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CCD Tables of Contents: 13-113-21415-115-2

CCD 2013: 5th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, Part I: Methods, Practice, and Case Studies

Fullname:CCD 2013: 5th International Conference on Cross-Cultural Design, Part I: Methods, Practice, and Case Studies
Note:Volume 20 of HCI International 2013
Editors:P. L. Patrick Rau
Location:Las Vegas, Nevada
Dates:2013-Jul-21 to 2013-Jul-26
Publisher:Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Series:Lecture Notes in Computer Science 8023
Standard No:DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-39143-9 hcibib: CCD13-1; ISBN: 978-3-642-39142-2 (print), 978-3-642-39143-9 (online)
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. CCD 2013-07-21 Volume 1
    1. Cross-Cultural Product Design
    2. Cross-Cultural Design Methods and Techniques
    3. International Usability Evaluation
    4. Case Studies in Cross-Cultural Design

CCD 2013-07-21 Volume 1

Cross-Cultural Product Design

Re-engaging with Cultural Engagement: Innovative Product Design of Cultural Field Experience BIBAKFull-Text 3-9
  Tsen-Yao Chang; Fang-Wu Tung
This study aims to construct the components of effective analysis of cultural products to develop a design process that is appropriate for the cultural field. The research concept is based on an integrated experience of design experiments. Targeting the actual demands of the cultural field, the cases analyzed provide pragmatic solutions. This study contributes a systematic and timely process of design in the cultural field with the use of a complex scenario, as well as the application of such a process to produce concrete results in design service. Results can aid in future planning and implementation of solutions.
Keywords: cultural field experience; cultural product; product design; experience design
An Exploration on Tactile Styles of Products BIBAKFull-Text 10-20
  Yung-Ting Chen; Ming-Chuen Chuang
As an exploratory phase of the continuous study regarding tactile style of products, this paper employed semi-structured focus interview as the method to investigate and summarize whether people had more feelings towards products with vivid and obvious style for future reference. Therefore, this study intended to 1. identify the design styles that provoked strong feelings for the reference of tactile style in the future; 2. file the representative products and major form features of the design styles; 3. construct a set of vocabulary for the further images evaluation on design and tactile style in the future. In this research, 11 design experts were interviewed. All of them had long-term experience in design and profound understanding of design style. All of the interviews were videotaped and edited for a comprehensive analysis to yield results as follows: 1. In accordance with the frequency mentioned by the experts, 7 design styles for products that stimulate strong feelings were identified; 2. Summarizing the contents and forms of design styles, it was discovered that evolution of design style progressed incessantly like following a spiral path; 3. The representative products and their form features (shapes, materials, and colors) of each design style were classified; 4. The representative feeling images of each of the design style were obtained and summarized to derive a set of 28 paired image words for further image evaluation.
Keywords: design style; tactile style; product feature; image; semi-structured interview
The Study of Style for Kogi Pottery Art in Life BIBAKFull-Text 21-30
  Chi-Hsiung Chen; Shih-Ching Lin
There are plentiful and diverse culture assets and local sources in Taiwan, and thus the national soft power has been valued gradually, the traditional craft industries also being focused as well. Koji pottery art has essential place in the architectures of Taiwan tempos, and it was considered as the representation of gods in the local belief which was sacredness in Taiwan. However, the elaborate Kogi pottery art which was applied in tempo architectures is intergrading in people's life at home due to the constructive promotion to cultural creative industries from the government. Therefore, the study collected and discussed the develop status of Kogi pottery crafts via literature analysis extensively, as well as to explore the differences of the traditional implements that introduce to life art and analyze the styles via morphological analysis. The study has three conclusions as follows: 1. New opportunity can be created by introducing cultural creative ideas to Kogi pottery industry which allow it transforming to elaborate craft industry from traditional one. (2) Kogi pottery art work still has the unique style by describing abstract implications through concrete forms. (3) Kogi pottery is trending toward simplification but nonetheless retains its symbolic meaning and achieves its goal of continuing its cultural heritage.
Keywords: Kogi; cultural creativity; style
The Study of Modern Emergency Products under the Direction of New Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 31-40
  Jianxin Cheng; Meiyu Zhou; Junnan Ye
The rapid development of computer and internet technology has led to human beings' society into the era of information, and brought certain influence on the modern design and innovative design. Moreover, product design is now emphasizing on design ideology such as Humanisms, Culture and People-Oriented design. That is products serving for users and all their shapes, function, color, material and structure showing the respect and care for their users, furthermore, they are endeavoring in providing some virtual using experience including Humanities, History, Emotion, Joviality and Security. Recently, natural disasters such like earthquake, snowstorm, fire, typhoon, flood and drought always cost enormous casualties and economic loss. As a result of the government's popularization and promotion of disaster prevention and rising awareness of the meaning of safety, emergency products come up to exist in our daily life. However, emergency indications would send people a sense of fear, which should lower their life quality. New ergonomic, mainly based on researching methods as Physiology, Psychology and Anthropometry etc., and gives prominence to some interdisciplinary subjects, for example, Social Psychology and Economics etc. It is focusing on service system and ergonomic issues. On the topic of disaster emergency design, this paper suggests three researching methods for it: PDCA model, Quantitative Analysis, Semantic Differential. Then how could Emergency Products produce high life quality? The essay records the researching theorization which has been used before. They are based on the people-oriented ideology, through in four phases of the establishment of the design goals (design target selection and judgment), the preliminary design (understanding and analysis of the design goals, design concept engineering), deep design (product detail design) and design confirmation (completion of the design goals) to practice and research.
Keywords: Emergency Products; Modern Living Quality; New Ergonomics; Product Service Design
Designing "Hometown Feeling" Into Products BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Chiu-Wei Chien; Si-Jing Chen; Jun-Liang Chen
Hometown is always full of childhood memories and energy for life. Hometown, as a subject for cultural and creative products can help novice designers express their feelings. Designers are bound to create unique and attractive cultural and creative products with such outpouring of sentiment of hometown. There are three major categories of design elements that can be developed from hometown as a topic: natural environment, festival and folk arts, and artificial constructions. The study chooses the program which was conducted in the Product Development Course as a case study. This course was scheduled for junior students under the Department of Industrial Design, National United University. This study attempts to discover how the feelings of hometown will impact designers, and how those feelings are embodied in their cultural and creative products. The goal of this study is to provide consumers a type of commodity that combines emotional connections and usefulness in order to present valued cultural and creative products that demonstrate local color and at the same time meet the needs of modern life by way of transforming the meaning and style of cultural elements.
Keywords: Feeling of "hometown"; cultural and creative product design
Human Factors Design Research with Persona for Kids Furniture in Shanghai Middle-Class Family BIBAKFull-Text 51-59
  Linong Dai; Boming Xu
There is a huge market for Chinese kids furniture, which, however, is still designed on the level of traditional Ergonomics. The paper, targeted at Shanghai middle-class family, analyzes the correlation between the needs, purpose, behavior and viewpoints of multi-users, based on the data collected through Ethnography. With many factors such as family structure, environmental factor and educational notion taken into account, it constructs user segmentation of multi-users' kids furniture in terms of persona and accordingly gives suggestions on Human Factors Design of kids furniture.
Keywords: Persona; Kids furniture; Middle-class family; User research
A Study of the Attraction Factors of Japanese Pop-Culture by Young People in Taiwan BIBAKFull-Text 60-69
  Chen-hao Fan; I-Hsin Fan; Huang-Tsun Lu; Su-yao Lee
"Beauty is the only way to be competitive!" In recent years, due to the energetic efforts that has plunge into the design industry from countries all around the world, the design field in Taiwan is highly valued; through the use of various kinds of designing methods, it is expected that this positive effort of "gdesign" can increase vitality, competition and cultural standard of the Taiwanese life. Therefore, "gdesign" must not only stress the importance of the high quality technology to improve the competitiveness in the design industry, but more important, how to focus on the viewpoint of the industry and the commercial market. Only in this way we can build a true strategy and create strong design energy from the heart. The emotional design of the Japanese goods, compare from consumer goods from all around the world, has always been distinct; furthermore, the same market response also emerged in the Taiwan commercial market. How do the Japanese goods provoke the emotional intention for consumer to purchase? How does it touch our perception neural? How can we truly seize the perceived value of the consumer? Therefore, through the bestseller condition analysis of the Japanese goods, and taking it forward to understand the preference factors of the Taiwan commercial market. Using EGM interviewing sixteen high personal involvements, then employing Quantification theory I to calculate the charm functional of the Japanese goods in Taiwan. The attempt is to seek to reason why Japanese goods became popular in Taiwan. The use of EGM can capture the particular features of the conditions that arouse the two aspects of the purchase intentions: the "top down" abstract value judgment and the "bottom up" concrete condition of the consumer goods, organizing the factors and conditions of the preference and expectations in the Taiwan commercial market. Ultimately to create similar products that extracted the fundamental spirits of the Japanese goods, meanwhile, blending in with the environmental conditions of the Taiwan commercial market; therefore, via the methods of product design to create goods that can conform to the emotional need of the Taiwanese consumer. By this way, we can pursue the success of emotional Taiwanese goods that can deeply touch the heart of the consumers and stimulate the consumption of the product; encouraging consumer to purchase this heart contented good and opening a new business opportunity to companies.
   This research via the concept of charm engineer, employing the high involvement oral interview data of EGM, furthermore, using KJ Method to convergence categories, understand facts, and complying data. Below are six general aspects which help us know the main charm factors and condition of how Japanese goods attract the Taiwanese consumers: 1. Marketing. 2. Trend: Fashion trend. 3. Profession. 4. Convenience. 5. Comfortable. 6. Abundant.
   Therefore, the comprehensive research combined EGM, statistics of Quantification theory I, and charm functional to analyze if user can attain comfort from all aspects or whether if the design is humanized to provide convenience when manipulating; afterwards, based on the theory of consumer cognitive psychology and the six basic conditions of commodities: origin, background, material, technology, craftsman, and quality to sum up this research. Hence, "The most profound emotional value for Taiwanese consumers" concludes to the four conclusions: 1.Feel of Ease and Supreme Quality; 2.Innovation within the Traditional Field and the Spirit of the Craftsman; 3. Leading Technology and Innovation; 4. Social Care
Keywords: Japanese Goods; Evaluation Grid Method; KANSEI Engineering
Interaction Design Research of Home Integrated Ceiling Based on Neo-Ergonomics BIBAKFull-Text 70-75
  Qing Ge; Yin Wang
With the emergence of intelligent home furnishing concept by the Internet and Internet of things, different industry convergence is increasing. As interactive environment products, the furnishing integrated ceiling established on the neo-ergonomics will bring the new psychological experience which make the environmental layout, space function, interpersonal communication, environmental value different from the traditional kitchen plane ceiling. Bandura's "reciprocal determinism" provides theoretical basis for the primary three dimensional interactive design concept in neo-ergonomics. And the environmental factors in interactive innovation will become more and more importance, which make the product innovation work tremendous effect.
Keywords: Interaction Design; Neo-ergonomics; Integrated Ceiling
Some Thoughts on Haptic Aesthetics for Design Transmodal Aesthetics BIBAKFull-Text 76-85
  John Kreifeldt
Designing for total user satisfaction is or should be the goal of human centered product design. However, satisfaction is a complex function of multiple interdependent variables many of which are only recently being explored. Among these are the haptic senses and sensations. Considerable research attention is currently given to them particularly in interface design. However, the existence and role of haptic emotions and aesthetics in product design and their interactions with visual aesthetics and emotions seem to be comparatively overlooked. The proposition is made herein that an object should be so designed that it is as pleasurable to hold and use as it (or its image) is pleasing to look at. Furthermore, it should be so designed that viewing it or its image arouses the appropriate virtual haptic responses. That is, the object should be designed so as to maximize its haptic as well as visual aesthetics and emotions. As an aid to progress in this area, this paper makes the argument for more recognition of the existence of a visual ⇒ (virtual haptic synesthesia; the evocation of mentally aroused haptic sensations which follow on viewing an object or even its image. Such sensations may lie below the conscious level but still be potent in forming the viewer's total aesthetic and emotional response to an object.
   The descriptor "transmodal aesthetic" is used here in postulating a related phenomenon in which a feature or object which affects one sensory aesthetic will influence the aesthetic response of another sense. In the product case for instance, this occurs when an object or feature of it which is pleasing to the haptic senses results in the object (or image of it) being pleasing to the visual sense. This postulates or acknowledges that if the hand finds something pleasant/unpleasant, it will evoke pleasing/displeasing emotions to the eye rather than vice-versa.
   Because we are not often consciously aware of the haptic sensations evoked in us by visual stimuli, we must learn to conscientiously attend and respond to them. This will greatly increase our appreciation of art in general and product design in particular.
   This paper is a discursive attempt to set out several aspects of fundamental virtual haptics which should be explored in their role of providing haptic pleasure as an important aspect of product design. Several areas for research into haptic aesthetics and their relationship to visual aesthetics particular for products are suggested.
Keywords: aesthetics; art; design; haptics; product; sculpture; synesthesia; transaesthetic
RFID-Based Road Guiding Cane System for the Visually Impaired BIBAKFull-Text 86-93
  Chen Liao; Pilsung Choe; Tianying Wu; Yue Tong; Chenxu Dai; Yishuo Liu
The RFID-based road guiding cane is a navigation system especially designed for the visually impaired. Geographic location, traffic light signals, and business information are saved in a series of RFID labels constructed beneath the sidewalk. With the road guiding cane reading the RFID labels, the visually impaired can locate themselves, be aware of traffic light signals, and find business information near them on the road. After users set the destination, the cane automatically directs the routes for users via voice by specifying the current location and keeping track of previous locations. Compared with the Global Positioning System, the RFID-based road guiding cane system is more reliable, more accurate, cost-saving, and versatile in providing precise location-based services for the visually impaired.
Keywords: RFID; visually impaired; road guiding cane; navigation system; Internet of things
Exploring Local Characteristic Product Analysis from an Emotional Design Perspective BIBAKFull-Text 94-103
  Yu-Ju Lin; Wei-Han Chen; Tai-Jui Wang
Taiwan's local industries are well-developed; however, over time, various local industries have encountered the problem of transformation. This change has prompted businesses to gradually shift their focus to aesthetics and emotional design when developing new products. Consequently, Taiwan's Ministry of Economic Affairs and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) share the objective of recreating local commercial opportunities to assist in local industry development and promote product innovation regarding Taiwan's local characteristic industries. The following topics are worthy of further investigation: (1) whether products' added cultural value can elicit consumer acknowledgement and generate deep emotional impressions; (2) whether a correlation exists between the emotional perception of these cultural products and cultural elements; and (3) whether new values can be created using an interdisciplinary collaborative model of local characteristic industries and industry optimization transformation. Considering globalized competition, designers should seek the essence of originality from their own culture and establish a unique cultural distinction for local characteristic products to improve the product design value and competitiveness. Based on data analysis and a literature review, this study analyzed the development of an integrated relationship between Taiwan's local characteristics and design industries. Data from relevant analyses indicated the following: (1) Localized life and cultural characteristics and local spirit can sufficiently influence the innovation of local characteristic products; (2) successful local characteristic products must satisfy three levels of emotional design, namely, the visceral, behavioral, and reflective levels; and (3) integration of local characteristic industries and the experience economy concept requires an interdisciplinary exchange platform to stimulate industry innovation and drive emerging industries.
Keywords: local characteristic industry; emotional design; cultural product; interdisciplinary
The Cognitive Difference of Visual and Imaged Tactile Sense of Product Forms BIBAKFull-Text 104-112
  Mei-Ting Lin; Jui-Ping Ma; Chih-Long Lin
Product morphology has affected the diversity of consumers' preference. When consumers obtain the product image through perceptual organs, it is possible for the visual sense to replace other senses and generate synesthesia. This study is intended to explore: 1. whether if the visual sense and imagined tactile sense of product forms are consistent in preference; and 2. whether if the cognition preference of the four products with different figure is consistent when viewing the objects simultaneously and individually. The experiment designed four cups with different forms and separately processed a two-phase test of the visual and imagined tactile senses. The analysis result shows that visual and imagined tactile sense possesses slight consistency with product preference, which both reached significant level. Therefore, the preference results of most test subjects in both visual and imaginary tactile sense achieved consistency. Among the four cups, Cup 2 revealed far lower score in the visual sense than in the tactile sense within the pleasure degree, while Cup 3 shown far greater visual points than tactile. The results of experimenting the four cups with different forms yet with same color and material, did not agree with our hypothesis, the anticipation to see and the anticipation to touch were in inverse proportion. The outcome indicated that creative design products via the consumer's view may emerge cognitive difference. Thus, the results of this study can provide products which are in development a better understanding of consumer perception and a foundation for future studies.
Keywords: Product Form; visual; imagined tactile sense; cognitive differences
Discovering the Use of a Home Smart Telephone: A Persona Approach BIBAKFull-Text 113-117
  Weijane Lin; Chih-Lo Chen; Chien-Ting Yang; Hsiu-Ping Yueh
This ongoing study examined the users' needs, perceptions, performance and expectations toward a multifunctional home-use smart telephone. Through systematically discovering users' behaviors, this study investigated 317 participants' use of the target product, and profiled the target users of personas within different scenarios. Three major patterns of use were found in this study, and the suggestions were made to improve the interface and marketing strategies with references to the personas concluded in this study.
Keywords: Home phone; Smartphone; Persona
A Study of Aesthetic Analysis on Modern Crafts BIBAKFull-Text 118-127
  Po-Hsien Lin; Mo-Li Yeh; Rungtai Lin
Based on the perspective of academic application and cultural dissemination, this study intends to explore the aesthetic value of Taiwan modern crafts. Through an approach of style analysis, this study examines the works selected from Taiwan Crafts Competition Award and Modern Crafts Yii Project. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are employed to explore the artistic essence and cultural reference of the creations. The study places the works in stylistic context to establish a theoretical framework of aesthetic analysis and criticism of Taiwanese modern crafts. A questionnaire is developed to obtain information required for style analysis. The data is analyzed using "Multidimensional Scaling" (MDS). The Consensus Assessment Technique (CAT) is employed in the study. A CAT questionnaire developed by Amabile is used to examine the performance of the works in three difference dimensions of creativity, technical goodness, and aesthetic appeal. Finally, a statistic technique of Multiple Regression Analysis will be employed to explore the significance of these three factors in each style of the works.
Keywords: Modern Crafts; Aesthetics; Style Analysis
Research on Symbol Expression for Eye Image in Product Design: The Usage of the Chinese Traditional "Yun Wen" BIBAKFull-Text 128-137
  Chi-Chang Lu; Po-Hsien Lin
In visual arts, using the eyes to deliver the message of life and emotion of a living thing has always been emphasized. The expression of the eyes is usually a combination of the eyeballs, pupils, eyelids, and eyelashes, etc. Among these, the pupil is of a crucial character. It completes the image of an eye and shows the direction of the line of sight. In this article, the authors wish to create a new way to show the symbols of eyes based on the Chinese traditional cloud pattern -- Yun Wen in the area of the product design. The design will combine the features of both the traditional cultural style and the vogue. It will also present the eastern aesthetics difference between visual similarity and visual dissimilarity.
Keywords: Clouds pattern (Yun Wen); Chinese traditional pattern; decoration; eye image; cultural implication; product design
An Empirical Research on Experience Evaluation and Image Promotion of Wuxi Fruit Brand: The Case of the Brand Package of Yangshan Shuimi Peaches BIBAKFull-Text 138-147
  Wei Xiong; Liang Yin; Xinli Lin; Shengli Lu
This research takes the theory of brand experience as the guidance, uses the brand experience evaluation as its method and aims the service design as its target. And the research is to search for the new theory and model of promoting brand image. We have designed creatively the semantic analysis scale of experience evaluation of Wuxi fruit brand Yangshan Shuimi Peaches. Psychologically, we evaluated 3 types of the packages of PeachWell Brand: A (the original package), B (new package) and C (new package). After that, we collected the CSI (Customer Satisfaction Index) data, which showed the difference: B>C>A. Demographic samples divided by different means all had their own different requires of brand packages. These CSI data showed us that the new package B and C made more contributions to upgrading the brand. According to the result analyses of the empirical research on brand experience, we bring up the detailed service design plans and positive advices of promoting the brand image.
Keywords: Brand experience; Experience evaluation; Brand image promotion; Empirical research
A Study of Applying Qualia to Business Model of Creative Industries BIBAKFull-Text 148-156
  Hui-Yun Yen; Christopher Lin; Rungtai Lin
The experiential economy has entered our life affecting many products with cultural connotations and changing people's lifestyles. It also displays cultural and creative industries that would be outstanding in the world. Chinese culture is the basis for the superior cultural and creative industries in Taiwan. Do the products evoke the sensation and emotion of consumers which designed in culture of value-added? Does the factor correlation between culture style and cultural-products? Are the business models of cultural and creative Industries and cultural-products of Qualia closely related? All of these questions are worthy of further exploration. Based on information analysis and literature review this study presented a framework applicable to any kind of Qualia products and culture and creative industries. The findings are as followed: (1) Cultural style is really enough to affect the design of cultural-products; (2) Successful products should conform to the five factors of Qualia: Attractiveness, Beauty, Creativity, Delicacy and Engineering; successful culture and creative industries should conform to the aesthetic economy business model. Taiwan has the advantage that value-added from Qualia to business model of cultural and creative industry is a presentation of the cultural connotation. Flourishing cultural and creative industries need a start in Taiwan. Marketing and brand building need to be extended by aesthetic from the economy business model to be outstanding in the global marketing in the future. This study includes the relation between cultural-products and consumers, Qualia products and business model exchange platform, international marketing operations and national support and counseling policies for a follow-up study issue.
Keywords: Cultural and Creative Industries; Qualia Products; Business Model; Design Value Added
Analysis of Cognition Difference of Visual and Imagined Haptic Inputs on Product Texture BIBAKFull-Text 157-164
  Hui-Yun Yen; Christopher Lin; Rungtai Lin
The rise of aesthetic economics is remarkable over the past few years and it is also displays the culture and creative industry which would be outstanding in the world. The useful feature of the product is not the only reason to buy the product of the consumer. The interface of product aesthetics gives people a sense of beauty and impression; it also promotes people to consume and collect. However many products while similar in visual appearance, differ in their haptic characteristics affect people's willingness to buy. Based on the above reasons, the trend of product design is consumer-oriented. This study analyzes the cognition difference of visual and imagined haptic inputs based on product texture. We choose tea cups with different textures be the stimulus samples in this experiment to investigate the participants' psychological feelings. The purpose of this study is to discover the correspondence between product textures with consumers' feel and generate specific guidelines for design in the future. There are four findings suggested by this paper. The first one is that a product with an attractive visual appearance is not necessarily pleasing to the touch. The second one is people view the products through visual and describe the product bias in emotional thinking. The third one is antonym adjectives of the popular products are less which conform of people with normal mental state. The fourth one is most of visual and haptic adjectives have commonality. Hopefully, industries and multi-cultural style of products will continue to support the future development and growth of aesthetic economics.
Keywords: Texture; Visual; Imagined Haptic; Cognition
An Empirical Research on Designing and Promoting the Brand Logo of Yangshan Shuimi Peaches Based on the Theory of Brand Experience BIBAKFull-Text 165-174
  Liang Yin; Junmiao Wang; Ying Shan; Yi Jin; Zilin Sun; Weifeng Huang; Binbin Li
This research takes the theory of brand experience as the guidance, and is based on Bernd H. Schmitt's theory of five-element-pattern brand experience. His theory is basis of brand experience evaluation, and is the starting point and the ending point of brand promotion for us. We have creatively designed the semantic analysis tool of experience evaluation of the logo design of Wuxi fruit brand Yangshan Shuimi Peaches. And we evaluated 3 logo designs of Yangshan Shuimi Peaches of PeachWell brand as an empirical operation of brand experience evaluation. Through the operation of experience evaluation and stratified sampling, we got the index of experience CSI, we learned the layered quantization distinction of the 3 logos A, B and C of the same brand PeachWell. This research can provide positive positioning of design for promotion the fruit brand in Wuxi, and can provide effective and scientific design parameters for brand building.
Keywords: Brand experience; Brand evaluation; Logo design; Empirical research
Service Design Research about Redesign Sedentary Office Guided by New Ergonomics Theory BIBAFull-Text 175-183
  Yingxue Zhao; Craig Vogel; Gerald Michaud; Steven Doehler
Current office design is sedentary because it encourages users to work in one good posture as long as possible. Such sedentary office is lethal and inefficient. It needs redesign. To solve this problem, tendonitis experts came up with the new ergonomics theory. It encourages office workers to switch working postures periodically. This working status is defined as dynamic in the paper.
   More and more well-known furniture manufacturers sensed this dynamic trend and applied the new ergonomic theory to their product. However, few of their products achieved big success. In order to better apply the new ergonomics theory in office design, a synthesis of context interviews, survey, and observation shadowing was carried out. A triangulation method was used to analyze the research results to get reliable apparent truth.
   From the research, it was concluded that a successful new ergonomics office needed nicely designed multi-posture physical environment, proper posture-change stimulation system, and pleasant posture-change experience. This needs industrial design, interaction design, and user experience design to collaborate seamlessly, which actually is a typical service design process. So, only through service design, can a great new ergonomics office be created to encourage users leading a new life style.
   This paper offered a brand new direction for office design.

Cross-Cultural Design Methods and Techniques

A Policy or a Silent Revolution: Experience Sharing on Aligning UX Process with Product Development Process BIBAKFull-Text 187-196
  Sean Chiu; Chen-Shuang Wei
User experience has become more emphasized in the consumer electronics industry. In many companies, user-centered design process is being implemented to facilitate the development of user-friendly products. Unfortunately, not all practices ended up with success. In this paper, we pointed out the status quo of dilemma, shared the experience of our process rollout practice, and concluded the steps and strategies we adopted to align the user-centered design policy with traditional product development process. Our goals are to acquire more impacts on the product development in an early phase and to become indispensable to the company. At this current stage, we are delighted with the outcome which gone beyond our expectation and have confidence in the future success.
Keywords: user experience; UX process; UX management; UX policy
From Global Terminology to Local Terminology: A Review on Cross-Cultural Interface Design Solutions BIBAKFull-Text 197-207
  Elke Duncker; Javed Anjum Sheikh; Bob Fields
This paper provides a brief overview of cross-cultural interface design solutions combining cross-language information retrieval and cross-cultural designing. Language is a part of culture in a sense, but most of researchers deal with these two issues separately because they have many different issues and solutions in nature. The diversity of sources and perspectives taken into account for the review including practitioners'(software localization) and technical (e.g. semantic web, ontologies) solutions, design processes (e.g. cultural finger print), design elements (e.g. cultural markers), and philosophically informed discussions (e.g. semiotics).
Keywords: Software localization; semantic web; ontologies; design processes; cultural finger print; design elements; cultural markers; semiotics; human-computer interaction; globalisation; localisation; cultural inclusion
Integration of Characteristics of Culture into Product Design: A Perspective from Symbolic Interactions BIBAKFull-Text 208-217
  Yu-Hsiu Hung; Wei-Ting Li; Yi Sheng Goh
Cultural insight has become essential for improving designs for global and regional markets. However, little work is done on how to dissect culture and incorporate culture characteristics into design activities to create emotional engagements between products and users. This study, therefore, developed a cultural design model to address this problem. The cultural design model was built based on the notion that meaning evolves from social interactions with objects/symbols in the environment and with people. In the model, the theoretical components of Symbolic Interactions and O'Brien's and Toms' user engagement attributes were adopted and were used to analyze culture and transform cultural characteristics into product design features, as well as to "enable user experience." The effectiveness of the cultural design model was verified through a case study with two groups of Industrial Design students on designing tea cups for Taiwanese tea culture. Results of the study provided evidence of the proposed cultural design model in assisting with cultural design activities.
Keywords: Culture; Symbolic Interactions; Design
Modality-Independent Interaction Framework for Cross-Disability Accessibility BIBAKFull-Text 218-227
  J. Bern Jordan; Gregg C. Vanderheiden
People with disabilities often have difficulty using ICT and similar technologies because of a mismatch between their needs and the requirements of the user interface. The wide range of both user abilities and accessibility guidelines makes it difficult for interface designers who need a simpler accessibility framework that still works across disabilities. A modality-independent interaction framework is proposed to address this problem. We define modality-independent input as non-time-dependent encoded input (such as that from a keyboard) and modality-independent output as electronic text. These formats can be translated to provide a wide range input and output forms as well as support for assistive technologies. We identify three interfaces styles that support modality-independent input/output: command line, single-keystroke command, and linear navigation interfaces. Tasks that depend on time, complex-path, simultaneity, or experience are identified as providing barriers to full cross-disability accessibility. The framework is posited as a simpler approach to wide cross-disability accessibility.
Keywords: Cross-cultural product and service design; disability; accessibility; framework; input; output; interaction; user interface; modality independence
"I Know U" -- A Proposed VUI Design for Improving User Experience in HRI BIBAKFull-Text 228-234
  Chen Liu; Aik Joon Sharyl Quek; Shi Jie Alicia Sim; Swee Lan See
A new aspect of the VUI design for improving user experience in human-robot interaction is proposed. By leveraging on behavioral analysis, we attempt to identify user's ethnic group from his speech. A preliminary study on Chinese nationals, Singaporean, and Japanese showed that different ethnic group display different speech pattern. However, across ethnic groups, the spoken style of users with same personality does not differ much. Within each ethnic group, speech pattern of users with different personality can be different. We affirmed that personality influences speech and it can be determined in spoken communication.
Keywords: Voice User Interface; VUI; Human-Robot Interaction; HRI; behavioral analysis; personality; speech; multi-cultural communications; MySQL; PHP
Defining Cross-Culture Theoretical Framework of User Interface BIBAKFull-Text 235-242
  Ping Liu; Chun Keung
In an increasing global market place, UI designers are faced with the challenges of offering usable products and services to an enormous variety of users in different cultures. So far, the researchers involved are mostly from anthropology, sociology and computer science. They try to develop or evaluate the usability of products in different cultural contexts. However, their researches concentrate on the technical and evaluative level. The field lacks a systematic theory or principle: how can we convert these research results directly to certain tool or framework which can be used by designers directly. In this paper, we summarized previous researches on culture models and cultural markers, conducted an expert review to organize cultural design issues, and proposed a cross-cultural design element framework which can be directly referred and used by designers when designing products for a certain culture.
Keywords: Cultural Factor; Internationalization and Localization; UI Design Elements
Integrating Internationalization in the User-Centered Software Development Process BIBAKFull-Text 243-252
  José A. Macías
Internationalization is a common practice today in software development. In the most basic sense, internationalization is carried out by applying localization design guidelines to face language translation, icon representation, character sets and so on. However, this practice is mostly intended for design purposes, which results insufficient when applying internationalization in huge projects and, specifically, through a concrete development process. In this paper, a broader framework is provided in order to ensure internationalization through a software development process. To this end, a set of activities and sub-activities will be presented involving not only design but pre-development, analysis, implementation and evaluation issues that need to be considered for a right internationalization assurance in international software development. The idea behind is to bridge the gap between simple and usual localization activities and the user-centered software development process as internationalization assurance also helps increase the quality and usability of the software overall.
Keywords: Internationalization; Localization; User-Centered Development; Usability; Software Engineering; Software Process
Lessons Learned during a HCI Design Process in Intercultural Context BIBAKFull-Text 253-260
  Alkesh Solanki; Rüdiger Heimgärtner
HCI design incorporates usability engineering. However, "usability" is often misunderstood as just "ease-of-use" or "user friendliness". Whereas it should be viewed as software quality with respect to the context of use, which is a fundamental element in usability studies (cf. [1] and [2]). However, there are cases where usability professionals and software engineers do not share the same culture and the same perceptive (cf. [3]). Therefore, it becomes mandatory to improve the collaboration between HCI (usability) engineering and software engineering. This paper looks into the fallacies of product development process in practice and draws lessons learned.
Keywords: HCI; Human-Computer Interaction Design; User Experience; HCI Engineering; Usability Engineering; Software Engineering; Product Development; Automotive; Lessons Learned
Conception Pyramid Method for Cultural Product Form Development BIBAKFull-Text 261-268
  Tsai-Lin Yang; Ming-Chyuan Ho
Existing methods are found incapable of meeting the needs in form designs of cultural product development and representation, particularly in the aspects of cultural identity and spiritual implication. Focusing on cultural products and with an emphasis on decorative forms, this study proposed the "Gestalt Layer Construct", based on the concepts of text, context and gestalt, among others. Accordingly, a "Conception Pyramid Method for Cultural Product Form Development" is introduced, which consists of six elements, namely Determining subject and collecting creative content, Selecting and allocating idea components, Developing gestalt concept and building gestalt layers, Identifying the best gestalt context, Defining storylines and interpreting gestalt concept, and Implementing and integrating form components. Through a series of metalwork design practices, the proposed procedures were validated and found that it features with innovativeness, usefulness, transferability and effectiveness.
Keywords: Cultural Product; Form Development; Design Method; Gestalt Layer; Metalwork Practice
Employing Poetry Culture for Creative Design with a Polyphonic Pattern BIBAKFull-Text 269-278
  Mo-Li Yeh; Po-Hsien Lin; Ming-Sian Wang
With the global village approaching a new era of aesthetic economy powered by culture creative, every country is actively seeking inspirational resources for culturally creative product design. Chinese traditional poetry, full of expression created with poets' fascinating words and still highly appreciated today, carries not only our predecessors' wisdom but also principles which correspond to those for modern creative design. This study starts with the distinctive features of our classical poetry, lays its foundation on traditional theory of Chinese poetry, consults literature regarding the feasibility of employing poetry for cultural creative design, and furthers the trend for such application through investigating current case studies. Further, by integrating related theories of the western Ingarden Phenomenology from Cognition of the Literary Work of Art and Chinese construction from The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons, this study adopts the organic formation of 'level of word', 'level of phrase' and 'level of sentence' for analyses and conversion, employs the concept of 'polyphonic pattern' as a guideline, and develops a step by step concrete process for exploring how the internal meaning and external form in traditional poetry could be transferred and integrated into modern design. With further illustration of actual implemented cases, a model framework for employing poetry culture for creative design is thus completed. In addition to its being a significant and feasible reference for culture creative design, we would like to see this model cause our traditional poetry to shine with a new glamour as well.
Keywords: poetry; polyphonic pattern; culture creative; creative design

International Usability Evaluation

The Influence of the Nature of Need for Touch, Handcraft Material and Material Color on the Motivation for Touch BIBAKFull-Text 281-287
  Si-Jing Chen; Chih-Long Lin; Chiu-Wei Chien
The main purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of user characteristic -- the need for touch (NFT), handcraft materials and material colors on motivation of touch and preference. A total of 70 subjects were recruited in the study. In addition to the NFT level (high score group and low score group) was evaluated, handcraft materials (wood, glass, pottery, plastic and metal) and material colors (red and yellow) were studied in the experiment. The dependent variables including the willingness of touch, preference and 16 pairs of opposite adjectives for sense of sight were measured by questionnaire interview. The study results showed that the effect of NFT affect significantly willingness of touch (p<0.001), preference (p<0.01) and the sense of warm-cold (p<0.05). All measures were affected significantly by handcraft material effect (p<0.05). On the other hand, 11 pairs of opposite adjectives are affected significantly by material color factor. The results of regression equations showed that the willingness of touch was mainly affected by subjective preference. Moreover, the subjective preference was mainly affected by the rating of beauty for product. Therefore, the subjective preference increased for a product was followed the rating of beauty and then the willing of touch was increased. The findings of this study can give an insight into the motivation of touch, and further provide some guidelines and recommendations about the product design and selling method to increase the competitive advantage of product.
Keywords: motivation of touch; need for touch; sense of vision; preference
Evaluation of Human-System Interfaces with Different Information Organization Using an Eye Tracker BIBAKFull-Text 288-295
  Kejin Chen; Zhizhong Li
The increasing use of digitalized displays in the instrumentation & control systems of nuclear power plants has brought new issues related to human-computer interaction, especially under emergency circumstances that are known to be very stressful. This paper studies how interfaces with different information organization (functional layout vs. process layout) influence human-computer interaction behaviors as emergency occurs in terms of search efficiency, difficulty of information abstraction, and workload by using the eye tracking technique on a simulated platform. The result shows that the average blink rate and average blink numbers at the two levels of information organization were different significantly. This may indicate that the functional design was superior to the process design in user workload. The results did not prove the superiority of the functional interface design to the process one in search efficiency and difficulty of information abstraction, since no significant difference was found in the number of fixations and fixations duration mean values.
Keywords: Functional based task analysis; Information organization; Eye tracking
The Effects of Emotion on Judgments of Effectiveness and Good-Design BIBAKFull-Text 296-305
  Hui Yueh Hsieh
This study investigated participants' judgements of effectiveness and good-design with regard to visual messages of risks, as well as the relationships between their judgements and emotional responses. It examined whether fear-appeals influence emotional responses and judgements. The findings suggested that emotions appeared to be strong predictors of judgements of effectiveness and good-design. In general, for both the designers and users, the more emotionally salient (high arousal, high dominance and either high pleasure or high displeasure) stimuli were perceived, the more effective and the better the design they were judged. In addition, strong fear appeals were perceived as more effective and better designed.
Keywords: emotion; judgement; fear-appeals
Identifying Usability Problems in a Smart TV Music Service BIBAKFull-Text 306-312
  Sheau-Farn Max Liang; Yi-Chung Kuo; Shu-Chin Chen
Thirty-one usability problems for a smart TV music service system have been identified by different user groups through the cooperative evaluation method. Design solutions can be provided based on the priority of the identified usability problems, the classifications between functionality and quality issues, or between display and control issues, and the foci on specific user groups.
Keywords: Smart Interactive Television; Usability; Music Service
A Human Factors Evaluation of the Spatial Gesture Interface for In-Vehicle Information Systems BIBAKFull-Text 313-322
  Yishuo Liu; Zhihao Lu; Pilsung Choe
The spatial gesture control system is an integrated control system, and a new hope for In-Vehicle Information Systems (IVISs). It needs lots of further research for practical use of the working systems in reality. Concept designs and evaluation standards can be investigated at the initial stage of the research. In this study, we established a usability evaluation model for the spatial gesture control system, and determinants for user satisfaction in driving have been investigated. Finally, some gesture interfaces were evaluated with a human factors experiment.
Keywords: spatial gesture control; IVISs; usability
Characteristics of UI English: From Non-native's Viewpoint BIBAKFull-Text 323-332
  Ryutaro Nishino; Kayoko Nohara
Multicultural aspects of user interfaces (UIs) have been studied for years. However, the characteristics of UI English from the viewpoint of non-native speakers of English have not been discussed widely. This study compares a UI English corpus with general English corpora using the word list coverage method and the lexical diversity method. It finds that UI English contains more words that are above introductory level but that it is less diverse than general English. Therefore, for non-natives to use software smoothly, they need to learn a relatively limited number of words that frequently appear in UIs.
Keywords: English; non-native; user interface; UI
The Effects of Age, Viewing Distance and Font Type on the Legibility of Chinese Characters BIBAKFull-Text 333-339
  Linghua Ran; Xin Zhang; Xiaoyuan Ren; Huimin Hu
This study evaluated the effects of age (30s and 55s), viewing distance (50 cm, 80 cm), font type (Lanting in simple, Lanting in complex, Yahei in simple, Yahei in complex) on the legibility of Chinese characters by using the two legibility measures (minimum character size for 100% correctness and minimum character size for the least comfort). Twenty subjects in each age group read the 12 word groups (two characters in each word group, character size varied from 4.5 pt to 18 pt) presented on a paper. Subjects subjectively rated the reading legibility of the word groups on a 3-point scale (1- indistinct, 2- distinct but need cost a little attention, 3- very distinct). According to the ANOVA procedure, age and viewing distance significantly affected the two dependent variables (p < 0.05). The younger group could see character sizes smaller than the old group could and the viewing distance of 50 cm showed character about 1pt smaller than those at a 80 cm viewing distance. There are no significant differences in font types. From a comparison of the results for correctness and comfort, people generally preferred larger character sizes to those that they could read. The findings of this study may provide basic data and guidelines for setting of character size and font type to improve the legibility of characters written in Chinese.
Keywords: age; viewing distance; font type; Chinese character
A Study of a Human Interface Device Controlled by Formant Frequencies for the Disabled BIBAKFull-Text 340-345
  Norihiro Uemi
We propose a human interface device using a formant frequency. It does not require complicated signal processing. The formant frequency means vocal tract resonance frequency which characterizes the phonemes. By using a microphone, we think it is possible to estimate the position of tongue and the opening of mouth. We investigated the relationship of formant frequencies and the manner of articulation. At first, we clarified the range of the formant frequencies by moving the mouth and the tongue freely. Next, we set the horizontal and vertical axes which correspond to the second- and first-formant frequencies respectively on a computer display screen. Subjects were asked to fit a mouse pointer controlled by their formant frequencies to a target appeared on a display. It is concluded that subject can be relatively easy to control the pointer within the range enclosed by five Japanese vowels formant points.
Keywords: Human Interface Device; Formant; Speech; the Disabled
Secondary Task Method for Workload Measurement in Alarm Monitoring and Identification Tasks BIBAKFull-Text 346-354
  Xiaojun Wu; Zhizhong Li
The operators who perform alarm monitoring and identification tasks in complex industrial systems, such as nuclear power plants, often suffer from heavy mental workload. Among the many existing mental workload measurements, secondary task method was chosen and examined for that it is sensitive to operator capacity, provides a common metric for different tasks, and easy to carry out, etc. In this study, a paper-based arithmetic secondary task was adopted to measure mental workload of the participants when they were performing alarm monitoring and identification tasks. A two-factor, two-level lab experiment was conducted to examine whether this secondary task method can discriminate different levels of mental workload, and whether it interferes with the primary task. The results showed that though the secondary task chosen in this experiment had good discriminability, its influence on the primary task performance and its interaction with scenario complexity were significant.
Keywords: Mental workload; secondary task; alarm monitoring; alarm identification

Case Studies in Cross-Cultural Design

A Cross-Cultural Comparison of UI Components Preference between Chinese and Czech Users BIBAKFull-Text 357-365
  Jan Brejcha; Gong Hong Yin; Han Li; Zhengjie Liu
Thanks to the intensification of globalization through communication technology, we are faced more and more with UIs coming from different cultural backgrounds. In order to fit the user's cultural expectations as closely as possible, designers need to combine usability knowledge with cultural insights. By defining a usable set of UI design guidelines for a target culture, designers could market their products with lower costs than with cross-cultural testing. To promote this line of research, we carried a pilot study targeted at the habits, mental models and UI preferences of Chinese and Czech users. Our findings show there is a strong influence of globalization on the cultural markers mainly through the use of common software platforms. However, we found many important culture-specific differences as well in both groups. We present our results as guidelines that could be used to enhance the user's acceptance of the UI in a specific culture.
Keywords: Cross-cultural research; Cultural markers; Methodology; Design; Guidelines; User-interface; HCI; Semiotics
Use Second Screen to Enhance TV Viewing Experiences BIBAKFull-Text 366-374
  Yu-Ling Chuang; Chia-Wei Liao; Wen-Shiuan Chen; Wen-Tsung Chang; Shao-Hua Cheng; Yi-Chong Zeng; Kai-Hsuan Chan
In this paper, we propose a second-screen interactive TV viewing scenario, and build an Android-based prototype to verify our concept and design. The demo app detects the TV program that a user is watching, and then dynamically pushes additional information through the second screen to the user. In this prototype, we apply audio fingerprinting technology to detect TV programs, and users do not have to manually surf hundreds of channels. In addition, face recognition and tennis event detection technologies have been employed to extract critical elements from the TV contents. With these content analysis tools, we can obtain video metadata more easily and need not rely on content providers. A usability test with 20 participants has been conducted. Our test shows participants are interested in our second screen app, and they would like more features and information from the app. Next, we plan to further refine the app's design to enhance user experience.
Keywords: Second Screen; User Experience; Video Content Analysis; Audio Fingerprinting
A Study about the Culture Service Process and Tools Design BIBAKFull-Text 375-383
  Chen-hao Fan; I-Hsin Fan; Chun Chieh Weng; Jia-Haur Liang; Huang-Tsun Lu
Through the cultural accumulation of knowledge with the SECI model to bring out the re-integration of the design factors from the elements of Oriental design imagery metaphor by the experience exchange from different expertise. Transformation of the changes is from observation to interaction till stimulated the creativity that fertile the foundation of knowledge. The practice process is the result of the deconstruction of the elements to transforming the accumulation of knowledge till the implementation of construction of the actual production and final the validation is complete.
Keywords: Cultural and creative industries; bamboo; tea; qualia; SECI model
User Experience with Chinese Handwriting Input on Touch-Screen Mobile Phones BIBAKFull-Text 384-392
  Qin Gao; Bin Zhu; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Shilpa Vyas; Cuiling Chen; Hui Li
The fast development of mobile services in China and the recent trend of touch-screen handheld devices precipitate researchers to understand user experience with mobile Chinese handwriting input (HWI). This research attempts to provide an integrated picture of user experience with Chinese HWI on touch-screen mobile phones. Five usability experts were invited to inspect usability problems of seven handwriting-enabled mobile phones, which varied in type of screens, writing tools and interaction approaches, operation systems, and handwriting recognizers. In a following usability evaluation with five novice users, we collected both quantitative data and qualitative data to give an overall performance assessment to the seven mobile phones and furthermore to analyze the usability issues with HWI. As a result, we identified 16 usability issues related with handwriting recognizers, input interfaces, and devices/users respectively.
Keywords: Usability evaluation; heuristic evaluation; mobile phone; user interface; Chinese; handwriting input
Reception of Space: Inspiring Design without a Designer BIBAKFull-Text 393-402
  Yihua Huang; Kin Wai Michael Siu
Designers nowadays consider themselves as the only experts to have conceptualized the everyday practice of the ordinary. They deal with design at a fantastic pace, with the aim of satisfying "public interest" instead of designing for individual users. For instance, with the reclaimed area of Hong Kong, which has been transformed into a public space dedicated to facilitate the vibrant transformation of Hong Kong into a world city, the government constantly set up strategies assuming a standardized user practice in order to achieve legislative approval for the project. Actually, the processes of conceptualization and standardization may not sufficiently summarize the specifications of everyday life. In other words, current ways of design based on public interest do not always meet what users actually want and need, since these design methods tend to identify all users as "average people" within standard dimensions. Nevertheless, what we are given every day is an everyday life that is not "banal and meaningless." The acts of city users cannot be defined merely as mechanical or according to a stereotype. Although users' reactions or responses to their living environments have been changed gradually with the urban transformation, their behaviours are not simply passive reactions or responses to space, but a kind of active reception in the creative acts or art performed by city users in the space. This research mainly elaborates on the "reception of space" in order to inspire design generations without a designer, and bring designers, planners, administrators, and government a perspective of user-oriented design. It includes an empirical study with intensive observations and direct interviews in Wan Chai North and South to review the importance of considering everyday life in design, based on users' tactical and creative receptions of public living environments. The study then redefines the role of city users in the urban spaces in which they practice and exercise, and argues that users of urban space require that designs be more inclusive.
Keywords: City Users; Everyday Space; Reception; User-oriented Design
The Influence of Design Training and Spatial Solution Strategies on Spatial Ability Performance BIBAKFull-Text 403-409
  Hanyu Lin
This study investigates the following two issues: (1) whether spatial ability is enhanced following design training; and (2) whether differing solution strategies are applied or generated following design training. Based on these issues, we considered design and non-design groups to be independent variables, and spatial tests and solution strategies to be dependent variables. The study findings indicated that the spatial ability factors of spatial visualization and relation were influenced by design training, although the perceptual speed factor was not. In addition, the solution strategy analysis results showed that the holistic solution strategies of the design group were applied more significantly than those of the non-design group, whereas the analytical solution strategies of the non-design group were employed more significantly than those of the design group. In other words, the participants in design group tended to employ holistic solution strategies, whereas those in non-design group tended to adopt analytical strategies.
Keywords: spatial ability; design training; solution strategies
Service Based Design Solutions -- A Case of Migrant Workers' Affective Links with Their Families in Rural Areas of China BIBAKFull-Text 410-419
  Jikun Liu; Qing Liu; Chenyu Zhao
The outgoing of migrant workers from China rural areas brings many negative impacts upon their stay-at-home children, most of which are relevant to lack of family love and emotional connections. This joint project of Tsinghua University Design & Human Factors Lab and Nokia Research Center Beijing aims at investigating the daily lives of and interactions between the migrant workers in cities and their children staying at rural homes, and inventing some conceptual solutions to help them to treat this sort of problems. "DreamSeed", "WeMoment" and "LinkBoard" are just three conceptual solutions generated in this joint project, which attempt to contribute to promoting the emotional connections of migrant workers with their families, especially their children at rural home.
Keywords: migrant workers; stay-at-home children; emotional connection; user research; service design
Affective Fusion of PAD Model-Based Tactile Sense: A Case Study of Teacups BIBAKFull-Text 420-429
  Jui-Ping Ma; Mei-Ting Lin; Rungtai Lin
This study explores on emotion and perception of teacups in subject teams of sighted people and blind people through the tactile sense. Two subject teams are arranged individually to touch the teacups one by one separated by curtains in a room. After observing and investigating, PAD emotion scale will be applied to evaluate emotion of participants. The researcher explores whether haptic sense effect is produced from participants' tactual behavior with one set teacup. The finding is shown that: (1). The emotional effects of the blind subjects are more extreme than the sighted subjects in pleasure and arousal dimensions; (2). A teacup with oblique relief texture can make the unsighted subjects more pleasure emotions; (3). A straight line makes the blind subjects more uncertainty feelings and result in a negative emotional state; (4). Compare to the unsighted subjects, there is only a little difference between positive and negative emotion in the pleasure state of sighted subjects.
Keywords: Haptic; PAD scale; Emotion
What's Your Point? BIBAKFull-Text 430-439
  Nancy Marksbury; Qiping Zhang
In this study of computer-mediated communication (CMC), Chinese and American students were paired cross-culturally and within same- and mixed-gender dyads. IM transcripts were analyzed for linguistic indicators of conversational management and interactional style. Our results revealed interesting interaction effect of culture and gender pairings. Females used more indicators of interaction style and males used a conversational management strategy for achieving their conversational aims. However, both Chinese males and females were more linguistically active when paired with an American of the opposite gender, while American females displayed more cultural acceptance when paired with a Chinese female than a Chinese male. American males talked more when paired with a Chinese male than when paired with a Chinese female. These findings have implications for working in global virtual teams and system design for cross-cultural collaborations.
Keywords: IM; gender; culture; computer-mediated communication; linguistics
Improving the User Interface for Reading News Articles through Smartphones in Persian Language BIBAKFull-Text 440-449
  Sanaz Motamedi; Mahdi Hasheminezhad; Pilsung Choe
Space limitation in small devices such as smartphones which are able to access the Internet is an important issue in regard to increasing usage of these devices. Moreover, a browser is a one of tools for transition of a website which is designed for a big screen like the display of a desktop computer. This paper experimentally evaluated user-interface alternatives based on three tasks (finding, re-finding, reading, and browsing) and two display orientations (horizontal, vertical). In addition, the survey results showed the methods (Pop out, Full screen, and Auto zooming) and the orientations affect actual usage.
Keywords: Localization; Website layout adaptation; Smartphone interface; News reading on smartphones
The Acceptance and Adoption of Smartphone Use among Chinese College Students BIBAKFull-Text 450-458
  Dan Pan; Na Chen; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau
This study aims to develop a questionnaire to investigate the acceptance and adoption of smartphone among college students in China, and to find factors affecting the acceptance and adoption. A total of 402 valid questionnaires were received from Chinese college students. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was pretty high and acceptable (Cronbach's α = 0.939). Extended Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) is attempted to be utilized to explain users' Behavior Intention (BI) to smartphone use. Structural Equation Model was used to test the extended TAM, and the results demonstrated majority relationships of the extended TAM. The study also found that social influence, entertainment utility and compatibility of smartphone impact Chinese college students' perceived usefulness and attitude to use. That is very valuable implication for manufacturers to improve smartphone's interactive interface to win bigger market share.
Keywords: Smartphone; extended TAM; Social influence; Entertainment utility; Compatibility; Structural equation model
Modeling of a Human Decision-Making Process with Prospect Theory BIBAKFull-Text 459-466
  Dongmin Shin; Hokyoung Ryu; Namhun Kim; Jieun Kim
The aim of the present study is to examine what rationality conditions are ignored and why it happens when users have more than one dimension in conflict, such as perceived security and usability in the online banking use experience. In a controlled experiment, thirty subjects used two different online banking authentication interfaces: a fingerprint interface and a normal four-step interface, in a reverse order. The empirical findings revealed that a different combination of rationality conditions was employed based on a change from effortless interaction (e.g., the fingerprint) to effortful interaction (e.g., the four-step logon system) or vice versa. We also provided some design implications for HCI practitioners, and proposed a new approach to evaluate user experiences as there are benefits and drawbacks mixed in user interface design.
Keywords: Prospect theory; Decision making; Perceived security; rational ignorance; user experience
Designing Government Funded Religious E-Readers by Adopting User Experience Methods BIBAKFull-Text 467-476
  Sheng Kai Tang; Wen Kang Chen; Chih Hao Tsai; Yi Ting Chen
The design concept of user experience has been popularized and widely accepted in Taiwan. Many companies have successfully transformed from OEM into ODM, and even created their own brand by establishing their internal user experience design department. However, the current user experience research and design in Taiwan focusing too much on mainstream products is going to make the field become another red ocean. In order to prevent another outbreak of price war, the Taiwanese government has put in extensive resources to assist Taiwan's well-known brand companies in R&D, expecting to develop and establish a new product benchmark via the researches on special consumer groups. This research introduce an actual government funded project of ASUS focusing on developing an electronic platform for a special consumer group, Tzu Chi. By going through a series of user experience design and research process, we eventually retrieve some valuable points which could be beneficial to the design of future e-reader.
Keywords: E-Reader; User Experience Design; Contextual Inquiry
Social Media's Impact on Teenagers BIBAKFull-Text 477-485
  Rahul Vasanth; Seema Swamy
McLuhan's "media is the message" has never been more relevant than in the age of the ubiquitous digital media. The social influences by the peer group and access to information of all kinds leaves the door open to influences that may or may not necessarily be positive. The access to communicate to large groups of people relatively easily and quickly has the impact of impacting social dynamics, by reducing social inhibitions, and redefining normative actions. More importantly there are potential short-term and long-term implications for these actions. This paper explores some of these influences and consequences as well as actions that adults can potentially take to sensitize and curb potentially damaging behaviors among teenagers.
Keywords: Social networking; digital media; Internet; mobile phones; chats; facebook; twitter; SMS; instant messenger; Tumblr; email
An Analysis of Microblogging Behavior on Sina Weibo: Personality, Network Size and Demographics BIBAKFull-Text 486-492
  Lingyu Wang; Weina Qu; Xianghong Sun
In China, Sina Weibo is one of the most popular microblogging services. The relationship between Weibo users' microblogging behavior and their personality as well as demographics was addressed in current study. 498 users completed the online survey and their social networking data was downloaded based on the Application Programming Interfaces. The results showed that: 1) Weibo users' personality was associated with some aspects of microblogging behavior, especially, Extraversion and Openness significantly positively correlated with some aspects of microblogging behavior, while neuroticism significantly negatively correlated with that; 2) There were associations between some demographical factors and some aspects of microblogging behavior, for instance, the time spent in microblogging related to the age, educational level and monthly discretionary money, respectively. 3) The effect of gender on Weibo social networking size was significant, that was the amount of male Weibo users' followers was significantly greater than that of female users'.
Keywords: Personality; Microblogging; Sina Weibo; Demographics
The Research on Cognition Design in Chinese Opera Mask BIBAKFull-Text 493-502
  Tai-Jui Wang; Yu-Ju Lin; Jun-Liang Chen
Making up a facial symbolism is a very specific skill and makeup art in the Chinese opera. The performers use colorful paintings to paint variety of symbolism and line arts on their faces. These emphasize the characteristics, positions, ages, and the provenances of the characters. The method of this research applies the content analysis method to comprise a literature review of the painted-face of Jing role in the Chinese opera. The literature review has been handled and coded using the qualitative data analysis software NVivo 10. The results of this research found some indication by painted-face attribute values comparison, sources diversity reference, and nodes clustered by attribute value for indicating similarity or unusual from the original texts. In conclude the object of analysis in this research, the facial patterns which appear on the face of a Jing character, can be defined as "descriptive", "hereditary", "imitative", and "name-based" in generally. To the uninitiated audience, the face patterns and colors, which appear upon the stage, may rapidly become an indistinguishable blur. Fortunately in performer's position, one has to unravel the secrets of Chinese face painting is to learn to recognize the symbols and signs stamped upon each Chinese opera character's face.
Keywords: Chinese opera; Painted-face; Facial Symbolism; Content Analysis
Feature Extraction of Individual Differences for Identification Recognition Based on Resting EEG BIBAKFull-Text 503-509
  Rui Xu; Dong Ming; Yanru Bai; Jing Liu; Hongzhi Qi; Qiang Xu; Peng Zhou; Lixin Zhang; Baikun Wan
Biometric recognition based on individual difference was commonly used in many aspects in life. Compared with the traditional features used in person identification, EEG-based biometry is an emerging research topic with high security and uniqueness, and it may open new research applications in the future. However, little work has been done within this area. In this paper, four feature extraction techniques were employed to characterize the resting EEG signals: AR model, time-domain power spectrum, frequency-domain power spectrum and phase locking value. In our experiments using 20 healthy subjects, the classification accuracy by support vector machine reached 90.52% with AR model parameters, highest of the four kinds of features. The results show the potential applications of resting EEG signal in person identification.
Keywords: individual differences; person identification; resting EEG; AR model; support vector machine
Enhancing People's Television Experience by Capturing, Memoing, Sharing, and Mixing BIBAKFull-Text 510-518
  Tun-Hao You; Yi-Jui Wu; Cheng-Liang Lin; Yaliang Chuang
Television has long played an important role in providing rich information and delightful entertainment. However, the trend of applying smart technologies in the design of television has yielded complexities that reduce people's enjoyment in television watching. Contextual interview results from our study showed that the participants needed solutions for helping them save interesting content rather than using advanced functions. In line with the rapid development of mobile communications and social networking services, we created and implemented a CatchPo system that includes a CutX TV Memo app that can help viewers use their mobile phone to catch interesting content they are watching on television. Editing the memo and sharing it with friends is easy. Consequently, different cultural groups that consume different media can be connected. Together with the additional CutMix app that enables the viewer to create a collage with their photos and the TV show, the system enhances people's TV experience with useful technology.
Keywords: Social TV; Social Network Service; Media Consumtion; Contextual Interview
The Application of Consistent User Interface in Common Use Self Service (CUSS) BIBAKFull-Text 519-524
  Horng-Yi Yu; T. K. Philip Hwang; Jisook Han; Tsung-Hsian Wang
The Common-use self-service check-in kiosks (CUSS) allows passengers to access multiple airlines check-in from one machine efficiently, and avoid long queue at specific airline service counter. However, every single airline has different CUSS interface designs in page layout and operation sequences, which can confuse passengers. This study is intended to employ wizard user interface, interface consistency and Overview Plus Detail (OPD) to improve the usability of CUSS systems for divers passengers. The operation sequence, screens layout and option buttons, in CUSS among airlines are redesigned for two Taiwanese major airline's existing CUSS systems. The study remarked that users were able to easily identify the location of information, process of operation, and progress through interactively and deliberately designed page layout.
Keywords: CUSS; consistent user interface; wizard interface
A Qualitative Study of Older Adults' Acceptance of New Functions on Smart Phones and Tablets BIBAKFull-Text 525-534
  Jia Zhou; Pei-Luen Patrick Rau; Gavriel Salvendy
This study examined why older adults accepted or rejected new functions and how they made their decision. 44 older adults were asked to use eight functions on two smart phones and two tablets. Then, they were interviewed about their acceptance of functions. They had the lowest acceptance of the mircroblog function. Finally, older adults reported reasons of accepting or rejecting functions. The result was a model to represent older adults' decision process, which was influenced by eight factors. This decision process generated four major findings. First, substitutes seemed to be a big obstacle to older adults' acceptance of new functions on smart phones and tablets. Second, openness influenced whether older adults stressed the usefulness of a new function. Third, contexts and lifestyles influenced older adults' judgment of usefulness. Fourth, older adults seemed to tolerate some complexity, but it should not be more than they could handle after learning.
Keywords: Older adults; Acceptance; New functions; Smart phones and tablets
On Class Design Using Multi-Mouse Quiz by Elementary Schoolteachers BIBAKFull-Text 535-544
  Juan Zhou; Mikihiko Mori; Hajime Kita
Multi-Mouse Quiz System consisting of Multi Mouse Quiz (MMQ) and MMQEditor is an application set to treat quizzes in a classroom. The MMQ is an application of Single Display Groupware (SDG) which enables multiple users to answer quizzes by connecting several mice to an ordinary personal computer (PC). The MMQEditor is a PC application designed to edit quizzes for MMQ. The authors have asked several elementary schoolteachers to use the MMQ system and observe the class activities. The class practices show that the schoolteachers designed various class activities and quiz content along with the context of their school and class. This paper reports these practices from viewpoints of class design, their effectiveness and problems. We also discuss importance of collaboration among schoolteachers who design and practice class, and researchers who develop the system and analyze the class activities learnt through this study.
Keywords: Face-to-face collaborative learning; Quiz; Single Display Groupware; Elementary school; class design