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CCD Tables of Contents: 13-113-21415-115-2

CCD 2015: 7th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design Methods, Practice and Impact

Fullname:CCD 2015: 7th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, Part I: Methods, Practice and Impact
Note:Volume 12 of HCI International 2015
Editors:P. L. Patrick Rau
Location:Los Angeles, California
Dates:2015-Aug-02 to 2015-Aug-07
Volume:1
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 9180
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-20907-4 hcibib: CCD15-1; ISBN: 978-3-319-20906-7 (print), 978-3-319-20907-4 (online)
Papers:38
Pages:429
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. CCD 2015-08-02 Volume 1
    1. Cross-Cultural Product Design
    2. Cross-Cultural Design Methods and Case Studies
    3. Design, Innovation, Social Development and Sustainability

CCD 2015-08-02 Volume 1

Cross-Cultural Product Design

A Brand Construction Strategy of Digital Cultural and Creative Empowerment in Local Cultural Industries BIBAKFull-Text 3-14
  Tsen-Yao Chang; Kuo-Li Huang
The study introduces digital technology into local industry development, thus building a brand model and creating cultural experimental value to build cross-border brand equity and reduce time expense for design and marketing. The concept of brand model intends to promote in the form of value-added benefits and international business opportunities into industries. Subsequently, the upgrading and transformation of the traditional industry is promoted, driving industry value, the cultural tourism industry, and local brand development. The study is expected to assist local industries in determining their advantages, integrating local stories into brand marketing, and seeking potential opportunities to create brand value through digital marketing. This way, the local industry can be integrated into a sustainable industry chain or settlement. A typical local economy should also be encouraged to grow sustainably so that the local brand can be introduced to the international market and the local industry scale can be expanded.
Keywords: Cultural and creative industries; Local brand development; Digital marketing; Brand value
The Effects of Form Ratio in Product Design BIBAKFull-Text 15-23
  Chiu-Wei Chien; Chih-Long Lin; Rungtai Lin
Product personalities are often designated for market segmentation during product marketing, and product appearance is usually an important aspect for determining product personality. Rational and emotional are the two opposite adjectives with the most resonance during interpretation of the properties of product forms. Among the researches on form ratio, the golden ratio is the most historic. In this study the questionnaire survey of two group variables of "rational and emotional properties" and "preference" among 5 kinds of ratio states of 4 kinds of basic forms has been carried out for the purposes of (1) figuring out the correlation among the backgrounds of respondents, the form preference, and the rational and emotional perception, and (2) the difference in rational and emotional perceptions of different forms. This study is also aimed at the impacts of ratio variations of different forms on the rational and emotional properties. Both the online questionnaire and questionnaire in paper copy have been implemented simultaneously in this experiment for two weeks. In the end 230 online questionnaires and 220 paper copies of questionnaires have been collected, and there are 417 valid questionnaires out of the total of 450 questionnaires. The results of these questionnaires have led to two conclusions: 1. The one with the highest significance of impact on rational and emotional properties and preference level is the college attended, followed by the gender. 2. The smaller aspect ratio of rectangular, the more rational it will be. The smaller aspect ratio of the organic form, the more emotional is will be.
Keywords: Rational and emotional; Form; Aspect ratio
Pilot Study on the Application of Light-Absorbing Fabric in Sport Fashion BIBAKFull-Text 24-35
  Chiui Hsu; Po-Hsien Lin
In the 21st century, social change has quickened and intensified, resulting in humanity now facing many new challenges. With China, the United States, the European Union, and Japan shifting their focus towards low-carbon, environmentally friendly policies as the basis of future economic development. According to fashion industry observers, the use of natural and energy-saving forward-looking fabrics is already part of this global trend, and will continue to influence the clothing industry in the future. In terms of research and development of clothing materials, recent results from Taiwan far outstrip those of other countries. In the past six years, research into light-absorbing fibers has not only echoed the international trend towards energy-saving and environmental protection, but has also produced a new and unique technology, unmatched elsewhere. However, whether in terms of cost or actual technical application, new textile materials are invariably subjected to certain restrictions during the early stage of development, and currently, light-absorbing fabrics are at such basic stage of development. In this study, a survey was conducted to determine the potential demand for using advanced materials in sportswear. Respondent exercise habits were categorized, and sportswear needs for various sports activities were analyzed. The attributes of sportswear for the top three sports were analyzed and input into a matrix to stimulate diverse design ideas. It is hoped that "needs", "choice" and "thinking" can be incorporated into future product design strategies to clearly demonstrate the core value of applying advanced light-absorbing fabric to sports fashion.
Keywords: Fibers; Forward-looking technology; Performance fabric; Health and energy-saving; Sport fashion
A Design Strategy of Cultural and Creative Products on the Global Market BIBAKFull-Text 36-48
  Chi-Hsien Hsu; Wang-Chin Tsai
As the promotion of cultural and creative industries has become a trend in the current economic development strategies of various countries, the global market has gradually moved its focus towards local styles, and creative design applications have become a global competitive advantage of an industry. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness evaluation index and design strategy on cultural and creative products of consumer cognition and preference. First, we undertook a preliminary survey by means of literature review and opinions from a group of experts, and selected representative product samples and evaluation indices. Afterward, we analyzed the results of the questionnaire survey and found that cultural and creative products have distinct identity for participants. Furthermore, the participants considered that the main attributes affecting the overall presentation of a product, in order of degree of influence were "material, product function, aesthetic image, design quality, appearance style".
Keywords: Design strategy; Cultural and creative product
Chinese Cultural Values in User Experience Design of Kids' Home Products BIBAKFull-Text 49-57
  Xiaojun Huang; Linong Dai
Home has great influence on kids' formation of personalities because it is the first environment where they grow up. It represents parents' living and educational values. In this study, the authors use the methodology of Ethnography and POEMS, discuss the subject about how to apply the essence of traditional Chinese cultural values to the experience design of kids' home products, and put it into practice.
Keywords: Kids' home products; Chinese cultural values; User experience design
Cross-Cultural User Experience Design Helping Product Designers to Consider Cultural Differences BIBAKFull-Text 58-70
  Florian Lachner; Constantin von Saucken; Florian 'Floyd' Mueller; Udo Lindemann
User experience (UX) designers aim to create a product that causes a pleasant emotional reaction in order to generate an enjoyable memory. However, emotions are subjective and diverse because of cultural differences. As a consequence, cultural differences in UX design are often considered only as theoretical exercises. In this paper, we aim to bridge the gap between theoretical cultural studies and practical application. We analyze established cultural dimensions as well as notes from observational studies, business presentations and ethnographic interviews. Finally, we present "Cultural Personas", application-oriented tools that characterize derived cultural differences. That supports designers to consider a culturally sensitive UX and thereby to develop better, more enjoyable products.
Keywords: Country culture; Cross-cultural design; Cross-cultural evaluation; Personalities; Psychology; Personas; Storytelling
A Product Service System Design for Fitness Activities Based on Active Ageing a Proposal of Fitness for Xishan Style Council BIBAKFull-Text 71-82
  Yin Liang; Davide Fassi
This paper is about a design proposal for the "Style Council" (Xishan Style Council is local government department which take charge of organizing cultural and fitness activities. http://wt.jsxishan.gov.cn/zgxswtj/.) of Xishan, Wuxi, China to offer a service which help the residents, especially the elders, to do fitness in a healthy and social interactive way. It aims not only to improve physical health but also to build up a friendly relationship among the neighbors.
   This service will be developed under the active ageing policy (WHO 2002) released by WHO (World Health Organization) followed by the Chinese government too. Because of this policy, many fitness spaces emerged and equipment was produced under the help of sponsors and "sports administration" (Sports Administration is a government department which take charge of Sports Events, training athletes, improving the physical fitness and exercise etc. http://www.sport.gov.cn/.). Nowadays local government has the mission to integrate fitness resources including sponsors, fitness groups, coaches and temporary spaces to build up a fitness system which elders can easily join. But this top-down fitness system is not working well in many places.
   In this proposal, we analyze this integration work in Xishan with the aim to modify and improve it toward a lifestyle which bring both physical and psychological health to people.
   According to the Social innovation journey (Fassi et al. 2013) after having investigated the user's needs, we design a service system which aims to offer multi-experienced fitness activities for elders and encourage sponsors to support this activity.
Keywords: Fitness life style; Active ageing; Social innovation; Service design
A Study of the Accessible Approach to Replace the Reservoir Silt Glaze with New Formula BIBAKFull-Text 83-95
  Chi-Chang Lu; Po-Hsien Lin
The author engaged in the research work of utilizing Shihmen Reservoir silt to make ceramic glazes. It was shown to be specific and feasible. But due to the different accumulation of layers or batches, it has more instability. The author had ever been three times to collect silt in different sedimentation pond, and was confirmed its chemical composition to be have obvious differences by instrumental analysis. If you used a direct replacement, you could find significant differences in appearance when silt content above 20%. The "seger's formula" of ceramic glaze was used as the theoretical basis for the composition, and then calculated by Excel's Solver tool. It was always made the similar effect with original if you gave proper constraints and the substitution principle.
Keywords: Ceramic arts; Reservoir silt; Glaze; Seger formula; Programming solver
Humanism Presented in Taiwan Cochin Ceramic Design BIBAKFull-Text 96-107
  Huei-Mei Shih
Cochin ceramics, a low temperature and soft pottery, is one of Taiwanese traditional arts. Originally it comes from southern part of Chinese areas and has become a sort of architectural decoration, which has been integrated with sculpture, ceramics and painting in one. Cochin ceramics can be seen in traditional temples and rich mansions Taiwan. In Chin dynasty (in the 18th century) with people migrating from China to Taiwan, they set foot on this land and developed Cochin in its full scales. The research aims to offer a better understanding of its humanism presented in traditional architectural forms. The article covers the historical development of Cochin, its thematic analysis, its inherent moral design, its cultural spirit, and the conclusions.
Keywords: Cochin ceramic; Thematic analysis; Folk art; Humanism
Designing Wearable Device-Based Product and Service Ecosystem BIBAKFull-Text 108-115
  Xiaohua Sun; Yongqi Lou; Tong Li; Qi Wang
In the design of wearable device, the focus is normally put on the device itself and functions serving individual users. However, as a product widely spread out over a large population, the consolidated data collected from the devices could be used to bring to users functions or services far beyond personal scope and increase the value of services for individual users as well. When the focus of design is switched from individual product to the overall landscape involving large amount of devices, a central data platform, and services supported by the data platform, a systematic planning of the working mechanism and services at both individual and social level become possible as the result of the scope expansion. We introduce in this paper our in-depth analysis of key issues involved in the design in this new type of ecosystem. Specifically, we use E-Wearable, a wearable device-based platform for environment protection and environmental information service to exemplify the concepts and methods we propose.
Keywords: Wearable device; Social innovation; Environmental information service; Environment protection
From OEM to OBM -- A Case Study of Branding Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 116-127
  Hui-Yun Yen; Yu-Ju Lin; Yige Jin; Rungtai Lin
Recently, product design in Taiwan has entered the original brand manufacturer era, which involves the evolution of Taiwan design development. Taiwan is eager to transform its economic development to "branding Taiwan." Based on previous studies and experience in Taiwan, this study proposes a conceptual framework to study Taiwan design development, which has transitioned from "use" to "user," "function" to "feeling," and "hi-tech" to "hi-touch." Hence, this study aimed to provide designers, companies, and organizations with a design strategy that is tailored to the current market. The results are presented herein to provide an interface for examining Taiwanese design development across cultures and to illustrate the relationship between local design and the global market in Taiwan's economy, industry, and design development.
Keywords: Branding Taiwan; Product design; OEM; ODM; OBM
Research on Service-Driven Feature of Industrial Designers Under the Background of Industry Convergence BIBAKFull-Text 128-138
  Qing Zhang; Chen Cheng; Junnan Ye; Wei Ding
Over the past thirty years of development, China has become a strong economic power and manufacturer, and entered the middle stage of the development of industrialization. However, the deficiency in the innovation capability has become a serious obstacle restricting China's development. As one of the eight industries in modern service, industrial design has been ranked as key development strategies in China. How to further reinforce industrial designers' awareness of modern design service, strengthen the understanding of the service-driven feature, and better satisfy the society's demands for industrial design of the time under the background of industry convergence; how to assist enterprises and customers realizing innovative transformation through industrial designers' design service in technological means; how to really exert the value of design in industry through industrial designers' philosophy in design service by means of coordination and innovation in a "harmonious and smooth" mode will be another issue of critical concern in the industrial design field.
   In the background of industry convergence, the paper has combed evolution of design service contents and new development of industrial designers from the early 19th century to now. Based on literature review, the paper has summarized the specific work contents of the current industrial designers and then put forward the contents of three-layer service-driven characteristics of industrial designers: firstly, driving the transformation and upgrade of traditional manufacturing industries by design power; secondly, helping manufacturing industries to shape brand by design innovation; thirdly, accelerating the transferring of scientific and technological achievements and linking technology with market. In study, the paper has found that industrial designers should become joint and mutual adhesive with various experts of the enterprise. Based on the training of service awareness of innovative design, application of comprehensive perceptual test means, establishment of design concept of collaborative innovation and others, industrial designers can better serve enterprise manufacturer and consumer. In the meantime, the industrial designer's responsibility consciousness should be transformed from simple delegate object to society and from simple service-oriented design to organization-oriented design, that is, from customer subject consciousness to social subject consciousness.
Keywords: Industry convergence; Industrial designer; Design service; Service-driven

Cross-Cultural Design Methods and Case Studies

Comparison of User Responses to English and Arabic Emotion Elicitation Video Clips BIBAKFull-Text 141-152
  Nawal Al-Mutairi; Sharifa Alghowinem; Areej Al-Wabil
To study the variation in emotional responses to stimuli, different methods have been developed to elicit emotions in a replicable way. Using video clips has been shown to be the most effective stimuli. However, the differences in cultural backgrounds lead to different emotional responses to the same stimuli. Therefore, we compared the emotional response to a commonly used emotion eliciting video clips from the Western culture on Saudi culture with an initial selection of emotion eliciting Arabic video clips. We analysed skin physiological signals in response to video clips from 29 Saudi participants. The results of the validated English video clips and the initial Arabic video clips are comparable, which suggest that a universal capability of the English set to elicit target emotions in Saudi sample, and that a refined selection of Arabic emotion elicitation clips would improve the capability of inducing the target emotions with higher levels of intensity.
Keywords: Emotion classification; Basic emotions; Physiological signals; Electro-dermal activity; Skin temperature
Understanding Gratifications of Watching Danmaku Videos -- Videos with Overlaid Comments BIBAKFull-Text 153-163
  Yue Chen; Qin Gao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
Danmaku comment is a comment technology that overlays user comments directly on the video and creates a co-viewing experience. It originates from Japan and becomes increasingly popular on video sharing sites in China, particularly among the young generation. This exploratory study investigates reasons for watching Danmaku videos through two focus group studies. The results show that the users who watch Danmaku videos found it a way to entertain themselves, to be in company, to have the sense of belonging, and to seek information. Those who do not watch Danmaku videos, however, complained about the abundance of information, the imperfect information quality, and the look and feel. We summarized scenarios suitable for Danmaku commenting from three perspectives: the content, the complexity of information, and the number of viewers. Possible improvements and new applications of Danmaku commenting were discussed.
Keywords: Danmaku comment; Gratifications; Co-viewing; Video-sharing sites
Users' Individual Needs Oriented Parametric Design Method of Chinese Fonts BIBAKFull-Text 164-175
  Qijun Duan; Xiaoli Zhang
The rapid development of technology and the changes in reading ways have promoted the research related to Chinese characters, while the new patterns of information acquisition, dissemination and communication based on modern internet technology have posed requirements for individualized design of Chinese characters. In this paper, for providing a new rational and personalized design method for Chinese characters, 3 kinds of parameters as shape parameters, structure parameters and effect parameters of Chinese characters are defined. A database of common characters, stored in the cloud and developed in a Crowdfunding way, is designed for providing design elements. Parametric Design System and the relevant application prototype is established, which is based on the rule of form and structure of Chinese characters, and the analysis of application interface characteristics. Then, the parametric design of Chinese characters can mark the information dissemination with a personal imprint in the context of modern technology and culture.
Keywords: Chinese character; Strokes; Structure; Parameter; Design
Dramatic Sketches: A New Interaction Design Resource for Communicating Contextual Factors BIBAKFull-Text 176-185
  Fuad Ali EL-Qirem; Gilbert Cockton
User-centred design approaches focus on understanding usage contexts and evaluating usage through primary data. Collecting primary data is more feasible for contexts that project teams can directly access. Otherwise, secondary sources may be the only practical source of contextual information (and even when it is not, secondary data can still be valuable). When designing software for localization across global markets, comprehensive collection of primary data may be infeasible, but existing secondary data could be made more accessible via an appropriate design resource. In this paper, we present Dramatic Sketches as a resource for representing cultural factors. We relate a set of Dramatic Sketches to three field research studies in Jordan and show how a few Dramatic Sketches and auxiliary Micro Sketches can compactly communicate many cultural factors.
Keywords: Dramatic Sketches; User-Centered design; Contextual user and usage research; Culturally-sensitive design for Arab countries
A Formal Method for Evaluating the Performance Level of Human-Human Collaborative Procedures BIBAKFull-Text 186-197
  Dan Pan; Matthew L. Bolton
Human-human interaction is critical to safe operations in domains like nuclear power plants (NPP) and air transportation. Usually collaborative procedures and communication protocols are developed to ensure that relevant information is correctly heard and actions are correctly executed. Such procedures should be designed to be robust to miscommunications between humans. However, these procedures can be complex and thus fail in unanticipated ways. To address this, researchers have been investigating how formal verification can be used to prove the robustness of collaborative procedures to miscommunications. However, previous efforts have taken a binary approach to assessing the success of such procedures. This can be problematic because some failures may be more desirable than others. In this paper, we show how specification properties can be created to evaluate the level of success of a collaborative procedure formally. We demonstrate the capability of these properties to evaluate a realistic procedure for a NPP application.
Keywords: Formal method; Human communication; Human error
The Effect of Tactile Feedback on Mental Workload During the Interaction with a Smartphone BIBAKFull-Text 198-208
  Peter Rasche; Alexander Mertens; Christopher Schlick; Pilsung Choe
This empirical study examines the adequacy of tactile feedback to present status information about the progress of Internet-based services on mobile devices and possibilities to compensate age-related changes in users performance. Therefore the user experience of mobile browsing was compared using three different vibration signals and two different levels of process times. In this experiment the participants had to perform two tasks simultaneously. The participants experienced six different (combinations treatments) permutations in treatment with regard to 'vibration type' and 'process time.' The user experience was measured by the Technology Acceptance Model and the subjective mental workload by the NASA Task Load Index using a questionnaire. The experiment revealed that a short vibration signal at the end of a process is capable of increase the user experience. Therefore, 'perceived enjoyment' as well as 'perceived usefulness' improved. However, the characteristic factor 'mental workload' decreased with usage of tactile feedback.
Keywords: Design for social development; Demographic change; Aging-appropriate design
Brazilian Cultural Differences and Their Effects on the Web Interfaces User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 209-220
  Tales Rebequi Costa Borges de Souza; Marcelo Morandini; João Luiz, Jr. Bernardes
Having an interface that provides good user experience has become a critical factor for success in information systems. Cultural differences, however, may have a significant impact in this experience, but are seldom taken into account during interface design and evaluation, particularly in Brazil, a multicultural country with continental dimensions. Our goal was to investigate whether the cultural differences between the five socio-economical macro-regions of Brazil are profound enough to impact user experience in web-based interfaces and, if so, how. We performed an experiment with 110 participants, 22 per region, comparing cultural differences elicited by VSM with performance and evaluation of a fictitious Internet Banking System. Cultural differences were identified and correlated with differences in user experience, particularly in regards to the amount of information and colors shown in the interface.
Keywords: Culture; User experience; Usability
A Pilot Study of Exploring the Relationship Between Dechnology Product and Product Personality BIBAKFull-Text 221-231
  Wen-Zhong Su; Hsi-Yen Lin; Chi-Ying Hung; Pei-Hua Hung
Cultural creative products emphasize personalization to meet the needs of consumers who hope to be unique and different. The purpose of this study is to explore whether if there is a correlation between consumers' dominant or recessive personality traits and their selection of or preference for products. This study is divided into three stages, the first stage finds the relationship between personality traits and the five aspects of product personalization through literature review; the second stage is an experiment that recruits 105 college juniors in day school and night school, and asks them to complete a PDP personality test to learn the personality traits of these college consumers; the third stage provides a manual containing 41 designed Dechnology products and asks the subjects to intuitively choose products based on their own preference. The subjects are not under any pressure and do not need to evaluate the products' design, functions or aesthetics. After data collection is completed, subjects' personality traits are categorized and the product voting results are analyzed. Finally, this study concludes that there is a significant correlation between consumers' personality traits and their preference for Dechnology products. After compiling statistics on similar and different selections made by subjects with each personality trait, this study found that products selected by subjects with different personality traits also have multiple personalities. This study also found that consumers with different personality traits showed different preferences when selecting products, and analysis of products' design and functions showed that product personality was consistent with consumers' personality trait. Results of this study can serve as reference for product planners, designers and marketing personnel.
Keywords: PDP; Dechnology; Personality traits; Product personality
An Innovation Design for Hazardous Chemical/Gases Disaster Detection and Analysis Equipment by Using Cross-Cultural User Scenarios and Service Design BIBAKFull-Text 232-240
  Sheng-Ming Wang; Cheih Ju Huang; Lun-Chang Chou; Pei-Lin Chen
Unexpected releases of toxic, reactive, or flammable liquids and gases in processes involving highly hazardous chemicals or gas explosions have been reported for many years. The recent incident happened in Taiwan at 31st July, 2014 shows that a series of gas explosions occurred in the Cianjhen and Lingya districts of Kaohsiung in Taiwan, following reports of gas leaks earlier that night claimed 31 lives and injured other 309 people. In this study, we organized an interdisciplinary team that contains scholars from university, leaders from firefighter department, high rank officers from disaster management agencies, researchers and project managers from research institute and gases detector manufacture company and product designers to work together to propose an innovation design for hazardous chemicals/gases detection and analysis equipment. Based on the QFD analysis, operation for air detection is the most important feature. The results shown in the QFD Matrix, was further analyzed using a questionnaire that polled 6 inter-disciplinary experts in order to collect the pair-wise comparison results in AHP. The top 3 feature from the AHP are similar to the QFD weight: Air Type (20.05%), Air Concentration (19.71%), and Air Detection (17.44%) The results of this research point out that the innovation product design should also include the design of service mechanism in order to meet users' requirement. For cross-cultural user scenarios perspective, design thinking method that use diagram and pictures for providing info-graphic results and the usability of user interface (UI) are two major factors should be included in the design process. The conclusions of this study suggest that the integration of product design and service design, and the co-working mechanism among interdisciplinary team play very important role in the innovation design for hazardous chemicals/gases detection and analysis equipment.
Keywords: Service design; Cross-Cultural scenarios; Usability; Hazardous chemical/gases; Disaster management
Based on Action-Personality Data Mining, Research of Gamification Emission Reduction Mechanism and Intelligent Personalized Action Recommendation Model BIBAKFull-Text 241-252
  Yangbo Xu; Yi Tang
To the emission reduction activities, use gamification design method to implant resonance and great meaning into mainstream residents' implicit goals, so that set up the personalized challenging ways to their goals and help them transit to more sustainable lifestyle. For making up a deficiency of the correlated "action A-B" recommendation model, this paper puts forward a new causal "action-personality" data-mining model, and finally establishes an intelligent personalized behavior recommended model to help residents to achieve the emission reduction goals.
Keywords: Emission reduction; Recommendation system; Gamification design; Incentive mechanism; Data mining; Motivation; Operation action; Resulting action; Sustainable development
Design of a Clothing Shopping Guide Website for Visually Impaired People BIBAKFull-Text 253-261
  Huiqiao Yang; Qijia Peng; Qin Gao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
Millions of visually impaired people cannot enjoy the convenience brought by e-commerce due to the inaccessibility and complexity of existing online shopping websites. The user experience of online shopping website for visually impaired people needs to be improved. This study aims at designing a clothing shopping guide website for visually impaired people in support of choosing satisfying garment conveniently and efficiently. We designed and completed a prototype, and then a test and an interview were conducted to summarize requirements in operation and content for online clothes shopping of visually impaired users, and put forward improvements of our prototype.
Keywords: Visually impaired; Accessibility; Usability
Co-design: An Investigation Through Interviewing Expert in Europe BIBAKFull-Text 262-273
  Shu Yuan; Hua Dong; Zi Chen
This paper summarized the study of the co-design expert interviews in Europe. Seven interviews were conducted, recorded, transcribed and then analyzed with the general inductive approach. Twelve categories were divided into the upper level of the principles about co-design and the lower level of the practical experiences and techniques. At last, the authors extracted the most impressive perceptions from the twelve categories based on the Chinese co-design experiences.
Keywords: Co-design; Participatory design; Expert interviews
Investigation into Designing of Elderly Products Intending for the User's Behavior Experiencing BIBAKFull-Text 274-282
  Ning Zhang; Yajun Li; Ming Zhou; Zhizheng Zhang
Body gestures are the key point affect the elderly daily life (ADL). Seidel, D., et al. [1] An innovative designing method based on user's behavior experience is proposed in order to improve the experiencing and to mine innovative points of elderly product design. Complete interactive processes between users and products are captured through penetrating into users living scenes. A Laundry Behavior Coding (LBC) system is proposed special for the elderly in China. Ethnography methods, behavior observation, oral presentation and in-depth interviews are also deployed. 20 participants (10 young and 10 elderly) participated the study focused on drum washing machine. A special Behavior Interaction Model (BIM) is established by extracting the behavior coding gap, which is obtained by comparing the coded sets of both the old and the young. Implicit demands are discovered in order to realize innovative designing of laundry machine for the old and to enhance users' experiences.
Keywords: Elderly products; Behavior experience; Data encoding; Implicit demand; Design innovation
Research on Product Affective Image by the Way of Empathic Design BIBAKFull-Text 283-290
  Meiyu Zhou; Xiaowen Yang; Peilong Liang; Pei Xu
Continuous development of science and technology and continuous innovation of products have changed users' needs. People not only pay attention to practical and functional products, but also pay more attention to satisfying emotional needs in the process of experience. In such a highly information-based era, designers actively and deeply understand users' various emotional experience instead of passively designing products only by relying on obtaining users' feedback information. Starting from design's emotional factors, this study firstly introduces empathetic design's concept and basic method, leads to the key of empathetic design method -- focusing on users' experience, and then combining with theories and methods of design morphology and statistics, discusses empathetic design method applied in product design. Taking design of office chair as an example, with empathetic design's concept and method as research's foundation, this paper analyzes and carries questionnaire investigation combining with users' behavior, and demonstrates user experience's influence on formation of products' emotional imagery using contrast technique, and with the help of Chi-square test and non-parametric test. In addition, combining with product design method, based on summarizing users' demands, this paper puts forward the concept of new office chair's design.
Keywords: Empathy; User experience; Emotional imagery; Office chair

Design, Innovation, Social Development and Sustainability

A Study on the Balance and Optimization Measures in Industry-University Collaborative Innovation of Interaction Design BIBAKFull-Text 293-302
  Jianxin Cheng; Miao Liu; Junnan Ye
Based on the "material" homogenization tendency in the background of industrial production, this paper analyzes the current application status of interaction design in domestic product design, and discusses the reasons of five aspects. On the basis of analyzing the current situation of the interaction design, this paper combines the characteristics of the Experience Economy and the Age of Big Data, establishing the important position of market information and customer demand information in interaction design, exploring the feasibility of the corresponding method of process experience, identify experience and emotional experience in the field of interaction design, reducing the influence of human misunderstanding in this area and rising the effectiveness of interaction design. Then through analyzing the real cases, offering the theoretical foundation for the interactive technology, industrial design, new media design and other subjects and provide methodological guidance.
Keywords: Interaction design; Industry-University collaborative innovation; Optimization measures
The Research and Practice Framework for Designing the Digital Social Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 303-315
  Zhiyong Fu; Zirui Huang
This paper focuses on the research and practice of digital social innovation (DSI). The rapid progress in the era of information provides many possibilities for social innovation. At the meanwhile, the development of science and technology has significantly boosted the breadth, depth and efficiency of social innovation. Through years' of research and practice, we improve the definition and conclude the features of DSI from a large number of case studies. Then, by combining the SET factors, we develop the general standard framework for DSI. At last, we use and confirm the righteous and effectiveness of this instruction in practice.
Keywords: Social innovation; Information technology; Framework; Grounded theory; Service design
Defining the Middle Ground: A Comprehensive Approach to the Planning, Design and Implementation of Smart City Operating Systems BIBAKFull-Text 316-327
  Christopher Grant Kirwan
As cities have become more sophisticated with the introduction of advanced information technology and with the widespread use of social media, there is a need to identify a middle ground (or connective mode) which links the operating systems of the city with its citizens. In order to develop a new viable model for Smart City operating systems, an in-depth understanding of key drivers of the city will be required. This process must simultaneously integrate both top-down and bottom-up data streams to allow operating systems to grow organically and sustainably, with the following goals: (1) Permit city leaders to make more informed decisions, (2) Create an open development environment that will encourage private enterprise to infuse capital, technology and innovative business solutions, (3) Allow citizens to participate in the operation and management of their communities. The primary objective of this paper is to define the required methodology to plan, design and implement appropriate solutions to City DNA through the use of an integrated "Middle Ground" approach.
Keywords: Smart Cities; City OS; Operating Systems; System Architecture; Urban Interface; City DNA; Collective Intelligence; Citizen Participation
Review on Interaction Design for Social Context in Public Spaces BIBAKFull-Text 328-338
  Xu Lin; Jun Hu; Matthias Rauterberg
This paper presents a structured literature review on interaction design for social contexts in public spaces, especially the research on designing for public interactive facilities, such as public displays, interactive installations and media façades, aiming to gain a holistic understanding on current research. A framework is also introduced to help summarize current research focuses, considering interaction process, social impacts and spatial factors as three main layers of it. Based on the framed results, the paper discusses possible design opportunities and challenges, bringing new perspectives into interaction design in public spaces.
Keywords: Public space; Social context; Interaction design
Diagnosis on Corporate Culture and Construction BIBAKFull-Text 339-348
  Lin Ma; Xueli Wang; Xiaopeng He
Along with the gradual improvement and development of China's market economy, some state-owned enterprises have gradually restructured into private ones. The culture of some enterprises has changed greatly in this structural reform process. This paper selects Limin Chemical Co., Ltd., a successfully restructured high-tech enterprise as the object of study, and extracts a method system to measure the enterprise culture through analysis of cultural differences before and after its restructuring. Based on the Denison Model of Organizational Culture, a cultural measuring model of Limin is established to diagnose current conditions of culture in Limin. According to the evaluation results, combining market trend, this paper presents the strategic object and plan of Limin's future culture construction, and discusses the establishment process of Limin's culture system in detail.
Keywords: Cultural changes; Culture diagnosis; Case study
When Human-Centered Design Meets Social Innovation: The Idea of Meaning Making Revisited BIBAKFull-Text 349-360
  Jin Ma
Facing the challenges of sustainability, while design is seeking to play an important role in social innovation, human-centered design (HCD) -- one of the most important philosophies of design -- somehow appears to be fading out of the major research agenda. Based on a review of the limitations of HCD, this paper looks into the capability of the theoretical underpinning of HCD to support its potential development in social innovation from two aspects: (1) the connection between human-centeredness and the social dimension; (2) emancipating HCD from the asserted limitation of its role in innovation. The phenomenological perspective is used to support and broaden the worldview of HCD. Built upon this, the idea of meaning making is revisited to account for both questions. In addition, a preliminary framework of meaning making is proposed as a HCD tool that aims to facilitate the complex interaction in social innovation. It is argued that design as meaning making with a combined interest in exploring human experience will open up new opportunities for HCD.
Keywords: Meaning; Human-centered design; Social innovation; Phenomenological perspective; Hermeneutic spiral
Design Process as Communication Agency for Value Co-Creation in Open Social Innovation Project: BIBAKFull-Text 361-371
  Dongjin Song; Susu Nousala; Yongqi Lou
Within the context of social innovation, this paper, builds on the established principle of 'positive deviance'. The purpose of this approach was to identify design processes and tools that improved the communication within the QuYang Community, one case among many creative communities. In this practical context, the design process was conducted as the communication agency for decoding and recoding socio-space components as well as stimulating, externalizing, integrating and co-creating value in the creative elderly community. Open social innovation paradigm can be considered as one way to mitigate some of the risk associated with social innovation. Emerging "creative community [1] " cases were seen as the grounded dynamic laboratories for clarifying the emerging open social innovation paradigm.
Keywords: Open social innovation paradigm; Positive deviance approach; Design tools; Creative community
Design for Sustainable Behaviour BIBAKFull-Text 372-380
  Xu Sun; Qingfeng Wang; Nan Wang; Charlie Sugianto So; Yan Wang
This paper explores the associated factors that lead to sustainable behaviour at home, and how design could be used to influence user behaviour in the area of pro-environmental households within China.
Keywords: Energy behaviour; Sustainable design
Preliminary Study: Influence of Cultural Differences on the Innovation Process Between Chinese and Germans BIBAKFull-Text 381-391
  Liuxing Tsao; Philip Alexander Behr-Heyder; Liang Ma
The success of companies in the industrial sector is highly dependent on innovation. China is the biggest industry nation in the world and Germany is well-known for its engineering and innovations. The differences and conflictions between Chinese and German culture appear in the innovation process. We designed a questionnaire based on Hofstedes cultural model and the stage-gate innovation process to study these differences and elaborate guidelines to encourage innovation in Sino-German companies. We surveyed 92 participants from China and Germany. Furthermore, four semi-structured interviews were conducted with top executives for qualitative data collection. The results suggested that Chinese might be mainly influenced by the concept of power-distance and face, whereas Germans might be influenced by uncertainty avoidance during the innovation process. We developed guidelines to understand the national cultural influence on the innovation process and to manage Chinese and German engineers in this process.
Keywords: Cross-cultural studies; International management; Chinese and German engineers; Innovation; Innovation process
From Invisible to Visible: The Evolution of Space Formation of the Nineteenth Century Christian Missionary Work in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 392-402
  Yin-Chun Tseng; Kun-Chen Chang; Fu-Kuo Mii; Chiu-Wei Chien
The nineteenth century, Priest Mackay carried out the missionary work in Taiwan with the permission from The Presbyterian Church in Canada. The purpose of this study was to investigate how Mackay in a foreign land pioneer the missionary gathering space. MacKay gathered believers at temples, under trees or in hotels at the early stage. As the believers became more, some families started to provide gathering space and donated. In small towns the churches were usually built in private homes or with small size while they were built tall and with Western-style in densely populated towns. Mackay established small schools where it was densely populated in order to cultivate future missionaries. Also in many churches drug stores were installed, by which it facilitated the distribution of western medication in northern Taiwan. The evolution of missionary spatial form reflected the attitude of Taiwanese people toward the foreign religion. And from the change in space it also reflected that the relationship between Taiwanese and Christianity were gradually being recognized.
Keywords: Priest Mackay; The Presbyterian Church; Church; Missionary
Exploring Socioeconomic and Sociocultural Implications of ICT Use: An Ethnographic Study of Indigenous People in Malaysia BIBAKFull-Text 403-413
  Norazlinawati Walid; Emma Nuraihan Mior Ibrahim; Chee Siang Ang; Norlaila Md. Noor
In some countries, it is revealed that the ICT usage by indigenous people is possible to be accomplished and utilized to deliver benefits. For the purpose of development and advancement of Orang Asli (one of the indigenous groups in Malaysia) and in support of the national aspirations in Vision 2020, ICT exposure to Orang Asli requires holistic implementation. Therefore, the predominant issue to be discovered comprehensively is about Orang Asli and it is imperative to understand their needs and requirements in terms of ICT acceptance, appropriation, barriers, as well as infrastructure and infostructure issues. In conclusion, we found four main aspects to be considered in research involving Orang Asli's use of ICT and benefit ICT: (i) the influential people, (ii) infrastructure barriers (iii) social development issues, and (iv) motivational factors.
Keywords: Indigenous; Orang asli; Malaysia; Socioeconomic; Sociocultural; ICT use; Focus group; Thematic analysis; Card sorting; Expert reviewer
Stakeholder Engagement: Applying Dechnology in a Technology-Oriented Organization BIBAKFull-Text 414-425
  Chih-Shiang (Mike) Wu; William Huang; Pei-Lin Chen; Tung-Jung Sung
Technology revolution and the subsequent innovation can bring about a multitude of benefits for the society. However, innovation derived from a single technology push is no longer sufficient to meet the needs of the current market. While past studies have suggested that an ideal environment for innovation involves the engagement of multiple stakeholders, in practice, this ideal has remained a major challenge for many technology-oriented organizations. In 2010, the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) launched a project called Dechnology, where service design and design thinking were incorporated into the R&D process. The project developed the Dechnology innovation model, and successfully engaged stakeholders in the innovative process, which helped the collaboration between ITRI and corporations. This study looked at three cases from the Dechnology project and investigated the mechanisms applied in the Dechnology innovation model. This study further illustrated that the Dechnology project utilized three main mechanisms, which were (1) to apply the end-user voice properly, (2) to build a multidisciplinary facilitation team, and (3) to establish visualized co-creation environments.
Keywords: Stakeholder engagement; Service design; Innovation; Co-creation