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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 8586878889919293949596979800010203

Proceedings of the HCI'92 Conference on People and Computers VII

Fullname:Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group
Note:People and Computers VII
Editors:Andrew Monk; Dan Diaper; Michael D. Harrison
Location:University of York, U.K.
Dates:1992-Sep-15 to 1992--18
Publisher:Cambridge University Press
Standard No:ISBN 0-521-44591-4; hcibib: BCSHCI92
Papers:42
Pages:534
  1. Invited Papers
  2. Cognitive Models of Programming and Computer Use
  3. Practical Evaluation Methods for Improving a Prototype
  4. Graphics -- Design and Techniques
  5. Applying Models of User and System
  6. Hypertext and Multimedia
  7. The Design Process
  8. Cooperative Systems
  9. Building Adaptive Systems
  10. Graphical User Interfaces
  11. Panel Sessions
  12. Laboratory Overviews

Invited Papers

The Ecology of Work and Interface Design BIBA 3-20
  Jens Rasmussen
The paper is intended to demonstrate the importance of a careful study of the ecology of work for an effective design of modern human-work interfaces and the need for cross-disciplinary analysis of the deep structure of particular work systems. The basis of purposeful activities and the problems met in analysis of adaptive systems are discussed. The importance of the intentional structures of work domains is discussed with reference to different kinds of work domains. Finally, the problem of human factors guidelines for design is reviewed and an alternative approach is suggested.
Molecular Graphics: From Pen Plotter to Virtual Reality BIBA 21-27
  R. E. Hubbard
The past ten years has seen intense developments in the application of graphics and computing techniques and technologies in the study of molecular structure and function. This is a very demanding application. The complexity of molecular structure is such as to be always pushing against the limitations of computing power or the speed of the graphics engines available. All of which is complicated by our, at present, naive understanding of the physical and chemical principles that govern molecular structure. Because of these limitations, molecular graphics has been crucial in the representation and dissection of structure, as many of the scientific insights have come only by exploiting properly the structural intuition of the scientist manipulating molecules through a computer screen.
   In this paper, I will try to give an outline of molecular graphics and modelling, concentrating on the features which are particularly demanding in terms of interaction and 3D representation. Many of the principles are drawn from the work of the Protein Structural Research Group at York, although similar challenges exist in materials, polymers and small molecule modelling. I will then give a brief discussion of how current technologies have evolved to meet these demands. This laboratory has just (April 1992) started a collaboration with Glaxo Group Research, IBM UK and Division to investigate the potential of virtual reality techniques in molecular graphics and modelling. I will give a brief overview of this project. Hopefully by the time of the September meeting, we will have some results to discuss.
User Interface Architectures for an Information Age BIBA 29-41
  Dan R., Jr. Olsen
The needs of users for information based user interface architectures are discussed. An architecture is proposed. It is shown how this architecture would serve the needs of such user. It is also shown how a malleable interface environment is enable and how multi-user interfaces can be serviced.

Cognitive Models of Programming and Computer Use

The Use of Unfamiliar Programming Languages by Experienced Programmers BIBAK 45-56
  Jean Scholtz; Susan Wiedenbeck
This paper begins by describing a model of the influences operating when an experienced programmer learns to program in an unfamiliar language. It then reports on an empirical study which investigated how a change of programming language affects experienced programmers. Programmers solved a familiar problem using an unfamiliar language. It was found that programmers used knowledge from past experience in solving the problem but often had to adapt the knowledge to take good advantages of the new language. They were only partly successful in doing this, and overall performance was poor. Their solution process was disrupted, as shown by more plan changes and backward planning.
Keywords: Cognition of programming, User models, Transfer of programming skills
Modelling the Relationship Between Planning, Control, Perception and Execution Behaviours in Interactive Worksystems BIBAK 57-72
  Walter Smith; Becky Hill; John Long; Andy Whitefield
This paper presents a model of planning carried out by interactive worksystems which attempts:
  • 1. To describe the relationship between planning, control, perception and
        execution behaviours; and
  • 2. To make explicit how these may be distributed across the user and physically
        separate devices. Such a model, it is argued, is more suitable to support HCI design practice than theories of planning in cognitive science which focus on problem-solving methods and representations. To demonstrate the application of the model to work situations, it is illustrated by examples drawn from an observational study of secretarial office administration.
    Keywords: User modelling, Planning, Control, Office administration
  • The Effects of Skill Development and Feedback on Action Slips BIBAK 73-86
      Wai On Lee
    We examined the effects of skill development and feedback on the level of action slips within an experiment involving three one hour sessions. Two types of visual feedback: static and dynamic were used to suppress a type of action slips called the `unselected window error'. The results showed dynamic feedback to be more effective than static feedback. Although the result did not support theories which predict that increase in expertise will be paralleled by increase in action slips, there were indications that under certain conditions, the level of unselected window errors were more likely to rise as users became increasingly experienced.
    Keywords: Skill development, Action slips, Unselected window error, Static feedback, Dynamic feedback

    Practical Evaluation Methods for Improving a Prototype

    What is Gained and Lost when Using Evaluation Methods Other than Empirical Testing BIBAK 89-102
      Heather W. Desurvire; Jim M. Kondziela; Michael E. Atwood
    There is increasing interest in finding usability testing methods that are easier and cheaper to implement than traditional laboratory usability testing. Recent research has looked at a few of these methods. The current study uses three groups of evaluators with different types of expertise, to evaluate a telephone-based interface using two different evaluation methods, the Cognitive Walkthrough and Heuristic Evaluation. This data is compared to laboratory results. Specific problems named in the laboratory and by the evaluator groups are analyzed for what contributions are made by each evaluator group under each method, and what is lost when traditional usability testing cannot be implemented. Future research directions are also discussed.
    Keywords: Cognitive walkthrough, Cost-effectiveness, Empirical testing, Heuristic evaluation, Telephone-based interface, Usability expertise, Usability testing
    EVADIS II: A New Method to Evaluate User Interfaces BIBAK 103-115
      Harald Reiterer
    Depending on the directive concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for VDT workers of the European Community there is an increasing need for practical evaluation methods for user interfaces, which will allow to test the conformance with the directive. The presented evaluation method EVADIS II could be a step in this direction and also a starting-point for developing an evaluation method which allows a conformance test in the sense of ISO 9241 Parts 10 and 11. EVADIS II overcomes some typical deficits of known evaluation methods. Especially it considers the tasks, the user, and the organizational context and provides computer support for the use of the evaluation procedure. All essential steps and components of the EVADIS II procedure are described in the paper in some detail.
    Keywords: Dialogue principles, EVADIS, Evaluation, Evaluation methods, Human factors, User interface
    From User's Problems to Design Errors: Linking Evaluation to Improving Design Practice BIBAK 117-134
      A. G. Sutcliffe; M. V. Springett
    An evaluation study of Claris MacDraw is reported. The method used combines error classification with analysis of users' problems by comparison of user and system models. Usability problems were attributed to poor feedback, cueing or inappropriate functionality. However, more detailed model-based analysis demonstrated many errors had several causes and the design features responsible are investigated. The results are discussed in light of design problems inherent in direct manipulation interfaces and the need for economic evaluation methods to discover and understand design problems.
    Keywords: Usability evaluation, Errors, Direct manipulation

    Graphics -- Design and Techniques

    Inferring Graphical Constraints with Rockit BIBAK 137-153
      Solange Karsenty; James A. Landay; Chris Weikart
    Rockit is a system that identifies the possible graphical constraints between objects in a two-dimensional scene and allows the user to choose and apply the desired constraints quickly and easily. Rockit looks for intersections between the position of a designated object and the gravity fields of other objects to determine the possible constraints. These candidate constraints are passed to a rule system that encodes some simple knowledge about how graphical objects normally interact and can thus be constrained to one another. The rules are used to determine the most likely constraints to be applied between the designated object and the other objects in the scene. As the user manipulates the object, the object will gravitate towards the most likely constraint scenario. The inferred constraints are indicated by the creation of graphical and sonic feedback objects. Rockit makes it easy to try other likely scenarios by simply pressing a key, causing the system to cycle through the other possibilities.
    Keywords: Geometric constraints, Graphical editors, Inferencing, Interaction techniques, Direct manipulation, User interfaces, Sonic feedback, Audio
    On the Use of LOTOS to Describe Graphical Interaction BIBAK 155-173
      F. Paterno'; G. Faconti
    This paper discusses a formal specification of a model of a graphical interaction object by using the LOTOS notation and the possible results that we can obtain from this approach. With this model the relationship between input and output functionality can be addressed. A User Interface System, which manages dialogues between the user and the application, may be described as a composition of instances of graphical interacting objects. Examples of common graphical interactions are described following the proposed abstract model for graphical interaction objects and by using the LOTOS notation. Application of automatic tools to the performed specifications is discussed.
    Keywords: User interface system, Formal methods, Interactive systems, Graphic input models
    Effective Graphics: Accessing Spatial Relations BIBAK 175-189
      Jon Slack; Cristina Conati
    Graphical interfaces derive part of their effectiveness from encoding to-be-communicated information as spatial relations. Encoding the information in this way facilitates the User's access to it by exploiting the rapid perceptual operations that identify and encode the spatial relations implicit in the visual array. The paper outlines a representation framework for the cognitive/perceptual encoding of graphically presented information. The processes that access the information by extracting and decoding spatial relations can be specified within this framework. These specifications provide a basis for costing the information extraction routines thereby enabling the notion of `effective graphics' to be quantified. An example is worked through in detail, showing how these ideas can be applied to the generation of the optimal graphical format for quantitative relational data.
    Keywords: Graphical presentations, Effective graphics, Information access

    Applying Models of User and System

    Pace and Interaction BIBAK 193-207
      Alan Dix
    Channels of communication are presented as an emergent property of cooperative work. During actual interaction channels of communication are typically used in an intermittent fashion. Thus bandwidth is not an appropriate measure. Instead pace, the measure of the rate at which individual communications occur through a channel, is proposed as a primary property. We can relate this to the pace of interaction between participants, and to the pace of the common task. Any mismatch of pace will result either in the participants being forced to adopt coping strategies or in the worst case a complete breakdown in the cooperative work.
    Keywords: Communication, CSCW, Group work, Formal analysis, Channels, Information theory
    Systematic Menu Design BIBAK 209-226
      William Edmondson; Robert Spence
    This paper presents an account of framework-based Systematic Menu Design. The formalisms incorporated in the framework are: Lean Cuisine, User Action Notation and Event Response System -- for the interface -- and two less familiar formalisms for the underlying functional and behavioural structures. Systematic Menu Design requires the designer to use the formalisms of the framework to minimize unconstrained arbitrariness in menu systems. The designer works from the user's requirements towards both the application functionality and the interface, using formal notations as far as possible. The flow of influence is from the user to the interface. The use of SMD to produce a menu is illustrated.
    Keywords: Design, Formalism, Framework, Interfaces, Menus
    User Modelling and User Interface Design BIBAK 227-239
      Chris Kelly; Lynne Colgan
    This paper presents an analysis of user and task models which takes into consideration the different types of each model, the differences between the models, and their relationship to user interface design. A UK collaborative project known as ADEPT (Advanced Design Environment for Prototyping and Task Modelling) is outlined, and in particular the development of the ADEPT User Model is described. It constitutes a computational model of a `typical' user, and is structured from a high level picture of a generic user based on a cognitive architecture, down to characteristics applicable to a group of users.
    Keywords: User model, Task model, User interface design, Design environment, ADEPT

    Hypertext and Multimedia

    Hypertext Document Retrieval and Assembly in Legal Domains BIBAK 243-256
      Peter Thomas; Vijay Mital
    This paper describes an approach to information retrieval for legal document assembly which differs significantly from previous approaches. The approach exploits the features of hypertext in combination with active links between text units to help guide the user through often complex and interrelated fragments of information. The approach exploits the idea of semantically differentiated links within a hypertext environment without reliance on problematic knowledge-based techniques. This paper describes the way in which semantically-differentiated links are employed and outlines the architecture and operation of a system which is based on these ideas.
    Keywords: Hypertext, Document, Management, User-centred design, User-guided information retrieval
    Does a Video Diary Help Recall? BIBAK 257-269
      Margery Eldridge; Michael Lamming; Mike Flynn
    The purpose of this paper is to determine the value of video recording in aiding the recall of work activities. A Video Diary System is described and the results of a preliminary evaluation of the system are presented. The memory experiment provided subjects with several different memory aids. The use of a Video Diary increased the number of activities which were recalled compared to using only a written diary. People and objects were particularly valuable cues in aiding the recall of work activities. Although the Video Diary was very useful, it clearly does not completely capture the events of the working day.
    Keywords: Memory, Multi-media, Video
    An Ethnographic Approach to Analysing Navigation and Task Structure in Interactive Multimedia: Some Design Issues for Group Use BIBAK 271-287
      Lydia Plowman
    The classroom research on which this study is based suggests that groups of children using interactive multimedia programmes require clear structure at both global and local levels, and exploratory learning is not necessarily appropriate. Video recordings and spoken and written protocols are used, in conjunction with media interaction charts, to relate task structure to navigation, learner control and machine interaction. Two programmes are used as the basis of the study and some design guidelines with specific reference to group use of interactive multimedia programmes are provided.
    Keywords: Educational interactive multimedia, Groupwork, Navigation, Task structure, Design guidelines

    The Design Process

    A Structured Design of Word Processing Functionality BIBAK 291-306
      Carla Huls; Alice Dijkstra
    We developed a structured approach to designing word processing functionality in an editorial support environment (ESE). Four types of functions are distinguished: text editing, text checking, layout editing and layout checking. These functions can be applied to three types of arguments: Content-based; Media-based; and User-based arbitrary text fragments. We describe how the framework can serve as a basis for research into useful editorial support functionality, for research into user interface design and for research into learning how to use a word processor.
    Keywords: Design, Word processing
    Design Principles for Improving Service Integration for End-Users in Broadband Communication Systems BIBAK 307-322
      Ian Denley; Andy Whitefield; Paul Byerley; Ulla-Britt Voigt; Sibylle Hermann; Jon May
    End-users of broadband communication systems will face ease of use problems in integrating the various services that will be provided. This paper discusses the development of principles for designers which it is claimed might contribute to solutions to these problems. The paper describes the advantages of these principles over similar extant Human Factors advice both with respect to their scope and their application by designers. A case study illustrates the use of the principles in the design of a prototype multimedia multiuser system.
    Keywords: Design principles, Service integration, Integrated broadband communication (IBC) systems
    CICS/ESA Usability: A Measure of Success BIBAK 323-338
      S. R. Hakiel; G. E. Mann
    The IBM Corporation recognises that market driven principles, including usability, are key to the acceptance, or otherwise, of any IBM product. To help guarantee acceptable products a number of Corporate and product initiatives demand that product usability be specified and measured as an integral part of the development process, in a repeatable and consistent fashion. This paper describes how such principles were applied during the development of Customer Information Control System/Enterprise Systems Architecture Version 3 (CICS/ESA V3) to evaluate the usability of its resource management features. The main significance of this work was an emphasis on the user's view of the world, starting with data based upon an understanding of the users, their tasks, and their environments. From this data explicit usability requirements and objectives were established, a rigorous usability specification prepared, and test scenarios and systems created. Finally, representative customer users were involved once again to derive usability measurements and diagnostic data, and to validate the tasks they undertook. It has been possible to show that, with customer assistance, usability can be defined and measured in accordance with both user-oriented requirements and IBM's Corporate directives. It is shown that market-driven principles can be applied throughout the product development process ultimately leading to improved product quality and improved customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Usability, Human factors, Evaluation, Case study

    Cooperative Systems

    Sociologists Can be Surprisingly Useful in Interactive Systems Design BIBAK 341-353
      Ian Sommerville; Tom Rodden; Pete Sawyer; Richard Bentley
    This paper makes a case, to system developers, for inter-disciplinary working and the involvement of sociologists in the systems design process. Our argument is based on the fact that effective systems must take account of the social context in which these systems are situated. The paper is based on our experiences of working with sociologists in a study of air traffic control automation. We describe the model of working which we use and which we believe allows effective utilisation of the skills of both disciplines. We then set out pre-cursors for effective inter-disciplinary collaboration and how people from radically different backgrounds can work in harmony. Finally, we discuss some of the problems of collaboration which are likely to arise.
    Keywords: Systems design, Ethnography, Inter-disciplinary working
    CoOpLab: Practical Experiences with Evaluating a Multi-User System BIBAK 355-368
      Michele E. Morris; Tony A. Plant; Philip T. Hughes
    This paper describes the pragmatic approach taken to designing and evaluating a shared window conferencing system (CoOpLab). The design and evaluation of CSCW systems poses unique challenges to the HCI community. The evaluation techniques and design principles developed for handling single-user systems require substantial modification for use with multi-user systems, especially where the subjects are geographically distributed. We have shown that many of the current evaluation techniques and principles can be adapted for use in this situation. We also found that taking a user-centred approach to system design yields significant benefits when compared to more technology led approaches.
    Keywords: CSCW, Evaluation, Informal meetings, Shared workspace
    ShareME -- Shared Multimedia Environments: Some Issues on Interaction in Distributed Multimedia Information Environments BIBAK 369-388
      Kaisa Vaananen; Wolfgang Hubner
    This paper describes the conceptualization and realization of a system called ShareME for information acquisition and distributed student-expert collaboration. ShareME is a tool for building distributed multimedia information environments based on a network of NeXT workstations. The central concepts are structuring mechanisms for multimedia information space, user-oriented interaction and collaboration methods for heterogeneous media (audio, video, telecommunication, shared screens), and explicit user interface metaphors for multimedia environments. ShareME tool and the first test environment for information acquisition on the new German states are described. Using the ShareME tool and following the concepts presented allows the environment author to easily construct shared multimedia environments. In these environments the users can interact, communicate, collaborate, and acquire information in an intuitive and rewarding manner.
    Keywords: Shared multimedia, Information acquisition, Wide-channel communication, Collaboration, User interface metaphors, Multimedia authoring

    Building Adaptive Systems

    A Taxonomy of Adaptive User Interfaces BIBAK 391-414
      Uwe Malinowski; Thomas Kuhme; Hartmut Dieterich; Matthias Schneider-Hufschmidt
    This paper presents a taxonomy of Adaptive User Interfaces (AUIs). The taxonomy contributes to the clarification of terms and is used to classify the results of related work and projects. Moreover, it will serve to identify the most promising research areas in this field. The taxonomy covers a broad range of classification parameters, including tasks and agents, types, levels, scope, goals, methods, strategies, models and architectures of adaptation, and adaptation techniques. The taxonomy is presented as a classification tree. Each issue is discussed with regard to its significance and potential advantages/disadvantages.
    Keywords: Adaptability, Adaptation, Adaptive user interfaces, Intelligent interfaces, Plan recognition, Structural models, User interface management systems (UIMS), User modelling, Task modelling, Taxonomy
    The Re-Use and Integration of Existing Software: A Central Role for the Intelligent User Interface BIBAK 415-427
      E. A. Edmonds; B. S. Murray; J. Ghazikhanian; S. P. Heggie
    The paper is concerned with the delivery to users of systems that solve their specific problems whilst taking advantage of generally available existing systems and services. The user interface software is seen as an integration component. An architecture that enables this integration and allows for the incorporation of intelligent/knowledge-based user support is presented. The FOCUS Toolkit, that has been developed to implement these Knowledge-Based Front Ends (KBFE), is also briefly described.
    Keywords: Integration, Intelligent interfaces, Existing software applications, User support, Messaging, Multiple processes, Networks
    Analysis of User Behaviour as Time Series BIBAK 429-444
      Alan Dix; Janet Finlay; Russell Beale
    The trace of user interactions with a system is the primary source of data for on-line user modelling and for many design and research experiments. This trace should really be analysed as a time series, but standard time series techniques do not deal well with discrete data and fuzzy matching. Techniques from machine learning (neural nets and inductive learning) have been applied to this analysis but these are limited to fixed size patterns and fail to deal properly with the trace as a time series. Many of the notations used to describe the system dialogue (e.g. CSP, production systems) and the user's behaviour (e.g. GOMS, grammars) can be regarded as describing non-deterministic finite state machines. Such a representation forms a key to using machine learning techniques, focussed on the state transitions.
    Keywords: Trace analysis, User modelling, Machine learning, Time series, State transition, GOMS

    Graphical User Interfaces

    An Assessment of Font Preferences for Screen-Based Text Display BIBAK 447-461
      Patrick A. Holleran
    This study presents an examination of the use of and preferences for various typefaces for reading text on computer screens. Computer users were surveyed by phone for information about their favorite fonts and the fonts they used on their machines. An additional set of subjects was brought into the laboratory and asked to rate 53 difference typefaces displaying text on screen. Results provided information about font preferences and revealed moderate levels of agreement among subjects. Additionally, it proved possible to establish a relationship between measurements of font characteristics and subjects' ratings.
    Keywords: Font, Typeface, Reading, VDT, Preferences
    Using Animated Demonstrations to Teach Graphics Skills BIBAK 463-474
      Patrick Waterson; Claire O'Malley
    Recent research has shown that animated demonstrations are better than textual instructions in teaching novices how to use an interface, as measured by immediate retention, but that this advantage is not maintained longer retention intervals. It is argued here that such effects may depend upon the type of interface being learned. In this study users were taught to use a graphics application, either via animated demonstrations or textual instructions. Results show that, at least for graphics applications, animated demonstrations are more effective than textual instructions, even after an interval of one week. We conclude that animations may be superior to textual instructions for some types of application because they encourage active exploration of the interface.
    Keywords: Animated demonstrations, Display-Based problem solving, Graphical help, Exploratory learning

    Panel Sessions

    HCI, Where's the Practice? BIB 477-479
      Jonathan Earthy; David Pullinger; Chris Fowler; Stephen Page; Alistair Sutcliffe
    CSCW: Power, Control, Conflict BIB 481-483
      Colston Sanger; Nigel Gilbert; David Wastell; Wendy Mackay; Steve Easterbrook
    Interface Construction for the Millennium: Beyond Objects and Widget Pushers BIB 485-487
      David England; Peter Johnson; Roger Took; Stephen W. Draper
    Human Factors and Flight Deck Automation BIB 489-491
      Andrew McClumpha; Peter Bugge; Vic Lebacqz; Kathy Abbott; Marianne Rudisill; Paul Wilson
    HCI: The Search for Solutions BIB 493-495
      Dan Diaper; Mark Addison

    Laboratory Overviews

    The Human-Computer Interaction Group at the University of York BIBK 499-501
      M. D. Harrison; A. F. Monk; P. C. Wright
    Keywords: Evaluation, System and user modelling, Computer-mediated communication, Error tolerant systems
    Some Research at Glasgow Interactive Systems cenTre BIBK 503-506
      Stephen W. Draper
    Keywords: Focus groups, Think-aloud protocols, Checklists, Usability framework, Consistency, Style, Data model
    The State-of-the-Art at the Research Institute for Theoretical Informatics BIBK 507-509
      Florin Rotaru; Eduard Antoniu; Felix Paulet
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Fuzzy systems, Image processing, Neural networks
    Human-Computer Interaction Engineering: A Laboratory Overview of the Ergonomics Unit, University College London BIBK 511-514
      John Long
    Keywords: HCI engineering, Human factors, Design
    Rank Xerox Cambridge EuroPARC BIBK 515-518
      Allan MacLean
    Keywords: Multimedia
    Human Interface Design: Laboratory Overview BIBK 519-521
      Simon Hakiel
    Keywords: Usability, Design, Evaluation, Human factors
    Logica Cambridge Ltd -- Laboratory Overview BIBK 523-525
      Rosalind Barden; Angela Lucas
    Keywords: User-centred design, Prototyping, Co-operative working, User interface style
    The LUTCHI Research Centre BIBK 527-529
      Ernest Edmonds; James L. Alty; Anthony Clarke; Stephen Scrivener
    Keywords: Knowledge-based, Multimedia intelligent interfaces, Visual perception