Minneman
    Research on Experimental Documents (RED) is the moniker for a small, interdisciplinary research group at Xerox PARC. We are eight researchers involved in the creation of new genres based on emerging media and technologies. We employ methods of speculative design and iterative prototyping while working in the mode of a design studio. Our current project, which we'll use as illustrative material, is the design and construction of twelve interactive exhibits for show in a hands-on technology museum.
    The PLAY research group: entertainment and innovation in Sweden BIBAFull-Text 209-210
      Lars Erik Holmquist
    In a short time the research group PLAY has established an unorthodox but effective work style, where a creative approach to research in information technology is combined with a strong focus on achieving high-quality results. Being a young research group (both regarding the time it has existed and the average age of its members) has presented PLAY with both challenges and opportunities. We face the challenge of building a credible basis for research in the academic community, but also think that we have the opportunity to contribute innovative results to the research community and our industrial partners.
    Interaction design at Pixar Animation Studios BIBAFull-Text 211-212
      Karon Weber; Kitt Hirasaki
    In this paper, we describe the work of the interaction design group at Pixar Animation Studios. We illustrate some techniques we are employing to understand the practices and needs of our user community. Also highlighted are some of the challenges we face designing within a production-engineering environment.

    Organization overviews: beyond the desktop: augmenting everyday places and things

    User-System Interaction Technology (USIT): a UI research group of Philips Electronics BIBAFull-Text 213-214
      Rene Collier
    This overview presents the User-System Interaction Technology (USIT) group of Philips Research. We discuss the department's origin, mission and strategy, its core capabilities and two sample projects that illustrate research objectives for the mid- and long-term, respectively.
    Living laboratories: the future computing environments group at the Georgia Institute of Technology BIBAFull-Text 215-216
      Gregory D. Abowd; Christopher G. Atkeson; Aaron F. Bobick; Irfan A. Essa; Blair MacIntyre; Elizabeth D. Mynatt; Thad E. Starner
    The Future Computing Environments (FCE) Group at Georgia Tech is a collection of faculty and students that share a desire to understand the partnership between humans and technology that arises as computation and sensing become ubiquitous. With expertise covering the breadth of Computer Science, but focusing on HCI, Computational Perception, and Machine Learning, the individual research agendas of the FCE faculty are grounded in a number of shared living laboratories where their research is applied to everyday life in the classroom (Classroom 2000), the home (Aware Home), the office (Augmented Offices), and on one's person (Wearable Computing).
    Xerox Research Centre Europe (XRCE) BIBAFull-Text 217-218
      Allan MacLean
    Xerox Research Centre Europe (XRCE) is the European arm of the Xerox Research and Technology organization. The focus of the Centre is on combining technology, business processes, and work practices to help people work smarter and faster.

    Organization overviews: mobile communication

    Usability research in Nokia: evolution, motivation and trust BIBAFull-Text 219-220
      Panu Korhonen
    The Usability Group in the Nokia Research Center is a research team with members in Finland, Japan and soon China. The group has evolved during the last five years from a simple usability evaluation group to cover many aspects of usability. We describe the stages of the evolution and discuss the role of employee motivation and customer trust in the process.
    User centered research and design at Motorola BIBAFull-Text 221-222
      Larry Marturano; David Wheatley
    In this overview, we describe how user-centered research and design have been established within Motorola and how it is organized to support both short-term development programs and longer-term research. Motorola is a global company and has a distributed HCI community. The challenges of coordinating this geographical and disciplinary diversity are addressed.
    Making usability engineering happen: Center for Usability Research & Engineering (CURE) BIBAFull-Text 223-224
      Verena Giller; Manfred Tscheligi
    CURE is an usability organization active in a variety of national and international initiatives and projects. The whole usability engineering cycle is covered and a wide range of application domains is supported. In particular the integration of usability engineering in day to day development is a major challenge.

    Organization overviews: virtual worlds and virtual communities

    The interactive collaborative environments laboratory BIBAFull-Text 225-226
      Adrian Bullock; Anneli Avatare; Lennart Fahlen; Emmanuel Frecon; Par Hansson; Bino Nord; Kristian Simsarian; Marten Stenius; Olov Stahl; Anders Wallberg; Karl Petter Akesson
    We overview the Interactive Collaborative Environments laboratory at the Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Digital city project: NTT open laboratory BIBAFull-Text 227-228
      Jun-ichi Akahani; Katherine Isbister; Toru Ishida
    In this paper, we present an organizational overview of the NTT Open Laboratory's Digital City Project.
    TeleCHI: an on-line community for HCI professionals BIBAFull-Text 229-230
      Liwana S. Bringelson; Tom Carey
    This paper describes a new online community for HCI knowledge leaders across Canada. This community, TeleCHI, establishes a venue for experts and knowledge apprentices to network, practice and critique the tools and resources of HCI. TeleCHI events are discussed along with how this community is supported by a model for integrated telelearning communities.

    Organization overviews: user centered design processes

    Interval research corporation BIBAFull-Text 231-232
      Bonnie Johnson; Arati Prabhakar; Debby Hindus
    As the future approaches, and broadband industries begin to offer new forms of interactivity to set top boxes, Interval's focus, along with our approach to HCI, is changing. While we will continue to do a broad range of work, much of our HCI effort will be directed toward creating interfaces for rich, networked applications. We are well positioned for this because of our tradition of understanding humans as psychological/psychophysical creatures, technology users, and consumers.
    From behaviour to innovation at Nortel Networks BIBAFull-Text 233-234
      Mike Atyeo; Judith Ramsay; Judith Rattle
    In this paper we outline the role of Design Interpretive in Nortel Networks. In particular, we describe our approach to designing innovative product concepts derived from observation of human behaviour.
    Design in harmony with human life BIBAFull-Text 235-236
      David J. Gilmore; Velma L. Velazquez
    Achieving harmony between human life and technological design requires a strong understanding of the diversity and variety in both people and technology, as well as processes for bringing the two together.
       At IDEO we strive to embrace diversity, often including extreme users in our user-centered research as well as more representative individuals. Instead of just capturing what people do or say that they do, we interact with them in their usual environments and try to understand why they do what they do.
       Experiential prototyping has become important to us during the design phase, where we design experiences which capture the important qualities of the current or the intended user experience. Exposure to these experience prototypes has proved very effective in helping designers to achieve greater empathy with the users of their products, as well as enabling rapid evaluations of how design changes impact the user experience.

    Panel

    User-interface design books: educating the masses or preaching to the converted? BIBAFull-Text 237-238
      Jeff Johnson
    Increasingly, computer-based products and services are designed by people having little or no training in UI design. If this continues, usability and productivity will fall.
       Individuals in the CHI community have responded to this problem by writing a plethora of UI design books. A recent survey by the panel organizer counted 100 such books. Broken into rough categories, they are:
  • Platform-specific style-guides: 12.
  • Platform-independent guidelines and handbooks: 40.
  • Task-analysis, participatory and contextual methods: 7.
  • Usability engineering, testing, evaluation methods: 7.
  • Edited collections on design-related HCI: 14.
  • Web UI design: 9.
  • Graphic design for UIs: 5.
  • Business analysis of usability and user-centered design: 4.
  • General design: 2. One can ask whether these books are reaching their intended audience. The vast majority of the UI programmers -- even some of the UI designers -- at the panel organizer's client companies have heard of very few, if any, of these books. The sheer number of books may be a hindrance to their achieving their purpose. How are developers supposed to determine which ones will most useful to them?
  • Non-contractual trust, design, and human and computer interactions BIBAFull-Text 239-240
      Elisabeth Davenport; Mark Dibben; Batya Friedman; Steven Marsh; Howard Rosenbaum; Harold Thimbleby
    How might trust be a component of human-computer based interaction? There are a number of dimensions involving different combinations of humans, systems and computer agents. Recent studies of trust in the workplace indicate that trust has many attributes, and that representations of trust in the virtual workplace must take account of differences in emphasis. [1] The panel members will work with a number of 'real world' scenarios that illustrate different aspects pertinent to trust and the morality of interactions
    Interactionary: a live UI design competition BIBAFull-Text 241-242
      Scott Berkun; Debbie Cargile; Christopher Konrad; Sarah Zuberec; Bruce Tognazzini; Steve Rodgers; Richard Buchanan; Isabela Ancona; Alex Little; Zayera Khan; Shel Kimen
    This experimental panel is an attempt to demonstrate the dynamic and impromptu parts of the interaction design process. Teams of designers, usability engineers and program managers will design solutions to interaction problems live on stage, in front of the audience.
    Story spaces: interfaces for children's voices BIBAFull-Text 243-244
      Justine Cassell; Kimiko Ryokai; Allison Druin; Jack Klaff; Brenda Laurel; Nichole Pinkard
    Interactive narrative was, until a couple of years ago, more a topic of discussion in ACM Multimedia than in the CHI community. And where children were concerned, the issue was mostly how to make storybooks for children more interactive by adding sound, animation, etc. More recently, however, both narrative and interfaces for children have received significant attention. The two concerns join in the topic of how to create storytelling spaces to support children's own storytelling voice. Until now, nevertheless, there has been no comprehensive discussion at CHI of what it means to design for children to produce narrative in the context of technology. This panel, then, gathers researchers with a diverse set of perspectives to discuss what it means to support children as producers of tales.
    Scaling for the masses: usability practices of the web's most popular sites BIBAFull-Text 245-246
      Jared M. Spool; Laura Borns; Eleri Dixon; Kevin Knabe; Josh Paluch; David Shen; Marie Tahir
    This panel will include representatives from some of the web's most popular sites. Each reaches millions of users monthly and has its own business model and goals that differ from the others. The panelists will discuss the usability issues confronting sites that serve very large audiences, such as: how best to conduct usability testing on sites with large audiences, how large internal teams can work with multiple contractors and vendors to achieve a usable site, how internationalization affects usability goals, how the rise of new advertising models will affect site usability, and what can be learned from the sites already in existence. The moderator will encourage the audience to ask questions of the panelists and share their own experiences and advice.
    Smart toys: brave new world? BIBAFull-Text 247-248
      Herman D'Hooge; Linda Dalton; Helen Shwe; Debra Lieberman; Claire O'Malley
    Technology is changing the way children play. But should we be excited or worried about the introduction of technology into children's toys? This panel of smart toy experts will examine the advantages and disadvantages of technologically-enhanced play and will discuss potential psychological and developmental consequences of electronic playthings. Furthermore, the panel will explore how to evaluate smart toys and how to create usability guidelines for high-tech toys.

    Short talks: communication and collaboration

    Supporting communication and collaboration practices in safety-critical situations BIBAFull-Text 249-250
      Paul J. Camp; James M. Hudson; Russell B. Keldorph; Scott Lewis; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
    In this paper, we present the Firefighter Communication System -- a system designed to enhance and improve firefighter communication during a crisis situation such as a structural fire. The system we present is a half-duplex communication system with an audio horizon for officers and a full-duplex system for standard firefighters. We also address the design for the company commander who simultaneously participates in both systems. These initial designs are the result of ethnographic-style investigations into firefighting practice combined with iterative design.
    Communicating facial affect: it's not the realism, it's the motion BIBAFull-Text 251-252
      Sheryl M. Ehrlich; Diane J. Schiano; Kyle Sheridan
    Designers of video-mediated communication and affective computing applications must make tradeoffs to deal with limited bandwidth. Typically spatial resolution and color are preserved at the expense of temporal resolution and accuracy. Our data suggest that this may not be the appropriate tradeoff for communicating facial affect; preserving motion is critical and may even compensate for major losses in image realism.
    What's happening?: the community awareness application BIBAFull-Text 253-254
      Qiang Alex Zhao; John T. Stasko
    This article introduces the "What's Happening" desktop application for maintaining and enhancing community awareness. "What's Happening" uses a small visualization display and animation to provide unobtrusive information delivery and lightweight chat-room support. The article also discusses our early experiences with the system.
    Interacting with music in a social setting BIBAFull-Text 255-256
      Ali Mazalek; Tristan Jehan
    This paper describes the design of a new system for interacting with music in a social setting. MusiCocktail allows users to influence certain parameters of a pre-composed and pre-recorded piece of music in the way they mix their beverages at a social gathering. This new form of interaction with music enables group participation in the creation of a rich musical environment.
    Why conversational agents should catch the eye BIBAFull-Text 257-258
      Roel Vertegaal; Robert Slagter; Gerrit van der Veer; Anton Nijholt
    We studied whether the gaze direction of users indicates whom they are speaking or listening to in multiparty conversations. Results show when someone is listening or speaking to individuals, there is indeed a high probability that the person looked at is the person listened (p=88%) or spoken to (p=77%). We implemented these findings in a multi-agent conversational system that uses eye input to gauge which agent the user is listening or speaking to.
    Shared reality: physical collaboration with a virtual peer BIBAFull-Text 259-260
      J. Cassell; M. Ananny; A. Basu; T. Bickmore; P. Chong; D. Mellis; K. Ryokai; J. Smith; H. Vilhjalmsson; H. Yan
    We describe a novel interface, in which a human and embodied conversational agent share a seamlessly integrated virtual and physical environment. This type of interface, in which objects are passed from the real to the virtual world, has potential applications in unsupervised learning, collaborative work, and entertainment. We introduce Sam, our first implementation of such an interface, which allows children to engage in natural storytelling play with real objects, in collaboration with a virtual playmate who shares access to those real objects.

    Short talks: information retrieval and visualization

    BinScroll: a rapid selection technique for alphanumeric lists BIBAFull-Text 261-262
      Juha Lehikoinen; Mika Roykkee
    We present a new, efficient technique to find an alphanumeric item in a sorted list. Our technique, called BinScroll, is based on binary search, the well-known computer science search algorithm. BinScroll can be used with a minimum of four buttons, making it ideal for keyboardless mobile use. It can also be implemented with a minimum of three lines of text, making it suitable for devices with limited screen space. Our initial evaluation showed that after 15 minutes of training, a novel user is able to locate any item from a list of 10,000 movie names in 14 seconds on average.
    Control menus: execution and control in a single interactor BIBAFull-Text 263-264
      Stuart Pook; Eric Lecolinet; Guy Vaysseix; Emmanuel Barillot
    We propose a new type of contextual pop-up menu called a control menu. These menus combine the selection of an operation and the control of this operation. They integrate up to two scroll bars or spin-boxes and thus allow users to keep their attention focused on the menu during the operation. Control menus can have sub-menus, and also retain the novice and expert modes of use found in marking menus. We describe control menus and how they are useful in different types of user interfaces. A program incorporating our control menus can be tested at http://www.infobiogen.fr/services/zomit/.
    PowerView: structured access to integrated information on small screens BIBAFull-Text 265-266
      Staffan Bjork; Lars Erik Holmquist; Peter Ljungstrand; Johan Redstrom
    The PowerView application shows how non-standard graphical user interfaces, together with the introduction of links between data of different types, can ease the interaction with digital information on small mobile devices. The information visualization technique used provides a structured and efficient way of displaying information and allows navigation using only four operators. Links between data entries further improve the system by presenting related information together, even when the data belongs to different information domains, User evaluation has shown that the system is as easy to use by novice users as systems based on well-known user interface models.
    The trouble with shortcuts BIBAFull-Text 267-268
      Andrew Howes; Stephen J. Payne; Amelia Woodward
    Shortcut icons are often provided for commands that are used most frequently. However, there is no published evidence to support the view that shortcuts improve a user's overall efficiency. A preliminary experiment is reported that investigates the effect of shortcuts on performance time, both for the commands for which shortcuts are provided and for those for which they are not. The results suggest that shortcuts may in some circumstances have an overall effect of slowing users down.
    Improving user performance on Boolean queries BIBAFull-Text 269-270
      John F. Pane; Brad A. Myers
    The accurate formulation of boolean expressions is a notorious problem in programming languages as well as database and web query tools. Users have demonstrated great difficulty with the common textual method for specifying these queries, which uses the boolean operators AND, OR, and NOT, partly because these words are used inconsistently in natural languages. This paper proposes a tabular boolean query language that avoids the need to use named operators, provides a concrete distinction between conjunction and disjunction, and makes grouping more explicit. A study comparing this tabular language with textual boolean expressions found that untrained users perform better when they express their queries in the tabular language, and about equally well when interpreting queries written in either language. We conclude that systems can benefit by adopting a tabular notation for query formulation.
    Menus beyond the desktop metaphor BIBAFull-Text 271-272
      Fred A. Voorhorst; Helmut Krueger; Martin Bichsel
    Augmented Reality systems integrate real and virtual objects, allowing for a new view on the implementation of menus. This paper describes experimental research in support of making menus grasp-able, i.e. easily accessible.

    Short talks: multimodal interaction

    Trials and tribulations of using an eye-tracking system BIBAFull-Text 273-274
      Susan K. Schnipke; Marc W. Todd
    This paper's focus is on the challenges associated with collecting eye-tracking data. Despite operator training conducted by the manufacturer, one year of experience with eye-tracking and extensive calibration, the data collection success rate in the current investigation was very low; only six out of sixteen participants (37.5%) were successfully eye-tracked. We discuss possible explanations for this low success rate, and why we do not currently believe that eye-tracking is ready to be employed in usability laboratories.
    The smart floor: a mechanism for natural user identification and tracking BIBAFull-Text 275-276
      Robert J. Orr; Gregory D. Abowd
    We have created a system for identifying people based on their footstep force profiles and have tested its accuracy against a large pool of footstep data. This floor system may be used to identify users transparently in their everyday living and working environments. We have created user footstep models based on footstep profile features and have been able to achieve a recognition rate of 93%. We have also shown that the effect of footwear is negligible on recognition accuracy.
    A tangible interface for controlling robotic toys BIBAFull-Text 277-278
      James Patten; Laurie Griffith; Hiroshi Ishii
    We present a device for developing simple event-driven programs to control robotic toys. To construct a program, the user connects events to actions to be taken in response to those events. We represent these associations as pictures connected by pieces of physical string. This work is one of our initial explorations of the use of string in tangible user interfaces.
    Hash visualization in user authentication BIBAFull-Text 279-280
      Rachna Dhamija
    Although research in security has made tremendous progress over the past few years, most security systems still suffer by failing to account for human factors. People are slow and unreliable at processing long and meaningless strings, yet many security applications depend on this skill. For example, a major problem in user authentication is that people have difficulties in choosing and memorizing secure passwords. In this paper, we have investigated how the usability and security of user authentication systems can be improved by replacing text strings with structured images.
    Investigating auditory direct manipulation: sonifying the Towers of Hanoi BIBAFull-Text 281-282
      Fredrik Winberg; Sten Olof Hellstrom
    This paper presents a study of an auditory version of the game "Towers of Hanoi". In this study, we have compared three different strategies for continuous presentation of the objects. The focus for this study is to investigate the nature of auditory direct manipulation, where continuous presentation is one of the key aspects. The results show that the differences between the strategies need to be explored further by experimentation. Additionally, much effort has to be put on the learning phase of the auditory interface and the mouse interaction has to be investigated further.
    The embroidered musical ball: a squeezable instrument for expressive performance BIBAFull-Text 283-284
      Gili Weinberg; Maggie Orth; Peter Russo
    In this paper, we describe the Embroidered Musical Ball, a soft, tactile computer/MIDI musical instrument, that lets untrained children, novices and/or professionals perform and manipulate expressive and detailed music with simple everyday physical hand gestures such as squeezing and stretching. Our new embroidered pressure sensors replace the hard, bulky and awkward continuous control sensors common in most computer instruments, i.e., sliders, knobs and buttons. The combination of this light and easily physically manipulated instrument with a new, immersive approach to musical software allows players to expressively explore music with an immediacy not experienced in traditional instruments, which emphasize years of training to learn the precise control of pitches, timing, levels and various expression instructions. Instead, the musical ball lets players manipulate and explore a complete musical composition that has been mapped to different embroidered sensors. This allows players to immediately squeeze and mold the ball to perform the pre-composed music in an expressive manner.

    Short talks: design issues

    Is user involvement harmful or useful in the early stages of product development? BIBAFull-Text 285-286
      Sari Kujala; Martti Mantyla
    Not much empirical evidence has been presented to evaluate the usefulness of user studies or the optimal amount of resources to allocate to them. This study is an initial step to understand the costs and benefits of user studies in the early stages of product development. In a case study a psychologist, who was not a designer, performed a user study and developed design propositions. The results were compared to a baseline design process with usability tests. The results show that the user study was useful although the investment of 46 person hours was modest. The design propositions based on the user study results made the product more usable and desirable to the users.
    Elements that affect web credibility: early results from a self-report study BIBAFull-Text 287-288
      BJ Fogg; Jonathan Marshall; Alex Osipovich; Chris Varma; Othman Laraki; Nicholas Fang; Jyoti Paul; Akshay Rangnekar; John Shon; Preeti Swani; Marissa Treinen
    We conducted an online survey about Web credibility, which included over 1400 participants. People reported that Web site credibility increases when the site conveys a real-world presence, is easy to use, and is updated often. People reported that a Web site loses credibility when it has errors, technical problems, or distracting advertisements. Our study is an early effort to identify Web credibility elements and empirically investigate the effect of each.
    Can computer-generated speech have gender?: an experimental test of gender stereotype BIBAFull-Text 289-290
      Eun Ju Lee; Clifford Nass; Scott Brave
    The present study examines if and how the "gender" of computer-generated speech affects the user's perception of the computer and their conformity to the computer's recommendation. Presented with a series of social-dilemma situations, participants made a decision after listening to the computer's argument for one of the two choices in a 2 (TTS gender: male vs. female) by 2 (participant gender: male vs. female) experiment. Consistent with gender stereotypes, the male-voiced computer exerted greater influence on the user's decision than the female-voiced computer and was perceived to be more socially attractive and trustworthy. More strikingly, gendered synthesized speech triggered social identification processes, such that female subjects conformed more to the female-voiced computer, while males conformed more to the male-voiced computer (controlling for the main effect). Similar identification effects were found on social attractiveness and trustworthiness of the computer.
    Recommending from content: preliminary results from an e-commerce experiment BIBAFull-Text 291-292
      Mark Rosenstein; Carol Lochbaum
    We are conducting an ongoing experiment into the effects of various forms of recommendations on consumer behavior at a web site. In this paper, we report on measures of the usefulness and effectiveness of recommendations based on content. During a three month period, we provided recommendations on over 2000 products at an e-commerce web site. To evaluate the effectiveness of recommendations on customer behavior, we collected three sets of metrics. First, we measured the rate at which recommendations were actually viewed by visitors. Second, we analyzed the paths visitors took through the recommendations. Finally, we measured the impact of recommended items on number of items purchased and on revenue.
    The secret life of notebooks BIBAFull-Text 293-294
      Steve Loughran
    We describe the secret life of notebooks in the hands of mobile professionals who use them as desktop replacement machines. Usage logs reveal that there are four key contexts of use, each with their own separate requirements: desktop, meetings, home and travel. Dynamic detection of and adaptation to these contexts could enhance the value and usability of notebooks and their applications.
    Websound: a generic web sonification tool allowing HCI researchers to dynamically create new access modalities BIBAFull-Text 295-296
      Lori Stefano Petrucci; Eric Harth; Patrick Roth; Assimacopoulos Andre; Thierry Pun
    The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently become the main source of digital information accessible everywhere and by everyone. Nevertheless, the inherent visual nature of Internet browsers makes the Web inaccessible to the visually impaired. To solve this problem, non-visual browsers have been developed. One of the new problems, however, with those non-visual browsers is that they often transform the visual content of HTML documents into textual information only, that can be restituted by a text-to-speech converter or a Braille device. The loss of spatial layout, and textual attributes such as boldface, italic, underline, color or even size should be avoided since they often bear visually important information. Moreover, typical non-visual Internet browsers do not allow visually impaired and sighted individuals to easily work together using the same environment. These new problems have to be solved with new alternative non-visual display techniques. This paper presents WebSound, a new generic Web sonification tool and its application to a 3D audio augmented Internet browser (Internet Explorer 5.0) developed at the University of Geneva.

    Special interest groups

    The GOMS SIG: troubleshooting, lessons learned, novel applications, teaching techniques & future research BIBAFull-Text 297
      Wayne D. Gray; Bonnie E. John; David E. Kieras; Deborah A. Boehm Davis
    GOMS is many things to many people, It is the only validated analytic usability evaluation method (UEM) in the field of human-computer interaction. It is being used by practitioners at some of the world's largest and some of the smallest software companies. It is a research agenda that is being pursued at universities the world over. It is a task analysis technique with roots in both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. It is a flexible tool that can be used with protocol analysis. It is a technique that makes detailed profiling possible. It is an important adjunct to usability testing. It is something that can be done at the early stages of the: design process. It is a way of intelligently playing what if games with interface possibilities. It is all of these things and more.
    Collaborative information retrieval (CIR) BIBAFull-Text 298
      Susan Dumais; Jonathan Grudin; Steven Poltrock; Harry Bruce; Raya Fidel; Annelise Mark Pejtersen
    Most information retrieval and management tools have been developed for use by individuals. For example, Web search interfaces, and online catalogs support individual searchers working on their own. In workplace and library settings, however, teamwork is becoming more and more prevalent. We use the term Collaborative Information Retrieval (CIR) to describe any activity that collectively resolves an information problem. Information retrieval is construed in the broadest sense and includes processes such as: problem identification, analysis of information needs, query formulation, retrieval interactions, and the presentation and analysis of results. In this SIG, we will explore how to better understand and support information access in collaborative team settings. An understanding of the social and organizational contexts in which CIR occurs will lead to the design of more useful systems.
       Several researchers have addressed aspects of CIR. In previous CHI meetings, Kidd (CHI'94) described how different people make different sense of the same information, Maltz and Ehrlich (CHI'95) outlined the key role that information gate keepers play, and several groups studied collaborative filtering. Some products support workgroup scheduling, document workflow, etc. But, none has brought together the variety of perspectives we believe are critical in fully understanding the CIR design space.
    Cross-cultural user-interface design: what? so what? now what? BIBAFull-Text 299
      Aaron Marcus; Nuray Aykin; Apala Lahiri Chavan; Donald L. Day; Emilie West Gould; Pia Honold; Masaaki Kurosu
    CHI and other conferences recognize the importance of considering cross-cultural (including gender) communication issues in user-interface (UI) design. Classic texts about cultures are not sufficiently known in the SIGCHI community. Many consumer information appliances, or computer-based communication products, must be suitable for international, multi-cultural markets. The growth of and consequent immediate international access to the Web demand a response by UI designers to the issues of when and how user interfaces can be designed for global access yet account for local differences. Attendees will discuss with mentors challenges of designing UIs for international and/or multi-cultural use, in which metaphors, mental models, navigation, interaction, and/or appearance must be significantly adjusted to account for global and/or local needs. Issues to be discussed include the following:
  • What are the dimensions of culture? What research exists?
  • What are the differences among cultures, e.g., North American, European,
       Asian? How do they affect UIs?
  • How does we account for different references of icons, metaphors,
       organization, and navigation strategies?
  • Can we design locale-neutral user interfaces? What can/must be standardized
       or localized?
  • How can/should cultural diversity issues impact professional education?
  • Why do/don't businesses design for global markets?
  • How can we handle legal issues across cultures in the borderless Internet?
  • Including users with disabilities BIBAFull-Text 300
      Lea T. Adams
    This SIG will begin the information exchange on designing for disabilities for professionals who have not formally considered disabled communities as part of their user/subject base before. Until recently, only professionals working in the area of assistive technologies/devices focused on design for people with disabilities. However, more applications, software, products and services that have typically been targeted at the general population now have requirements that they be equally usable by the "normal" healthy population of users and by users with various disabilities (e.g., physical, sensory, cognitive). For example, in the United States, the FCC has mandated that all telecommunication devices and services used by the general population be accessible by people with disabilities whenever it is readily achievable (i.e., without much difficulty or expense). To the extent it is not readily achievable for these devices to be accessible, then they must be made compatible with commonly used assistive devices [2][3]. There are other mandates and standards that are heading in the same direction [1]. For professionals working on products, services, and applications that are or will soon be impacted by these types of mandates, the typical methods used for design, data collection, and test will be fundamentally altered.
    Common industry format for usability test reports BIBAFull-Text 301
      Jean Scholtz
    In October of 1997, the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated an effort to increase the visibility of software usability. Participants from major software suppliers and customer organizations attended the first three workshops of the Industry USability Reporting (IUSR) project. They set the goals of the initiative:
  • Encourage software supplier and customer organizations to communicate more
       effectively about user needs and tasks,
  • Develop a common reporting format for sharing usability data with customer
       organizations, and
  • Conduct a Pilot Study to determine how well the usability reporting format
       works and to determine the value of using this format in software
       procurement. These consensus-building meetings identified the requirements for the common format and resulted in the Common Industry Format (CIF) for Usability Test Reports. The CIF is intended to promote incorporation of usability as part of the procurement decision-making process for interactive products.
       Usability professionals within supplier organizations can use the CIF to generate reports, and customer organizations can use the reports as a basis for corporate decision-making. The report itself is intended for two types of readers: (1) human factors or other usability professionals in customer organizations who are evaluating both the technical merit of usability tests and the usability of products, and (2) other technical professionals and managers who are using the test results to make business decisions. The first draft of the CIF, developed through this consensus of the IUSR industry participants, is now ready. Trial use of the CIF report format is being encouraged via the IUSR Pilot Study. The CIF, as well as details of the IUSR project and the Pilot Study, can be found at http:/www.nist.gov/iusr
  • A "bag of tricks" for web usability BIBAFull-Text 302
      Thomas S. Tullis; Eleri J. Dixon; Harry M. Hersh
    Web usability is a somewhat elusive concept. We think most people would agree that there is no magic "formula" or set of rules to follow that will guarantee a usable web site in all circumstances. Consequently, it's critical to have a comprehensive "bag of tricks" for evaluating the usability of any given web site. The purposes of this SIG are to share some of these evaluation techniques that we have found useful, to stimulate group discussion about what works and what doesn't, and to identify additional techniques.
    HCI in education BIBAFull-Text 303
      Kenneth R. Lee
    The use of technology in education is burgeoning, especially in terms of distance and online education. At first, it appears that the tools used to support courses on line are simply tools used for video conferencing, EDI, and the like. Further investigation seems to support the idea that systems that support courses on line are qualitatively different from systems that support business activities or even a normal web site.
       When the organizers of the special interest group on Usability in Online/Distance Learning at CHI 99 were unable to attend, the group who attended took over the SIG and discussed topics having to do with usability in distance education. The purpose of this special interest group is to follow up on the discussion that was started there in a more formal manner.
    Contextual design for creating new design concepts BIBAFull-Text 304
      Karen Holtzblatt; Hugh Beyer
    Contextual techniques -- Contextual Design and other methods of field research -- are recognized by the industry as critical for the development of products that work for their users. But there is still uncertainty as to how these techniques can be used to drive the development of totally new products -- products that create new markets or transform their users' work in radical ways. If the work is completely changed, people say, then there is no work to study, so how can we do field research?
       This SIG explores answers to that question. We start with a real case from our own work as an example, then design field research approaches for cases proposed by participants.
    Increasing the influence of usability practices within the design process BIBAFull-Text 305
      Martin Maguire
    This Special Interest Group will discuss the problems of integrating usability into the design process by comparing the experiences of practitioners from different countries. Consideration will then be given to what usability approaches work well in different parts of the world and in different application areas. The aim will be to identify some common principles or tactics for usability practice that can be applied, ideally in a range of situations, to make it more influential and the results more effective.
    Interactive TV: a new interaction paradigm? BIBAFull-Text 306
      Owen Daly Jones; Rachel Carey
    This SIG will bring together practitioners and researchers who are involved in the design of Interactive TV services (iTV). iTV services have been launched across much of Europe, as well as in the USA. However, most of the trials conducted on the feasibility of these services are commercially sensitive. Little is known publicly about what makes for a successful interactive TV service, and there are no established guidelines for the development of usable iTV services.
       The aims of this SIG are to:
  • share findings from recent usability studies of iTV services
  • discuss the implications of these findings for the design of future services
  • identify future research issues that should be addressed by the HCI community
  • Measuring web-site usability BIBAFull-Text 307
      Jared M. Spool; Tara Scanlon; Lori Landesman; Matthew Klee
    Web design is still primarily an artistic endeavor. However, we are beginning to see empirical research results that tell us what pitfalls to avoid in order to create successful web sites.
       In this SIG, we will discuss the latest research results available. Web-site designers can share successful strategies and discuss questions still unanswered.
       This SIG also will be a forum for researchers to discuss methods and share objectives. Researchers will have an opportunity to interact with web-site designers to understand the research still required to identify the keys to successful design.
       Following the session, we intend to consolidate the discussion into a four-to-five page summary and send it to all participants.
    Culturally-adapted products in the global market: dealing with the naysayers BIBAFull-Text 308
      Thomas Plocher; Pia Honold
    Many major U.S. corporations, such as Siemens, Honeywell, Kodak and Motorola, are seeking growth through expanding their international markets. Market research indicates that key discriminators will be ease of use, minimal required training, and user productivity enhancement. But can these usability goals be achieved without careful attention to adapting user interfaces to the cultures of end users? There seems to be an imperative here to develop products that account for cultural characteristics, expectations, mental models, and preferences of target user groups. This said, a number of lingering questions and issues remain and often represent impediments to progress in this area. This SIG focuses on the following issues:
  • 1. The homogenous global culture is taking over -- This argument suggests that
        we are all gradually moving toward one homogenous world culture in which
        characteristics of national culture will have little importance. McDonald's
        is viewed as the prototype of this trend. If this is the future, then why
        bother about cultural adaptation of products? The SIG discussion centers on
        evidence that "inner layer" cultural traits such as values and attitudes
        are rather deeply held and will persist over time even though more
        superficial and overt characteristics of culture may change.
  • 2. Everyone thinks the same way -- There is a common notion that cultural
        differences in product usability are largely aesthetic, matters of
        appearance. But people basically think and go about their work the same
        way. Make the product "pretty", use the local language, and the product
        will be fine. Language and aesthetics are extremely important to product
        design. But so are culturally dependent ways of thinking, communicating,
        and decisionmaking. These characteristics are discussed, together with
        their implications for HCI design.
  • 3. Developers cannot possibly understand the nuances of foreign cultures --
        This argument holds that localization efforts are doomed because product
        developers can't possibly understand all the subtleties of foreign
        cultures. Practitioners from corporations who have addressed this issue
        discuss their experience with: regional development centers, local
        university partnerships, in-country focus groups and product testing
        conducted by HCI professionals from the target cultures.
  • 4. Culturally adapted products cost too much -- A common argument is that
        localization increases the cost of product development disproportionately
        to the market advantage obtained. But what happens to sales when a poorly
        conceived product is introduced into a target culture? How can cultural
        sensitivity be incorporated into standard development processes?
  • "Learnability" testing in learner-centered design BIBAKFull-Text 309
      A. Kashif Asdi; Beth H. Daniels
    In this SIG, we will provide a forum for discussing issues in learner-centered design and learner-centered usability testing.
    Keywords: design, education, learner-centered design, teaching, usability, usability testing, user-centered design
    Can we have spiritual experiences on-line? BIBAFull-Text 310
      Michael J. Muller; Ellen Christiansen; Bonnie Nardi
    Contemporary user interfaces emphasize attributes such as rapid delivery of information, immediate notification of events, real-time awareness, scope of visibility, and command and control. The user is poised for knowledge, power, and action.
       In this SIG, we invite members of the CHI community to help us explore a different area of human comprehension and action. We are concerned about issues of spiritual experience in the use of computers. What kinds of designs and electronic environments might permit, support, or augment spiritual experiences -- by individuals, and especially by groups of people who share a spiritual tradition?
       Curiously, we have not been able to find any publications relevant to this topic. We suspect that there is work going on in this area, and but we may not know how to search for it.
       We plan to conduct the SIG in three parts. The first part will be a plenary presentation of the topic, with a relatively formal, panel-like group discussion. In the second part of the session, we will change the "voice" in which we speak to a relatively quieter, contemplative mode, splitting into groups of fewer than ten people each. The groups may begin their discussions with ideas from the plenary part of the session, or they may immediately take up questions and experiences from their own membership. We will ask the small groups if they want to reconvene into a final plenary session to report back on their new understandings. Alternatively, we may ask people from each of the small groups to record their understandings or conclusions for us. If the outcomes appear to be of interest to the larger CHI community, we will write a report for SIGCHI Bulletin.
    Towards a framework of methods on UI style guides BIBAFull-Text 311
      Pieter Willems; Jouke Verlinden; Pieter Jan Troost
    methods, organizational aspects, style guides
    Incorporating usability techniques into the Web lifecycle BIBAFull-Text 312
      Suzy Czarkowski; Bobbi Sanford
    As usability professionals, we know the appropriate methodology for incorporating usability into a product: define the user requirements; do task and workflow analysis; create a prototype; test the prototype on a sample of users; iterate the process, etc. Some of us have even been fortunate enough to put many of these methods into practice to design and deliver a usable product. However, how do usability professionals adhere to standard methodology when a company releases something new on its site every week or even every day? What kind of rapid usability methods are appropriate to fit into the Web lifecycle? How do we keep the business units from releasing something on the site just for the sake of keeping up with the competition, without any regard for its usability?

    Student posters

    Personalization: a taxonomy BIBAFull-Text 313-314
      Jan Blom
    Personalization is here defined as a process of changing a system to increase its personal relevance. This may have a work or social motivation. A taxonomy of motivations is developed and illustrated by application to mobile phones and e-commerce Web pages.
    Bubble trees the visualization of hierarchical information structures BIBAFull-Text 315-316
      Richard Boardman
    A tree visualization mechanism is proposed, based on the natural property of trees to recursively sub-categorize themselves into sub-trees. Each sub-tree is graphically represented as a bubble, which aggregates detail by enclosing lower-level information. Navigation and information retrieval are facilitated through an elegant set of browsing interactions. The interface is useful for tasks where users are required to develop a mental model of a classification system. The interactive nature of bubble trees allows users to explore and work out relationships for themselves.
    Contextual inquiry: quantification and use in videotaped analysis BIBAFull-Text 317-318
      Karen Cross; Adrienne Warmack
    Contextual Inquiry is a method developed by Beyer and Holtzblatt for grounding design in the context of the work being performed. In this paper, we describe our adaptation of the method to analyze videotaped presentations. Our goal was to find improvements for a slide presentation program currently in development, called 'SlideShow Commander.' Contextual Inquiry provided meaningful data on the structures and typical problems found in presentations, on which we based our design ideas. We then further analyzed and quantified the Contextual Inquiry data, beyond what Beyer and Holtzblatt suggest. This new step provided a means to prioritize the design suggestions, as well as a way to defend the potential commercial usefulness of the software. Deciding upon the value and direction of further effort is essential for software development; by using our adapted form of Contextual Inquiry, we were able to make and defend these decisions.
    SimVis: an interaction model for exploring clinical data BIBAFull-Text 319-320
      Goran Falkman
    We present an interaction model for exploring clinical data, based on the computation of similarity measures. The model has been used in a tool (SimVis) that helps clinicians to classify and cluster clinical examination data. The user interaction is supported by the visualization of clusters and similarity measures. A first implementation of SimVis is described and discussed.
    Learning and knowledge application: electronic versus printed material BIBAFull-Text 321-322
      Kate Garland
    Increasing use of computer technologies within teaching has important implications for learning. This study investigated levels of learning for print and electronically presented material. Identical material was presented in printed form or on an Intranet facility. A between-subjects design was used to test correct responses over four sessions. Ratings for confidence and for the nature in which each memory was recalled were obtained. The latter, 'awareness' [1], was used as a known, reliable measure [2] to reflect levels of memory indicating knowledge application. A significantly higher number of correct responses were found for the printed material. Memory awareness scores differed significantly. Age, sex and degree of computer expertise could not account for the between group variation. The findings suggest that computer based material may be cognitively assimilated and processed differently.
    The reminder bracelet: subtle notification cues for mobile devices BIBAFull-Text 323-324
      Rebecca Hansson; Peter Ljungstrand
    We are investigating new ways of conveying event notifications from mobile devices to their users. Our ambition has been to explore non-intrusive, or subtle ways of notifying users, to hide the technology and make room for aesthetic considerations. We argue that there is need for new ways of attracting a user's attention, while at the same time not disturbing other people. We have built a notification tool, the Reminder Bracelet, that is worn on the wrist and connected to a PDA. It notifies its user of scheduled events in a subtle and silent manner using light, color and patterns. Initial evaluations have shown that in a number of situations, the bracelet was preferred to the alert sound of a PDA or a mobile phone.
    Interactive multimedia scenarios and role-playing BIBAFull-Text 325-326
      Christian Hardless; Malin Nilsson
    In this paper, we describe the use of interactive multimedia scenarios for role-playing in groups as a learning activity. The motivation for this research is the need for learning activities that stimulate an interest for problematic issues, challenge current understandings and facilitate experience sharing between professionals. The learning activity has been used in a corporate training programme where 80 professionals, in 11 groups, participated. We highlight preliminary evaluation results that illustrate how they experienced the activity.
    Exploring property-based document organization in a collaborative note-sharing system BIBAFull-Text 327-328
      Jonathan Huang; Joseph Michiels
    This paper investigates the applicability of property-based document organization to NotePals, a collaborative note-sharing system [1,2]. The traditional hierarchical structure for organizing documents confines users to the file system's representation and prevents them from forming their own organization schemes, especially in a shared environment. We have designed and evaluated a low-fidelity prototype on a collaborative note-sharing system based on the idea of an organization system using document properties [3]. A user study confirmed the applicability of this concept to the task of managing notes.
    Web TANGO: towards automated comparison of information-centric web site designs BIBAFull-Text 329-330
      Melody Y. Ivory
    Web site usability is even more critical as the number of sites grows exponentially and the number of users increases dramatically. We describe a new automated methodology and tool, Web TANGO, being developed to allow designers to explore alternative designs of information-centric web sites prior to implementation.
    Forum contact space: serendipity in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 331-332
      Phillip Jeffrey
    This paper explores whether chance encounters which occur within the workplace can be reproduced within a virtual environment. Participants' interaction in the Forum Contact Space, a networked virtual world designed to support chance encounters, was investigated over a three month period. The initial findings suggest that chance encounters occurred as participants reported examples of interactions which triggered events that may not have occurred otherwise. Future research should explore whether Contact Space chance encounters for distributed team members produce a feeling of group cohesiveness or create an enhanced awareness of one's co-workers.
    The designer's outpost: a task-centered tangible interface for web site information design BIBAFull-Text 333-334
      Scott Klemmer; Mark W. Newman; Raecine Sapien
    The Designer's Outpost is a tangible user interface that combines the affordances of paper and large physical workspaces with the advantages of electronic media to support information design of web sites. We are developing a system to support the practices used by designers during the early phases of information design. We have created and evaluated a low-fi prototype, and are implementing a revised design. Designers will interact with the system by writing on physical Post-it Notes, arranging them on the digital desk in related groups, and drawing links between them. The system tracks the Post-its using computer vision and captures links among Post-its and groups with a stylus.
    Visualizing sequential data: a new detail-in-context layout BIBAFull-Text 335-336
      Oliver Kuederle
    Relationships between images are often of a sequential nature. Temporal sequences may include keyframes in an animation or frequently recorded satellite pictures. An example for spatial sequences is Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) as they show successive slices of a volume. When interacting with these images, the user may wish to see detailed information without losing the context. Detail-in-context techniques provide methods to display parts of the data in full detail without sacrificing contextual information. Studies have shown that it is important to match the user's mental model as well as the underlying structure of the data when designing a detail-in-context algorithm. This paper describes a new algorithm to visualize sequential data and an application of this technique to the display of MR images.
    "Bloat": the objective and subject dimensions BIBAFull-Text 337-338
      Joanna McGrenere
    "Bloat", a term that has existed in the technical community for many years, is increasingly receiving attention in the popular press. However, it is seldom clear exactly what "bloat" is. Our extensive study of 53 users of a complex software application, Microsoft Word, Office97, provided an opportunity to explore the concept of "bloat" in detail. We specify the concept of "bloat" and argue that it has both objective and subjective dimensions.
    Application of Fitts' law to eye gaze interaction BIBAFull-Text 339-340
      Darius Miniotas
    An experiment is described comparing the performance of an eye tracker and a mouse in a simple pointing task. Subjects had to make rapid and accurate horizontal movements to targets that were vertical ribbons located at various distances from the cursor's starting position. The dwell-time protocol was used for the eye tracker to make selections. Movement times were shorter for the mouse than for the eye tracker. Fitts' Law model was shown to predict movement times using both interaction techniques equally well. The model is thus seen to be a potential contributor to design of modern multimodal human-computer interfaces.
    Should we take turns?: a test of CMC turn-taking formats BIBAFull-Text 341-342
      Bruce Phillips
    The present study investigated the role of turn-taking formats in real-time text-only computer mediated communication. In particular, I investigated the trade-off between ensuring smooth turn exchanges for allowing moment-by-moment collaboration between participants. A quantitative discourse analysis showed that, contrary to what popular models of dialogue would predict, users communicating with interfaces that imposed a turn-taking format produced less efficient dialogues and performed less well on collaborative brainstorming and recall tasks.
    Evaluating international usability of virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 343-344
      Derek Poppink
    The last five years have seen a rapid proliferation of graphical avatar-based virtual worlds and communities for entertainment and commercial purposes. Examples include worlds created by Microsoft, Sony, IBM, and others. Although these companies are trying to create new global forums for commerce, social interaction, and cooperative endeavors, there has been little analysis of how these worlds facilitate or constrain the participation of international users. The success of the virtual worlds is contingent upon the quality of the user's interactions, and the benefits of an internationally sensitive design include enhanced usability and larger markets. In this paper, I give a brief overview of virtual worlds and literature on cross-cultural comparisons, propose a set of variables for analyzing their cultural affordances, and make observations of selected virtual communities.
    Design of virtual reality exposure therapy systems: task analysis BIBAFull-Text 345-346
      Martijn Schuemie
    Virtual reality can be used to treat phobias, but research in this subject is just beginning. This paper describes a task analysis of the therapy process based on direct observation.
    TeleUS: design and implementation of telesonography BIBAFull-Text 347-348
      Taly Sharon
    This poster deals with telesonography. Telesonography is real-time video collaboration for remote ultrasound examinations. We present here a generalized design of an interactive videoconferencing system that supports the various fields of ultrasound expertise. The work here focuses on integrating such a system in the demanding environment of ultrasound examinations.
       Our design includes a logical model, open architecture, and appropriate user interface. This design was implemented in the TeleUS prototype, tested in a series of simulations and experiments, and proved adequate.
    Supporting private information on public displays BIBAFull-Text 349-350
      Garth Shoemaker
    The research area of Single Display Groupware (SDG) looks at how to best support multiple users collaborating around a single computer [4]. One outstanding issue in SDG research concerns how to display private information on shared displays. This paper discusses a mechanism by which private information can be selectively displayed to specific users that are gathered around a shared display. A prototype system is presented that implements the mechanism through the use of adapted stereographic hardware.
    WebAware: continuous visualization of web site activity in a public space BIBAFull-Text 351-352
      Tobias Skog; Lars Erik Holmquist
    WebAware is a system that makes information about web site traffic available in a public space. The information is presented in a dynamic visualization, which is based on a map of the web site and designed to give an overview of how the site is constructed. Information about activity, such as the number of visitors and which area of the web site is most popular, is continuously reflected on the display. The application is designed to be shown on a wall-mounted public screen. Initial evaluations show that WebAware can act as an aesthetically pleasing information display, as well as a nice conversation piece.
    Interactive linearisation in hypertext information access BIBAFull-Text 353-354
      Thomas Tan
    SearchLineariser makes use of information contained in hypertext link structure for the linearisation, display and interactive usage of web-site search results. A highly manipulable outline is used to display the linearised and 'editable' document within the web environment. The design and implementation of the system is outlined and possible extensions are discussed.
    Immersion of Xwindow applications into a 3D workbench BIBAFull-Text 355-356
      Alexandre Topol
    The coexistence of 3D applications within 2D window managers is still difficult. We experiment a real-time immersion of Xwindow applications into a 3D scene and allow minimal interaction with them. We use the Xlib structures and routines to catch the position size, and graphical content of the widgets.
    Bridging physical and virtual group meetings with a PC and multiple hand-held devices BIBAFull-Text 357-358
      Mikael Wiberg
    This paper describes the design of a physical/virtual meeting support system. The goal of the system is to function as a bridge between physical and virtual meetings. A use scenario is outlined, the system is described, and the underlying approach that has guided the design is presented.
    Design patterns and framework for WIMP+ user interfaces design BIBAFull-Text 359-360
      Yongmei Wu
    The purpose of my HCI research is to use the Design Patterns approach to establish a framework to support designing WIMP+ User Interfaces. In this paper I will introduce the WIMP+ User Interfaces and the idea to use the Acquisition-Computation-Expression-Execution [6] (ACEE) Design Pattern to build the framework.

    Workshop

    Basic research symposium BIBAFull-Text 361
      Michael Twidale; Jose Canas
    The Basic Research Symposium is a special event with a seven-year history at CHI. It is a hybrid between a mini-conference and a workshop that presents an opportunity for researchers from different disciplines to share their visions by exchanging new developments and insights from their own fields. The goal of the Symposium is to provide an interactive forum to promote and enhance scientific discussions of developing research issues and areas. It has been central to the BRS to encourage the presentation of early-stage basic research to colleagues for informed feedback and critical review.
       The BRS draws together people with different backgrounds and research disciplines as well as different approaches to CHI practices. The attendees who come from academics and industry are engaged in research and development of CHI and represent many different disciplines such as CHI, computer science, psychology, communications, industrial design, art, history, graphics, anthropology, biology and many others.
       The symposium has always taken a broad view of "basic research", defining it to include research methods, and systems. Reports on novel applications that advance our scientific understanding are welcome.
    Challenges in the multicultural HCI development environment BIBAFull-Text 362
      Michael G. McKenna; Henry Naftulin
    This workshop will explore the cultural and linguistic issues of textual display design, visual design, intelligent agents, social interfaces, learning modalities, information retrieval, language handling, distributed systems, and integration of Unicode features. The workshop will focus on how frameworks and methodologies can aid in providing modular multicultural interaction design and seamless cultural and linguistic feature integration.
    Pattern languages for interaction design: building momentum BIBAFull-Text 363
      Richard Griffiths; Lyn Pemberton; Jan Borchers; Adam Stork
    The potential of pattern languages as a vehicle for the dissemination of human-computer interaction design knowledge has been recognized within the CHI community (e.g. [4]), stemming from the ideas of the architect Christopher Alexander, for recording the designs of 'living buildings' [1-2]. Patterns record the invariant property that must exist in a design detail which resolves the conflicting social, cognitive, and technological forces which are ubiquitiously present in constructions of that type. Patterns are interlinked into a network (a pattern language) so that details that are required to complete a design may be identified, and the larger issues surrounding a particular design decision may be recognized.
       These ideas have been taken up by the object-oriented computing community [5], developments there being recorded in the series of Pattern Language of Programing (PLoP) conferences. In that community it is the usefulness of patterns as a way of recording reusable design that has dominated. However, as Alexander pointed out in an invited address to OOPSLA '96, there are other, deeper aspects to patterns. As he envisaged pattern language, it records an aesthetic of design which makes for liveness, that 'quality without a name' which supports human well-being. Alexander has challenged the computing community to explore this aspect, and clearly, there is most scope for this exploration within the CHI community. Thus this workshop will: promote the development of pattern languages for interaction design; refine and develop the application of pattern languages in this area; develop understanding of the relationship between interaction design and software engineering patterns; extend the community of pattern writers.
    Continuity in human computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 364
      Giorgio P. Faconti; Mieke Massink
    Novel interaction techniques, such as gesture, speech, body expression recognition, haptic devices, and video, are characterized by the significance of the temporal aspects of interaction. Those techniques, especially when used in combination, require thinking of interaction over time intervals rather than at discrete points.
       The concept of Continuity in HCI is intended to distinguish these technologies because their modeling requires notions from continuous mathematics.
       Currently, knowledge relevant to the design of continuous interfaces is spread over many different disciplines such as theatre arts, semiotics, cognitive psychology, linguistics and various technically oriented disciplines in an often ad hoc and unrelated way. There is no theory of continuous interaction that can guide designers in a systematic way in the development of interfaces employing continuous technologies.
    Designing interactive systems for 1-to-1 e-commerce BIBAFull-Text 365
      Markus Stolze; Jurgen Koenemann; Daniela Handl; Barbara Hayes Roth; Joseph Kramer
    E-commerce over the World-Wide Web has become a major application area for software development. The volume of goods and services transactions is rapidly growing. Economic theory and observations of the emerging markets suggest that e-commerce sellers will be driven towards offering personalized buying interactions and customized products to escape price wars, to create a distinguishable identity, and to establish longer lasting relationships with their customers.
       E-commerce applications providing personalized interaction is an interesting application area for a wide range of HCI research, including human searching and browsing in complex hypermedia spaces, information visualization, virtual reality, agent support for product selection, merchant selection, and negotiation, user modeling, and group-oriented work such as recommender systems. A large number of CHI professionals work actively on the design of commerce-oriented websites -- both for business-to-business as well as for business-to-consumer scenarios. Designers of e-commerce systems are in search for recommendations on what works or does not and are looking for new ideas, as the interest in previous activities on this topic (see below) has demonstrated. An indication for this are also the significant number of discussions on the CHI-WEB discussion group that center around HCI design issues for e-commerce applications. There is also an additional attractiveness to the domain as good design and good use of HCI principles can directly result in measurable outcomes showing that HCI can contribute to the bottom line; for example, if redesigns or new interactive features result in increases in sales, increases in eyeball share, reduction in aborted transactions, reduced return rates for ordered products and reduction in service calls.
    Semiotic approaches to user interface design BIBAFull-Text 366
      Clarisse S. de Souza; Raquel O. Prates; Simone D. J. Barbosa; Ernest A. Edmonds
    Hartson (1998) has pointed out that although people have studied interfaces and applied theories (mostly cognitive psychology) to them, and that the majority of the guidelines and principles applied have arisen mostly out of practice than theory. He claims that the HCI field, especially in real-world practice, could benefit a great deal more from theory. As the discipline whose aim is to investigate processes of communication and signification amongst agents in general, Semiotics is bound to contribute to the field of human-computer interaction with complementary perspectives, new methods and concepts, which can shed light on some of the major HCI challenges in design and evaluation. Viewing HCI as a complex human communication process, involving designers and users, and the mediation of communicative artifacts, Computer Semiotics and Semiotic Engineering, for instance, are some of the approaches in Applied Semiotics that directly address the issues bearing on human-computer interaction. The workshop aims to bring together researchers and practitioners of HCI and Semiotics and to give them the opportunity to discuss how the two fields can provide new knowledge and a new interdisciplinary research agenda in HCI.
    National and international frameworks for collaboration between HCI research and practice BIBAFull-Text 367
      Jeroen Ubink; Piet Bogels; Austin Henderson; Gerard van der Heiden; Joan Minstrell; Lucas Noldus; Matthias Rauterberg; Alice Thomas; Gerrit van der Veer; Karel Vredenburg; Willy Wong
    This workshop will focus on methods of forging ties between industry practitioners and research communities. Furthermore the workshop focuses on the input that is required from government bodies to stimulate this collaboration. Participants will discuss enabling conditions for collaborative projects, based on the various practical research experiences of the participants.
    Future mobile device user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 368
      Satu Ruuska; Kaisa Vaananen Vainio Mattila; Matthias Schneider Hufschmidt; Bruno Von Niman
    Mobile communication and information processing is inherently different from stationary communication and information access. Mobile contexts of use and users' personal preferences strongly affect the way in which the terminal is operated via its user interface, the quantity and quality of the service content which users need to access through the terminal, and the interconnections to other devices and services in the users' environment.
       User interface design for mobile communication devices has not been a major research topic in the past. It is therefore necessary to set up research to lay the foundations for "good" user interface design for this class of devices.
       The goal of the workshop is to create understanding of the characteristics of the environments in which mobile devices fit in the future and to elaborate on the consequences on the user interface design of future communication devices.
    Research directions in situated computing BIBAFull-Text 369
      Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Wendy E. Mackay
    The goal of this one-day workshop is to launch a special interest area within CHI concerning the concept of situated computing. The notions of context and situations of use have been at the center of a body of recent research. The time has come to create a community around this theme and define a corresponding research agenda. The workshop is organized around two main activities: presenting current research and discussing directions for future research.
    Virtually collocated teams in the workplace BIBKFull-Text 370
      Gloria Mark; Steven Poltrock; Jonathan Grudin
    Keywords: CSCW, collaborative work, teamwork, virtual collocation
    The what, who, where, when, why and how of context-awareness BIBAFull-Text 371
      David R. Morse; Stephen Armstrong; Anind K. Dey
    When humans talk with humans, they are able to use implicit situational information, or context, to increase the conversational bandwidth. This ability to use contextual information does not transfer well to human-computer interaction. Part of the problem is the impoverished mechanisms for providing input to computers. Another aspect of the problem is that often we don't know what contextual information is relevant, useful, or even how to use it. However, by improving the computer's access to its context, we can increase the richness of communication in human-computer interaction and make it possible to produce more useful computational services.
    A compendium of practical techniques for HCI instruction BIBAFull-Text 372
      Marian G. Williams; Andrew Sears
    HCI is a booming discipline. At CHI 99, the "jobs board" was overflowing with notices of available positions, while the "resume board" was nearly empty. Exhibitors who came to the conference to headhunt complained that nobody was looking for a job, because everybody already had one. The demand for HCI professionals is causing increased demand for undergraduate, graduate, certificate, and professional education programs. More programs mean more instructors, and more instructors mean more people trying to figure out how to teach in the ill-defined, multi-disciplinary field of HCI. There are textbooks and curriculum reports to help them decide what to teach. The results of this workshop will help them decide how to teach it.
       For curriculum ideas, instructors can consult the reports of the ACM SIGCHI Curriculum Development Group [1] and the NSF/DARPA workshop on New Directions in HCI [5]. For textbook suggestions, they can consult annotated reading lists by Gary Perlman [2], Andrew Sears [3], and others. For suggestions of instructional materials, they can see, for example, the website that accompanies the 3rd edition of Ben Shneiderman's textbook [4]. But there is nowhere they can turn where experienced HCI instructors say, "Here's my technique, here's some evidence that it's successful when I use it, and here's enough information about the materials and the methods that you can reproduce it in your own instructional setting."Like the "Famous CHI Educators Tell All" panel at CHI 98 [6], this workshop focuses on practical techniques for teaching HCI. The participants are accomplished HCI instructors from industry and academia, who offer techniques from their own instructional "toolkits" to be evaluated for practicality, reproducibility by other instructors, and success. Some of the techniques will end up in an anthology that will serve as a resource for HCI instructors.
    Electronic communities: places and spaces, contents and boundaries BIBAFull-Text 373
      Michael J. Muller; Jessica Friedman
    This workshop brings together four related areas of research and practice:
  • Electronic communities in CSCW (e.g., [5, 6])
  • Communities of practice in management science (e.g., [2, 4])
  • Places and spaces as constructed venues for collaborative work (e.g., [3])
  • Boundaries and boundary objects as crucial areas for communication,
       collaboration, and articulation work (e.g., [1, 7, 8])
  • Situated interaction in ubiquitous computing BIBAFull-Text 374
      Albrecht Schmidt; Walter Van de Velde; Gerd Kortuem
    The situations in which human-computer interaction takes place are increasingly varied, as computers become highly portable and embedded in everyday environments. Research reported from different communities (Wearable Computing, Mobile Computing, HCI, CSCW, Augmented Reality) indicates that awareness of situations can lead to improvement of human-computer interaction. We propose a workshop at CHI2000 to provide a forum to discuss situational awareness and situated interaction.
       With the availability of sensing technologies, such as measuring the surrounding light conditions, the motion of the user, the orientation of a display, users' position relative to an information appliance, the number of users in front of a device, users' emotional state (bio-sensors), etc., this situational context can be captured and used as additional input to the system. The interaction process can benefit from the additional knowledge about the situation [1].
    Social navigation: a design approach? BIBAFull-Text 375
      Kristina Höök; Alan Wexelblat; Alan Munro
    Social navigation has been proposed [1,2] as a means to help users navigate large information spaces. Through making other users actions visible we can follow them through the space and this will help us navigate. By information space, we mean anything from the interface to a normal application to large hypermedia spaces or virtual reality environments. Other users actions can be made visible in various ways: through direct social navigation (talking to or seeing individual users act), indirect social navigation (seeing the aggregated user behavior as in recommender system advice), or readwear (seeing how an object has been used by other users through its texture).
    Natural-language interfaces BIBAFull-Text 376
      David G. Novick; Candace Kamm; Nils Dahlback
    The CHI research community has investigated a number of issues related to natural-language (NL) processing. These include usability of hypertext [e.g., 2], spoken-dialogue systems as interfaces [e.g., 8, 6, 7, 4], and multi-modal interaction [e.g., 1, 5]. While there were few NL-related papers before 1993, the number of CHI papers relating to NL issues has been increasing since then, particularly in the last two years. Yet the CHI-NL community remains fragmented, with several micro-communities each contributing individual perspectives that do not often get tied together.
       This workshop grows out of interest expressed at the CHI 99 special interest group on Natural Language in Computer-Human Interaction in creating a community for researchers and practitioners in the area of natural language processing in CHI. This objective will be met by exchanging views on cross-cutting issues related to the workshop topic, and by jointly creating a plan for further development of the NL-CHI community.
       Associated objectives include:
  • Building communication between people who primarily self-identify as
       belonging to the CHI or NL communities
  • Identifying opportunities for NL practitioners to improve their practice and
       for NL researchers to develop new techniques
  • Stimulating research towards improved NL interaction techniques