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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 0607-107-208-108-209101112131415

Proceedings of the 28th BCS International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 28th International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference
Note:Sand, Sea & Sky -- Holiday HCI
Editors:Daniel Fitton; Matt Horton; Janet C. Read; Gavin Sim
Location:Southport, England
Dates:2014-Sep-09 to 2014-Sep-12
Publisher:BCS
Standard No:hcibib: BCSHCI14
Papers:57
Links:Conference Web Site | Online Proceedings
  1. Full Papers
  2. Short papers
  3. Work in progress papers
  4. AltHCI Papers
  5. Posters

Full Papers

Reusing and Combining UI, Task and Software Component Models to Compose New Applications BIBAFull-Text 1
  Christian Brel; Phillippe Renevier Gonin; Alain Giboin; Michel Riveill; Anne-Marie Dery
Composing applications by considering in parallel both software components and UI elements is a complex process not yet very well supported by any current composition process model or composition environment. To contribute to better support the composition process, we propose a new composition model and a prototype of a component assembler, the so-called OntoCompo, which implements the model. The model describes applications in terms of Task, UI and software components. The prototype allows a composition mainly driven by the direct manipulation of UI elements, the other components being hidden, but still being linked to the UI elements. We performed a user testing with actual developers to evaluate if the composition process was actually facilitated by our modeling approach and the prototype implementing it.
An Evaluation of DTW Approaches for Whole-of-Body Gesture Recognition BIBAFull-Text 2
  Suranjith De Silva; Michael Barlow; Adam Easton
This paper systematically explores the capabilities of different forms of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithms and their parameter configurations in recognising whole-of-body gestures. The standard DTW (SDTW) (Sakoe and Chiba 1978), globally feature weighted DTW (Reyes et al. 2011) and locally feature weighted DTW (Arici et al. 2013) algorithms are particularly considered, while an enhanced version of the globally feature weighted DTW (EDTW) algorithm is presented. A wide range of configurable parameters: distance measures (Euclidean and Mahalanobis), combination of features (Cartesian velocity, angular velocity and acceleration), combinations of skeletal elements, reference signal count and k-nearest neighbour count are tested in order to understand the impact on final recognition accuracies. The study is conducted by collecting gesturing data from10 participants for 9 different whole-of-body gesture commands.
   The results suggest that the proposed enhanced version of the globally feature weighted DTW algorithm performs significantly better than the other DTW algorithms. Given sufficient training data this study suggests that the Mahalanobis distance has the capability to better differentiate certain gestures compared to the Euclidean distance. Out of the features, Cartesian velocity combined with angular velocity provides the highest gesture discriminant capability while acceleration provides the lowest. When highly informative and stable skeletal elements are selected, the overall performance gain obtained by adding extra skeletal data is marginal. Also the recognition accuracies are sensitive to the reference signal count and the KNN percentage. Additionally, the presented results summarise the unique capabilities of certain configurations over others, highlighting the importance of selecting the appropriate DTW algorithm and its configurations to achieve optimal gesture recognition performances.
The Impact of Expectations on User Experience: Surprising the User BIBAFull-Text 3
  Alice Marlene Gross; Juliane Bürglen
Exciting product design and great user experience (UX) have become one of the most important selling points for digital interactive products. Strong competition fosters innovative user experience design and the development of new design techniques. Surprising users by using unexpected product features has proven to be beneficial for product user interaction and UX. Unfortunately, these findings have been mostly limited to classical product design. In two studies we have tried to elicit surprise in users while they were playing a digital Tetris game. Within this context we investigated the influence of pleasant and unpleasant surprises on UX ratings of the game. Both manipulations had an influence on the affective states of users, pleasant surprise elevating the users' emotional state, and vice versa. Interestingly, adding unpleasant surprise in the form of challenging messages elevated product loyalty for products associated with unpleasant surprise compared to products associated with neutral or pleasant surprise.
Participatory Research with Older Adults with AMD: Co-Designing a SMART Diet Diary App BIBAFull-Text 4
  Lilit Hakobyan; Jo Lumsden; Dympna O'Sullivan
The global population of people aged 60 years and older is growing rapidly. In the UK, there are currently around 10 million people aged 65 and over, and the number is projected to rise by 50% in the next 20 years (RNIB, 2013). While ongoing advances in information technology (IT) are undoubtedly increasing the scope for IT to enhance and support older adults' daily living, the digital divide between older and younger adults -- 43% of people below the age of 55 own and use a smartphone, compared to only 3% of people aged 65 and over (AgeUK, 2013) -- raises concerns about the suitability of technological solutions for older adults, especially for older adults with impairments. Evidence suggests that sympathetic design of mobile technology does render it useful and acceptable to older adults: the key issue is, however, how best to achieve such sympathetic design when working with impaired older adults. We report here on a case study in order to outline the practicalities and highlight the benefits of participatory research for the design of sympathetic technology for (and importantly with) older adults with impairments.
Online communities for older users: what can we learn from local community interactions to create social sites that work for older people BIBAFull-Text 5
  Dave Harley; Kate Howland; Eric Harris; Cara Redlich
This study looked at the significance of family and local community connections in determining online community engagement amongst a sample of older people in the south of England. Four catalysts were identified which motivated engagement with local and online forms of community and these were: family, roles, loss and 'spaces and places'. SNS use (primarily Facebook) was largely family-focussed but alternative social motives were evident in relation to other forms of online community. There was a clear preference for meeting face to face with online communities and social networking sites being used predominantly as tools for achieving this aim. Exploration of the catalysts offers ways that greater community involvement might be further facilitated through social and design initiatives. Suggestions include private 'family rooms' within Facebook, anonymous 'sharing spaces' in elder-specific communities and a focus on hyperlocal initiatives to connect local and online communities.
Videogames: Dispelling myths and tabloid headlines that videogames are bad BIBAFull-Text 6
  Christian M. Jones; Laura Scholes; Daniel Johnson; Mary Katsikitis; Michelle C. Carras
Videogamers are often portrayed as adolescent overweight males eating fast food in their bedroom, and videogames often blamed in the media for violent crime, obesity, social isolation and depression. However videogaming is a mainstream activity. In Australia 65% of the population play videogames (Digital Australia 2014), and humanity as a species play about 3 billion hours of videogames a week. This paper dispels the myths and sensationalised negative tabloid headlines that videogames are bad by presenting the latest research showing that videogames can help fight depression, improve brain function and stimulate creativity; that gamers have higher levels of family closeness and better attachment to school; and that videogames help boys and young men to relax, cope and socialise. Children and adolescents deliberately choose to play videogames in the knowledge that they will feel better as a result, and videogame play allow players to express themselves in ways they may not feel comfortable doing in real life because of their appearance, gender, sexuality, and/or age. The potential benefits of videogames to the individual and to society are yet to be fully realised. However already videogames are helping many gamers to flourish in life.
A Joint Activity Theory Analysis of Body Interactions in Multiplayer Virtual Basketball BIBAFull-Text 7
  Divesh Lala; Toyoaki Nishida; Yasser Mohammad
To create embodied agents which exhibit realistic behaviour, we should first examine how humans behave with each other in the same context. In this paper, we define the context as navigating a virtual environment and using body movement as signals for communication. We undertake a novel experiment in which two humans play virtual basketball as a team in distributed locations, using only their bodies to navigate and execute tasks. Participants interact mainly through moving throughout the virtual world while passing a virtual ball. We propose that joint activity theory concepts are prevalent in virtual world communication, find evidence to support this hypothesis, and generate insights which can be used to create effective agents in the same type of environment. Even with a limited communication channel, it was found that the intention of players was able to be understood, which shows the existence of various joint activity theory concepts.
Of Models, Rationales and Prototypes: Studying Designer Needs in an Airborne Maritime Surveillance Drawing Tool to Support Audio Communication BIBAFull-Text 8
  Catherine Letondal; Pierre-Yves Pillain; Emile Verdurand; Daniel Prun; Olivier Grisvard
In this work, we seek to understand the needs of interaction designers involved in industrial system engineering processes. While current research offers a set of methods and tools for them, we believe that more empirical user studies focusing on designers are needed, in particular to support how model-based activity analysis may inform their decisions. Our designers' need analysis is conducted through participatory design and contextual inquiry, and applied through a real use-case project: a distributed tactile tool for airborne maritime surveillance. Thanks to this study, we report on our insights on the usability problems and needs related in particular to scenario-based modeling, model-based design rationales and design-based model refinement.
Designing Coordinated Multiple Views of Information Space BIBAFull-Text 9
  Tom McEwan; Nseabasi Igoniderigha; David Benyon
Information visualisation has long been recognized as a powerful aid to understanding: what Stuart Card has called 'the amplification of cognition'. Research and development in information visualisation has been undertaken from many different perspectives and there are many excellent examples of visualisations, and of techniques for interacting with them. A more recent call for a science of visual analytics, however, has highlighted the lack of theories of interaction that can contribute to this new science. In this paper we bring together some insights from work on information spaces and metadata to suggest a design method to aid the developers of coordinated multiple visualisations (CMV) of information.
A Blended Space for Heritage Storytelling BIBAFull-Text 10
  Brian O'Keefe; David Benyon; Gaurav Chandwani; Madhav Menon; Randy, II Duke
This paper explores the role of Blending Theory, as a framework, to aid in design decisions while deploying mobile experiences for heritage storytelling. Blending Theory provides a structured way of thinking about how digital and physical spaces can be brought together to create new experiences in blended spaces. In this paper we describe the development of an app that aims to enhance the visitor experience to a heritage destination in New York State. We show how the blended spaces framework was used to guide the design and development of the app and provide evaluation data that highlights the effective UX that resulted. Heritage stories and augmented digital agents are used to guide a visitor from one point of interest to another, providing an engaging user experience for schoolchildren.
A Practitioner Perspective on Integrating Agile and User Centred Design BIBAFull-Text 11
  Dina Salah; Richard Paige; Paul Cairns
This paper discusses an empirical study that identified challenges exhibited by industrial practitioners in integrating Agile development processes and User Centred Design (UCD). The study also identified practices utilised in order to achieve the integration. Fourteen in-depth, one-to-one interviews were conducted with 14 participants from 11 companies of varying sizes in five different countries. Those interviews covered a broad range of issues ranging from usability and user experience goals to incorporating user feedback in Agile teams. The study revealed the existence of a set of challenges including: lack of management support to UCD activities, lack of allocated time for upfront activities, communication between the development team and UCD practitioners, conducting usability testing, absence of UCD practitioners or their increased work load, and lack of documentation. The study also revealed methods utilised by industrial practitioners to tackle some of these challenges via iteration 0, parallel tracks and lightweight documentation. Industrial practitioners can utilise the description of integration challenges and corresponding practices in identifying potential challenges and proposed practices to deal with these anticipated challenges.
Optimizing Usability Studies by Complementary Evaluation Methods BIBAFull-Text 12
  Martin Schmettow; Cedric Bach; Dominique Scapin
This paper examines combinations of complementary evaluation methods as a strategy for efficient usability problem discovery. A data set from an earlier study is re-analyzed, involving three evaluation methods applied to two virtual environment applications. Results of a mixed-effects logistic regression suggest that usability testing and inspection discover rather disjunctive sets of problems. A resampling analysis reveals that mixing inspection and usability testing sessions in equal parts finds 20% more problems with the same number of sessions.
Toward Helping Users in Assessing the Trustworthiness of User-Generated Reviews BIBAFull-Text 13
  Dara Sherwani; Simone Stumpf
With the growing number of systems that provide user-generated reviews come new forms of trust relationships. User trust in vendors can be mediated by trust in either reviews or reviewers, or possibly both. These new forms of trust relationships might be affected by barriers to trust such as uncertainty about offered services and anonymity of users, as well as biased reviews. While current work is dedicated towards investigating the influential factors on trust, this study undertakes a different approach. First, it investigates the influence of interface design on users' assessment of trustworthiness. Second, it explores the way that interface design can affect users' perception of trustworthy and untrustworthy reviews and reviewers, by signalling the influential factors on trust. Third, this study investigates the effect of users' prior beliefs in the form of dispositional trust in the assessment of trustworthiness. To do so, an exploratory study gathering quantitative and qualitative data was conducted with 16 participants who interacted with a high-fidelity prototype. Our results show that users' assessment of trustworthiness is influenced by interface elements that relate not only to the review, but also to the reviewer, implying that trust in reviews is mediated by trust in reviewers. Furthermore, users' dispositional trust appears to affect the perceived trustworthiness of reviewers, especially because of elements relate to the reviewers' background, which transfers onto the reviews. Our results have implications for researchers and designers to help users' assessment of the trustworthiness of reviews and reviewers.
GameChange(H)er: How Nancy Drew Video Games Build Strong Girls BIBAFull-Text 14
  Katryna Starks; Christian Jones; Mary Katsikitis
There are limitations in the amount and scope of female protagonists in video games that are made for and marketed toward adolescent girls, and very few studies on the effects on girls when they play them. Furthermore, the games that exist are often lacking in immersive factors as compared with games marketed toward males. This research explores the role of agentic (proactively moving the game forward through choice and action) female video game protagonists in generating positive effects in gamers, investigated through the example of the Nancy Drew video game series. In this March and April of 2013, 341 fan letters were gathered from the Her Interactive website and qualitatively analysed using grounded theory principles. Open coding was used to generate categories, which were then consolidated into four core phenomena and one miscellaneous category: agency, absorption, academics, connection, and other. Players of Nancy Drew video games reported engagement with the games, resulting in positive effects in several areas including agency, academic pursuits, literacy, career choice and family closeness. Implications for this research include recommendations for the inclusion of agentic female protagonists and an increase in production of games for adolescent girls.
Using Body Cards in a Design Process for Going From Bodily Experiences to DesignJakob Tholander BIBAFull-Text 15
 
To build creative links between ethnographic findings of bodily practices and design, we developed so called body cards to document experiential qualities to be used in idea generation and early prototyping. These focus on the stages of a design process that involves investigating a use domain and making such knowledge relevant and usable for design. This involves challenges of effectively describing -- with theoretical and empirical grounding -- how bodily action and experience actually occur, in relation to people, artefacts, and activities. We discuss challenges in bridging between ethnographic findings and design of technologies for bodily experiences. Designing for the body in interaction is then not only about better ways of sensing bodily actions, but just as much about integrating these in the space of social interaction.
On the Integration of Self-tracking Data amongst Quantified Self Members BIBAFull-Text 16
  Mark Whooley; Bernd Ploderer; Kathleen Gray
Self-tracking, the process of recording one's own behaviours, thoughts and feelings, is a popular approach to enhance one's self-knowledge. While dedicated self-tracking apps and devices support data collection, previous research highlights that the integration of data constitutes a barrier for users. In this study we investigated how members of the Quantified Self movement -- early adopters of self-tracking tools -- overcome these barriers. We conducted a qualitative analysis of 51 videos of Quantified Self presentations to explore intentions for collecting data, methods for integrating and representing data, and how intentions and methods shaped reflection. The findings highlight two different intentions -- striving for self-improvement and curiosity in personal data -- which shaped how these users integrated data, i.e. the effort required. Furthermore, we identified three methods for representing data -- binary, structured and abstract -- which influenced reflection. Binary representations supported reflection-in-action, whereas structured and abstract representations supported iterative processes of data collection, integration and reflection. For people tracking out of curiosity, this iterative engagement with personal data often became an end in itself, rather than a means to achieve a goal. We discuss how these findings contribute to our current understanding of self-tracking amongst Quantified Self members and beyond, and we conclude with directions for future work to support self-trackers with their aspirations.
Designing Teenage Emotions with a Life of Their Own BIBAFull-Text 17
  Neil Winterburn; Peggy Gregory; Dan Fitton
In this paper two participatory design activities are described in which teenagers create lo-fi designs describing emotions and explain the rationale for their design choices. Designs annotating and describing emotions are categorised as anthropomorphic, abstract, object based, or biomorphic. The paper concludes that teenagers use a variety of visual metaphors to describe emotions, that teenagers use anthropomorphic visual metaphors the most to describe emotions and that teenagers make more use of abstract and biomorphic visual metaphors to describe 'negative' emotions. The effect of materials on designs is analysed, suggesting that teenagers are more likely to create designs describing emotions featuring anthropomorphic visual metaphors when using malleable three-dimensional materials. Suggestions are made for the use of externalisation and personification as part of interactive emotion displays within affective systems. This research will be of value to interaction designers and Child Computer Interaction researchers seeking to understand how teenagers use different visual metaphors to describe different emotions. The contribution of this work is a categorisation of the visual metaphors teenagers use to express different emotions.

Short papers

Pausing or Not? Examining the Service Walkthrough Technique BIBAFull-Text 18
  Johan Blomkvist; Mattias Arvola
The scope of service design calls for holistic design techniques that represent multiple service moments. One such technique is the service walkthrough that can be used to prototype and formatively evaluate services. A service walkthrough is an enactment of several consecutive service moments. This paper informs decisions about how to set up service walkthroughs by looking at two kinds of walkthroughs in a case study: with pauses for discussion and feedback after each service moment, and without pauses where the entire service journey is walked through before comments and feedback are collected. The case study did not show any differences in the content of the feedback, but more feedback was given in the walkthroughs with pauses. The feedback in the paused walkthroughs was also more detailed.
Using Grounded Theory Methods to Inform the Design of an Authoring Tool BIBAFull-Text 19
  Aurora Constantin; Helen Pain; Annalu Waller
This paper presents and reflects on how Grounded Theory Methods (GTM) have enabled the construction of a conceptual framework for social story interventions, with the aim of informing the design of an authoring tool to support practitioners in developing social stories. Social stories are broadly used to enhance social interaction in children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions (ASC). The paper focuses on methodological issues rather than the outcomes. Five lessons have been drawn out with the intention of providing a guide for those who intend to apply GTM in order to inform the design of computer-based educational tools for ASC.
Interactive Visualization for Music Rediscovery and Serendipity BIBAFull-Text 20
  Ricardo Dias; Joana Pinto; Manuel J. Fonseca
Although personal tastes may change over time, overall people still enjoy music they have not listen to for some time or not very often. However, most solutions for browsing music collections do not focus on showing or suggesting these songs to create serendipitous rediscoveries. Instead they promote most recently played songs as an entry point for browsing and playing music. This way, users are constantly listening to the same music, causing the least heard to become forgotten. In this paper, we present BACH, an interactive visualization and exploration tool for personal music collections that uses the listening history of the user to influence the songs suggested and the way they are presented to him/her. Our goal is to help users rediscover their music collection for different periods of the day through the perspective of their listening history. Experimental results revealed that users understood and enjoyed our solution and that they were able to rediscover their collections by listening to songs heard some time ago.
Authorisation in Context: Incorporating Context-Sensitivity into an Access Control Framework BIBAFull-Text 21
  Shamal Faily; John Lyle; Ivan Fléchais; Andrea Atzeni; Cesare Cameroni; Hans Myrhaug; Ayse Göker; Robert Kleinfeld
With sensitive information about ourselves now distributed across personal devices, people need to make access control decisions for different contexts of use. However, despite advances in improving the usability of access control for both developers and users, we still lack insights about how the intentions behind policy decisions in different contexts of use are shaped. In this paper, we describe how context was incorporated into an access control framework using a study of how context influences access control decision making. We describe how the main recommendations arising from this study were used to build context into a policy editor for this access control framework.
Web Accessibility of Mobile and Desktop Representations BIBAFull-Text 22
  Nádia Fernandes; André Rodrigues; Carlos Duarte; Raquel Hijón-Neira; Luís Carriço
With sensitive information about ourselves now distributed across personal devices, people need to make access control decisions for different contexts of use. However, despite advances in improving the usability of access control for both developers and users, we still lack insights about how the intentions behind policy decisions in different contexts of use are shaped. In this paper, we describe how context was incorporated into an access control framework using a study of how context influences access control decision making. We describe how the main recommendations arising from this study were used to build context into a policy editor for this access control framework.
Working with Teenagers within HCI Research: Understanding Teen-Computer Interaction BIBAFull-Text 23
  Daniel Fitton; Beth Bell
There has been limited consideration of teenagers (defined as 12-19 year olds in this work) as participants and end-users in Child-Computer Interaction and mainstream HCI communities. Teenagers reside in a fascinating and dynamic space between childhood and adulthood, and working more closely with teenagers within HCI may bring great insights and benefits. This paper provides an overview of teenage development from a psychological perspective, and then reviews existing work considering teenagers within HCI. Teenagers have long been identified as unique and studied within the field of developmental psychology, and the overview we provide in this paper highlights key understandings that should be carefully considered when working with teen participants. The paper concludes by presenting a set of key research questions that need to be explored in order to effectively work with teenagers within the field of HCI and provide a roadmap for future research within the Teen-Computer Interaction area.
Visualizing Human Trajectories: Comparing Space-Time Cubes and Static Maps BIBAFull-Text 24
  Tiago Gonçalves; Ana Paula Afonso; Bruno Martins
The increasing popularity of smartphones and position tracking devices fostered the interest on human trajectory data analysis, and enabled the collection of large amounts of movement data. However, there are still several open challenges regarding the visual and interactive analysis of these data, as more people, often non-experienced, start using these methods. This paper presents a comparative study between two common visualization techniques for trajectory data analysis, namely a space-time cube and a static map, taking into consideration high-level visualization and analysis tasks. The results obtained with two similar prototypes support the adequacy of both methods for simple analysis tasks, and reveal that static maps are more adequate for locate tasks, while space-time cubes provide a better support for association tasks.
Non-Visual Menu Navigation: the Effect of an Audio-Tactile Display BIBAFull-Text 25
  Oussama Metatla; Fiore Martin; Tony Stockman; Nick Bryan-Kinns
We present a preliminary study examining non-visual menu navigation in terms of task completion times and cognitive workload. We asked 12 participants to locate items on menus presented using visual, audio-only and audio-tactile displays on a touch screen mobile device and found that users were significantly slower in locating an item on a menu when using an audio-tactile menu display. This difference in performance was not reflected in the users' subjective workload assessments. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of cross-modal display and the design of menu navigation gestures on touch screen devices.
Entertainment Multi-rotor Robot that Realises Direct and Multimodal Interaction BIBAFull-Text 26
  Kensho Miyoshi; Ryo Konomura; Koichi Hori
We explore direct interaction of human and multi-rotor robots and its applications for entertainment. In this paper, we present our system that realises direct and multimodal interaction using onboard cameras and a microphone. With these onboard sensors to detect human actions, the robots' reaction chains and expands one after another. In addition, as all the processing is executed within the onboard computer, there is no need to use external devices. We describe its interaction scenario from take-off to landing, and present the pilot evaluation of our system.
Facilitating Learning Through Hands-on Engagement With Virtual Museum Artefacts BIBAFull-Text 27
  Steven Neale; Winyu Chinthammit; Christopher Lueg; Paddy Nixon
In collaborative museum learning contexts, it is problematic that groups of museum visitors are not able to touch, handle, and pass museum artefacts around during collaborative discussions. This can be due to the fragility of the artefacts themselves or due to the people discussing them being in different locations. Interacting with virtual representations of artefacts is a solution to the problem, but digital experiences have typically lacked many of the qualities that are so successful in engaging museum learners with physical artefacts. In this paper, we introduce our theory that hands-on, reality-based interaction using a tablet interface offers a much more engaging way for collaborators to explore and discuss virtual artefacts than the more traditional desktop interface-based experience, and that this increase in engagement will potentially lead to learning outcomes for the collaborators.
Non-use of Automated Border Control Systems: Identifying Reasons and Solutions BIBAFull-Text 28
  Anne-Marie Oostveen
There are many reasons why passengers are unable or reluctant to use self-service e-gate systems. In order for designers to build better systems with higher uptake by end-users they need to have a more thorough understanding of the non-users. This paper investigates the reasons of non-use of Automated Border Control at European airports by applying Wyatt's taxonomy and adding an "unawares" category. It also presents possible solutions to turn current non-users into future users of e-gates.
What Drives the Geeks? Linking Computer Enthusiasm to Achievement Goals BIBAFull-Text 29
  Martin Schmettow; Matthias Drees
The personality construct of geekism is introduced as the tendency to act out one's need for cognition in the domain of computing technology. Achievement goal theory is introduced, and we ask, what drives geeks in terms of achievement. In a questionnaire study, it is shown that geekism is related to achievement motivation in imagined situations with technology. Need for cognition showed strong association with self-oriented achievement goals. A newly created scale for computer enthusiasm seems to reflect performance oriented achievement goals.
Bars, Pies, Doughnuts & Tables -- Visualization of Proportions BIBAFull-Text 30
  Harri Siirtola
Visualization of proportions is one of the most common visualization types encountered in the media. Stacked bar charts, doughnut and pie charts -- the most common visualizations of proportions -- have all keen advocates and critics, and there are conflicting results about their performance. This study presents an experiment with a basic but ecologically valid task to evaluate the performance of these techniques. The result shows that the stacked bar chart is superior to doughnut and pie charts in task performance. However, 75% of the participants regarded pie charts as the most pleasing or second-pleasing to use, and almost half of the participants (44%) perceived the pie or doughnut chart to be the fastest visualization to understand. Only six participants recognized the bar chart as the fastest technique, and half of them still preferred the pie chart over them. This subjective preference at the expense of performance may explain why pie charts are so widely used in spite of being criticized.
The Effects of Number-related Factors on Entry Performance BIBAFull-Text 31
  Huawei Tu; Patrick Oladimeji; Yunqiu Li; Harold Thimbleby; Chris Vincent
Number entry is ubiquitous in user interface (UI) design, and in many applications -- such as finance, aviation, healthcare -- here, mitigating errors is critical. This paper examines the effects of factors such as the type of number (e.g., integer or decimal), number length (i.e., short or long) and display position (i.e., near or far) on entry errors. Until now, these factors have not been explored together. Using a touch-based numeric keypad, we found that number length influenced the probability of committing errors, while the position of presentation did not. Number type impacted user-corrected errors but not uncorrected errors. Number length, number type and display position affected input timings. The findings provide implications for the design of both number representations (e.g., decimal point appearance) and the sociotechnical systems that surround them (e.g., training practice).
Eliciting Domain Knowledge Using Conceptual Metaphors to Inform Interaction Design: A Case Study from Music Interaction BIBAFull-Text 32
  Katie Wilkie; Simon Holland; Paul Mulholland
Interaction design for domains that involve complex abstractions can prove challenging. This problem is particularly acute in domains where the intricate nature of domain-specific knowledge can be difficult for even the most experienced expert to conceptualise or articulate. One promising solution to the problem of representing complex domain abstractions involves the use of conceptual metaphors. Previous applications of conceptual metaphors to abstract domains have yielded encouraging results. However, the design of appropriate methods for eliciting conceptual metaphors for the purposes of informing interaction design remains an open question. In this paper, we report on a series of studies carried out to elicit conceptual metaphors from domain experts, using music as a case study, reflecting on the benefits and drawbacks of each approach.
Dynamic Presentation of Synchronised Photo Streams BIBAFull-Text 33
  Sam Zargham; Janko Calic
Due to the proliferation of social media platforms, digital photo sharing has emerged as a new way of establishing chronology of events and reminiscing forgotten experiences. The growing trend of presenting visual content using timelines or shared photo streams offers new possibilities to social media applications. In this paper, a novel interface for visualisation and sharing of multiple photo streams is proposed. A detailed user study into aspects of different temporal presentations used in this interface is presented. In relation to the proposed synchronous visualisation, a novel notion of continuity in photo streams is introduced. A number of continuity detection algorithms are proposed and evaluated. The results of the user study demonstrate good comprehension of user's own and shared photo streams and their temporal structure even if presented at relatively high speeds. Users were able to easily contextualise events, recall specific photos and easily find them using the proposed interface.

Work in progress papers

Online Persuasion for E-Commerce Websites BIBAFull-Text 34
  Muna M. Alhammad; Stephen R. Gulliver
The persuasive design of e-commerce websites has been shown to support people with online purchases. Therefore, it is important to understand how persuasive applications are used and assimilated into e-commerce website designs. This paper demonstrates how the PSD model's persuasive features could be used to build a bridge supporting the extraction and evaluation of persuasive features in such e-commerce websites; thus practically explaining how feature implementation can enhance website persuasiveness. To support a deeper understanding of persuasive e-commerce website design, this research, using the Persuasive Systems Design (PSD) model, identifies the distinct persuasive features currently assimilated in ten successful e-commerce websites. The results revealed extensive use of persuasive features; particularly features related to dialogue support, credibility support, and primary task support; thus highlighting weaknesses in the implementation of social support features. In conclusion we suggest possible ways for enhancing persuasive feature implementation via appropriate contextual examples and explanation.
Colour Preference in Teenage Boys' Bedrooms BIBAFull-Text 35
  Andra Balta; Janet C. Read
Colour in spaces plays an important role on inhabitants' mood. In interior design colour has been used to decorate spaces in order to lift and change mood in people. It has been already proved that certain colours relax people while other colours have an opposite effect. However, not all the colours have been researched, and especially their effects on teenagers' moods have not been researched. This paper begins research in this area by presenting the findings of a study seeking to understand how teenage boys relate to colour, and seeking to identify what their favourite colour is. The teenagers completed a questionnaire about colour and the results show white is a dominant choice for bedroom design followed by blue, black, green, violet, red, grey, yellow, and orange. Red and blue were on top as favourite colours, followed by white, purple and green being preferred once each.
Challenges of using Stereoscopic Displays in a Touch Interaction Context BIBAFull-Text 36
  Chris P. Bowers; Benjamin R. Cowan; Chris Creed; Gido Hakvoort
This work examines how common use scenarios for touch interactive stereoscopic displays might exacerbate visual fatigue. We identify technological constraints of current stereoscopic displays and image separation techniques as the potential underlying cause and generate a set of hypotheses concerning the implications for end users. Furthermore we outline a proposed study to examine these hypotheses.
A Social Timeline for Exchanging Feedback about Musical Performances BIBAFull-Text 37
  Harry Brenton; Matthew Yee-King; Andreu Grimalt-Reynes; Marco Gilles; Maria Krivenski; Mark d'Inverno
This paper describes work in progress on the development of a social timeline that aims to enrich feedback for people learning music within an online community. This interface is novel because it uses multiple layers for group discussions rather than the single layer found in websites such as SoundCloud. Multilayered timelines are commonly used for audio and video editing, but have not been used for collaborative annotation of music recordings (to avoid confusion we refer to the timeline as multi-layered not multi-track which normally refers to multiple audio channels). We tabulate key features of 15 competing systems to justify our claim that the multi-layered social timeline is a novel design pattern for exchanging feedback about musical performances. 49 classical music students used a prototype of the system over five months to upload and discuss rehearsals of an ensemble piece which was then publicly performed. Data from this study is currently being analysed so only a preliminary indication of results is given.
Mental Models of Online Privacy: Structural Properties with Cognitive Maps BIBAFull-Text 38
  Kovila P. L. Coopamootoo; Thomas Groß
Individuals usually build small-scale representation of reality to help them navigate their environment. Although mental models have been used in HCI before, they mostly occur as analogies and metaphor within the privacy and security research space. The meaning for users, the values associated and reasoning over online privacy have not been investigated before. In our research we explore and depict users' mental models of online privacy through the content, properties and structure of privacy mental models. We believe mental models provide a framework for understanding user cognitive processing and reasoning and consequently privacy decison-making. In this paper we present an on-going study that use Amazon's Mechanical Turk and cognitive mapping technique to elicit and illustrate mental models. We compare the cognitive maps generated for two different questions and analyse their structural properties. We find that while a list of concrete privacy evaluations populate the cognitive maps when asked directly about privacy, the examples are generally scarce if not absent when queried about personal importance of the online environment. We also find that the degree of vertices complemented with the source and sink vertices can help to identify key concepts, triggering links and clusters within the maps.
TReACLE: a Framework for TwitteR; Analysis in a SoCial and Learning Environment BIBAFull-Text 39
  Nicky Danino; Gavin Sim
Social Media has infiltrated all manner of users, and none more than the current digital native who is studying at university. This has led to the rise in questions of how best to use these computer-mediated communications in academic settings. Recent research shows that Twitter is very popular amongst students, though little work exists on the impact of Tweeting, and how it can be measured. This paper discusses the current work in progress to develop a framework that offers guidance to codify the connections that students in Higher Education make, using Twitter. Data suggest that it is still too early to determine the success of the framework, nonetheless, the scope for future work points towards many possibilities for full development and application.
Managing Gravity Infusion using a Mobile Application BIBAFull-Text 40
  Mark Davies; Alan Chamberlain; Harold Thimbleby; Paul Lee
delivering fluids to a patient, without the use of any complex medical devices, such as an infusion pump or a syringe driver. Nevertheless there are many quite complex and error-prone steps involved in setting up a gravity infusion for the correct dose, and since there is no computer or similar technology involved to assist with the procedure, it can be difficult to guarantee the accuracy and consistency of the fluid delivery.
   This paper presents a new method for accurately setting gravity infusion drug delivery, based on a handheld mobile application that includes a novel approach to help estimate flow rate and double-check the steps involved in setting it up. We demonstrate how simple visual interfaces can play an important role in the healthcare setting, and we explain safety features that have been implemented to catch common errors and slips that can occur.
A Preliminary Assessment of Physical & Virtual Presence in Exergames BIBAFull-Text 41
  Luís Duarte; Paulo Ribeiro; André Rodrigues; Tiage Guerreiro; Luís Carriço
Exercising is an activity in which the presence of others can motivate an individual to surpass his / her own limits. In recent years, technology has changed the way we carry out these activities. User commitment has been shown to be dependent on, among other, peer pressure. The introduction of challengeable virtual opponents broadened the spectrum of possibilities, enabling users to be motivated by either a real or virtual partner. In this paper we present an early assessment of the impact that different types of presence exerts on the users' perceived motivation and competitiveness. In particular, we delve into how virtual entities compare to their real counterparts. We carried out an experiment in which we sought at obtaining amateur athletes perceptions on their motivation and competitiveness when exercising against real and virtual opponents. Results serve not only the purpose of showing that different types of presence counterbalance each other but they also validate a design space for physical and social partners in exertion applications in which our hypothesis are based upon.
Augmenting Live Performance Dance Through Mobile Technology BIBAFull-Text 42
  Paul Golz; Alex Shaw
We present a pilot study investigating the use of mobile technology to augment live performance dance. An augmented performance was created and viewed through an tablet device then analysed from a technical and audience standpoint. Low complexity augmentations were found to be very effective, however the device placed restrictions on higher complexity augmentations, the performance length and the stage/audience spatial arrangements. A low-number audience test indicated that augmentation of live performance was a credible concept, though there are some clear challenges to be overcome specifically around speed of technology and weight of device.
Patterns for Designing Scalable Mobile App User Interfaces for Multiple Platforms BIBAFull-Text 43
  Shah Rukh Humayoun; Steffen Hess; Felix Kiefer; Achim Ebert
This paper proposes sets of patterns useful in designing scalable mobile app user interfaces targeted at multiple mobile platforms. These sets of patterns, called mobile-UiTS patterns, are derived from mobile platform vendors' style guidelines and the common practices found in existing mobile apps. The resulting patterns provide solutions in specific contexts for the transition of mobile app UI design and interaction from one platform to the other ones, and also tackle the scaling issues that arise when moving a mobile app from small-size smart devices (phones) to large-size smart devices (tablets) and vice versa. In this work, we focus mainly on the categorization of these patterns and provide a template for writing the pattern description.
CrowdHiLite: A Peer Review Service to Support Serious Reading on the Screen BIBAFull-Text 44
  Nan Jiang; Huseyin Dogan
The advent of smart devices and consumerisation of IT has produced a significant and permanent shift away from print-based reading to digital reading. This, in turn, has changed people's reading behaviours and suggests that adapted mechanisms should be considered to support digital reading. It is particularly important for novice readers who need to read in-depth scientific literature in their chosen field. In this paper, we propose CrowdHiLite, a peer review service that allows expert readers to provide suggestion on individual readers' highlights to support their reading through the use of crowdsourcing technique. A demonstration was also provided to show how it would work in real world. A preliminary experiment comparing novice readers' reading performance with expert-rated highlights and normal highlights on the same document found improved reading efficiency and comprehension with the former.
Interactive Visualizations of Video Tours in Space and Time BIBAFull-Text 45
  Ana Jorge; Sérgio Serra; Teresa Chambel
Videos and movies are increasingly being created, shared and accessed from different platforms and devices, that are supporting georeferencing as a form to enrich their contextualization, demanding for new and more powerful ways to search, browse and view them. An effective access to video is very challenging due to the amount of items available and their inner complexity. Interactive visualization, in complement to video cataloguing, can help to handle this challenge, making information more accessible and useful. Moreover, it is worth doing this navigation ludic, and aesthetically interesting, while providing new ways to search and filter through their properties and their impact on the users. In previous work we focused on the temporal dimension in movies and videos in a way that is possible to explore and access them through time, genre and rating criteria, and inside their contents regarding image, movement, audio, subtitles and emotions. We are now extending our goal by considering the spatial dimension, through trajectories like the ones we find in city tours. We present the design of the main interactive visualizations for navigating georeferenced videos, allowing the user to 1) overview videos shot in a given geographic location in a given moment of time; 2) zoom in the trajectories of individual videos, e.g. by length, speed, age and content of the shootings; 3) access and watch each video content in a specific trajectory, e.g. through color, sound, spoken words, emotions and neighbor connections.
Towards a Collaborative Classroom through Shared Workspaces on Mobile Devices BIBAFull-Text 46
  Mark Reilly; Haifeng Shen; Paul Calder; Henry Duh
Student disengagement in lectures is a global issue in higher education. Our approach is to apply a student-centred collaborative learning pedagogy into classrooms through a mobile real-time collaborative notetaking application GroupNotes, which allows a small self-selecting group of students to proactively keep each other engaged without requiring the lecturer to change the existing pedagogy. This paper presents the design principles behind the application interface, which enables students to follow principles identified as good practice in undergraduate education while still allowing for the individual to contribute and interact with regard to their own ability and preferred learning style. It provides an individual workspace to each group member, which is shared with and may be viewed and edited by other members in real time. The preliminary test results show that students are more engaged in the lecture with collaborative than with individual notetaking and more satisfied with sharing individual workspaces than with sharing a common workspace.
SWAT: Mobile System-Wide Assistive Technologies BIBAFull-Text 47
  André Rodrigues; Tiago Guerreiro
Mobile operating systems have evolved to provide increasing accessibility capabilities. However, mobile application developers are still restricted to deploy custom-made accessible applications or to extend limited and stereotyped accessibility services. In this paper, we present SWAT, an extensible framework that provides system-level content and event information to application developers. Its use is demonstrated in a multi-impairment case study achieving automatic row-column scanning with audio feedback. SWAT presents strengths usable in several other systemwide contexts that empower developers and users: adaptation, logging, testing and simulation.
Multimodal Access to Georeferenced Mobile Video through Shape, Speed and Time BIBAFull-Text 48
  Sérgio Serra; Ana Jorge; Teresa Chambel
Video is becoming increasingly accessed, captured, and published on the Web, from different platforms and devices. Users can easily georeference the information they capture and access, allowing to enrich their contextualization. But video search has been limited to keywords, or a set of parameters, providing limited support for temporal and spatial dimensions. We propose novel ways to search and access georeferenced videos, where these dimensions are of central importance, especially by video trajectories shape and speed, and by time, using a multimodal interactive mobile interface, involving gestures and movement, with the potential for more natural interactions, increased engagement, sense of presence and immersion. The evaluation based on high-fidelity prototypes had positive results. Users found most features useful, satisfactory, sometimes fun, and easy to use. Different options and modalities were found interesting and adequate for different use scenarios that could be identified and suggested, and some concerns and challenges were identified to be taken into account in future developments, towards more flexible and effective interactive content access, through more natural interaction with mobile devices on their own or as second screens to a larger screen on TV or public displays.
Empowering Teenagers to Perform a Heuristic Evaluation of a Game BIBAFull-Text 49
  Obelema Akobo Wodike; Gavin Sim; Matthew Horton
Unlike user studies, inspection based methods are not widely researched in the area of Child Computer Interaction. This paper reports the findings of a study to empower teenagers to facilitate a heuristic evaluation with their peers acting as the expert evaluators. In total 20 teenagers participated in the study, with four of the teenagers acting as facilitators and the remainder as evaluators. The results showed that teenagers struggled to act in the role as facilitator, struggling to explain the heuristic evaluation process and keep the evaluators on track. The evaluators found very few problems and became distracted from the evaluation opting to play on other features of the device rather than the game itself. Further research will be performed to modify the process in an attempt to eliminate these issues in order to improve the method for teenagers.

AltHCI Papers

Having Fun With Evaluation BIBAFull-Text 50
  John Hutchinson; Nick Race; Mark Rouncefield
This paper briefly considers some issues in the evaluation of HCI applications through documenting the use and evaluation of a digital video tool -- StoriXXX -- used for editing digital resources for 'digital storytelling' and comments on its multiple use as a form of 'bricolage'. It provides a brief overview of use and evaluation in two community contexts, as part of a long term engagement in creating digital storytelling applications, drawing from elements of film and media practice to point to various interpretations of story creation that also provide insights into the evaluation process in HCI.
Is British HCI Important? A Topic-based Comparison with CHI BIBAFull-Text 51
  Stefano Padilla; Thomas S. Methven; Mike J. Chantler
We have applied topic modelling to the full-text British HCI and CHI corpora in order to automatically derive one hundred topics and their trends. We use these to compare the distributions of topics and changing foci of two conferences over the last five years. These data suggest that, while the two conferences have significant overlap, they make quite distinct contributions to HCI.
Taking the Biscuit -- Playful Interaction BIBAFull-Text 52
  Janet C. Read; Gavin Sim
Food is an important commodity, is essential for our survival and people usually interact with food on a daily basis. In this paper, we motivate design for serendipitous playful interaction with biscuits by describing the designs of two interactive games based on food and fun. The affordances of the food, and the affordances of the specific food, that being biscuits, on the design is discussed. As an Alt-HCI paper the work then goes on to consider the role that biscuits might have in the HCI space of the future.

Posters

Exploring Awareness Behaviours and Collaboration Activities in Learning Groups BIBAFull-Text 53
  Reem Al Ashaikh; Stephanie Wilson; Sara Jones
Collaborative learning is a useful approach in which learners work jointly to achieve learning goals. Awareness plays a significant role in promoting collaboration opportunities and enhancing the effectiveness of the collaborative learning. This poster reports a study to explore awareness behaviours in a long-term collaborative project. The research questions focus on awareness behaviours, the changes in awareness over time, and the applications used to communicate and collaborate. Three main data collection methods were used: observations, short interviews and questionnaires. Participants were students who were working on collaborative coursework for 6 weeks. Results show that different awareness types and behaviours were evident and activity awareness was higher at the beginning of the collaborative project than it was towards the middle or the end. In addition, groups used different general-purpose applications to support their collaborations.
Promoting the use of Design Evaluation Techniques within Software Development BIBAFull-Text 54
  Fahad Almansour; Liz Stuart
This paper introduces the dEv framework. This framework was designed to encourage greater integration of design principles and design evaluation methods in software development. Subsequently, a design Evaluation resource (dEv) is also introduced. This resource was developed to enable software engineers to rapidly access and apply core techniques and tools from design evaluation.
A Comparison of the Accessibility of Web Applications in TV and Desktop BIBAFull-Text 55
  Daniel Costa; Ricardo Dias; Carlos Duarte
Given TVs reach, we envision the use of TV based applications by a wide range of the population, including the elderly and people with different kinds of impairments. Thus, it is paramount to guarantee that everyone can access the same information. In this paper we present a study of the current state of the accessibility of TV applications, analysing their conformance with the WCAG 2.0 guidelines and comparing them to their desktop versions. The results show that, even though there has been less effort in TV accessibility research, TV applications are more conformant than their desktop counterparts.
Formalizing User Interaction Requirements of Mobile Applications BIBAFull-Text 56
  Shah Rukh Humayoun; Ragaad AlTarawneh; Yael Dubinsky
Provision of mobile user interaction, which consists of multi-touch gestures interaction and other direct interaction operations with the mobile device, makes the current mobile paradigm quite different from the conventional desktop paradigm. Writing the required mobile user interaction in an accurate and unambiguous form is one the main challenges in mobile application development. In this work, we propose to use MobiGolog language for writing formally the user interaction requirements of mobile applications (mobile apps). Moreover, we propose the idea of using layered graph representation for creating graph models of these formal written requirements in order to provide visual means to analyse the specified requirements.
Integrating Sensors in a Mobile Application Authoring Environment BIBAFull-Text 57
  André Justo; Luís Duarte; André Rodrigues; Luís Carriço
Authoring systems attempt to capitalize on the expertise of different domains towards in creating digital content to serve a determined demographic. Existing frameworks and systems enable nonexpert programmers to create their own mobile applications with mild effort. Despite a certain range of diversity in this area, little relevance has been given towards capitalizing on all features of the targeted operating systems and / or devices. This paper presents the extension of DETACH -- an authoring tool for Android mobile applications -- with a set of features which enable non-expert programmers to access device sensor data with relative ease. Supported sensors encompass the chronometer, accelerometer, GPS and a set of third-party physiological sensors. In this report, we focus on the renewed system architecture, emphasizing the steps to add new sensors, the application deployment process and how sensor data is retrieved and evaluated to trigger behaviours in the developed applications.