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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 980001020304050607-107-208-108-209101112131415

Proceedings of the HCI'08 Conference on People and Computers XXII

Fullname:Proceedings of the 22nd Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group
Note:Culture, Creativity, Interaction
Editors:David England; Russell Beale
Location:Liverpool, United Kingdom
Dates:2008-Sep-01 to 2008-Sep-05
Volume:1
Publisher:BCS
Standard No:ISSN 1477-9358; ISBN 1-906124-04-3, 978-1-906124-04-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: BCSHCI08-1
Papers:19
Pages:201
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. BCSHCI 2008-09-01 Volume 1
    1. Culture
    2. Visual Experience
    3. Assistive Technology
    4. Methods
    5. Privacy
    6. Sense Making I
    7. Sense Making II
    8. Demanding Tasks

BCSHCI 2008-09-01 Volume 1

Culture

Cultural Dimensions for User Experience: Cross-Country and Cross-Product Analysis of Users' Cultural Characteristics BIBA1Full-Text 3-12
  Inseong Lee; Gi Woong Choi; Jinwoo Kim; Solyung Kim; Kiho Lee; Daniel Kim; Myunghee Han; Seung Yong Park
The quality of user experience is intricately related to the users' cultural characteristics. However, not many studies have dealt with important cultural characteristics which are closely related to user experience. The main goals of this study are to identify important cultural dimensions that are closely related to the user experience of consumer electronic products and to measure them in different countries with different products. Contextual inquiries and online surveys were conducted in four different countries: the United States, Germany, Russia, and Korea. The study was participated by users of four different consumer electronic products: cellular phones, MP3 players, LCD-TVs, and refrigerators. The study identified ten cultural dimensions that were important to the user experience of consumer electronics. The cultural dimensions were also found to vary across the four different countries and four different products. This paper concludes with a discussion of the study's implications and its limitations.
Wave Like an Egyptian -- Accelerometer Based Gesture Recognition for Culture Specific Interactions BIBAPDFFull-Text 13-22
  Matthias Rehm; Nikolaus Bee; Elisabeth André
The user's behavior and his interpretation of interactions with others is influenced by his cultural background, which provides a number of heuristics or patterns of behaviour and interpretation. This cultural influence on interaction has largely been neglected in HCI research due to two challenges: (i) grasping culture as a computational term and (ii) infering the user's cultural background by observable measures. In this paper, we describe how the Wiimote can be utilized to uncover the user's cultural background by analyzing his patterns of gestural expressivity in a model based on cultural dimensions. With this information at hand, the behavior of an interactive system can be adapted to culture-dependent patterns of interaction.
Disclosing Spoken Culture: User Interfaces for Access to Spoken Word Archives BIBAPDFFull-Text 23-32
  Willemijn Heeren; Franciska de Jong
Over the past century alone, millions of hours of audiovisual data have been collected with great potential for e.g., new creative productions, research and educational purposes. The actual (re-)use of these collections, however, is severely hindered by their generally limited access. In this paper a framework for improved access to spoken content from the cultural heritage domain is proposed, with a focus on online user interface designs that support access to speech archives. The evaluation of the user interface for an instantiation of the framework is presented, and future work for the adaptation of this first prototype to other collections and archives is proposed.

Visual Experience

Effect of Fidelity in Diagram Presentation BIBAPDFFull-Text 35-44
  Louise Yeung; Beryl Plimmer; Brenda Lobb; Douglas Elliffe
The visual fidelity (fidelity) of a design diagram affects perception and design performance. Hand-drawn diagrams are more effective working documents for early design tasks such as user interface designs than the equivalent computer-prepared formal representation. However people prefer more formal representations because they feel that hand-drawn diagrams look unprofessional. Sketch-based design tools make it possible to present partially tidied designs. We have postulated intermediary levels of visual fidelity in a systematic manner and implemented these levels into a sketch tool to evaluate the effect of computerization and fidelity on perception and design performance. Our findings show that: performance decreased systematically with increased fidelity; that computer presented designs decreases performance and that performance was decreased by computerization of the hand-drawn diagrams. In contrast, user satisfaction was higher with increasing levels of fidelity. These results pose challenges to the sketch tools community and further questions for effective computer support for early design.
Designing a Head-Up Game for Children BIBAPDFFull-Text 45-53
  Koen Hendrix; Guo Yang; Dirk van de Mortel; Tim Tijs; Panos Markopoulos
Head-Up Games [19,20] attempt to combine the technological benefits of modern electronic games with the social and physical advantages of traditional games. To demonstrate this concept, a Head-Up Game for 9- to 11-year-old children was designed and developed iteratively, with intensive involvement of children for play-testing. This paper describes and reflects on the game's design process and the implications regarding the concept of Head-Up Games. The final game, Stop the Bomb, was found to be physically and socially stimulating, understood and enjoyed by the target group, and preferred over a non-electronic version of the game at first encounter.
From Immersion to Addiction in Videogames BIBAPDFFull-Text 55-63
  May-li Seah; Paul Cairns
Immersion is commonly described by gamers and game-reviewers as an important aspect of a videogame. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between the immersive experience of videogames and the addictive nature of games. Building on Charlton's (2002) study of addiction and engagement in computing, we conducted a questionnaire study of people who play videogames. It seems that videogames blur the distinction between addiction and high engagement even more than generic computing. In a follow up diary study, the degree of immersion whilst playing was found to be strongly correlated (r=0.763) with the addiction/engagement score. Overall, these studies suggest that the degree of immersive experience is closely related to how addictive or engaging people find videogames and moreover that addiction seems to be an extreme form of engagement and immersion.

Assistive Technology

An Apartment-based Metaphor for Intuitive Interaction with Ambient Assisted Living Applications BIBAPDFFull-Text 67-75
  Sebastian Adam; Kizito Ssamula; Kai Breiner; Marcus Trapp
Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) aims at supporting elderly people in their daily lives, allowing them to grow old at home. In order to provide easy remote control over the rapidly growing number of assistance services from anywhere in the apartment, many AAL environments offer a universal control device. However, the problem of structuring the numerous services for intuitive usage has not been solved satisfactorily yet. This paper introduces a spatial metaphor for universal control devices to structure available services based on the elderly person's own apartment. We carried out a study with 18 younger elderly people using a prototype to evaluate the appropriateness and acceptance of this metaphor. The results included in this paper show that this apartment metaphor is appropriate and accepted by this main target group of AAL.
Designing for Elders: Exploring the Complexity of Relationships in Later Life BIBAPDFFull-Text 77-86
  Siân E. Lindley; Richard Harper; Abigail Sellen
We present a review of literature from the fields of gerontology, HCI and human factors, which focus on the nature of family and peer relationships in old age. We find both simplistic, prevailing models of what it means to be old, as well as deeper insights which often belie these models. In addition, we discover that new technologies are often also based on quite simple assumptions, but that their deployment points to a more complex reality. This paper considers a number of perspectives on relationships in later life, critiques the assumptions underscoring them, and presents an alternative view which we believe is more in line with the perspective of elderly people themselves. We end by discussing what this means in terms of designing new technologies for older people.

Methods

Heterogeneity in the Usability Evaluation Process BIBAPDFFull-Text 89-98
  Martin Schmettow
Current prediction models for usability evaluations are based on stochastic distributions derived from series of Bernoulli processes. The underlying assumption of these models is a homogeneous detection probability despite of it being intuitively unrealistic. This paper contributes a simple statistical test for existence of heterogeneity in the process. The compound beta-binomial model is proposed to incorporate sources of heterogeneity and compared to the binomial model. Analysis of several data sets from the literature illustrates the methods and reveals that heterogeneity occurs in most situations. Finally, it is demonstrated how heterogeneity biases the prediction of evaluation processes. Open research questions are discussed and preliminary advice for practitioners for controlling their processes is given.
An Investigation into the use of Field Methods in the Design and Evaluation of Interactive Systems BIBAPDFFull-Text 99-108
  Kelly Monahan; Mia Lahteenmaki; Sharon McDonald; Gilbert Cockton
This paper reports the results of an international web-based survey on the use of field studies in the design and evaluation of interactive systems, which was conducted between December 2006 and February 2007. The results suggest that the advantages and disadvantages of field methods are generally well understood, but guidance is needed in their application and use. Field studies were most frequently used for understanding context, and respondents preferred a more varied approach to method use rather than following a defined methodology such as Contextual Design. Observations were rated as the most effective technique overall, although interviews appeared to be more frequently used. Significant areas of further improvement for field methods were identified as improvements in data collection/analysis tools and improvements in adaptability of methods.

Privacy

Strategies and Struggles with Privacy in an Online Social Networking Community BIBAPDFFull-Text 111-119
  Katherine Strater; Heather Richter Lipford
Online social networking communities such as Facebook and MySpace are extremely popular. These sites have changed how many people develop and maintain relationships through posting and sharing personal information. The amount and depth of these personal disclosures have raised concerns regarding online privacy. We expand upon previous research on users' under-utilization of available privacy options by examining users' current strategies for maintaining their privacy, and where those strategies fail, on the online social network site Facebook. Our results demonstrate the need for mechanisms that provide awareness of the privacy impact of users' daily interactions.
Influencing Users Towards Better Passwords: Persuasive Cued Click-Points BIBAPDFFull-Text 121-130
  Sonia Chiasson; Alain Forget; Robert Biddle; P. C. van Oorschot
Usable security has unique usability challenges because the need for security often means that standard human-computer interaction approaches cannot be directly applied. An important usability goal for authentication systems is to support users in selecting better passwords, thus increasing security by expanding the effective password space. In click-based graphical passwords, poorly chosen passwords lead to the emergence of hotspots -- portions of the image where users are more likely to select click-points, allowing attackers to mount more successful dictionary attacks. We use persuasion to influence user choice in click-based graphical passwords, encouraging users to select more random, and hence more secure, click-points. Our approach is to introduce persuasion to the Cued Click-Points graphical password scheme (Chiasson, van Oorschot, Biddle, 2007). Our resulting scheme significantly reduces hotspots while still maintaining its usability.

Sense Making I

Location-based Photography as Sense-making BIBAPDFFull-Text 133-140
  Chris Baber; James Cross; Tariq Khaleel; Russell Beale
In this paper we consider ways in which images collected in the field can be used as to support sense-making. Weick's concept of sense-making is applied to the capture of images. A study is reported in which visitors to an open-air museum were asked to take photographs of aspects of the site that they found interesting. Photographs were taken using a bespoke application in which a webcam and global positioning system device, attached to a small tablet computer, are used to capture tagged images. Tagging is supported by the use of a simple menu that allows users to classify the images.
The Roles of Time, Place, Value and Relationships in Collocated Photo Sharing with Camera Phones BIBAPDFFull-Text 141-150
  Hanna Stelmaszewska; Bob Fields; Ann Blandford
Photo sharing on camera phones is becoming a common way to maintain closeness and relationships with friends and family. How people share their photos in collocated settings using camera phones, with whom they share, and what factors influence their sharing experience were the themes explored in this study. Results showed that people exhibit different photo sharing behaviour depending on who they share photos with, where the sharing takes place and what value a picture represents to its owner.
   In this paper, we will explain what triggers the photo sharing activity and how the sharing takes place depending on who photos are shared with and where they are shared (e.g. restaurant, pub, home). The sharing experience is hindered by the difficulty of controlling which photographs are made available to particular people; sharing with a group of people at once; and ensuring appropriate privacy measures. These findings highlight requirements for novel mechanisms for organising, sharing, and displaying photos as well as provide a better understanding of photo sharing behaviour using camera phones in collocated settings.

Sense Making II

Cueing Digital Memory: How and Why do Digital Notes Help Us Remember? BIBAPDFFull-Text 153-161
  Vaiva Kalnikaité; Steve Whittaker
People are aware of the fact that their memories are fallible. As a result, they spend significant amounts of time preparing for subsequent memory challenges, e.g. by leaving themselves reminders. Recent findings suggest, however, that people's ability to prepare for subsequent retrieval may not always be effective. This paper looks at the efficacy of memory strategies in the context of digital and paper-based note-taking. Prior research has claimed that (a) notes may not always be useful in promoting later retrieval; (b) taking notes may distract people from effectively processing important information. We examined pen and paper note-taking as well as a new generation digital note-taking device ChittyChatty, finding that notes help memory in two ways. First they provide cues that help people retrieve information that they might otherwise forget. Second the act of taking notes helps people to better focus on incoming information even if they never later consult these notes. Finally we found differences between different note-taking strategies. People who take high quality notes remember better than those who focus on exhaustive documentation; taking large volumes of notes decreases the efficiency of retrieval -- possibly because it is more time consuming to scan extensive notes to find relevant retrieval cues.
Sonic Gems: Exploring the Potential of Audio Recording as a Form of Sentimental Memory Capture BIBAPDFFull-Text 163-172
  Gerard Oleksik; Lorna M. Brown
This paper presents an exploratory study exploring the potential of audio recording as a form of sentimental memory capture. Drawing on data from four family households, we spotlight participants' attitudes towards sounds and audio recording, their existing recording practices and the types of sounds that they record when given a digital sound recorder. The findings indicate that a variety of different sounds were important, for a diversity of reasons. The paper considers participants' experiences of listening back to sounds, illuminating some of the unique affordances of audio recordings as a form of sentimental memory capture. The paper finishes by exploring the design challenges which the study raises for the capture, playback and archiving of sentimental audio.
Effects of Low & High Literacy on User Performance in Information Search and Retrieval BIBAPDFFull-Text 173-181
  Neesha Kodagoda; B. L. William Wong
This study was part of research into understanding the nature of how low literacy users search for and retrieve information, and to therefore develop systems and user interface designs that would empower low literacy users to find information they need in the rapidly evolving e-government and e-social services environment. We compared information search and retrieval performance between high and low literacy users of a Citizens Advice Bureau information kiosk system in the UK. The kiosk provided self-help information in a number of social services areas. Six high literacy and six low literacy users were presented with information search tasks classified as having low, medium and high complexity. Key results indicate that (i) low literacy users take eight times more time than high literacy users to complete an information search task, and yet were significantly less accurate, (ii) low literacy users on average spent one-third more time on a web page than high literacy users, but did not seem to be informed by it, (iii) low literacy users employed a much less focused information search strategy than high literacy users visiting eight times more web pages in total, (iv) low literacy users back-tracked 13 times more frequently than high literacy users, and are four times more likely to re-visit web pages, and (v) low literacy users are 13 times more likely to be lost than high literacy users.

Demanding Tasks

Assessing the Benefits of Multimodal Feedback on Dual-Task Performance under Demanding Conditions BIBAPDFFull-Text 185-192
  Ju-Hwan Lee; Charles Spence
The last few years have seen the release of an increasing number of new IT-related devices into the marketplace that have started to utilize tactile feedback. These include those devices incorporating a touch screen that make multimodal feedback incorporating the delivery of two or more sensory modalities possible. The commonly-held view is that the use of such multimodal (or multisensory) feedback, involving the presentation of information to two or more sensory modalities ought, if anything, to improve the usability, performance, and satisfaction of the interface. In particular, an especially beneficial effect of multimodal feedback might be expected in those situations that are highly perceptually and/or cognitively demanding, such as driving a car or monitoring a complex system.
   In the present study, we examined the potential beneficial effect of the multimodal feedback provided by a touch screen on participants' performance in a perceptually demanding dual-task situation. We compared unimodal (visual) feedback with various kinds of multimodal (bimodal and trimodal) feedback. In addition, we also investigated the consequences of varying the intensity and number of multimodal feedback signals that were presented on driver performance (Experiment 2). Overall, the results of the two experiments reported here show that the presentation of multimodal feedback results in enhanced performance and more pronounced benefits as the intensity of the feedback signals presented to the different modalities is increased.
Evaluating Driver Attention and Driving Behaviour: Comparing Controlled Driving and Simulated Driving BIBAPDFFull-Text 193-201
  Kenneth M. Bach; Mads G. Jæger; Mikael B. Skov; Nils G. Thomassen
Emerging in-vehicle systems have turned the contemporary car into a human-computer interaction context that has its own set of rules and challenges. Interacting with in-vehicle systems while driving a car can greatly affect the driving performance and have been shown to be the cause of many road accidents. Evaluation of in-vehicle systems is a subject of much interest to developers and researchers. One of the major issues is how to evaluate; is there added value in taking your evaluation on the road or is simulated driving sufficient? This paper examines differences and similarities between taking in-vehicle systems to a track or to the laboratory by investigating the results (and costs associated) from two driving settings for in-vehicle systems evaluation; one on a test track and one using a lightweight driving simulator. Our results show that the two settings do seem to lead to a number of similar results. However, our results indicated that controlled driving yield more frequent and longer eye glances compared to simulated driving and driving errors were more common in simulated driving.