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CCD Tables of Contents: 13-113-21415-115-2

CCD 2014: 6th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design

Fullname:CCD 2014: 6th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design
Note:Volume 19 of HCI International 2014
Editors:P. L. Patrick Rau
Location:Heraklion, Crete, Greece
Dates:2014-Jun-22 to 2014-Jun-27
Publisher:Springer International Publishing
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8528
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-07308-8 hcibib: CCD14; ISBN: 978-3-319-07307-1 (print), 978-3-319-07308-8 (online)
Papers:76
Pages:811
Links:Online Proceedings | Conference Website
  1. Cross-Cultural Product and Service Design
  2. Cross-Cultural Issues in Interaction
  3. Social Aspects and Implications of Cross-Cultural Design
  4. Cross-Cultural Issues in E-commerce, Marketing and Branding
  5. Cross-Cultural Design for Knowledge Sharing and Learning
  6. Cross-Cultural Design for the Smart City
  7. Cross-Cultural Design for Creativity

Cross-Cultural Product and Service Design

A Reflective Study in Metaphorical Products Design from the Mapping of Relational Similarity Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 3-13
  Kung-Ling Chang
Cultural materials always have new applications in products design, a designer as an agent that "specifies the cultural properties of a design object". Metaphors design needs to propose a few observations to transform the ideas into an external form and make on the creative cultural products design. There is a relation between Cultural materials (sources) and products (targets), the designer needs to grasp the main points of discriminating the methods which transfers materials into a product by metaphors. Several categories of metaphors exist, including simile, metaphor, allegory, metonymy and analogy. Three categories out of five categories are most useful metaphors in practice, including simile, metaphor and metonymy, whereas the abstract ideas of metaphors were not easily understood by many beginners, students would rather design easily such as "displacement" and "simile", that caused me to established an operable practice model for beginners. Comprehend the model of an integrated design process in order to enhance the application of cultural materials through design practice and education, the model can be a valuable reference for case study, design practice and reorientation in metaphors of products design.
Keywords: Creative Cultural Products; Metaphor Design
Introduction Strategies of Service-Oriented Product System Design for the Transformation and Upgrading of Small and Medium Manufacturers in China BIBAKFull-Text 14-23
  Chen Jiajia
With the global market competition intensified, Chinese manufacturers, especially SMEs now are facing the enormous challenges in sustainable development. Learning from other countries in the practical experiences of service design and industrial design, service-oriented product system design can be a solution. This will not only allow SMEs to accumulate their design powers, but also will enhance their competitive advantage. In this paper, firstly, the author analyzed and summarized the reasons for service design's coming-into-being in China through literature research. Secondly, based on the results of in-depth interview and fieldwork of a number of SMEs done by the author, several aspects such as design development status, service design awareness & demands, potential conditions of establishing product service system have been discussed. Finally, the author provided actionable introduction strategies for small and medium manufacturers to transform and upgrade their business model from "manufacture-based" to "design innovation-led".
Keywords: transformation and upgrading; service-oriented product system design; small and medium manufacturers; design strategy
The Research of Regional Culture Characteristics of Tourism Commodities Based on Cross-Cultural Experience BIBAKFull-Text 24-34
  Jianxin Cheng; Le Xi; Junnan Ye; Wangqun Xiao
The booming of modern tourism contributes to an increasing enhancement of the worldwide innovation level of tourist commodities, as well as the continuous expanding scope and scale of output to the world. In a time when tourism activities are increasingly internationalizing and globalizing, the connection between tourism commodities and cross-cultural tourists are getting closer and closer, and the tourism experience economy that advocates cross-cultural experience has received widespread attention. The development of tourism experience economy is of great significance to the protection and development of regional culture, the realization of the sustainable development of tourism and the promotion of the internationalization of the tourism industry in China. With the popularity of the application of modern information technology, the information transmission and cognition between tourists and tourism commodities have become more and more direct and convenient. When facing cross-cultural tourists, the cognition and cultural connotations of tourism commodities are also increasingly challenged. How tourism commodities are perceived and accepted by cross-cultural users and how we better meet the needs of cross-cultural users in product experience, regional cultural characteristics, and design are hotspots in the study of experience economy. Based on the study of regional cultural characteristics, this paper proposes the application system of the regional cultural design and research of "Archaeology -- Interpretation -- Innovation" to utilize the systematic design thinking framework to enhance the regional cultural connotations and characteristics of tourism commodities. It also studies how to effectively convey the experience of these cultural connotations and characteristics to the cross-cultural users. Meanwhile, with China Luoyang Peony Festival as an example, through in-depth studies of history, culture and art in Luoyang, this paper extracts the characteristics with local features and values from the rich regional culture and combines the Eastern and Western thoughts' semantic cognition of regional cultural symbols to study the effects of these characteristics on the design of tourism commodities and the experience of cross-culture. By establishing an analytical framework, this paper carries out a comparative study of these unique regional cultural characteristics. Through a design case of the tourism commodity, it also demonstrates the design and application methods of these cultural characteristics so that a certain degree of enhancement and promotion can be brought to the innovative design approach of tourism commodities and that some reference can be provided for the study of the experience of tourism commodities. Finally, this paper provides proposals for the direction of future research of regional cultural design and application system of "Archaeology -- Interpretation -- Innovation".
Keywords: Cross-cultural Experience; Tourism Commodity; Regional Culture; Product Design
Towards the Development of an Inter-cultural Scale to Measure Trust in Automation BIBAKFull-Text 35-46
  Shih-Yi Chien; Zhaleh Semnani-Azad; Michael Lewis; Katia Sycara
Trust is conceived as an attitude leading to intentions resulting in user actions involving automation. It is generally believed that trust is dynamic and that a user's prior experience with automation affects future behavior indirectly through causing changes in trust. Additionally, individual differences and cultural factors have been frequently cited as the contributors to influencing trust beliefs about using and monitoring automation. The presented research focuses on modeling human's trust when interacting with automated systems across cultures. The initial trust assessment instrument, comprising 110 items along with 2 perceptions (general vs. specific use of automation), has been empirically validated. Detailed results comparing items and dimensionality with our new pooled measure will be presented.
Keywords: Trust; Automation; Culture; Technology Adoption; Human Computer Interaction (HCI); Human Factors
The Research on the Logistics Service Design Based on the Theory of Brand Image: A Case for FEELER BIBAKFull-Text 47-58
  Qing Ge; Yin Wang; Nan Zhou
The problems in the domestic logistics industry currently require logistics equipment suppliers to help customers to do the service design which is an effective means to enhance corporate brand image on based of the brand image theory by the case of service design through the whole process of logistics equipment manufacturers: FEELER.
Keywords: Logistics industry; Service design; Brand image
Comparing Chinese and German's Emotional Reaction to Perfume BIBAKFull-Text 59-67
  Mengyu Guo; Zhe Chen; Hui Li; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Long Zeng; Xiangheng Wang; Nico Wendler; Lahcen Feddol
In this study of comparing Chinese and German's emotional reaction to perfume, three kinds of measurements including Self-report, Facial Action Coding System (FACS), Skin Conductance are used for measuring participants' emotions to 6 types of perfume with the objectives of: 1) validating the measurements of emotion to perfume, 2) describing the relationship between perfume and emotion and 3) comparing the cultural difference between Chinese and German regarding their emotions to perfume. The experiment results indicate that the three types of measurements are all effective to describe emotions to perfume and some interesting findings about the emotional reaction to perfume are noticed using the three measurements together. The cultural differences between Chinese and German are found in two aspects: 1) Chinese tend to more like perfume of Green tea and 2) Chinese tend to show no emotional response on face even if they have stronger feelings inside.
Keywords: Cultural difference; emotional reaction; perfume; emotion measurements
Designing "Fashion" into Uniform for Taipei City Public Cleaner Team BIBAKFull-Text 68-79
  Chiui Hsu; An-Feng Zhang; Robert Chen
There are nearly 7,000 street cleaners in Taipei city and their uniform is part of the city color; however, what they wear everyday for work is neither highly impressive nor fully functional. This workwear re-designing project is developed by adopting design thinking as a premise for the improvement of the uniform of Taipei's cleaner team to enhance the overall image and to improve the street cleaners' work efficiency and safety. The project requires involving multiple perspectives and conducting analyses of tremendous amount of data collected through discussions with the citizens from Adaptive City with topics ranging from sustainable environment and public issues to core social values. By integrating design thinking into this project, various perspectives can be introduced while more and more core design values can be verified. In a hope to make design an idea publically recognized and a value widely accepted as well as to highlight everyday aesthetics and quality city life, the study will create comfortable workwear with emblematic color combinations, adopting proper promoting strategies, applying innovative procedures, and eventually refreshing certain specific occupational image.
Keywords: Design thinking; Adaptive City; core design values; Taipei City Public Cleaner Team; innovative procedures
Research on the Extraction and Visualization of Automobile Brand Form Gene Based on Multi-roles' Expectation Image BIBAKFull-Text 80-88
  Weifeng Hu; Xiangyang Xin; Binbin Li
The extraction and visualization of automobile brand form gene based on multi-roles' expectation image was studied from the brand form feature and brand semantic feature two aspects. Using the protocol analysis, interview method and sketch analysis, the automobile brand form genes were extracted from users, automobile form designers and enterprise related personnel. Then the automobile brand form genes were visualized and quantitative described through the Bezier splines, mood board and semantic differential method. Finally, taking the Kia automobile as an example, the method was proved to be rational and feasible.
Keywords: Automobile styling; Brand Form Gene; multi-roles' Expectation Image; Visualization
EEG-Based Measurement of Emotion Induced by Mode, Rhythm, and MV of Chinese Pop Music BIBAKFull-Text 89-100
  Mao Mao; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
This present study aims to gain insights of how listeners feel about Chinese pop music and music video (MV) by examining music-induced emotion through subjective, physiological and regional brain activation measurement. This study focused on how the following aspects influence emotion: a) mode (major, minor, pentatonic), b) rhythm (firm vs. flowing), c) MV (narrative, live performance, parody). The results suggest that Chinese traditional pentatonic mode elicits sublime feelings, corresponding to lower HRV and less frontal-parietal beta power difference. Emotion elicited by major/minor mode is predictable according to discovered mode-emotion pattern from previous studies. As for the effect of MV on emotion, previous studies concerning emotion induced by narrative and live performance MV can be extended to Chinese pop MV. Extreme positive emotion and corresponded beta power spectrum are distinctive emotion cues for parody MVs. We also noted that firm rhythm in Chinese pop music is associated with high arousal level, while flowing rhythm may induce sublime feelings. This study indicates that musical features (audio) and music video styles (visual) in Chinese pop music can elicit different emotions. Emotion measures such as psychological ratings, HRV and EEG power spectral analysis should be comprehensively considered when interpreting listeners' emotion.
Keywords: Chinese pop music; emotion; music video; EEG; measurement
The Research on the Value Experience in the Brand Culture of SuShan and the Design of Product System Service BIBAKFull-Text 101-110
  Jie Wei; Chenmiao Liu; Jing Wang
Chinese fan transformed from a practical object to art piece after integrated with traditional calligraphy and painting. Later with calligraphy and painting as a vehicle, it penetrated into all aspects of the traditional Confucianism-oriented Chinese culture, to establish the distinctive fan culture. Suzhou fan is an important branch of Chinese fan culture with various kinds, whose techniques pursue being premium, refined and elegant. It is enriched with the essence of the culture of South Yangtze River, with long history. With the development throughout history, Suzhou fans have experienced dramatic changes in areas including management model, skills, material and functions and values -- practical value is being marginalized; only the cultural experience within Suzhou fans is being sought and explored. The fast development of traditional brands requires scientific and effective means of service design to guide design to win customers, strengthening the competition of enterprises. This article will discuss the value experience of Suzhou fan brand culture from all kinds of aspects including positioning and categorization, revolution of craftsmanship, models and styles, brand experience model, promotion and sales; under the changes of materials, events, emotion and law, to create a systematic service design of the product for customers. This article will take systematic service design research methodology, analyze from social, cultural, economic and sustainable development aspects and treat service as a platform, Suzhou fans as a tool, starting from stories, by using customer participation creatively, to come up with the ways and contents provided by service. In this way, consumers can integrate themselves into the history and culture of Suzhou fan, from the perspective of value experience and economic development to further seek the cultural theme inside consumers' mind, creating the brand image emphasizing on experience. Based on the status quo, we will state clearly the problems of the inheritance and development of Suzhou fans. We carried on questionnaires and data investigation; in which the questionnaire items include: popularity, memory, likability, reputation, brand connection, overall brand equity; to offer suggestions on sustainable development and brand value improvement from sensorial experience, emotional experience, thinking experience and behavioral experience, etc. This subject is aimed at not only playing the role of the uniqueness of Suzhou fan, but also under this premise to integrate Suzhou fan with innovative craftsmanship and new technologies, to develop and design Suzhou fan for different market segments; to design the service system proposal that can be used, satisfied, highly effective and can satisfy special social psychology; to improve the sense of values of Suzhou fan brands, promote the regional economic image, develop industrial advantages, brand advantages, market advantages and regional advantages, realizing the effective integration of industrial cluster and regional brands.
Keywords: Suzhou Fans; Brand Culture; Value Experience; systematic Product service design
A Service Design Research on New Information Technology of Fruit Brand Experience and Innovation BIBAKFull-Text 111-117
  Liang Yin; Bin Bin Li; Lu Shengli
This article focus on studying brand experience under the background of IOT through data selecting and analysis, try to make a service design plan according to the design-driven branding innovation. We take a local fruit brand as study object named "Taozhiyuan", not only focus on logo or package but try to establish a co-design platform which all the stakeholders and take part in. This platform is based on the system supported by the Wuxi PeachWell IOT Technology Co. Ltd.
   We exploit our own toolkit for brand experience under the help of anti-counterfeit and packaging technology of sponsor. Then we try to establish the cultural identity and value features of "Taozhiyuan" based to brand identity and package design, according to this we will develop the innovative approach and new method under the idea of design-driven brand innovation.
   According to the Schmitts theory of five-element-pattern brand experience, we carry out design-intervention and make service design plan about branding innovation system including: information technology platform own by ourselves, platform for user data collection, analysis system for user data, operating a platform for user service system, according to this, we want to approach branding innovation and improvement in the end.
Keywords: New information technology; Fruit brand; Brand Experience; Brand innovation; Product service design
The Research of Product Design Evaluation Method Based on Brand Intention Recognition BIBAKFull-Text 118-128
  Mei Yu Zhou; Chaoxiang Yang; Jue Wu
Traditional designers generally make subjective evaluation and decision-making based on their perceptual experiences, while the speed of current products replacement are becoming faster and the design objects are becoming more complex. The rapid development of information technology requires product design evaluation scientific and systematic. Only relying on intuition, subjective evaluation and decision-making cannot meet the demands of the times. So, to find a systematic and scientific product design evaluation approach is the objective requirement of the promotion enterprise's brand value and the reality of user satisfaction of product requirements. This paper attempts to apply the theory of Kansei Engineering to establish a set of practical evaluation for product design. On the basis of the user experience of brand and its products, collected perceptual evaluation data through questionnaires for factor analysis methods, using the combination of product design principles to determine the product objectives and model of design evaluation to establish a brand value of the product design evaluation methods. Based on Kansei Engineering, brand building and product perceptual evaluation of image space and evaluation standard. On the basis of user perceptual evaluation to determine the criteria weight coefficients of correlation, and then on product design target for the design of accurate positioning, forming a system of brand value enhancement oriented product design evaluation system.
Keywords: Kansei Engineering; Image; Design Evaluation; OLED Lamps

Cross-Cultural Issues in Interaction

Development of a Scale to Assess the Linguistic and Phonological Difficulty of Passwords BIBAKFull-Text 131-139
  Jennifer Romano Bergstrom; Stefan A. Frisch; David Charles Hawkins; Joy Hackenbracht; Kristen K. Greene; Mary F. Theofanos; Brian Griepentrog
Institutions often require or recommend that their employees use secure, system-generated passwords. It is not clear how well linguistic and phonological language properties map onto complex, randomly-generated passwords. Passwords containing a mix of letters, numbers, and other symbol characters may or may not be similar to common patterns in spoken or written English. The Linguistic Phonological Difficulty (LPD) scoring rubric was created by considering the extent to which a string of characters in a password resembles ordinary spoken or written language patterns. LPD is a score calculated through a six-rule process that considers these spoken and written patterns of English as well as memory load. These rules can be applied to any password. Our research explores mapping linguistic and phonological language properties onto complex randomly generated passwords to assess behavioral performance.
Keywords: passwords; memorability; linguistics; phonology
An Examination of Typographic Standards and Their Relevance to Contemporary User-Centred Web and Application Design BIBAKFull-Text 140-149
  Ian Christopher Dyer
The implementation of the various modes of typography on the Internet and device applications is now a relatively straightforward task, following a technological renaissance that began around 5 years ago that increased the importance of typography in web and application-based design.
   Graphic designers had long desired to move beyond the early restrictions caused by the limited numbers of fonts that browsers could handle and display (and the even more restricted overlap between Windows and OSX operating systems). This desire fuelled an innovation boom that led to the wide array of font replacement and deployment technologies available today.
   The new challenge for graphic designers is device fragmentation: keeping designs consistently readable across a variety of screen resolutions, screen types and devices. Yet, pure research on how users perceive, interact with and process the fundamental units of information transmission -- words -- remains limited. Extant studies are mostly confined to early (and outdated) papers in the 1980s and 1990s, investigations on the efficacy of e-ink, or other tenuously-related areas of human-computer interaction.
   The presentation and comprehension of words and information is therefore restricted to niche areas of study for academic researchers and vehicles of aesthetic expression for graphic designers, with almost no communication between either group. This has led to a comprehensive lack of industry-standard best practices for typography, which is surprising considering the current focus of human factor-related disciplines in user-centered design.
   This paper aims to collate and examine the history of typography, existing research, readability on electronic devices and current typographic trends, and lay down a roadmap for future research.
Keywords: Typography; HCI; Reading comprehension; Readability; Usability; Web design; Application design
How Does User's Access to Object Make HCI Smooth in Recipe Guidance? BIBAFull-Text 150-161
  Atsushi Hashimoto; Jin Inoue; Takuya Funatomi; Michihiko Minoh
This paper aims firstly to provide a flexible framework for developing recipe guiding system that displays information step-by-step along to events recognized in user's activity, and secondly to introduce an example of our implementation on the proposed framework. Those who are working on a task requiring high concentration can be easily distracted by the interactive systems that require any kind of explicit manipulations. In such situation, recognizing events in the task is helpful as an alternative of the manipulations. The framework allows a system designer to incorporate his/her own recognizer to the guiding system. Based on this framework, we implemented a system working with user's grabbing and releasing objects. A grabbed object tells the user's intention of what is about to do next, and releasing the object indicates its completion. In the experiments using the WOZ method, we confirmed that these actions worked well as switches for the interface. We also summarize some of our efforts for automating the system.
Evaluating the Effects of Cultural Preferences on Website Use BIBAKFull-Text 162-173
  Hsiu Ching Laura Hsieh
Cultural diversity makes it impossible for designers developing web design depending on instinctive knowledge or personal experiences. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the requirements and preferences of target-culture users. Based on the results of local website auditing in the author's previous research [6], there are significantly different preferences for web interface design between Taiwanese and Australian cultures. Further, it is questioned that, if the cultural preferences are incorporated in the web, the effects of web communication can be improved. Thus, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of cultural preferences on website use. The methodologies in this research would be introduced in the following. First, two cultures are selected. Second, hypotheses are constructed. Third, four experimental websites are constructed. Fourth, the usability test is established. Based on the results of the usability test, the findings would be presented to help web developers and enable designers to become aware of the possibilities of effective communications with a specific culture.
Keywords: cultural preferences; usability; interface design
A Study of Kinect-Based Smart TV Control Mode BIBAKFull-Text 174-183
  He Li; Jing Qiu; Long Gao
TV plays a more and more important role in daily life. And it will be a protagonist in our home. However, the progress of smart TV control mode did not catch up with the development of smart TV's software and hardware. In this paper, a survey was conducted to confirm the way of future smart TV control mode. According to the results of the survey, an experiment was executed in order to investigate design parameters of the new smart TV control mode. Therefore, the precautions on design the smart TV control mode was proposed.
Keywords: Kinect; Gesture Control; Smart TV Control Mode
Explore Elder Users' Reading Behaviors with Online Newspaper BIBAKFull-Text 184-192
  Weijane Lin; Hui-Chun Lin; Hsiu-Ping Yueh
This study aimed to explore elder users' reading behavior with online newspaper. The average age of twelve elder users is 68.67 years old. They were required to find news in the UDN online newspaper on the touch screen and enlarge or shrink the news pages to the appropriate size. The results showed that elder users didn't know how to flip the pages to read other news, and they spent more time looking for the zoom in and zoom out icons comparatively. They sometimes misunderstood the meanings of other function icons. Our findings suggest that it could put instructions on the UDN online newspaper interface to show how to use the function icons, helping elder users reading news and enlarge or shrink pages easily. The function of zoom in and zoom out could replace with using two fingers to pinch the pages, just like using touchpad or smart phone. In addition, the function icons position should be consistent, elder user will not be confused when they enter into the detailed news.
Keywords: Elder users; Touch screen; Online Newspaper
An Approach of Indoor Exercise: Kinect-Based Video Game for Elderly People BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Zhe Liu; Chen Liao; Pilsung Choe
Exercising is essential for elderly people to maintain their health in a good condition. However, elderly people usually have a tendency to stay at home due to their physical limitations or limited weather conditions in which they are willing to go outside for exercise. In addition, elderly people are easily injured with heavy exercise equipment, which also makes them reluctant to exercise. In this study, we followed the process of "user-centered design" in developing an indoor exercising video game using the Kinect system to overcome aforementioned problems. We first investigated user requirements based on interviews with real users and then developed a Kinect-based game for elderly people. We lastly evaluated the usability of the game; the results show that the Kinect-based indoor exercising game can be effectively used for better exercise, entertainment, and communication.
Keywords: Kinect; elderly people; indoor exercise; augmented reality; user-centered design
Interaction Design of a Semi-automatic Video Face Annotation System BIBAKFull-Text 201-210
  Cailiang Liu; Tao Xiong; Chenguang Zhang; Zhibing Wang
In this paper, we propose an intelligent system that allows people to annotate face tracks of video content. To reduce the workload, we adopt two strategies in the system: 1) visually similar face tracks could be grouped together to reduce human reaction time; 2) face models could be learned to automatically recognize celebrity identities, leaving annotator only simple judgement tasks. With more precise face models, the recognized results require much less time for confirmation. Altogether, these strategies significantly reduce the workload of human annotation/confirmation. Experiments on a very large video repository prove the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed system.
Keywords: User Interfaces; Video Content Analysis; Video Advertisement; Face Track Annotation
Thumbs Up to Gesture Controls? A Cross-Cultural Study on Spontaneous Gestures BIBAKFull-Text 211-217
  Alison Meier; Kelly Goto; Michael Wörmann
As a growing number of three-dimensional motion and gesture-controlled consumer electronics come to market, there are new challenges for user experience design for globally merchandized devices, because gestures naturally vary between regions and cultures. The UX Fellows network undertook a study to learn how people from different countries would gesture to control consumer electronics. Eighteen agencies interviewed 360 people from 18 countries around the world to see how people would spontaneously gesture to achieve specific TV commands. Results from each country were aggregated and compared to determine which countries used the same gestures and which used different ones.
Keywords: gesture; motion; culture; international; consumer electronics
A Low-Cost Approach to Face Behavior for Mental Work BIBAKFull-Text 218-227
  Jing Qiu; Jun Lu; Youyuan Pan; Rolf Helbig
Human behavior displays human mental activities and observable directly in work environment. Hence, a method based on face behavior not directly related to task execution in work is proposed to assess the workload in mental work situations. In the current study, the relationships between face behavior and mental workload for simulated mental tasks were investigated. Ten subjects were recruited and asks to perform various levels of a mental task. The Effect of task on face behavior was found. The results showed that face behavior can be used as an indicator for workload assessment.
Keywords: Face Behavior; Mental Workload; Workload Assessment
The Great Authentication Fatigue -- And How to Overcome It BIBAKFull-Text 228-239
  M. Angela Sasse; Michelle Steves; Kat Krol; Dana Chisnell
We conducted a two-part study to understand the impact of authentication on employees' behaviour and productivity in a US governmental organisation. We asked 23 participants to keep a diary of all their authentication events within a 24-hour period, and subsequently interviewed them about their experience with authentication. We found that the authentication tasks employees have to perform not only carry significant workload, but that the way in which authentication disrupts primary tasks reduces productivity and creates frustration. Our participants reported a range of coping strategies, including use of tools and re-organising their work to avoid security. Avoidance meant they logged in less frequently, stopped using certain devices and services. They also reported not pursing innovative ideas because of "the battle with security" that would be required. Our case study paints a picture of chronic 'authentication fatigue' resulting from current policies and mechanisms, and the negative impact on staff productivity and morale. We propose that organisations need to urgently re-think how they authenticate users in a pervasive technology requirement, and advocate a paradigm shift from explicit to implicit authentication.
Keywords: Authentication; usable security; productivity; workload; diary study
Clear, Unambiguous Password Policies: An Oxymoron? BIBAKFull-Text 240-251
  Michelle Steves; Kevin Killourhy; Mary F. Theofanos
Password policies -- documents which regulate how users must create and manage their passwords -- can have complex and unforeseen consequences on organizational security. Since these policies attempt to govern user behavior, users must be clear as to what is expected of them for a policy to be effective. While a culprit of misinterpretation, policy ambiguity also prevents researchers from comparing and contrasting policy statements. To tackle ambiguity, we developed a formal language for stating what behavior is and is not allowed when creating, managing, and changing passwords. This formal language lends itself to policy analysis and visualization. A corpus of 41 password policies was translated into the formal language and analyzed. Having these clear, unambiguous policy statements enables us to explore password policies in much greater detail, discuss the relative merits of different statements, compare and contrast policies, and begin to examine the interplay between usability and security in password policies.
Keywords: Usable security; password policy; formal language; Extended Backus-Naur Form
ARITH Product Evaluation System BIBAKFull-Text 252-261
  Eric Yang; Zhong Wang
Practical web evaluation theories lack reliability and practicality in terms of information quality, usability, user experience, market value and other factors. As a result, our team attempted to create a user-centered indicator system named ARITH to measure key user goals by integrating existing theories and methodologies with data on millions of users. This system is a strategic system that allows products analysis from various business angles. It functions as a supplement to existing product evaluation methods.
Keywords: Website assessment; user data; interaction design
First-Time User Experience with Smart Phone New Gesture Control Features BIBAKFull-Text 262-271
  Jia Zhou; Jie Zhang; Bingjun Xie; Ning Liu; Ming Jiang; Huilin Wang; Qiqing Gan
This study aims to investigate experience of users who use new gesture control features of smart phones and tablets for the first time. To achieve this goal, two laboratory-controlled experiments were conducted. The first experiment focused on new finger gesture features (i.e., pinch), and the second experiment focused on new hand gesture features (i.e., turn over to mute, tap to top, direct call, palm swipe to capture, and palm touch to mute). A total of 19 younger adults and older adults participated in two experiments. They used both new gesture control features and traditional features (e.g., touch) to complete tasks. Their errors and subjective feedback were recorded. Results revealed the relative advantages and disadvantages of new gesture control features over traditional features. Based on the results, design suggestions were provided.
Keywords: Finger gestures; Hand gestures; Smart phones; User experience

Social Aspects and Implications of Cross-Cultural Design

Designing "Friendly" into Public Park for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 275-286
  Li-Yu Chen; Ying-Ming Su; Annie Chen
Taipei City has officially been selected the 2016 World Design Capital (WDC) this year, campaigning under the slogan "Adaptive City: Design in Motion". A successful design capital should demonstrate the different design thinking of the city. This study aimed to provide the value-added creation of friendly thinking through engineering techniques that emphasize the safety of public parks, thus forming the content of the creative design of Taipei City to develop characteristics that improve the city. First, this study investigated the functions and composition of public parks and the meaning of friendly design. The user-tool system model was applied to analyzed children playground in order to obtain the item of playground design need. Finally the friendly design guidelines for playgrounds are proposed according to entrance, perimeter containment, route, zones, equipment, signage, and surface materials.
Keywords: User Friendly; Playground; Park; Universal Design; User Center Design
Design for Social Interaction in Public Spaces BIBAFull-Text 287-298
  Jun Hu; Joep Frens; Mathias Funk; Feng Wang; Yu Zhang
The merge of the Web of People and the Internet of Things leads to a shift from technology-push product or system oriented design to data-driven service centric design. The growth and development of social computing have dramatically increased the complexity but also offer new opportunities and solutions in the societal context. We look into the challenges in designing for social interaction in public spaces, in particular in cities and professional environments. With several examples in designing interactive public installations, we present the design techniques and practices used in these examples, as well as the evaluation methods that have been found to be useful in evaluating the user experience such as social connectedness and inclusion.
Smart Asia: A New Platform for Collective Intelligence BIBAKFull-Text 299-308
  Christopher Grant Kirwan
Asia today is experiencing unprecedented urban growth and development, fast becoming the world's leading consumer of the planet's natural resources, and is now at the tipping point of becoming unsustainable. North America and Europe have finally begun to slow this negative trend through the use of sustainable practices and social innovation models supported by advanced technologies. It is critical for Asia to follow suit by developing environmentally safe solutions for growth, following the best practices from countries around the world. To be successful, this will require willing collaboration by public and private organizations, sharing information on demographics, health, food, water, weather, transportation, and other key urban indices. By developing a virtual framework combining an open-source operating system and collaborative interface we term Collective Intelligence, the goal is to build a Smart Asia platform capable of providing a holistic solution to meet both human quality of life needs and the sustainability of the natural environment.
Keywords: Collective Intelligence; Leapfrog; Operating Systems; Urban Interface; Smart Asia
Designing "Female Prospect" into Public Space for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 309-320
  Yi-Tsu Peng; Yu-Di Huang; Jun-Liang Chen; Chuck Chen
With the global trend and the active participation and promotion by organizations and individuals from all fields who care about female issues, there has been a considerable degree of progress on substantive issues concerning female and public space in Taiwan over the recent 20 years. This is a gradual and interlocking process, especially in our capital of Taipei. In this dissertation the process of this evolvement will be clearly stated by the timeline-based recording approach. Comparisons will be made with respect to the modification of national policy in response to relevant social issues and events, and the specific presentation of its implementation in today's public space with future prospects.
Keywords: male; Public Space; Public Space Design; Universal Design
Social Sustainability in Design: The Window as an Interface for Social Interaction BIBAKFull-Text 321-330
  Gaia Scagnetti; Federico Casalegno
The way people organize the space of their house is strongly related to their local culture. In the process of designing a sustainable home not only is fundamental to make architectural choices toward an environmental and economical sustainability but it is also imperative to pay attention to the process of integration in the local cultural environment. This paper presents the results of an ethnographic research that informs and understands the implementation of a Sustainable Connected Home prototype. The paper demonstrates how the local context and the social sustainability discourse could provide impetus to technological innovation for sustainable design. It also provides a framework for future discussions on the definition of social sustainability in the context of design interventions.
Keywords: Architectural design; design research; innovation; case study/studies; social sustainability; qualitative research
Designing "Healthy" into Green Environment for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 331-340
  Ying-Ming Su; Li-Yu Chen; Annie Chen
To achieve the goal of green environment related to an adaptive city of Taipei which is the World Design Capital 2016. We should discuss the effect of wind environment around the buildings at the beginning of design and planning phase of buildings first, for wind environment is the most important factor concerns with greenhouse and heat island effect. This research was based on a method of CFD done by Autodesk Ecotect Analysis software for simulating city building layout, study the two different building massing layout of Shezi Island in Taiwan. Results of simulation showed that the layout characterized by street block type, and therefore affect the residents' health, activities and psychological feelings; while the case of three-sided building layout surrounded by urban of open space, on the other hand, can provide more comfortable, healthy places for rest and outdoor activities.
Keywords: Healthy; Green environment; Wind environment; CFD Analysis; Shezi Island
Designing "Flourishing" into Green Environment for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 341-350
  Ying-Ming Su; Yu-Chou Wu; Chia-Hui Lin
Taipei City became the World Design Capital 2016 with the slogan of "Adaptive City" and "Adaptive Design". When seeking strategies to green environment, this study was adopted a new adaptive approach with semantic differential analysis and questionnaires to show how to design flourishing by conducting a preference cognitive test marked by "morphology" for ecological sustainability, especially in interior space. The analytic results showed that the morphological components of preference ranks from top were: repetition, proportion, gradation. And too complicated or too simple the change of morphological components did both affect viewers' preference; also the presence of morphologies had an emotional effect on the viewers. It should be emphasized on morphological elements and form of aesthetic principles to achieve a balanced proportion of design for indoor vertical greening environment and spatial atmosphere, for the purpose of creating good flourishing visual experience.
Keywords: Image Analysis; Indoor Vertical Greening; Environmental Perception; Morphological Design
How to Promote Patient Safety in Social Media: A Comparison between Messages in Social Media and Newspapers BIBAKFull-Text 351-360
  Na Sun; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
The objective of this paper is to evaluate the features of patient-safety related messages in social media and provide suggestions for how to promote patient safety in social media. A hierarchical frame structure especially for patient safety messages was proposed for content analysis. 45 messages from Facebook and 45 reports from newspapers about patient safety were evaluated. The results indicated that messages in social media provided more comprehensive information about patient safety than newspapers. And social media paid more attention on individuals, including doctors, nurses and patients. Furthermore, social media messages provided more positive information than newspapers, such as treatment recommendations and program introductions.
Keywords: patient safety; social media; newspaper; content analysis
Design Implications of Digital Social Innovation: A Playful Approach to Analyse Cases Study Dataset BIBAKFull-Text 361-372
  Francesca Valsecchi; Miaosen Gong
This paper is a preliminary activity of the DESIS Digital Social Innovation Research Cluster, with the purpose to elaborate the cases of the Social Innovation index, from the projects NT100 and digitaleurope.eu, by framing the analysis with the lens of design. We approach the analysis by information visualization methods and data manipulation tools, and in the paper we present process and results of the visualization, and the discussion of the stories we gather through the analysis. We conclude by discussing the lesson learn by this cases study analysis that privileged the heuristics of digital tools to the hermeneutics of more traditional research approaches.
Keywords: Digital Social Innovation; Case study; Information Visualization; Open Data
Design Trend Research for Building a Future Physical-Cyber Ecosystem BIBAKFull-Text 373-381
  Yan Hongyan; Sun Yanyan
China, now the world's second-largest economy with a massive user crowd, there is a surge growth of mobile internet business, products and users. Every year, numerous of new companies and products are incubated or landed in this market, some of them made huge success, and lots of them failed too.
   To those who including companies and individuals invest in this market, they want to find some patterns, design trends, inspiration, and more importantly, to find some leads to the successful future design innovation. They need a better reference and more powerful design cards in hands during the process of creation. However, neither the design trend nor creative ideas are tangible. They are abstract. We all as users can feel mobile products are offering an easier and more and more comfortable user experience to attract users to love using these products. This sensitive cognition is the premise and base of designer's creative learning activity, but it can't be a reliable reference of the next generation of innovation.
   Where the design trends are now and where the future design innovations are will be presented in a more tangible way. We need two steps to achieve that.
   First of all, we need to find out what design trends are based on the studies of what just happened in mobile product design field. This is about seeing and understanding design trends in a narrow level.
   From the most popular mobile platforms like Android, iOS and Widows Phone, top-ranking applications listed as our research object, to the major iteration of applications, with the purpose of summarizing design trends, we built a research model with two study dimensions. The research of the horizontal dimension, which we call it the Combing System, focuses on the design evolution of applications by studying 21 general task-flows and some particular task-flows we defined, as well as the evolution of style guide of platforms themselves. Each task-flow is given a representing color sequence which not only helps us to represent research data in a visualized way, it will be convenient to observe one particular flow from others more clearly in the visualized data map. We can see from our visualized data that which flow the redesign of different type of applications is focused on. The vertical dimension, which we call it Stamping System, focuses on the research of the major iteration of applications. Unlike dyeing different task-flow in the Combing System, we trace every task-flow, so we can observe how the design of each flow changes from the previous form into the latest one by comparing the trace of task-flows of the newest and the previous version of an app together in a visualized data map. More interestingly, this research model can also help us to observe how one platform's style guide including UI and GUI style can affect each other.
   Secondly, we relate design trends we summarized with major trends of development of Chinese social context, because isolating design trends research from their social context would be meaningless and pointless. The other reason to put the consideration of Chinese social context in the research system is that it is changing frequently which cause the more complex scenario and user needs.
   After relating design trends and social context together, we now need to learn from the process of the creation of classic design by fully understanding offering better user experience design does not only exist in high technology time. We should realize that the reason why classic design became classic design is not only about creating something new successfully, it is about combining different things that already existed to provide a better user experience for the most of the time. Radical design takes years to succeed and most of them failed. Future creation will not all incubated in the rocket high technology labs, we can not just count on that to innovate, most of them will be created by combining different things together to provide a better user experience like how classic design succeeded. We can search for new possible combinations in this bigger picture consists of design trends and their social context, and this also can help us to understand how to build a harmonious physical-cyber ecosystem for both products and users who will use them.
   Besides a tangible way that we can tell where the design trends now are and where the future design innovations are in the bigger picture, the physical-cyber ecosystem, we also have some advices for designers: keep searching new possible combinations in the ecosystem to fix problems with better user experience, not just think of yourself as problem solver also the problem seekers. Don't be afraid to put your product in the market once you see a new potential connection. Only these can make us keep creating and innovating.
Keywords: UX; Design; Trend; Research; Innovation
Cross-Culture Thinking in Sustainable Service Design of Social Innovation: Case Comparison between Milan, IT and Wuxi, China BIBAKFull-Text 382-391
  Linghao Zhang; Xinli Lin; Guangmei Yang
China is undergoing a profound reform to a more sustainable society. The emerging environmental, economic, and social issues beneath this period urge the greater responsibility to social innovations. However, during the global broadcast of social innovation cases and their transformation into appliance, cross-culture elements haven't drawn enough attention. There are rarely any lights shed on the cross-cultural transformation during the exportation of innovation worldwide. Based on the, this paper investigates the evaluation criteria, the broadness of its impact and active participation rate as well as the associated reasons behind from those test and interview to Chinese users about through Chinese user test and interview about two service design cases in Milan and Wuxi, we analyzed related evaluation criteria and other criteria of influence dimensions, participation willingness as well as the causes behind them. So that the designer can, on one hand, learn about the of characteristics of collective cultural cognition of Chinese users and the distinctions between users from west and east; And on the other hand, give suggestions, which is to understand local culture thoroughly and connect users, to lay emphasis on the evaluation of the benefit claim of the proposals and to combine its feasibility, easiness of handling and the design and spread of correlated information.
Keywords: Social Innovation; Service Design; Cross-Culture; Case Study
User Adoption and Loyalty of Location Based Social Network Service in China BIBAKFull-Text 392-402
  Yubo Zhang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
This study made an investigation of user adoption and loyalty of location based social network service. Regression analysis was conducted to identify the predictors of user adoption measured by intention and frequency according to Innovation Diffusion Theory and the theory of Uses and Gratifications. Personal innovativeness was found to effectively predict future intention. Perceived popularity was found to effectively predict future frequency. Not all five dimensions of perceived innovativeness had equal predicting power to user adoption. Perceived needs proved to effectively predict user adoption measured by both future intention and future frequency. Path analysis showed a structure integrating predictors of e-loyalty together, including trust, satisfaction, flow experience and switching cost. Comparison of continuers, quitters and refusers of LBSNS showed that continuers had higher level of willingness to pursue fashion and behaved more innovative than others. Comparison of three typical LBSNS applications showed a more advantageous position of dedicated LBSNS than SNS and microblog in terms of loyalty.
Keywords: Adoption; loyalty; location-based social network service
The Study of Interactive Design in Service Systems for Community Self-help Charitable Facilities BIBAKFull-Text 403-414
  Xiaorui Zhou; Zhejun Liu; Yangxi Tian
With the birth of ergonomics, interactive design has covered many fields including psychology, physiology, sociology and economics. From a broader perspective, new concepts of interactive design study how to help consumers to use products or services in a more efficient, convenient and pleasant way. In the process of this study of the interactive design in service systems for community self-help charitable facilities, we used a number of different tools including depth interview, questionnaire survey, video logging and so forth to carry out researches on the social experience brought about by the industrial design of interactive products, the emotion cultivation, reconstruction effects of interactive interface, and the methods of arranging and integrating interactive information. We also explored how interactive design helped to raise the additional value and service quality in a systematic service. This article also analyzes deeply on the service design of community self-help charitable facilities, finds out current predicaments and how to get out of them from the perspective of design: making full use of interactive design and its unique properties, innovating in the process of service design, carrying out practical research and finally resulting in the rapid development of charities in communities. The outcome of this article aims to serve as a reference for governmental and social organizations to promote civilian charities in a way benefiting most people. Furthermore, with the in-depth research of interactive design, this article is also expected to propose directions for the studies on service design in the future.
Keywords: Community; Charitable Facility; Service Design; Interactive design

Cross-Cultural Issues in E-commerce, Marketing and Branding

Understanding Emerging Markets by Applying Lean UX BIBAKFull-Text 417-426
  Stephanie Chan; Gloria Chen; Limin Fu
Emerging markets such as Brazil, Russia, and India are experiencing high growth in various sectors. Businesses and design teams that attempt to break into a market often have limited understanding of the market's ecosystem, and customers' day-to-day environment. This is largely due to low availability of secondary research about emerging countries, the teams' limited local presence, and the teams' limited personal experience with the country of interest. Teams with certain level of resources may partner with third-party local research teams or travel to the country to conduct in-depth ethnographic research. While in-country ethnographic research brings multiple benefits, it can often be time-consuming and costly. In commercial/business environments, where time and resources are limited, gaining an understanding of an emerging market becomes a challenge. In this paper, we'll discuss and propose a process to conduct user research in emerging markets by applying Lean UX principles. The process will be illustrated using a case study, a cross-cultural research comparing U.S. and Russian e-commerce users' attitudes and behaviors.
Keywords: Emerging Markets; Lean UX; User-centered Design
Co-creative Value for Cultural and Creative Economic Growth -- Designing a Cultural Merchandise and Constructing a Marketing Model BIBAKFull-Text 427-436
  Tsen-Yao Chang
With globalization and the advent of technology, consumers are exposed to various cultures through different means; consequently, their self-identity and recognition of their own culture become confused. Designers can develop merchandise by cultural creativity, converting their cultural creation into the core value of the merchandise which will serve as vehicles for conveying cultural messages and generating cultural identity and regional economic value. But, facing the issue of economic production, the development of contemporary cultural merchandise should, apart from creative design, also consider the demands of daily life, before it can further generate productive value as a business. Owing to the present problems in the process of production of cultural merchandise including the contexts of creativity, productivity of fashion trends, and additional functions, the specific basis for the evaluation of designs are often wanting; as a result, designers' works are not echoed to and recognized by consumers, which leads to difficulties in sales. When designers have a commercial concept when they are designing a cultural merchandise, they involve both the design aspect and the commercial value; in this aspect a business model can be a tool offering choices for the core strategies of the business (Shafer, Smith, and Linder, 2005); it is for profit (Afuah, 2004) that designers set and execute business models. This study makes a reference to Osterwalder and Pigneur's (2010) Business Model Canvas, which is comprised of nine elements. These include value proposition, customer segments, distribution channels, customer relationship, revenue streams, key resources, key activities, key partners and cost structure.
   With reference made to the said Business Model Canvas, this study contemplated how to establish models for designing cultural merchandise and marketing them. We thus adopted the approach of using an expert focus discussion and gathered information in two stages. Stage one involves two focus group meetings, to which experts with experience in cultural merchandise-related design, business start-up, and marketing, ten of them in all, were invited. The meetings were conducted using semi-structured interviews, encouraging the participating experts to share their practical experiences. The interview transcripts were coded in the scope of commerce and marketing to construct a hub-and-spoke type model for designing and marketing cultural merchandise. Stage two, launched in Northern, Central and Southern Taiwan, respectively, invited experts in the industry, government and academia from these regions, 18 of them in all, to the meetings on the related issues including marketing cultural merchandise. In the phase of data analysis, the recommendations of the participating experts were integrated, and the Business Model Canvas was further referenced in an attempt to establish a model for designing cultural merchandise and to deduce business and marketing models that are consistent with the design of cultural merchandise.
   The findings hereof will propose a thinking model for the business operations and marketing of cultural merchandise, in which the key elements interrelate. The mode is intended to encourage the industry or designers to make reference to it when developing their design and implementing subsequent marketing strategies, so as to integrate all aspects such as cultural creativity, creative design, and business economics, in order to jointly generate economic value for the cultural merchandise in the modern market.
Keywords: Co-Creative Value; Cultural Merchandise Design; Business Model Canvas; Business Start-Up; Cultural Industry Business
The Study of Service Design with the Perspective of Cross-Cultural Based on the Advertising Events and the Brand Experience BIBAKFull-Text 437-448
  Jianxin Cheng; Hongbo Lai; Junnan Ye
With the development and popularization of the new media, both consumers and enterprise awareness and action have changed greatly. The way of information exchanges, interaction and communication between people has also increased a lot. Between people with large data background information, frequent interaction and exchange, consumers do not want to lose in the process of shopping heart more and more be fully released. Therefore, the traditional media (both brand experience and customer communication) is facing more and more challenges. Advertising style is under great change. How contemporary enterprises break the traditional forms of advertising communication, and fulfill the destination of efficient communicate with consumer is one of the hot spot in current academic circle. Through the analyses of the consumption trend changes under the background of new media and communication change, and the discussion of advertising event trend, its connotation and mechanism, and starts from the users' point of view, combined with social media line (O2O) interaction, interactive communication, brand building and customer service design, the study try to help to find something that can increase consumers feeling of achievement and satisfaction, and thus realize the transformation from cognition to action of the customers. Compared with the researches on the typical experience communication service design of Coca Cola, Microsoft brand both at home and abroad, the study found that like other users around the world, Chinese users share the same features: feel boring about the repetition of daily life, willing to escape from their real occupation role, their real role in the family through the fresh experience provided by advertising events. The changes brought by new media including the change of "subject" in the whole advertising communication activities, from the enterprise to the user. The enterprise need to provide customers with the topic, increase customer's participation, regard customers not just as consumers but also as partners, and create profit together. Under this background, this research aimed at how enterprises can enhance the brand communication through events and services design, and pointed out that the new media era enterprise brand experience and communication should value the participation of consumers, from language to truth, from the "flash" to action and accumulation, gradually get the consumers' care and recognition. And in the end, combined with the Shanghai-Yangtze River Delta "industrial design to establish a county (city)" plan, take the four Baoying traditional craft products as an example, the study further elaborated the fulfill of the new way of brand experience and cross cultural communication in the new media era through the advertising event and service design.
Keywords: Advertising Events; Brand Experience; service design; Cross cultural
Newsvendor's Response to Demand History BIBAFull-Text 449-457
  Wei Geng; Xiaodong Ding
Mean anchor and chasing demand are two heuristics widely used in literature to explain newsvendor's decision bias. The mean anchor heuristic is an aggregate representation, and static to some extent. In a dynamic setting we significantly control demand chasing behavior and conduct a laboratory experiment. We find that besides the two aforementioned heuristics subject's response to demand history is heterogenous and cannot be neglected.
Improving the Predictive Validity of NPS in Customer Satisfaction Surveys BIBAKFull-Text 458-469
  Gang Huang; Huai-lin Wang
Though widely used, NPS has been challenged for its doubtful validity in predicting loyalty behaviors and business growth. Its arbitrary assignment of promoters/passives/detractors is one of the factors impacting its predictability. This paper addressed the validity issue by taking into account the scenarios NPS is used: (1) NPS for an organization in developing stage with more of new customers vs. a well established business with more of regular customers; (2) NPS in online survey vs. offline survey. By using the data of an online NPS survey for an online supermarket and tracking the purchase behaviors of all respondents before and after the survey, the authors found that NPS works better for new customers than regular ones in predicting repeat purchase behaviors and changes of purchase volume and value. In addition, in online surveys, a polarized segmentation of promoters/passives/detractors could effectively improve the predictive validity of NPS for new customers.
Keywords: NPS; Customer Satisfaction; Predictive Validity
Visual Search on E-commerce Category Navigation: A Multi-language Study BIBAKFull-Text 470-481
  Bin Liu; Lijuan Cao; Yumei Tang; Ming Zhong
E-commerce websites need effective category navigation especially when they need to be accessible to global users with multi-language backgrounds. An eye tracking laboratory study with English, Chinese, and Russian participants was conducted to investigate search behavior that influenced by different category level and layout design (vertical versus horizontal). The results showed that users employed different search strategies at different levels of categories, and they showed significant differences in search patterns on different layouts. The results also indicated the impact of language on search behavior. These findings provided useful considerations for visual research in category as well as implications for the category design of multi-language e-commerce websites.
Keywords: E-commerce; Category; Multi-language; Eye movements; Visual search
Older Adults' Online Shopping Behavior in China BIBAKFull-Text 482-488
  Caiyue Shen; Lian Zhou; Shuching Lin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the online shopping behavior of older adults in China. Participants were members of Taobao, aged 50-65. We observed the following interesting behaviors: For many, tablets or mobile phones are rarely used. "Search" is often used when they shop online. The participants are accustomed to search and rarely know of other webpages that can be browsed. Sometimes, the participants may get lost when multiple webpages are opened; then, they typically close all of the webpages and have to start again from the beginning. Additionally, the participants ask few questions, even if they have some difficulty in browsing a webpage. All of these behaviors can be explained by the attentional cognition of older adults.
Keywords: Older adults in China; Online shopping; Consumer behavior
Behavior Study on Consumer Driven e-Commerce BIBAKFull-Text 489-497
  Yanxia Yang; Grace Deng
The growth of internet availability and rise of affordable express parcel delivery services for the general public in China has greatly impacted people's consumer behavior. More and more consumers have joined in on the growing market of online shopping and e-commerce. One group of these consumers prefer searching through various websites, combing through different products and prices, then deciding on what to purchase after comparing and contrasting offers from competing merchants. Another group would rather plan out their purchasing requirements, such as maximum price limit or ideal brand, and let others fulfill their order. Yet others, in order to save both time and effort, decide to join in on group purchasing for group discounts and better package deals. E-commerce users are found in all age groups and among those living in both first class and second tier cities. To serve these various groups of consumers, e-commerce businesses take several forms, ranging from B2C, C2b, and F2C (from factory to consumer). In order to better understand the evolving consumer behavior in China and examine the shopping preference among the different age groups, we designed and conducted an ethnographic study in Shanghai, China to explore the following questions: the various situations in which consumers use different styles of shopping, their specific shopping preferences and concerns, and the various roles that each factor plays in their decision-making process. This paper is a case study that illustrates the different user behaviors across these different age groups of e-commerce consumers.
Keywords: e-commerce; B2C; C2B; F2C; Age group user study; international; consumer behavior
What Chinese Female Online Shoppers Need BIBAKFull-Text 498-508
  Zhibo Yin; Lingxiao Zhang; Xinheng Fan; Wei Li
Chinese females always become confused by the "more goods, harder choice" principle when they are shopping online without a definite shopping goal. Taobao wants to provide a high quality shopping guide in its women's market to solve this problem. Before the Taobao women's market is established, we should urgently answer the question of which shopping guide functions should be prioritized most highly? In the past, we solved this problem by using the experience of the web-site operator. However, that the website operator plays a decisive role is a very subjective judgment, and the risk cannot be estimated in advance. The Kano model is good at solving the priority problem of functions. Thus, we selected the Kano model for this study. We evaluated 27 shopping guide functions and used them to prioritize the functions of Chinese female consumers' shopping, which provided an important reference basis for the presentation of a new web page and web page design for the Taobao women's market. A total of 19 shopping guide functions have been realized in the Taobao women's market homepage, and each shopping guide function plays a different role. This study fills in the blanks around how the Kano model may be applied in the field of e-commerce.
Keywords: Kano model; e-commerce; Chinese female consumers; shopping online; no definite shopping goals; shopping guide; Taobao women's market
Responsive Web Design and Its Use by an E-Commerce Website BIBAKFull-Text 509-519
  Yujing Zeng; Jie Gao; Chunsong Wu
Responsible architecture design is believed to be the most effective answer to the incompatibility problem of webpages across devices with varying sizes and resolutions. Online shopping behavior is cross-device and continuous; therefore, we believe that it is also important to explore and discuss how to provide a fluent and consistent user experience for the same webpage across various devices (other than simply using the fluid grid technique to maintain cross device compatibility). Inspired by the fluency theory, we assume that the fluency of processing webpages on different devices affects a user's responsive web experience. In this paper, a case study of etao.com was performed to explore how to improve user experience fluency with responsive web design on mobile phones. The study consisted of two experiments: a PC test and a mobile phone test. The PC test was designed to understand the interactions between the users and the information content on etao.com (desktop version), which could facilitate the identification of user preferences and expectations and guide the design layout of the responsive webpage on mobile phones. During the mobile phone test, we examined the responsive webpage, which was designed according to users' preferences and expectations, to determine whether this type of layout could be approved by users. The results showed that users rated the new version of the responsive webpage higher than the traditional responsive page, which was designed by using proportion-based fluid grid technology alone.
Keywords: e-commerce webpages; mobile devices; responsive web; user experience; fluency

Cross-Cultural Design for Knowledge Sharing and Learning

How Different Cultures Affect Online Communication on Knowledge Sharing between the Thais and Chinese BIBAKFull-Text 523-533
  Pimnapa Atsawintarangkun; Takaya Yuizono
In today's society, people can share knowledge with others via online communication tools. However, the process of sharing or acquiring knowledge between people from different cultures may involve problems and misunderstandings. To enhance intercultural competences and improve understandings of the cultural variations, this paper investigates how different cultures affect patterns of online knowledge sharing; the study focuses on Thais and Chinese who have a high-context communication style. We set up a laboratory experiment to analyze discourses posted by Thais and Chinese utilizing six categories including declaration, interrogation, exclamation, opinion, acknowledgement, and agreement. The discourse analysis showed that there is a significant difference in the number of interrogation and exclamation discourses. Then, we examined connections between the discourse analysis results and cultural dimensions conducted by Hofstede [6]. A post-questionnaire was provided to investigate participants' attitudes during online knowledge sharing. Our experiment revealed that the main cultural dimensions that influence Thais and Chinese to have the different patterns of online knowledge sharing are individualism, masculinity, and uncertainty avoidance. Moreover, problems with the online communication among people who have a high-context communication style are explained. It can be concluded that the cultural differences and the high-context communication style of the Thai and Chinese can influence the ways knowledge is shared between these groups online.
Keywords: intercultural communication; online communication; knowledge sharing; Thai and Chinese; discourse analysis; cultural dimensions; high-context communication
Cultural Difference on the Usage Pattern of Tagging System for Knowledge Sharing BIBAKFull-Text 534-545
  Zhe Chen; Qin Gao; Yuancheng Yang
Collaborative tagging system in online knowledge sharing system benefits the knowledge management of users. It also inspires us a quantitative way how to investigate the effect of culture on knowledge management as tags reflects the usage pattern of users. In this study, the usage pattern of tag in three types of knowledge management websites (i.e. photo, bookmark and book sharing websites) present the influence of Chinese culture upon knowledge management. A set of indices is used to describe the usage pattern of tags and the results indicate that Chinese users behave differently in all three types of knowledge sharing system.
Keywords: tag; knowledge sharing; Chinese culture
Creating Individualized Learning Paths for Self-regulated Online Learners: An Ontology-Driven Approach BIBAKFull-Text 546-555
  Yu-Liang Chi; Tsang-Yao Chen; Wan-Ting Tsai
This study extends the ontology-supported modeling of prior studies in learning path personalization to an ontology-driven modeling approach to create a mechanism of online learning path adaptivity. This mechanism is especially applicable for self-regulated learners such as those in flipped learning context. The proposed ontology modeling is based on a conceptualization of education being the function of the triplet of knowledge structure (guide), knowledge content (material), and instruction (teaching). In addition, this study defines cognitive learning as the mapping of the learner's personal knowledge structure to the domain knowledge structure. Furthermore, online learning is viewed as the interaction between the learning management system and the learner. With these conceptualizations, a domain ontology is constructed based on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics curriculum guide; and a task ontology is constructed to model the problem of learning path adaptivity by including the teaching activity, learning material, and the learner classes. In the case experiment, the Protégé tool is used to construct the ontologies and the semantic rules. The experiment results show that the created mechanism of ontological learning path adaptivity has successfully guided the learner to pre-requisite learning activities and learning objects for remedial learning when current learning activities result in unsatisfactory assessment results.
Keywords: e-Learning; Self-regulated learning; Learning path; Ontology
Exploring Children's Attitude and Reading Comprehension toward Different Styles of Reading Orientation BIBAKFull-Text 556-562
  Weijane Lin; Hsin-Ying Wu; Pei-Min Wu; Yun Tung; Hsiu-Ping Yueh
Library is an institution which aims to provide access to knowledge and information services. For child readers, visual and textual cues including book cover, abstract, and table of contents facilitate them in book selection. However, book browsing could be time- and effort-consuming, and children preferred more intuitive guide. In this study, reading orientation in video form was proposed as solution to provide children with book introduction and help them in book selection process. Elementary school students who start reading Chinese texts independently were recruited as the subjects of this study, and their attitude and performance with different styles of reading orientation were investigated respectively. Preliminarily results showed that for the 24 participants, children who read with the graphical style orientation told more facts and details of the book content, albeit the difference between textual and graphical styles of orientation was not statistically significant. The finding also suggested the presence of graphic might facilitate children's comprehension of the story by coordinating intuitive cues with children's inference. Further investigation is conducted by more structural instrument under larger body of subjects to systematically explore the phenomenon.
Keywords: Reading orientation; graphic and text; children reading
Culture and Student-Faculty Communication in Higher Education: Implications for the Design of Educational Communication Tools BIBAKFull-Text 563-573
  Jun Liu; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Bert Schulz
This paper examines the significance of culture and its impact on communication in higher education. The objectives were to compare Chinese and German university students' different patterns of communication with their faculty, and to provide implications for designing educational computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools. The study involved two phases: first, an explorative interview with students and professors from both countries revealing that communication formality is the most significant difference between the two cultures. Second, an online questionnaire evaluating Chinese and German university students' communication formality and uncertainty avoidance in education (N=125) confirmed that German students communicate more formally with faculty than Chinese students, and this difference can be positively predicted by their degree of uncertainty avoidance. Based on these findings, we discussed the implications for designing the CMC tools which can help university faculty to better communicate with their foreign students.
Keywords: Higher education; computer-mediated communication; intercultural communication; communication formality; uncertainty avoidance
The Relations between Interface Design of Digital Game-Based Learning Systems and Flow Experience and Cognitive Load of Learners with Different Levels of Prior Knowledge BIBAKFull-Text 574-584
  Chun-Yi Shen; Hao-Ping Chu
Many studies have indicated that game-based learning has become an effective teaching strategy and a teaching tool. In the past decades, empirical studies showed that digital game-based could enhance learners' cognitive, affective and skills as learning objectives. Many studies have shown that learning process in which the flow experience for learning has a significant impact. In addition, researches have also pointed out that the multimedia materials presentation and system interface design would affect the learning of learners carrying out their cognitive load. Researchers indicated that learner's prior knowledge and learning strategies would influence the flow experience, learning outcomes and cognitive load of the learners. According to previous studies, the interface design of learning system would affect learner's learning, motivation, satisfaction, learning efficiency, and quality of interaction and so on. There are many studies have shown the system visibility, cognitive support, efficiency, user control, joyfulness are the important aspects of learning system design. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore digital game-based learning systems' visibility, cognitive support, efficiency, user control, and joyfulness for different prior knowledge learners' flow experience and cognitive load. The results show that there are significant differences on flow experience and cognitive load between learners with different prior knowledge. The usability of game-based learning system has significant effect on flow experience but not on cognitive load except joyfulness. Discussion and conclusion are provided in this study.
Keywords: case studies; game-based learning; usability; interface design; flow experience
Intercultural Design in e-Learning: A Comparison of Three Different Approaches BIBAKFull-Text 585-596
  Vassilia Stefanou
This paper attempts to describe and compare three different approaches for accommodating cultural differences in the design of e-learning systems: Collis' [1] ten guidelines for designing online course-support systems; Mercado, Parboteeah, & Zhao's [2] four key issues for designing online courses; and Henderson's [3] multiple cultures model of instructional design for e-learning. These three approaches are contrasted not only to each other, but also to several other related models, theories and frameworks. At the end, the most effective and useful approach appears to be Henderson's theoretical multiple cultures model. The choice of the three approaches was made solely based on their frequent citing in literature, and on the time constraints of this project; a larger research project may use this paper as a starting point, and possibly evaluate more approaches supporting the development of frameworks that acknowledge cultural differences for the design of e-learning systems.
Keywords: cultural differences; e-learning; online learning; intercultural design
A Cross-Cultural Comparison on Contributors' Motivations to Online Knowledge Sharing: Chinese vs. Germans BIBAKFull-Text 597-605
  Bin Zhu; Qin Gao; Eike Nohdurft
Wikipedia is the most popular online knowledge sharing platform in western countries. However, it is not widely accepted in eastern countries. This indicates that culture plays a key role in determining users' acceptance of online knowledge sharing platforms. The purpose of this study is to investigate the cultural differences between Chinese and Germans in motivations for sharing knowledge, and further examine the impacts of these motives on the actual behavior across two cultures. A questionnaire was developed to explore the motivation factors and actual behavior of contributors. 100 valid responses were received from Chinese and 34 responses from the Germans. The results showed that the motivations were significantly different between Chinese and Germans. The Chinese had more consideration for others and cared more about receiving reward and strengthening the relationship, whereas Germans had more concerns about losing competitiveness. The impact of the motives on the actual behavior was also different between Chinese and Germans.
Keywords: cross-cultural differences; knowledge sharing; Wikipedia

Cross-Cultural Design for the Smart City

Building the Co-design and Making Platform to Support Participatory Research and Development for Smart City BIBAKFull-Text 609-620
  Zhiyong Fu; Xu Lin
This paper focuses in particular on the participatory innovation model in the context of smart city in China. Based on the practices from design thinking, living lab and maker space, we integrated the action researches and participatory practices in our smart city R&D projects. The integrated co-design process will facilitate the interdisciplinary professionals, open communities and citizens to involve in the smart city design. This paper present our co-design framework, which combines the exploration of the territory, integration of stakeholders' resource and issues, ideation of co-created experimentations, implementation of solution, products and service, and evaluation of conclusion & outcomes into a holistic process. The case study on crowd sourcing environmental solution project that applied the co-design model of development and participatory evaluation was launched as pilot in Beijing. These will be the helpful reference and support for the co-design practice in the city of China.
Keywords: Co-design; Smart City; Open Platform; Living Lab; Makerspace
Designing "Qualia" into Night Market for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 621-629
  Yu-Di Huang; Yi-Tsu Peng; Chun-Wen Fang; Jun-Liang Chen
This research focuses on night market, emphasizing both the eating style and users eating emotion. It investigates the user's need for Taiwan tradition food as a replacement place for regular restaurant. The study presents a process, based on user requirements, for developing guidelines for night market Qualia design targeted at community, and contributes to our understanding of community's eating preferences and the effects of this new style on eating environment. Fore factors affecting night market qualia design are identified and discussed; these guidelines can be categorized into tree principles of design dimensions. Some ideas for night market qualia design are verification, and finally, a new design dimensions based on Taipei city style is proposed. Future research could apply the principles to other groups of night market users based on the concept of design dimensions.
Keywords: Qualia; Night market; Design dimensions; Taipei City
Building Trust in Hospitality and Culture Exchange Travel Sites: Lessons from Heuristic Evaluation of CouchSurfing BIBAKFull-Text 630-642
  Yu-Hsiu Hung; Lian-Fan Wu; Chia-Chun Chen
Travel is gaining popularity among people and around the world. The number of people relying on social networking resources and hospitality/culture exchange travel websites is also increasing. However, there have been voices criticizing hospitality/culture exchange websites for deception, violations of privacy, and lack of dispute resolution process, etc. To address this problem and to glean design insight, our study performed Heuristic Evaluation (with six subject matter experts) on the features and interfaces of CouchSurfing (one of the most popular hospitality exchange websites). The purpose was to understand if current features and interfaces of hospitality travel websites support trust-building among users. Results of the study showed barriers in differing stages of the trust-building process. Results also revealed that the establishment of trust was challenged by the current graphic design, the structure design, as well as the social cue design of CouchSurfing. Design recommendations were made from this study for hospitality/culture exchange travel websites.
Keywords: Trust; Hospitality Exchange; Travel; and CouchSurfing
From Adaptive Design to Adaptive City-Design in Motion for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 643-649
  Rungtai Lin; Ching-Chiuan Yen; Robert Chen
Taipei has officially become the World Design Capital 2016 with the slogan of "Adaptive City". Taiwan economic development is a fusion of Dechnology (Design-Technology) and Humart (Humanity-Art) which is also a process of design evolution showing an "Adaptive Design" in Taiwan design development. Therefore, this study proposes a design conceptual approach not only for Taipei to meet the requirements of WDC 2016, but also for Taiwan to establish a design strategy for the future. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to provide designers, companies, organizations as well as Taipei City with an approach for applying design thinking and with an idea for how to direct their efforts to meet the requirements of a new proposed design strategy.
Keywords: Taiwan design development; localization; globalization; glocalization; design strategy; cross-cultural
Designing "Innovation" into Eslite Group for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 650-659
  Mei-Ting Lin; Po-Hsien Lin; Jun-Liang Chen
After holding 2011 Design at the Edges in Taipei, the global design thinking and styles have entered into Taiwan; design have improved the standards of industries, creative thinking, design capabilities, talents training and living environment, changed multiple levels in Taiwan society, and the design atmosphere in the cities thus enhanced both the people and the knowledge. Therefore to manage the city by design and to improve the people's quality are important factors how Taipei City won the bid to hold 2016 World Design Capital on November 19th, 2013. This study attempted to understand how Eslite Group contributes and influences the city through document analysis of relevant published documents, and realized that the development of Eslite Group may be divided into three stages. First stage is "chain bookstore brand competition period"; second stage, "publication platform development period"; and third stage, "ambience development period". Through the three stages, Eslite Group developed the initial business philosophy: culture, art, creativity and life. First off, it provides consumers with good shopping services and the comfortable spaces for free reading; next, it provides online digital platform and publish design publications, virtually improved the consumers' aesthetics quality; in recent years, it incorporates new stores with local aesthetics, both the indoor and outdoor spaces provide consumers with great ambience and experiences. Over the past 24 years, Eslite Group 's services have invisibly improved the people's quality and taste; a "bookstore", although a commercial space, is also a carrier of culture and knowledge as well as an important symbol of the people's taste of life, which is able to influence the life styles and knowledge development. Eslite Group has successfully improved the people's taste and influenced the development and design value of the city.
Keywords: Innovation; Taipei City; Eslite Group
Designing "Friendly" into Public Bicycle for Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 660-667
  Yuhsuan Lin; Yen-Yu Kang
The purpose of this study is to define problems of YouBike's design, and then, to provide designers with public bicycle design advice. Firstly, an observation was carried out to discover the general process among YouBike users. Secondly, case studies were conducted. Time and period were recorded following each correspondent's activities, including withdrawing YouBike, returning YouBike, confirming the transaction fee. Research findings include: (1) Attaching magnetic on the bike's locking plate to reduce the occurrence of error.(2) Changing the color of the lights contrasting colors to enhance the degrees in visual recognition.
Keywords: Universal Design; YouBike
A Design of Smart Travel Based on City User Experience BIBAKFull-Text 668-675
  Ping Liu; Young Hwan Pan
Tourism as a typical service industry, which is directly related to the level of quality of service the long-term development of tourism. Perfect service system and high-quality service quality can not only affect the number of tourists and tourism revenue, such as the dominant value, better able to improve the city's reputation and resident people's quality of life. This paper is designed for the study of smart travel of city, first the status of the Nanjing tourism conducted a comprehensive investigation to the theory of service design and user experience as the core, in order to improve tourism services in Nanjing system, through scientific and systematic survey methods (heuristic evaluation, expert interviews, shadow tracking, fixed-point observation, etc.) and advanced and effective analytical methods (affinity diagram, customer behavior maps, etc.), to explore Nanjing Tourism service system inadequate for the service provided by the foreigners. We found foreign tourist pain points and analyzed them and ultimately derived directional insights for improvement.
Keywords: City User Experience; Smart Travel; User Research; Service Design
Design for the Public Usage of Rural Surplus Space (PURSS): The Case Study of DESIGN Harvests BIBAKFull-Text 676-687
  Yongqi Lou; Dongjin Song
One of the consequences of the regional urbanization in the Yangtze River Delta is that the mass transferring of surplus labor power from the rural area to the urban area, which resulted directly in a large amount of surplus space in the locality. A possible solution to this problem could be transforming the rural surplus space for public use (PURSS) through redesigning the system in a creative way. DESIGN Harvests, a pilot design-driven innovation and entrepreneurship project, is one of the first systemic attempts from China's design society. Based on the analysis of the needs and insights on PURSS, the paper explores the strategies, patterns and product service system design of PURSS, which provides a new scenario of reusing the spare and scattered resources in the countryside. The service based rather than construction based solution conforms to the principle of sustainability as a social process towards the restorative economy.
Keywords: Rural; Surplus Space; Public Usage; Product Service System Design; DESIGN Harvests
Designing Cloud Computing into Taipei City: A Pilot Study of the Service Design from Taipei Cloud BIBAKFull-Text 688-695
  Jui-Ping Ma; Stanely Wei; Rungtai Lin
For offering holistic service quality, in 2013, the Taipei City Hall promote "Taipei Cloud" service for citizen to enhance web services based on convenient, free, and public Wi-Fi hotspots all over the city. This pilot experiment explores on user experience and perception of "Taipei Cloud" service from subjects' usage by participant-observation to know whether "Taipei Cloud" service can match subjects' demand in their daily life. Six subjects use "Taipei Cloud" service randomly to obtain their cloud computing data record by their smart mobile phone APP during their own trips. Then, time-geography theory is applied to be evaluated subjects' usage. The finding are shown that: (1) there is no direct correlation between time and spatial facts through subjects' usage on citizen cloud service; (2) Until now, in subjects' opinion, to share or contact others should be a function added in citizen cloud; (3) To compare subjects' usage of citizen cloud, "command" is more popular than other online actions.; (4) In holistic user experiences, subjects usually prefer higher interaction with cloud computing service.
Keywords: Taipei Cloud; Location-Based Service; Time-Geographic
When China Encounters Smart TV: Exploring Factors Influencing the User Adoption in China BIBAKFull-Text 696-706
  Yuming Tao; Jing Chang; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
Smart TVs, providing users with the access to abundant number of Internet video contents as well as other 'smart' functionalities, are gradually becoming more and more popular within Chinese households. Chinese internet companies and TV manufactures has been actively developing two forms of smart TV, namely embedded smart TVs and smart set-top boxes. The objective of the study is to explore the factors that affect user adoption of both the embedded smart TV and the set-top box and comprehensively analyze the difference in user adoption of the two smart TV forms. We carried out an online survey and collected 245 valid responses. With the help of exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis, we built a smart TV user adoption model based on TAM with 6 antecedent factors. The model helps to explain the difference between user adoption of embedded smart TV and smart set-top box and also figured out that perceived usefulness on video functionality is the priority concerns for developing both embedded smart TV and smart set-top box.
Keywords: Smart TV; Set-top box; Technology Acceptance Model

Cross-Cultural Design for Creativity

Designing "Taipei City" as a World Design Capital BIBAKFull-Text 709-720
  Jun-Liang Chen; Yu-Ju Lin; Stanley Wei; Yen-Yu Kang
This paper focuses on the Taipei City as the World Design Capital Planning, through curatorial concepts into urban governance, the completion of substantial city transformation, the implementation of bid idea, especially the establishment of a "Public Policy by Design" and "Public participation in the design" two-track operation mechanisms platform. The study presents a process, based on the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design (ICSID) requirements, for developing guidelines for bid spindle philosophy: "Adaptive City", and contributes to improve Taiwan's visibility, and the effects of while promoting related design, tourism industry development. Factors affecting content Application design are identified and discussed; these guidelines can be categorized into three principles of design. Some ideas for Tenders Book design are developed, and finally, made by Jun-Liang Chen the use craft techniques to new design based on "dragon-scale binding" is proposed. Future research could apply the design to other groups of City Curatorial Concept Design. How to design into public policy, designed to carry through the city's social reform movement.
Keywords: World Design Capital; Curatorial Design; Craft Techniques
Designing 'Culture and Heritage' into the C1D1 District of Taipei City BIBAKFull-Text 721-730
  Lihrong Chiou; Kung-Ling Chang; Yu-Chi He; Richard H. Lee
This paper focuses on the development of C1D1 District of Taipei City, emphasizing its cultural perspective and oriental spirit. With the concept of the creative city, this study explores the cultural and industrial heritage of the Western District. To lead the C1D1 District to turn into a new core of Taipei City designated as the World Design Capital 2016, the concepts of Oriental Cloud Platform, City's Living Room, 3D Catalog, and Cultural and Industrial Link are proposed as development guidelines.
Keywords: Culture and Heritage; Oriental Spirit; Creative City; Cultural Link
Analysis of Application of Digital Archives to Value-Added Design in Cultural Creative Products BIBAKFull-Text 731-742
  Chi-Hsien Hsu; Robert Chen; Rungtai Lin
With the development of technology, we see more and more possibilities in the methods of conservation and application for traditional culture. Currently, the content in the data base of digital archives information in Taiwan is quite extensive and versatile. It is necessary to study future applications to add to its value. The purpose of this study explored the issue and procedure of value-added design on the basis of digital archives transformed into cultural creative. The research includes two phases. In the first phase, we had interviews with experts exploring the current application issues of digital archives in the design fields. By this way, we created the transforming model by collecting theories and principles of design and combining the experts' opinions. In the second phase, we carried out the design and application to review the possibility of digitally archived cultural instruments as applied to the design.
Keywords: Digital Archives; Cultural Creative Products
Cultural Creativity in Design Exhibition -- A Case Study of Emotional Effects Experienced by the Audience BIBAKFull-Text 743-752
  Yu-Ju Lin; Jui-Ping Ma; Jun-Liang Chen
From the past few years, the public and the private sectors have been encouraging the development of culture and creative industries. Many departments of design and visual communication have their graduate exhibitions focused on the concept of culture and creativity. Among them, "Lost Memories" was awarded with the Golden Prize in the annual design exhibition for the new generation. The exhibition was held in Culture and Creative Expo organized by Taipei City Government and received many resonances. This study attempts to use the exhibited images from "Lost Memories" as the sample and via literature review, content analysis, survey-questionnaire and statistical analysis, the images and the corresponding and related theories will be induced and integrated for the subject analysis, which will eventually present an analytical framework of "exhibition content-audience experience." This will explore the contribution of the curator towards the cultural exhibition and provide a further reference for future studies. As a result, it is discovered that the emotional effects experienced by the audience can produce a consistent effect after the book is published by the curator after the exhibition. Between the curator and the audience, the spirit has lasted through the content of the exhibited images. The content of the exhibited images in the cultural exhibition include the concepts of "touching", "adhere to the spirit," "realistic," for which the curator expects the audience to appreciate and to value the traditional craftsmen of the images. A positive influence was achieved. In terms of "liking the overall images and recording of the images in the exhibition", there is a positive effect over "this exhibition has made me experience the insistent spirit of craftsmen in the local industries." This empirical study discovered that the emotional effects experienced by the audience have certainly a significant impact for the situational interpretations of the cultural themes.
Keywords: Cultural and Creative; Design Exhibition; Audience Experience; Emotional Effects
A Study of Applying Sakizaya Tribe's Palamal (The Fire God Ritual) into Cultural Creative Products Design BIBAKFull-Text 753-765
  Po-Hsien Lin; Jao-Hsun Tseng; Pei-Chen Lin
The Palamal is a memorial ceremony during which the Sakiazya people to worship their ancestors. This study is based on searching for possibilities in applying the Sakiazya Palamal to the creative culture industry as the main research issue, emphasizing the integration of interdisciplinary fields. Besides conferring the dance gestures, ritual clothing and decorations for the Sakiazya Palamal, research for product design development will also be held in coordination with the Sakiazya performance promotion. As for the research methodology, collecting literature data and onsite interview will be used for this project; through the investigation of the Sakiazya cultural tradition and the understanding of ceremony rituals and worship utensils, this study intends to present the rich and vivid culture with a new look, the combination of traditional elements with modern creative ideas will transform our cultural essence into commercial culture products and artistic performance. The transformation process must be treated with respect, thus, we must understand the taboo and the deeper meaning of the culture to prevent conflicts due to cultural differences.
Keywords: Sakizaya; Palamal (the Fire God Ritual); culture creative industry
The Sino-Italian Collaborative Design Platform: Designing and Developing an Innovative Product Service System BIBAKFull-Text 766-774
  Wei Liu; Yongqi Lou
This research aims to explore how to bring the richness of collaborative design into the (formal) context of the offices and colleagues. This research went through five stages to design product service systems: 1) product service system analysis, 2) collaborative design, 3) Research on computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) model, 4) User experience research, and 5) Product service system design. Recommendations are given to design and develop interactive collaborative design platforms in the work context. Researchers and designers who are interested in designing and developing rapidly evolving and experiential ICT systems would benefit from learning this research.
Keywords: Product service system; collaborative design; user experience; information technologies
Cultural Creativity in Design Strategy: A Case Study of User's Preference of a Bird-Shaped Teapot BIBAKFull-Text 775-785
  Chi-Chang Lu; Po-Hsien Lin
The bionic design has become an important creative tool in the time of "perceptual consumption". Although the systematized concept and method for bionic design matured late as 1960s, but in essence it is an important method for creating artifacts in prehistoric era. The pottery Gui-tripod is just the masterpiece of bionic design pottery in Chinese Neolithic. Moreover, it represented the worship of sun -- the spiritual power that ancient people relied on, and relating totems. In this article, the author wants to create a bird-shaped teapot transferred from the Pottery Gui-tripod. Besides the traditional Eastern charm, how can it have the style -- the Modern fashion is the preoccupation. The research results show: shape extracted through Cezanne's "Cylinder, Sphere and Cone" theory not only be able to achieve the goal of fashion, but also conducive to the implementation of computer-aided design tools.
Keywords: Bionic design; Product design; teapot; Pottery Gui-tripod; Cezanne; fashion
The GamiMedia Model: Gamifying Content Culture BIBAKFull-Text 786-797
  Mizuki Sakamoto; Tatsuo Nakajima
In Japan, gamified media has recently become popular. Among Japanese youth, one manifestation of this trend is the expansion of original media content to create fanfic content. This process changes passive consumers into active agents with the ability to advance society. However, no model currently exists for discussing and analyzing this phenomenon in contemporary Japanese anime, comics, and games -- media whose fictionality penetrates the real world. In this paper, we develop the GamiMedia model to addresses this need. Because the model explicitly accommodates transmedia storytelling concepts, it can be used to explain how the fictional stories in Japanese media content are extended into the real world. The model presented in the paper may aid the design of a digital-physical hybrid world that could improve our lifestyles.
Keywords: game analysis; digital-physical hybrid design; culture-based design
Applying the Time and Space Forms of Poetry to Creative Design BIBAKFull-Text 798-807
  Mo-Li Yeh; Ming-shean Wang; Pey-Chwen Lin
In recent years, countries worldwide have actively employed culture-inspired creativity to add value to designs. Poetry is a means by which poets express profound and subtle emotions and thoughts using refined words. Classical and renowned poems that have survived for thousands of years are undoubtedly excellently refined masterpieces. We established a series of operable steps for converting abstract creative poetry concepts into concrete poetry designs to enhance the enriched literary connotations of designs and improve the values of the affective and aesthetic experience of poetry. Based on the spiritual characteristics of classical Chinese poetry and theories related to time and space, this study references literature regarding the feasibility of applying cultural creativity to designs and summarizes 4 forms of poetry, namely, time/space reflection, time/space separation, time/space sympathy, and time/space integration. When designing actual cases, we considered the method by which a logical inference procedure can be developed and the concrete steps for reasonably converting poetry into design. Subsequently, this study describes the extraction and control of critical meanings from the context and themes of traditional poetry to analyze structural forms and content of time and space. The converted poetry design cases were then integrated to construct a creative design application model for the time and space forms of poetry. Integrating traditional poetry culture with modern designs provides the current cultural and creative industry with a feasible design model. Furthermore, creative design revitalizes traditional poetry, which enables the value of poetry to be fully developed and realized in cultural and creative applications.
Keywords: poetry; time and space; cultural creativity; creative design