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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 0304050607-107-208-108-209101112131415

Proceedings of the 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction

Fullname:Proceedings of the 25th BCS Conference on Human-Computer Interaction
Note:health, wealth & happiness
Editors:Linda Little; Lynne Coventry
Location:Newcastle, United Kingdom
Dates:2011-Jul-04 to 2011-Jul-08
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: BCSHCI11
Papers:87
Pages:564
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. ALT.HCI
  2. Different perspectives
  3. Learning and motivation
  4. Evaluations
  5. Lost something?
  6. Communities
  7. Unhealthy errors
  8. Full body interaction
  9. Personal relationships
  10. Games and interaction
  11. 3D and targeting
  12. Healthy technology
  13. Nostalgia, curiosity and creativity
  14. Design and interaction
  15. Designing health technology
  16. Posters
  17. Work in progress
  18. Doctoral consortium

ALT.HCI

Cyber-sustainability: leaving a lasting legacy of human wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 1-6
  Bran Richards; Stuart Walker; Lynne Blair
This paper presents a case for the importance of sustainability in HCI as it relates to the Web. So far, the discussion about sustainability in HCI has focused on environmental aspects. However, our belief is that cyber-sustainability is much greater than this. We argue that to address cyber-sustainability correctly, the principles of sustainability should be considered in relation to 3 concerns: 1) environmental impacts, 2) psychological impacts, and 3) the worldview that the Web tends to promote. Several broad implications for more sustainable Web development are proposed.
The ill effects of world wide web on the Google generation: an analysis and criticism of ways in which the world wide web is altering young learners' cognitive behaviors BIBAFull-Text 7-11
  Michele Wong Kung Fong
While this paper values the different ways in which the World Wide Web is making data ubiquitous and more accessible, it questions some of its subtle yet destructive effects on the Google Generation/those born after 1993. This paper will look over the learners' interactions with online information, analyze the negative behavioral and psychological consequences caused by these interactions, question the consequences and in each case ask that designers of online experiences be more careful as they make design decisions when creating online interfaces. This paper poses the following research question: "How can the design of online activities on the World Wide Web positively affect the Google Generation's ability to focus, socialize, and think deeply? Most importantly, this presentation seeks to stir discourse that agree and/or disagree with the idea that the World Wide Web is negatively affecting the Google Generation's -- those born after 1993 -- wellbeing. It hopes that discourse will lead to possible solutions to the current and increasing problem relating to attention, memory, patience, stress, and critical thinking in young learners.
Interaction design: serving corporate needs BIBAFull-Text 12-17
  Keyvan Minoukadeh
This paper looks at the ways in which professional interaction designers, despite the all too common rhetoric about serving humanity, end up uncritically serving corporate needs. It covers the conflict between the priorities of business and the goal of design; the influence of universities in setting students up to serve business interests; and how designers can resist by pursuing their own goals as radical professionals.
Designing novel applications inspired by emerging media technologies BIBAFull-Text 18-23
  Hyowon Lee; Alan F. Smeaton
The field of Human-Computer Interaction provides a number of useful tools and methods for obtaining information on end-users and their usage context to inform the design of computer systems, yet relatively little is known on how to go about designing for a completely novel application where there is no user base, no existing practice of use available at the start. The success of the currently available HCI methodology that focuses on understanding users' needs and establishing requirements is well-deserved in making computing applications usable in terms of fitting them to end-users' usage contexts. However, too much emphasis on identifying user needs tends to stifle other more exploratory design activities where new types of applications are invented in order to discover or create new activities currently not practiced. In this paper, we argue that a great starting point of novel application design is not the problem space (trying to rigorously define the user requirements) but the solution space (trying to leverage emerging computational technologies and growing design knowledge for various interaction platforms), and we build a foundation for a pragmatic design methodology supported by the authors' extensive experience in designing novel applications inspired by emerging media technologies.
Semantics, hermeneutics, statistics: some reflections on the semantic web BIBAFull-Text 24-28
  Graham White
We start with the ambition -- dating back to the early days of the semantic web -- of assembling a significant portion human knowledge into a contradiction-free form using semantic web technology. We argue that this would not be desirable, because there are concepts, known as essentially contested concepts, whose definitions are contentious due to deep-seated ethical disagreements. Further, we argue that the nineteenth century hermeneutical tradition has a great deal to say, both about the ambition, and about why it fails. We conclude with some remarks about statistics.
Local community intelligence, wellbeing and the potential role of web 2.0 applications BIBAFull-Text 29-34
  Rachel Keller
Web 2.0 applications offer some interesting possibilities for the Collective Intelligence (CI) of Local Communities. Local Communities typically have limited resources and technological know-how to fully exploit the features of Web 2.0. However, their usually diverse mixed demographic may be advantageous in community intelligence and decision making with implications for Wellbeing. Evidence shows a mixed range of knowledge and perspectives is often superior to expert opinion. This could confer particular benefits for Local Communities. This paper suggests that individuals within Local Communities may be very receptive to increased community engagement, outlines the need for a taxonomy to maximise the outcomes of Collective Intelligence (CI), speculates about some possibly rich seams for future research and some expedient ways of doing this through the use of Web 2.0 applications. In doing so there is consideration of contributions from Computer Science, Management and Design.
On pause and duration, or: the design of heritage experience BIBAFull-Text 35-40
  Elisa Giaccardi
This paper investigates 'pause' and 'duration' as conceptual resources to expand current design approaches to place, technology, and experience in museums to the extended temporality of heritage practice. The author strives to understand 'through design' how we come to value objects, places and events through multiple and repeated interactions. In doing so, the author contributes to expand the boundaries of interaction design beyond individuals acting 'in the moment' (pause) to individuals and communities participating 'across time' (duration) in the cultural production of memory and identity.
Imagining urban interactions: strategies for exploring future design landscapes BIBAFull-Text 41-45
  Michael Smyth; Ingi Helgason
For designers, attempting to respond to unknown design spaces can be a daunting task. This paper describes a series of workshops that presented rapid ethnographic design methods in city streets as a way of exploring human behaviours, and recording their traces. One instance of the workshop is described in detail to highlight the connections between the data gathering and the concept generation phases. Emphasis was placed on discovering "bleed points" where the virtual world can connect with the physical world. This activity was carried out with the aim of considering possibilities for interaction scenarios in future urban settings. The ethnographic observation and data gathering process itself was paramount in these workshops, enabling designers to engage with existing and potential interaction situations. Early concept development was the endpoint of this process, and designed responses were developed primarily to describe the emergent urban design space, rather than as a step towards any finished system or product.
Confronting a moral dilemma in virtual reality: a pilot study BIBAFull-Text 46-51
  Xueni Pan; Mel Slater
People tend to respond realistically to situations and events in immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Our research exploits this finding to test the hypothesis that the psychology underlying moral judgement is distinct from the psychology that drives moral action. We have conducted an online survey study with 80 respondents on people's judgments of moral dilemmas. Additionally, we have carried out a pilot study with 36 participants investigating people's responses when confronted with comparable moral dilemmas in two different types of VR: desktop VR and Immersive VR. We recorded participants' behavioural responses and post experimental questionnaire data. The results show that in general, participants' responses in VR were consistent with the patterns obtained from the online survey. However, results also suggest that participants in the Immersive VR condition differed from those in the desktop VR condition in two ways: they 1) experienced more panic and made more mistakes in their immediate action; 2) were more likely to give a utilitarian answer (saving the greatest number of lives) in the post experimental questionnaire. This pilot study provides encouraging evidence for the use of VR in the study of moral psychology, and in particular, for teasing apart the distinction between judgments and actions. They further reveal that although our VR set up only presented abstract human figures, participants had a strong emotional reaction to the dilemma, on both immersive and desktop platforms.
Reframing the design of context-aware computing BIBAFull-Text 52-57
  Margot Brereton; Hadi Mirisaee; Sunil Ghelawat; Paul Roe
From location-aware computing to mining the social web, representations of context have promised to make better software applications. The opportunities and challenges of context-aware computing from representational, situated and interactional perspectives have been well documented, but arguments from the perspective of design are somewhat disparate. This paper draws on both theoretical perspectives and a design framing, using the problem of designing a social mobile agile ridesharing system, in order to reflect upon and call for broader design approaches for context-aware computing and human-computer Interaction research in general.

Different perspectives

The behavioural impact of a visually represented virtual assistant in a self-service checkout context BIBAFull-Text 58-63
  Jeunese A. Payne; Graham I. Johnson; Andrea Szymkowiak
Our research investigated whether the presence of an interface agent -- or virtual assistant (VA) -- in a self-service checkout context has behavioural effects on the transaction process during particular tasks. While many participants claimed to have not noticed a VA within the self-service interface, behaviour was still affected, i.e. fewer people made errors with the VA present than in the voice-only and control conditions. The results are explained as reflective of an unconscious observation of non-verbal cues exhibited by the VA. The results are discussed in relation to possible behavioural outcomes of VA presence.
Eighty something: banking for the older old BIBAFull-Text 64-73
  John Vines; Mark Blythe; Paul Dunphy; Andrew Monk
An eighty year old today is expected on average to live well beyond the year 2020. However the needs of the older old are seldom considered in relation to current and future banking services. This paper documents a qualitative study investigating the meaning of money to a group of eighty somethings (people aged over 80). Participants were asked to tell their financial life stories. This focus on biography allowed them to relate rich narratives that indicated enduring values and concerns. Interviews with twelve participants as well as carers and financial experts were transcribed and analysed using a grounded theory technique. The key themes that emerged from these data were: materiality, control, locality and transferability. We discuss the implications of this study in reference to the next stage of design and policy focused research that aims to benefit the broader community.
Brainstorming under constraints: why software developers brainstorm in groups BIBAFull-Text 74-83
  Patrick C. Shih; Gina Venolia; Gary M. Olson
Group brainstorming is widely adopted as a design method in the domain of software development. However, existing brainstorming literature has consistently proven group brainstorming to be ineffective under the controlled laboratory settings. Yet, electronic brainstorming systems informed by the results of these prior laboratory studies have failed to gain adoption in the field because of the lack of support for group well-being and member support. Therefore, there is a need to better understand brainstorming in the field. In this work, we seek to understand why and how brainstorming is actually practiced, rather than how brainstorming practices deviate from formal brainstorming rules, by observing brainstorming meetings at Microsoft. The results of this work show that, contrary to the conventional brainstorming practices, software teams at Microsoft engage heavily in the constraint discovery process in their brainstorming meetings. We identified two types of constraints that occur in brainstorming meetings. Functional constraints are requirements and criteria that define the idea space, whereas practical constraints are limitations that prioritize the proposed solutions.
Who knows about me?: an analysis of age-related disclosure preferences BIBAFull-Text 84-87
  Linda Little; Pam Briggs; Lynne Coventry
Users are increasingly willing to disclose sensitive personal information online, seemingly without great regard for privacy protection. We surveyed over 1200 people to measure user attitudes and behaviours in terms of: (i) the type and perceived sensitivity of information they regularly disclosed, and (ii) who the recipients of different types of information were. In our initial analysis of the data we have observed an interesting age-related trend: a U shaped curve whereby the youngest and oldest members of society are less protective of their privacy than the middle-aged cohort.

Learning and motivation

Enabling live dialogic and collaborative learning between field and indoor contexts BIBAFull-Text 88-98
  Tim Coughlan; Anne Adams; Yvonne Rogers; Sarah-Jane Davies
This paper explores how field and indoor based students can be connected so that their contrasting circumstances and capabilities are used as a basis for learning. We describe the design of the 'Out There and In Here' system and activity. Using naturalistic evaluations in the context of higher education earth science, we find evidence that this approach can be beneficial in developing essential skills, by supporting dialogue and collaboration across diverse contexts. This provokes novel forms of reflection and motivation, and could inspire a new generation of learning tools combining mobile and collaborative technologies. We discuss important issues in this design space, such as asymmetrical dependencies and structures for dialogic and collaborative learning.
Usable web-based calendaring for blind users BIBAFull-Text 99-103
  Brian Wentz; Jonathan Lazar
While a calendar is generally thought of as a visual representation of a day, week, month or year; in its simplest form, a calendar consists of scheduled events with associated dates, times, locations and descriptions. In this paper we describe the design and evaluation of a web-based calendar prototype for blind individuals who use screen readers to access their computers and the Internet. With our new web-based calendar prototype, the successful completion across common calendar tasks improved from a mean of 43 per cent across other web-based email calendars to a mean of 96 per cent in our prototype calendar. This empirical study illustrates the types of simple design changes that can dramatically improve the level of access and usability of dynamic, web-based calendar interfaces for blind users.
Exploring teenagers' motivation to exercise through technology probes BIBAFull-Text 104-113
  Helen M. Edwards; Sharon McDonald; Tingting Zhao
This study used existing digital technologies as probes to explore teenager's use of exercise-related technology, their usage contexts, and their ideas for the design of ubiquitous technology that would persuade their peers to be more active in their daily lives. The teenagers formed two groups using two different types of step counters as their data collection device. Both groups used the same social website as their data logging tool and for social interaction. The one-week baseline plus six-weeks longitudinal study incorporated innovation workshops for generating user-centred design ideas: analysis of the findings drew out important lessons for the design of future devices. Key among these were: the impact of authority figures in restricting teenagers' use of technologies, teenagers' openness to sharing (privacy is not a concern), that data collection technologies must be ubiquitous but invisible, social interaction via technology is expected and positive messages reinforcing attainments of goals are valued (negative feedback is seen as demotivating).
The internet as an empowering technology for stigmatized groups: a case study of weight loss bloggers BIBAFull-Text 114-119
  Anne-Marie Oostveen
Despite the offline reluctance of individuals to talk openly about weight issues, there is an abundance of personal weblogs about weight loss with remarkably open accounts of everything to do with overweight. While the widespread use of personal blogs offer opportunities for interaction and communication they also raise privacy concerns. There are both potential positive and negative consequences for stigmatized individuals of online (self-) disclosure. Why are people willing to disclose information which has a social stigma offline? And can the Internet function as an empowering technology for those who are being stigmatized?

Evaluations

An empirical study on mobile phone usage BIBAFull-Text 120-125
  An Mahmood Khan
One of the major scientific undertakings over the past few years has been exploring the interaction between humans and machines in mobile environments. We have smart devices with high computational power. Some devices are also aware of context. For example, some mobile devices have built in GPS, light sensor and other detection devices like [1]. In this work, we will examine how mobile device could predict users' wishes regarding the push services like incoming mobile phone call. We conducted some experiments in order to get contextual data and then did analysis, a limited number of sensors were tagged to the user which were meant to detect certain characteristics of the environment the users were in, such as light sensor, temperature sensor, surrounding audio/noise level. Our results show that machine learning algorithms were able to classify the instances correctly with a high accuracy rate.
PLU-E: a proposed framework for planning and conducting evaluation studies with children BIBAFull-Text 126-131
  Lorna McKnight; Janet C. Read
While many models exist to support the design process of a software development project, the evaluation process is far less well defined and this lack of definition often leads to poorly designed evaluations, or the use of the wrong evaluation method. Evaluations of products for children can be especially complex as they need to consider the different requirements and aims that such a product may have, and often use new or developing evaluation methods. This paper takes the view that evaluations should be planned from the start of a project in order to yield the best results, and proposes a framework to facilitate this. This framework is particularly intended to support the varied and often conflicting requirements of a product designed for children, as defined by the PLU model, but could be adapted for other user groups.
Capturing and using emotion-based BCI signals in experiments: how subject's effort can influence results BIBAFull-Text 132-138
  Katie Crowley; Aidan Sliney; Ian Pitt; Dave Murphy
This study uses minimally invasive technology to monitor the emotional response of a subject during stress inducing psychological tasks. The goal of these tasks is to investigate the possibility of measuring and subsequently categorising the subject's level of stress using biosignal devices. If a consistent metric of stress can be determined it may be used for many forms of human-machine interaction in areas such as assessment and training. Two separate psychological tests were conducted, The Stroop Colour Word Interference Test (20 subjects), and The Towers of Hanoi (17 subjects). These tests examine directed attention, and sustained, consistent attention respectively. NeuroSky's Mindset device was used to record the stress and attention level of each subject. We examined the subject's attention while undertaking these tasks, and assessed any correlation between this and their level of stress during the task.
   This study shows that for most subjects, the less attent the subject is, the lower their stress level, and the higher the level of attention, the greater the level of stress (increased concentration etc.) As the difficulty of the task increased, some subjects appeared to 'lose interest' or reduce their level of attention, and consequently the level of stress measured decreased.
Visual fidelity of video prototypes and user feedback: a case study BIBAFull-Text 139-144
  B. Dhillon; P. Banach; R. Kocielnik; J. P. Emparanza; I. Politis; A. Paczewska; P. Markopoulos
This paper addresses the debate regarding the respective merits of high and low fidelity prototypes, in the domain of video prototyping. Video prototyping is a popular tool for interface designers. Despite this, there is practically no research reported to date examining the fidelity of the design representation that the video prototype should manifest. We report a case study where the same design concept was rendered on video in two formats with differing degree of visual fidelity: animated paper cut-outs (low visual fidelity) versus a video with real actors, edited to simulate computer output (high visual fidelity). A two-pronged comparative evaluation was carried out: a between-subjects questionnaire survey, consisting of AttrakDiff, open-ended questions completed by 99 participants, and semi-structured qualitative interviews with 9 participants. The results did not reveal any differences regarding the amount or quality of feedback one should expect from a low or a high fidelity video. These results lead us to suggest that the paper cut out animation is a valid prototype that should be explored more by interaction designers for obtaining early user feedback at low cost.

Lost something?

Query terms for art images: a comparison of specialist and layperson terminology BIBAFull-Text 145-150
  Daniel Isemann; Khurshid Ahmad
Museum and art-gallery curators have long had specialist collection management systems to facilitate access to works of art that were not available to the general public. The increasing availability of aesthetic images on the World Wide Web, however, especially through museum and gallery web pages, went hand in hand with an increasing sophistication of search paradigms. Retrieval methods have, in a literal and metaphorical sense, become multi-faceted. Art image retrieval can, depending on the retrieval task, draw to a greater or lesser extent on a rich body of expert knowledge from the domain of art history. We have conducted an exploratory study analysing the use of query terms for the same set of target images among a group of art specialists and laypersons. The survey suggests systematic and identifiable similarities and differences between the two groups. We argue that this finding needs to be considered in the design of image retrieval systems that are tailored to art collections.
Looking for non-existent information: a consumer-led interactive search approach BIBAFull-Text 151-156
  Yuqing Mao; Haifeng Shen; Chengzheng Sun
Exponential growth of user-generated content (UGC) on the Web demands an effective way for information consumers to acquire what they need. Specialized UGC search services outperform general-purpose search engines that usually have difficulties retrieving UGC or rank them low. However, with existing UGC search services, consumers may only be able to acquire information that is related to their needs rather than the exact information what they want. In this paper, we present a novel consumer-led interactive search approach that can help consumers acquire the information they exactly want through a consumer-led interactive search process where invited information providers jointly create such information on the fly. This approach has been implemented in a prototype system, which uses an epistemology structure to represent a consumer's information needs and lead an interactive search process. Preliminary user feedback has shown that this approach is particularly effective for a consumer to acquire a structured knowledge unit consisting of diverse but coherent information.
Optimising the number of channels in EEG-augmented image search BIBAFull-Text 157-162
  Graham Healy; Alan F. Smeaton
Recent proof-of-concept research has appeared showing the applicability of Brain Computer Interface (BCI) technology in combination with the human visual system, to classify images. The basic premise here is that images that arouse a participant's attention generate a detectable response in their brainwaves, measurable using an electroencephalograph (EEG). When a participant is given a target class of images to search for, each image belonging to that target class presented within a stream of images should elicit a distinctly detectable neural response. Previous work in this domain has primarily focused on validating the technique on proof of concept image sets that demonstrate desired properties and on examining the capabilities of the technique at various image presentation speeds. In this paper we expand on this by examining the capability of the technique when using a reduced number of channels in the EEG, and its impact on the detection accuracy.

Communities

The nature of child computer interaction BIBAFull-Text 163-170
  Janet Read; Tilde Bekker
This paper defines the field of Child Computer Interaction. Beginning with an historical look at this field, and identifying some of the key moments in its development, the work then brings together reflection from experience, and knowledge from literature, to describe and define Child Computer Interaction. In arriving at this definition, the authors highlight the key differences that set CCI apart from HCI and explores the extent to which these differences impact on the methods and approaches needed for research and practice in Child Computer Interaction. Key differences that are identified are the rate of change of children, the involvement of adult participants in children's interactions, the contexts in which children use computer technology, and the underlying cultural and societal assumptions about technology and children that determine what is good for children and what has value.
Employing participatory action research to augment software development for rural communities BIBAFull-Text 171-176
  Siang-Ting Siew; Alvin W. Yeo
The paper proposes a software development methodology which also employs the participatory action research (PAR) method given that PAR has been successfully employed in projects in rural communities. Arguments for this approach are provided, discussed in the context of software development for rural communities.
A phenomenological study of facial expression animation BIBAFull-Text 177-186
  Robin J. S. Sloan; Brian Robinson; Ken Scott-Brown; Fhionna Moore; Malcolm Cook
This paper covers the findings of a qualitative study of facial animation, in which a cohort of student animators were tasked with producing spatiotemporally configured emotional expression animations. The timing of the upper and lower face regions within and between expressions such as happiness, sadness, and anger was explored by the animators, who sought to determine which configurations were the most and least effective in practice. The results showed that the student animators shared a degree of consensus when they discussed which configurations they found most authentic, and which configurations were the most clear. Configuration selection was dependent on the emotion or emotional transition being animated. These findings demonstrate that engagement with hand-key animators and practice-based research can generate results which would be of interest to the broader HCI community, in particular as regards the animation of interactive humanoid agents which exhibit believable changes in emotion.

Unhealthy errors

A taxonomy of number entry error BIBAFull-Text 187-196
  Sarah Wiseman; Paul Cairns; Anna Cox
People are prone to errors in many aspects of life, including when entering numbers. The effects of these errors can be disastrous, for example when an incorrect number is entered when programming a medical infusion pump or when entering financial information into a system. Designing better systems may help to prevent these errors however, in order to do this we need to understand far more about the types of errors being made, and their causes. Unfortunately, there are very few documented examples of number entry errors and thus many of the studies conducted so far rely upon modelled, not real world data. This paper reports a study that was designed to elicit number entry errors and the subsequent process of creating a taxonomy of errors from the information gathered. A total of 345 errors were gathered. A method for classifying the errors using 13 codes is proposed -- this is a significantly higher figure than previously suggested, showing that currently we underestimate the true variety of such errors. These codes are then organised into a taxonomy similar to that of Zhang et al (2004). We show how this taxonomy can be used to guide future research into number entry errors by suggesting experimental conditions needed to provoke certain errors. The taxonomy may also be used during the initial stages of design to help the designer understand the categories of errors that users are most likely to make and thus design accordingly.
Unremarkable errors: low-level disturbances in infusion pump use BIBAFull-Text 197-204
  Dominic Furniss; Ann Blandford; Astrid Mayer
In this paper we describe results from an exploratory study observing infusion pump use in practice. From 31 observations of pump programming we note 10 low-level disturbances, which we conceptualise in terms of unremarkable error. This data supports a view that well performing systems cope with error as part of their normal work. Users are able to recover from error and are resilient to performance deviations. However, it is not clear how we, as HCI researchers, should respond to these minor errors: should we aim to minimise them or instead aim to improve detection, recovery and control in safety-critical systems? What is clear is that without remarking on unremarkable error we cannot begin this dialogue and consider the handling of these issues. To conclude we recognise four important factors that influence remedial action, and we highlight the need for a socio-technical approach for making change that is appropriate for practice.

Full body interaction

Exploring choreographers' conceptions of motion capture for full body interaction BIBAFull-Text 205-210
  Marco Gillies; Max Worgan; Hestia Peppe; Will Robinson; Nina Kov
We present the results of a group interview of choreographers aimed at understanding their conceptions of how movement can be used to in live performance. This understanding intended to inform research into full body interaction for live performance and other more general full body interfaces. The results of the interview suggest a new way of conceiving of interaction with digital technology, neither as a representation of movement, not as an interface that responds to movement but as a means of transforming movement. This transformed movement can then serve as a starting point for a dancers responses to transformations of their own movement thus setting up an improvisational feedback loop.
Supporting hand gestures in mobile remote collaboration: a usability evaluation BIBAFull-Text 211-216
  Weidong Huang; Leila Alem
Rapid advances in networking and hardware have made it possible for remotely located individuals to perform physical tasks together. Although a range of systems have been developed for remote collaboration, how to support the richness of hand gestures for an expert guiding a mobile worker located in a non-traditional-desktop environment has not been fully explored. HandsOnVideo is a system developed to fill this gap. The system uses a near-eye display to support mobility and unmediated representations of hands to support remote gestures. A usability evaluation has been conducted to gain in-depth understanding of the usefulness and usability of HandsOnVideo and the study yields positive results. In this paper, we describe the evaluation method, report the experimental results, discuss the findings and envision possible future improvements.
Designing blended reality space: conceptual foundations and applications BIBAFull-Text 217-226
  Kei Hoshi; Fredrik Öhberg; Annakarin Nyberg
The present paper starts with a crucial discussion about the imbalance between technological and human concerns in the context of human-computer interaction, an imbalance that has arisen partly from the mechanistic aspect and its impact on interaction design. We then introduce the concept of Blended Reality Space, interactive mixed reality environments where the physical and the virtual are seamlessly combined and affect each other. The conceptual grounding and practical examples that illustrate our approach to interaction design are then discussed, adopting a standard figurative representation of blends. This helps understanding the role of blending that meaningfully bridges unbalanced separations between cognition and action, and the physical and the virtual. As a concrete example, the AGNES project, which is aimed at developing "user sensitive home-based systems for successful ageing in a networked society", is introduced. We believe that the emphasis on 'balance' or appropriate blending is very important in the development of better interactive systems for health, capitalizing on seamless combinations of the virtual and the physical in Blended Reality Space.

Personal relationships

Up close and personal: social presence in mediated personal relationships BIBAFull-Text 227-236
  Daniel Gooch; Leon Watts
The likes of clarity and efficiency are good communication concepts for designers and evaluators of business communication tools. They make little sense, however, when the design context of an interactive system is the support of a personal relationship. What matters then is that people feel they are 'there' for one another. This paper describes a new way of understanding Social Presence in technologically mediated communication by relating it to a well-established psychological relationship construct: Closeness. We propose a model whereby an individual's long-term feeling of Closeness to others is influenced by communication events that are invested with a sense of Social Presence, as a function of the background level of psychological Closeness. Thus each communicative act, and its associated feeling of Social Presence, has an impact on the feeling of Closeness. We report a three-week-long study during which 18 participants reported daily ratings of Closeness, and communication-event ratings of both Closeness and Social Presence. Our findings are consistent with the model we propose, suggesting that systems for intimate relationships require consideration of both Social Presence and Closeness. We further consider methodological and measurement issues in the realm of personal relationships, and the expanding remit of HCI design as an active contributor to the world of experience and feelings.
A design framework for mediated personal relationship devices BIBAFull-Text 237-242
  Daniel Gooch; Leon Watts
Substantial numbers of people carry out intimate relationships at a distance. These people have to utilise a variety of communication technologies in order to maintain their relationship. Although a number of communication technologies have been developed to help maintain an emotional connection between remote couples, there has been no comprehensive consideration of the design space that these technologies are developed within. We present here a proposed design framework for intimate communication devices. The intention is to highlight the decisions designers have to make when coming up with new communication systems and provide a more formalised system for considering the issues involved.
Anatomy of an early social networking site BIBAFull-Text 243-252
  Alan Dix; Russell Beale; Nadeem Shabir; Justin Leavesley
Social networking software is ubiquitous, from Facebook to Flickr, defining the internet for many users. However, this is a recent phenomenon. Is the timing due to socio-technical determinism, inspiration of individuals, or sheer chance? While much has been written about recent successful social networking sites, this paper takes a different approach and examines vfridge, a social networking application developed 10 years ago, well before the current explosion, which, despite a vision that now seems prescient, was unsuccessful. The reasons for failure are partly about timing and market conditions, but also yield valuable lessons for future innovative applications.
"Accept" or "decline": alternative options for video telephony tools for inter-generational family communication BIBAFull-Text 253-258
  Bernhard Wöckl; Benjamin Wimmer; Ulcay Yildizoglu; Michael Leitner; Manfred Tscheligi
This study contributes to the discussion on video telephony for inter-generational family communication. We present an evaluation of 11 alternative interaction options next to the standard options "accept" or "decline" for video telephony in 10 family scenarios with 20 grandchildren and 20 grandparents. Results highlight a differentiated view of the two generations on family situations for inter-generational video communication. Grandparents are more likely to use video telephony in different situations than grandchildren. Further, family scenarios provoked different interactions by the two generations. Overall, we suggest alternative interaction options for inter-generational family communication enabling users to immediate react to incoming video calls to the current situation, goal, activity, context and self-disclosure needs.

Games and interaction

Social comics: a casual authoring game BIBAFull-Text 259-268
  Paul Lapides; Ehud Sharlin; Mario Costa Sousa
We present Social Comics, a casual video game that allows players to act in short comic strips that they create. We designed Social Comics to be a fast paced game that engages the audience and players equally, in an effort to adapt it for parties and social gatherings. We motivate Social Comics with a design framework for video games that combines three gameplay elements: sociability, physicality, and authoring. We believe that the combination of these three gameplay elements in video games will allow collocated players to enjoy game experiences that are socially rich, inclusive and creatively empowering. Our paper describes the design and implementation of Social Comics as well as the results of a user study evaluating the game.
Virtual spectating: hearing beyond the video arcade BIBAFull-Text 269-278
  Norman Makoto Su; Patrick C. Shih
The latest in the most popular head-to-head fighting video series, Super Street Fighter IV by Capcom, now features spectating functionality. Coupled with audio chat, players can both watch and participate in matches with anyone in the world. We describe a video analysis of over 36 hours of gameplay in SSF4. Our results show that players can deftly structure audio when spectating to transform gameplay in SSF4. This new hybrid spectator sport in which boundaries between actor and audience are blurred exhibits three significant characteristics: the audio recreates the arcade culture, appropriates "invisible" but real players, and symbolically creates power relations between mute and speaking gamers. We also present exploratory evidence that suggests a starkly different experience for female gamers who wish to audibly join in virtual spectating.
Prototyping in game design: externalization and internalization of game ideas BIBAFull-Text 279-288
  Jon Manker; Mattias Arvola
Prototyping is a well-studied activity for interaction designers, but its role in computer game design is relatively unexplored. The aim of this study is to shed light on prototyping in game design. Interviews were conducted with 27 game designers. The empirical data was structured using qualitative content analysis and analysed using the design version of The Activity Checklist. The analysis indicated that six categories of the checklist were significant for the data obtained. These categories are presented in relation to the data. The roles of externalization and internalization are specifically highlighted.

3D and targeting

Developing an open source exertion interface for two-handed 3D and 6DOF motion tracking and visualisation BIBAFull-Text 289-298
  Jennifer G. Sheridan
Novel technologies offer the potential for tracking and visualizing whole body movement in new ways which opens up possibilities for creating new forms of interaction. We highlight the problems and opportunities for designing for and the visualising of six degree of freedom (6DOF) motion tracking for absolute, two-handed input using the Nintendo Wiimote as our baseline platform and a playground clapping game as our context. We present a new technique for combining linear movement, rotation and vision tracking for two-handed motion tracking and provide links to open source tools and applications for next generation 6DOF motion tracking and visualisation of exertion games.
Relative and absolute mappings for rotating remote 3D objects on multi-touch tabletops BIBAFull-Text 299-308
  Shamus P. Smith; Elizabeth L. Burd; Linxiao Ma; Iyad Alagha; Andrew Hatch
The use of human fingers as an object selection and manipulation tool has raised significant challenges when interacting with direct-touch tabletop displays. This is particularly an issue when manipulating remote objects in 3D environments as finger presses can obscure objects at a distance that are rendered very small. Techniques to support remote manipulation either provide absolute mappings between finger presses and object transformation or rely on tools that support relative mappings t o selected objects. This paper explores techniques to manipulate remote 3D objects on direct-touch tabletops using absolute and relative mapping modes. A user study was conducted to compare absolute and relative mappings in support of a rotation task. Overall results did not show a statistically significant difference between these two mapping modes on both task completion time and the number of touches. However, the absolute mapping mode was found to be less efficient than the relative mapping mode when rotating a small object. Also participants preferred relative mapping for small objects. Four mapping techniques were then compared for perceived ease of use and learnability. Touchpad, voodoo doll and telescope techniques were found to be comparable for manipulating remote objects in a 3D scene. A flying camera technique was considered too complex and required increased effort by participants. Participants preferred an absolute mapping technique augmented to support small object manipulation, e.g. the voodoo doll technique.
Navigating the space: evaluating a 3D-input device in placement and docking tasks BIBAFull-Text 309-314
  Elke Mattheiss; Johann Schrammel; Manfred Tscheligi
We present a study investigating the performance in a 3D object manipulation task with a mouse and a dedicated input device (SpaceNavigator). Previous research delivered ambiguous results about the performance in different 3D tasks. Therefore we used placement (only translation) as well as docking (translation and rotation) tasks. Twelve participants experienced with 3D software took part in the study. They had to translate and rotate 30 cubes with the mouse and the SpaceNavigator (altogether 60 tasks) to place them on a chessboard in Autodesk Maya. The results show an outperformance of the mouse over the SpaceNavigator in the placement tasks but not in the docking tasks, which require a higher extent of object manipulation. Although the SpaceNavigator did not outperform the mouse, considering the number of tasks with the SpaceNavigator and further results of the study (like the learning effect and subjective feedback), the usage of a higher degree-of-freedom device for tasks with multiple simultaneous object manipulations seems reasonable.
A model of embodied dynamic peephole pointing for hidden targets BIBAFull-Text 315-320
  Jochen Huber; Jürgen Steimle; Max Mühlhäuser
Embodied interaction with spatially-aware displays allows users to explore virtual information spaces situated in the real world. However, users are only able to see a limited part of the information space through the rather small display window. Targets are thus often hidden. Optimizing the layout of the information space by considering navigation times to targets therefore becomes essential to increasing the efficiency of a user. We contribute a novel model for the embodied navigation of a-priori unknown information spaces with spatially-aware displays. The model is inspired by physiological aspects of the human body. We have empirically validated the model in a controlled experiment with 32 participants.

Healthy technology

Family vs. individual profiles in a health portal: strengths and weaknesses BIBAFull-Text 321-330
  Nathalie Colineau; Cécile Paris
Our research aims at helping families work together to achieve a healthier lifestyle, increasing their awareness of what they currently do and what they could do differently. We built a prototype collaborative platform for families to see if we could facilitate health discussions and encourage supportive behaviour within the family. This paper presents a trial we conducted online where we investigated what would be more promising: an individual profile, space and goal, for each individual in a family, or a family profile, space and goal. We show that both conditions have their strengths and weaknesses: whereas a specific goal at the individual level tends to lead to better task performance, a shared goal seemed to promote support within the family. Similarly, whereas individual spaces seemed to encourage more personal reflections, the shared space attracted more non-task related visits to the portal by family members.
Portraits of individuals with dementia: views of care managers BIBAFull-Text 331-340
  Gemma Webster; Deborah I. Fels; Gary Gowans; Vicki L. Hanson
It can be very difficult to get to know a person with late-stage dementia. This is especially true for staff that work in care homes with little time to spend with each resident and even less to focus on social interaction. This paper presents a software tool that was created to help care staff become more familiar with a person with dementia in a limited timeframe. A study was conducted with three care home managers to collect initial response, usefulness and usability ratings of the software in a care home environment. The participants responded positively to the software finding it engaging and very relevant to a care home environment
Distributed cognition for evaluating healthcare technology BIBAFull-Text 341-350
  Atish Rajkomar; Ann Blandford
Distributed Cognition (DCog) has been proposed as being a better approach to analyzing healthcare work than traditional cognitive approaches, due to the collaborative nature of healthcare work. This study sought to explore this by applying two DCog frameworks, DiCoT and the Resources Model, to the analysis of infusion pump use in an Intensive Care Unit. Data was gathered through observations and interviews, and then analysed using DiCoT and the Resources Model to construct models representing the social structures, information flows, physical layouts and artefact use involved in infusion administration in the ICU. The findings of the study confirm that DCog can be a methodology of choice for studying healthcare work: nurses collaborated significantly, artefacts played a major role in coordinating activity, and the physical environment influenced activity -- properties which DCog effectively supports reasoning about.

Nostalgia, curiosity and creativity

Making public media personal: nostalgia and reminiscence in the office BIBAFull-Text 351-360
  Paul André; Abigail Sellen; m. c. schraefel; Ken Wood
In this paper we explore the notion of creating personally evocative collections of content from publicly available material. Compared to the personal media that we look at, reminisce over, or personalise our offices with, public media offers the potential for a different type of nostalgia, signifiers of an era such as entertainment, products, or fashions. Reminiscence from public media may be particularly valuable in the workplace, where existing practices of office personalisation bring benefits, but also concerns in terms of privacy and disclosing too much of one's identity. The use of filtered public media may mitigate concerns over privacy, while providing similar benefits in terms of reminiscence, improving mood, and developing identity. After preliminary explorations of content and form, we developed a two-screen ambient display that cycled through 500 images automatically retrieved based on four simple user questions. We ran a two-week trial of the display with six users. We present qualitative results of the trial from which we see that it is possible to bring the delight associated with personal content into the workplace, while being mindful of issues of appropriateness and privacy. Images of locations from childhood were particularly evocative for all participants, while simple objects such as stickers, music, or boardgames were more varied across participants. We discuss a number of avenues for future work in the workplace and beyond: improving the chance of an evocative moment, capturing the mundane, and the crowdsourcing of nostalgia.
Curiosity and interaction: making people curious through interactive systems BIBAFull-Text 361-370
  Rob Tieben; Tilde Bekker; Ben Schouten
We explore the concepts of curiosity and interaction: how can we elicit curiosity in public spaces through interactive systems? We have developed a model consisting of five curiosity-evoking principles. In an iterative design research approach, we have explored the design implementations of these principles. Each principle has been evaluated in a school context, giving us insights about its use for changing behaviour through curiosity. The results of this exploration can be used to inform the design of persuasive and playful interactive systems.
The significant screwdriver: care, domestic masculinity, and interaction design BIBAFull-Text 371-377
  Shaowen Bardzell; Shad Gross; Jeffrey Wain; Austin Toombs; Jeffrey Bardzell
HCI is increasingly recognizing its accountability to stakeholders beyond individual end users. The field now acknowledges that interaction designs participate in social formations, exerting political force whether or not designers intend them to. Inspired by the commitment to social issues common to the arts, architecture, and the humanities, we present the Significant Screwdriver, a research through design pro-ject that explicitly seeks to transgress social norms regarding the gendered division of labour in the do-mestic sphere in hopes of yielding insights or orientations toward improving the quality of domestic life.
Collective creativity: the emergence of World of Warcraft machinima BIBAFull-Text 378-384
  Tyler Pace; Jeffrey Bardzell; Shaowen Bardzell
HCIs interest in creativity support has extended beyond the realm of information-oriented professionals to the efforts of experience-driven collective communities. World of Warcraft machinima provides an opportunity to study networked creativity among a widely distributed and highly productive amateur community. We present an analysis of metadata gathered from the most viewed machinima on YouTube and WarcraftMovies. We demonstrate (1) a means for selecting an accessible corpus from a large population of videos, and (2) provide early evidence to support the claim that collective creativity develops over time and reaches a point of stabilization of production practices, technological infrastructure, aesthetic forms, and critical appreciation.

Design and interaction

Nudging towards serendipity: a case with personal digital photos BIBAFull-Text 385-394
  Tuck Wah Leong; Richard Harper; Tim Regan
Serendipity is an engaging, deeply personal and even magical experience to some. While serendipity has been noted to arise during people's interactions with digital photos, we have yet to understand how this occurs or how it could be supported during-and-through the use of technology. Inspired by findings about serendipity arising from people's shuffle listening, we designed a digital photo display system to explore how we could support people's encounters with serendipity with digital photos. Through this, we gained a deeper understanding of this technology-mediated serendipity and found ways that can support and even nudge people towards encountering serendipity.
History and experience: storytelling and interaction design BIBAFull-Text 395-404
  Mark Blythe; John McCarthy; Peter Wright; Daniela Petrelli
This paper reflects on the uses of different forms of storytelling in the design and implementation of an experience prototype for a Museum exhibition about the medieval historian Jean Froissart. Concept designs developed during interdisciplinary design workshops were captured as pastiche scenarios for further discussions. Content was created using actors who recorded readings from Froissart's chronicles and then created dramatic or comic improvisations a round the same stories. A prototype was developed where users set levels for different kinds of content and wore a badge which enabled the system to present a personalised selection of material. The prototype was trialled with visitors to a live Froissart exhibit at the Leeds Royal Armouries. Observations and interviews were made over a three-day period and responses were overall enthusiastic. The paper argues that understandings of story are becoming central to experience centered design.

Designing health technology

An approach to designing interactive decision aid for cardiac patients BIBAFull-Text 405-412
  Anandhi V. Dhukaram; Chris Baber
The design of interactive decision aids for patients is challenging because there are few if any guidelines for information design for such devices. In this paper, we look at designing an interactive decision aid through the use of Cognitive Work Analysis (CWA) for cardiac patient needs. We focus on three analysis phases: work domain analysis (WDA), control task analysis, and strategies analysis. We discuss these three phases of the CWA, how we collected user needs using focus groups, and how the content of support is represented in each of these three levels. Finally, we discuss how the three levels influenced our design recommendations and ideas for how the information is presented.
Act collectively: opportunities for technologies to support low-income children with asthma BIBAFull-Text 413-420
  Hee Young Jeong; Gillian R. Hayes; Tae-Jung Yun; Ja-Young Sung; Gregory D. Abowd; Rosa I. Arriaga
Asthma is one of the most common childhood chronic diseases in the world, and the nature of paediatric asthma management inherently requires intense collaborative care. In this paper, we report the results of a multi-method qualitative inquiry aimed at understanding paediatric asthma management and the potential for technologies to support low-income families. Our findings highlight three themes around the challenges to managing paediatric asthma faced by low-income families in the US: information sharing about environmental triggers, health communication and coordination, and the need for social support. Additionally, we critique existing solutions in light of the needs of families and suggest new avenues for designing for effective asthma management.
Design and evaluation of an interactive visualization of therapy plans and patient data BIBAFull-Text 421-428
  Theresia Gschwandtner; Wolfgang Aigner; Katharina Kaiser; Silvia Miksch; Andreas Seyfang
CareCruiser is a system designed to visualize the effects of applying clinical treatment plans and to support the exploration of the effects that the treatments have on the patient's condition. While considerable progress has been made in recent years concerning the visualization methods to support computer-executable clinical treatment plans, our prototype succeeds in combining and enhancing the possibilities offered by the features of other systems. To ensure the quality of our visualization (1) we collaborated with a medical expert in an early design phase, (2) we conducted a heuristic usability evaluation, and (3) we tested its usefulness with domain experts. In the course of the usability evaluation the evaluators tested the prototype in conformance with generally accepted usability principles; in the user testing, physicians were asked to function as users and were interviewed afterwards. Both the usability evaluation and the user testing led to useful results and presented a very positive picture of the visualization and the exploration features of CareCruiser.

Posters

Emoticons convey emotion in CMC BIBAFull-Text 429-430
  Wonmi Ahn; Jeeyea Park; Kwang-hee Han
Expressing emotions in Computer-mediated communication is less social because of the lack of nonverbal cues unlike regular face-to-face communication. The use of emoticons or icons for visualizing emotions may be employed to replicate nonverbal facial expressions in CMC. This present research examined to what extent the use of emoticons (emotion icons) depends on social context (2: task-oriented vs. socio-emotional) and emotional valence (3: positive vs. neutral vs. negative). Participants were asked to type freely messages on mobile prototype with emoticons or without for six different scenarios. Results showed that there is a trend of kind of context. That is, participants used more emoticons in task-oriented than in socio-emotional social contexts. Furthermore, subjects reacted significantly more often with an emoticon in positive valence than in neutral or negative valence. An interaction was found between valence and kind of context. These results seemed in line with the social norms in face-to-face communication. We present implications with a empirical experiment that the use of emoticons in social interaction on the mobile.
Self affirming via the web: a potential lifestyle behaviour intervention? BIBAFull-Text 431-432
  Amy Fielden; Linda Little; Elizabeth Sillence
The potential for the internet to be utilised in the dissemination of health information is becoming increasingly apparent. This paper details the implementation of Self Affirmations into a web based programme, with the aim to assess the suitability of the web as a mode to deliver techniques that seek to motivate behaviour change. 58 undergraduate students participated in this pilot study. The results indicate that participants in the experimental condition (Self Affirmed) scored significantly higher on a measure to determine if they had Self Affirmed than the control group (p=0.01) and significantly higher on a measure of intent to change behaviour than the control group (p=0.002). This suggests that Self Affirmations can be successfully delivered online in order to impact on an individual's intention to change their behaviour. The results highlight the positive manner in which the internet can be used to promote healthier lifestyle behaviours.
Dimensions of complexity in community participation through ICT design BIBAFull-Text 433-434
  Karen George; Petia Sice; Robert Young; Jeremy Ellman; Safwat Mansi
The aim of this research is to develop a frame of reference for effective community participation through ICT design, applying both complexity and design perspectives to recognise the role of local interactions. This links to both the current UK 'Empowering Local Communities' policy agenda and to practical ways of developing community participation; in keeping with the aspirations of the Big Society (Cabinet Office, 2011).
YourGlove: a device for remote hand holding BIBAFull-Text 435-436
  Daniel Gooch; Leon Watts
Computer mediated communication (CMC) systems, as with the great majority of interactive systems, rely on their users' ability to encode and decode messages in sight and sound. They are however notoriously problematic for implicit communication and fostering a sense of intimacy between couples. We describe the design concept and construction of a device intended to exploit existing behaviour and a haptic sensory channel: hand holding.
Making your mind up?: the reliability of children's survey responses BIBAFull-Text 437-438
  Matthew Horton; Janet C. Read; Gavin Sim
Survey tools are widely used within Child Computer Interaction however the validity and reliability of children's responses are often brought into question. This paper reports on a study on the effects of asking the same questions to the same children over a period of a week to ascertain the validity of children's responses when completing a single questionnaire. The results showed that over 50% of the children, for each question, had less than half the items they stated as having at home in their results for both questionnaires questioning the validity of either questionnaire alone. Further research will look at the differences in time gaps and use of identical questionnaire styles.
Effect of multiple visual feedbacks for text entry on touch screen BIBAFull-Text 439-440
  Jeeyea Park; Jiyoung Kwon; Kwang Hee Han
A large amount of study about multisensory feedback for touch screen has been conducted, but multiple unisensory feedback has not. In this study, we investigated both objective and subjective evaluation of multiple visual feedbacks on touch screen. We presented two different visual feedbacks, either alone or combined, for QWERTY text entry. The results showed that the subjective evaluation of visual feedback 1 (Button feedback) was positive, while another visual feedback (Ripples) does not have any effect on evaluations. However, there was significant interaction between the two visual feedbacks. The effect of Button feedback was reduced while Ripples was provided. One possible explanation is that Ripples may not be appropriate for this task. Thus participants might ignore the Ripples feedback. Another is that multiple unisensory feedback might be too complicated, because these visual feedbacks overlap each other and moreover have different information.
Design guidelines for B2C e-commerce in virtual worlds BIBAFull-Text 441-442
  Minh Quang Tran; Shailey Minocha; Dave Roberts; Angus Laing; Darren Langdridge
Virtual worlds are three-dimensional (3D) persistent multi-user online environments in which users interact through avatars. Virtual worlds support many kinds of activities, including education, socialising, gaming and e-commerce. Our research focuses on how virtual worlds can be used to facilitate business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce involving real items. Examples of affordances of virtual worlds for e-commerce include 3D simulations, multi-user environments and avatar-based interactions. We have conducted empirical research to gather data about consumers' experiences in virtual worlds to understand ways to utilise their affordances for B2C e-commerce. Based on our empirical research and a literature review, we have derived design guidelines for the design and evaluation of B2C e-commerce environments involving virtual worlds. This poster presents a summary of the research project and a subset of the guidelines.

Work in progress

A personal context-aware multi-device coaching service that supports a healthy lifestyle BIBAFull-Text 443-448
  Rieks op den Akker; Randy Klaassen; Tine Lavrysen; Gijs Geleijnse; Aart van Halteren; Henk Schwietert; Marloes van der Hout
This paper describes work in progress in the European Artemis project Smarcos. Smarcos focuses on interusability of multi-device embedded and networked services. The work presented here is devoted to the development of context-aware personal coaching service systems that give users personalized feedback to empower them to make healthy lifestyle choices. Our target group consists of diabetes type II patients and the lifestyle intervention concerns situated coaching with respect to physical activity and medicine compliance. We describe the stages in the process, starting with user studies. We describe the ontology that supports the interoperability and the knowledge design to support the coaching strategy, the architecture of the prototype system and the interactions that users have with the system through various (mobile) devices in various contexts. The ultimate aim of the system is to increase the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions by means of interusable coaching interactions. We conclude with an outlook and discussion on the effectiveness of a human-like (autonomous) character as a relational agent representing a virtual coach across devices and situations.
Applying sonification to improve accessibility of point-and-click computer games for people with limited vision BIBAFull-Text 449-454
  José Ángel Vallejo-Pinto; Javier Torrente; Baltasar Fernández-Manjón; Manuel Ortega-Moral
Computer game accessibility for people with limited vision is a challenging problem because many games, such as point-and-click games, heavily rely on mouse interaction for game world exploration. But mouse interaction requires the sense of sight for orientation and navigating through the user interface. Solutions have been proposed to this problem but usually they come at a significant increase in the cost (e.g. haptic devices). This paper explores the use of general sonification techniques applicable to a broad set of games to generate acoustic hints that help limited vision users to locate the interactive elements in the game world by simplifying the use of the mouse. This is a first step to improve point-and-click computer games accessibility with little extra development cost and the initial sonification experiments with limited vision people show promising results.
Exploring the use of an online community in welfare transition programs BIBAFull-Text 455-460
  Nathalie Colineau; Cécile Paris; Amanda Dennett
We present here the results of an initial consultation we conducted through group interviews with welfare recipients about the usefulness of establishing a government-mediated online community that would help them in making the transition from welfare support to work.
In a world of their own: working on the move BIBAFull-Text 461-466
  Wendy Goucher; Karen Renaud
The traditional model of white collar workers inhabiting offices to carry out their tasks is no longer valid in the 21st century. Many employees now carry information with them and work while travelling, in hotels and at home. This is a relatively recent development, however, and since the information they carry with them is often sensitive, we have to consider how this new model impacts on the security of the organisation's now distributed and potentially unsecured information. Whereas previously employees could relax within the company's office space, they now cannot let their guard down since they are surrounded by strangers who are not bound by the same loyalties or employment contracts. How aware are mobile workers of the risks of mobile working? Situational Awareness is a concept that has been well known since its role in the development in aircraft design following World War One. It continues to inform studies on the use of mobile phones in cars and the role of distraction in pedestrian accidents. This paper reports on research into leakage of sensitive business information that results from inattention to the risk of working in public places, while on the move.
Getting more out of your images: augmenting photos for recollection and reminiscence BIBAFull-Text 467-472
  Florian Güldenpfennig; Geraldine Fitzpatrick
In recent years HCI-related research has shown an increasing interest in systems designed for supporting human memory. However, many of these systems focus more on the technical challenges, especially around data collection and retrieval. In this paper we introduce three ideas for augmenting digital images to support recollection, reminiscing and reflection. Three playful applications are proposed that are motivated by related theories in psychology. They employ experimental concepts by modifying images in different ways before displaying them and hence adding additional value. Our intention is to activate the observer's memory, to focus on the detail of things and to take a look "behind the camera". We propose that such approaches can encourage more mindful engagement with the huge amount of digital images available and promote positive effects linked to reminiscing.
Investigating familiar interactions to help older adults learn computer applications more easily BIBAFull-Text 473-478
  Nic Hollinworth; Faustina Hwang
Many older adults wish to gain competence in using a computer, but many application interfaces are perceived as complex and difficult to use, deterring potential users from investing the time to learn them. Hence, this study looks at the potential of 'familiar' interface design which builds upon users' knowledge of real world interactions, and applies existing skills to a new domain. Tools are provided in the form of familiar visual objects, and manipulated like real-world counterparts, rather than with buttons, icons and menus found in classic WIMP interfaces.
   This paper describes the formative evaluation of computer interactions that are based upon familiar real world tasks, which support multitouch interaction, involves few buttons and icons, no menus, no right-clicks or double-clicks and no dialogs. Using an example of an email client to test the principles of using "familiarity", the initial feedback was very encouraging, with 3 of the 4 participants being able to undertake some of the basic email tasks with no prior training and little or no help. The feedback has informed a number of refinements of the design principles, such as providing clearer affordance for visual objects. A full study is currently underway.
The benefits of opening recommendation to human interaction BIBAFull-Text 479-484
  Eoin Hurrel; Alan F. Smeaton
This paper describes work in progress that uses an interactive recommendation process to construct new objects which are tailored to user preferences. The novelty in our work is moving from the recommendation of static objects like consumer goods, movies or books, towards dynamically-constructed recommendations which are built as part of the recommendation process. As a proof-of-concept we build running or jogging routes for visitors to a city, recommending routes to users according to their preferences and we present details of this system.
Using web 2.0 applications to increase local community wellbeing BIBAFull-Text 485-490
  Rachel Keller
Typically, local communities have limited resources and technological know-how which may explain why they fail to fully exploit the features of 'web 2.0'. This is problematic because web 2.0 can increase social capital offline as well as online. Social capital contributes significantly to wellbeing. The aim of the research was to establish if a good design may significantly increase engagement for a diverse demographic typical of a local community. Diversity is critical for developing certain kinds of social capital. However 'designing for everybody' is challenging in both style and content. In the FutureVille design, an atypical range of Web 2.0 applications to those normally seen, were conjoined. The design incorporated 'status icons' as metaphors for the 'health' of the community. Evaluations by users across a wide demographic showed a high intent to use the design. Compared to a good standard community website, intent to use, was significantly higher. The FutureVille design merits further assessment with a greater number of users. This paper offers insights into engaging wider participation in Web 2.0 applications for community wellbeing and outlines challenging and potentially fruitful research avenues.
Self-reflection on personal values to support value-sensitive design BIBAFull-Text 491-496
  Alina Pommeranz; Christian Detweiler; Pascal Wiggers; Catholijn M. Jonker
The impact of ubiquitous technology and social media on our lives is rapidly increasing. We explicitly need to consider personal values affected or violated by these systems. Value-sensitive design can guide a designer in building systems that account for human values. However, the framework lacks clear steps to guide elicitation of stakeholders' values. We argue that developing tools for value elicitation that designers can use or give to stakeholders is a feasible solution to this challenge. Crucial in eliciting values is that a stakeholder has to have an understanding about her own values and how they relate in importance. This requires self-reflection. Self-reflection, in turn, requires thinking or analysing one's behaviour in meaningful moments over a long period of time. In this paper, we investigate how current methods from various disciplines can be combined and applied in a tool supporting reflection on personal values. We present an exploratory study investigating photo elicitation and a value questionnaire as methods for expressing and eliciting values with a tool. Based on the results we present an envisioned mobile personal informatics application that triggers people to reflect about their values in real-life contexts.
Evaluating user interface adaptations at runtime by simulating user interaction BIBAFull-Text 497-502
  Michael Quade; Grzegorz Lehmann; Marco Blumendorf; Dirk Roscher; Sahin Albayrak
Adaptive user interfaces are commonly used for providing different layouts and information according to the current context-of-use. However, the complexity and heterogeneity of potential users, platforms and environments lead to a combinatorial explosion of variants, making it almost impossible to foresee all potential results of adaptations at design time. In this paper we present our work on the automatic evaluation of usability aspects of adaptive user interfaces at runtime which is supposed to be used complementary to design time usability evaluation. We show how a user interface model, providing different adaptation alternatives, can be combined with a model of the current user to simulate interaction and evaluate the feasibility of different adaptations.
Persuasion knowledge toolkit: requirements gathering with designer BIBAFull-Text 503-508
  Aeni Zuhana Saidin; Catriona Macaulay; Nick Hine
Persuasion has played an important role in human life since it began. In the early 1990s a new approach called persuasive design was introduced into the HCI field. Persuasive design recognised that persuasion knowledge could be applied to the design and development of a variety interactive applications for changing people's attitudes and behaviours. However, the field remains very young, with the transfer of persuasion knowledge to interaction designers particularly limited. This paper presents work towards the design of a toolkit to make this knowledge more accessible to designers during the design lifecycle. The paper introduces our work towards a "Persuasion Knowledge Toolkit" (PToolkit). We present the key body of work undertaken so far; the generation of requirements for such a toolkit and our exploration of the challenges in making rich bodies of literature around topics such as persuasion accessible to designers.
Supporting the wizard: interface improvements in Wizard of Oz studies BIBAFull-Text 509-514
  Stephan Schlögl; Anne Schneider; Saturnino Luz; Gavin Doherty
Prototyping early in the design process is important for the development of high-quality software. Sketches and wireframes are effective artefacts that inform the design of applications based on Graphical User Interfaces. For applications using speech and Language Technologies (LTC) the Wizard of Oz method aims to fullfil this task. In order to support the demanding task of the wizard, however an optimal wizard interface is desirable. While several wizard interfaces have been built to date, most of them were designed for designated experiments. The possibilities of a generic wizard interface that would address the difficulties of the wizard task across the boundaries of varying experiment settings have remained largely unexplored. In this paper we report on two experiments that aimed at exploring the wizard task in order to inform the design of a universal wizard interface for testing LTCs.
Does your boss know where you are?: predicting adoption of LBS in the workplace BIBAFull-Text 515-519
  Lisa Thomas; Pam Briggs; Linda Little
To date there has been no tested model to predict uptake of LBS services in a real world setting. The leading theoretical contribution to our understanding of attitudes and behaviour towards LBS comes from Junglas & Spitzmüller (2005). They hypothesised that intentions to use LBS would be influenced by technology characteristics, task characteristics, personality type, perceived privacy, perceived usefulness, trust and perceived risk. We developed a questionnaire to test and refine their model with a UK employed population.
Investigating affordances of virtual worlds for real world B2C e-commerce BIBAFull-Text 520-525
  Minh Quang Tran; Shailey Minocha; Dave Roberts; Angus Laing; Darren Langdridge
Virtual worlds are three-dimensional (3D) online persistent multi-user environments where users interact through avatars. The literature suggests that virtual worlds can facilitate real world business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce. However, few real world businesses have adopted virtual worlds for B2C e-commerce. In this paper, we present results from interviews with consumers in a virtual world to investigate how virtual worlds can support B2C e-commerce. A thematic analysis of the data was conducted to uncover affordances and constraints of virtual worlds for B2C e-commerce. Two affordances (habitability and appearance of realness) and one constraint (demand for specialised skill) were uncovered. The implications of this research for designers are (1) to provide options to consumers that enable them to manage their online reputation, (2) to focus on managing consumers' expectations and (3) to facilitate learning between consumers.

Doctoral consortium

Adapting the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) as a tool for validating user needs on the implementation of e-trial software systems BIBAFull-Text 526-530
  Amani J. Algharibi; Theodoros N. Arvanitis
This paper presents an adapted version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology Model to be utilised as a validation tool of captured user needs and requirements of particular interactive software technologies, within the framework of Clinical Trial Management Systems (CTMS). In particular, this model is used to assess the users' acceptance and technology adoption of specific CTMS modules of the electronic Primary Care Research Network (ePCRN) Clinical Trial Management Framework System. We present modifications on the variable of the key constructs of UTAUT, while we introduce our own moderating factors for the model in the context of validating an eligibility criteria tool for primary care and community-based clinical research.
Urban HCI: interaction patterns in the built environment BIBAFull-Text 531-534
  Patrick Tobias Fischer; Eva Hornecker
In this paper I describe my doctoral research on urban interaction design. The objective of this work is to explore and conceptualize principles for the design of Shared Encounters. By accounting for the relevance of relational and social space a new thinking different from Ubiquitous Computing can emerge.
Real-time feedback for learning the violin BIBAFull-Text 535-538
  Rose Johnson; Janet van der Linden; Yvonne Rogers
My PhD looks at how technology can give feedback to novice musicians to help them learn and to encourage them to practice. In particular I am looking at real-time feedback which means that the learner receives feedback while they are playing. This presents both challenges and opportunities, in terms of how feedback can be presented in a useful and motivating way. I intend to explore these through building prototypes and evaluating them in in-the-wild user studies. The outcome of this research will be design guidelines to help future applications of real-time feedback.
An economic approach to studying division of workload in collaborative search tasks BIBAFull-Text 539-542
  Ryan Kelly
This paper describes the current status of my doctoral research. In my work I am developing a novel approach to studying division of workload in collaborative tasks, with a particular focus on exploring division of labour in collaborative information seeking. My approach is based on the application of an economic game to the problem of workload division. Using this game as a theoretical and empirical model of labour division, my work aims to explore the way in which collaborators negotiate over their individual and collective workloads. I expect my research to shed new light on how people choose to negotiate and organise their individual workloads during collaborative search. It is hoped that this information could be used to inform the design of division of labour policies in collaborative systems, as well as to reason more generally about how people value workloads over other rewards and payoffs.
Personal state and emotion monitoring by wearable computing and machine learning BIBAFull-Text 543-545
  Ali Mahmood Khan
One of the major scientific undertakings over the past few years has been exploring the interaction between humans and machines in mobile environments. Research projects have brought forth various possibilities of interaction between humans and computers. Our daily lives are becoming more and more pervasive: we now have smart devices with high computational power. Until now, there is no smart device which has the capability of determining whether the user's heart beat is normal or not while also taking the emotion states into account. To find out whether the user's heart beat is normal or not; the user's physical activities and emotion states have to be identified.
Biometrics to improve methodologies on understanding player's gameplay experience BIBAFull-Text 546-549
  Pejman Mirza-babaei
Due to the specific characteristics of video games most of the established HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) methods of user research cannot be used the same way for video games. To address this, the research project presented here adapts methods suited for empirical research on video games. This will be based on utilising player's physiological measures in conjunction with other user research methodologies such as observation, interview, think-aloud, heuristics and behavioural coding.
Mobile phone vs PC internet browsing in Jordan BIBAFull-Text 550-552
  Firas Omar; Steve Love
Mobile internet technology is spreading day by day around the world. The importance of such technology relates to its ability to allow access to the internet any time or any place. Despite the progress made in the mobile internet field, there are still some difficulties in using it. Some of these difficulties are connected directly to the mobile usability issues such as the screen size, input method and font size. Other difficulties are related to the experience in using such technology. This research aims to find out the main boundaries and obstacles which limit the use of mobile handsets as an internet platform. The research aim extends to studying the effect of cultural issues on people's use of the internet on a mobile phone. The research reported here is based on participants from the Hashemite Kingdome of Jordan.
Practical privacy-aware opportunistic networking BIBAFull-Text 553-557
  Iain Parris; Tristan Henderson
Opportunistic networks have been the study of much research -- in particular on making end-to-end routing efficient. Users' privacy concerns, however, have not been the subject of much research. What privacy concerns might opportunistic network users have? Is it possible to build opportunistic networks that can mitigate users' privacy concerns while maintaining routing performance?
   Our work-to-date has tackled the problem of creating privacy-preserving routing protocols, with less emphasis on discovering users' actual privacy concerns. We summarise our current results, and describe a future experiment that we have planned to better understand users' privacy concerns.
Investigating the information seeking behaviour of blind searchers on the web BIBAFull-Text 558-560
  Nuzhah Gooda Sahib
I am in the second year of my PhD in the School of Electronic Engineering and Computer Science and my area of research overlaps Information Retrieval and Human-Computer Interaction. In this project, I study the information seeking behaviour of visually impaired searchers and focus on the challenges they face when using online search interfaces. I propose to design and implement an accessible search interface that considers the needs of users of screen readers and also advocate for cognitive load to play an important role in design decisions.
Learning to cope with digital technology BIBAFull-Text 561-564
  Emilia Sobolewska; David Benyon
Technology surrounds people; it functions as their best friend and the worst enemy. From a trip to the local supermarket, to almost every aspect of people's professional and social lives technology is present; mediating their interactions, demanding their attention and engaging them. The main objective of this research is to understand how people learn to cope with the everyday use with the digital technology.