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BCSHCI Tables of Contents: 97980001020304050607-107-208-108-209101112131415

Proceedings of the HCI'07 Conference on People and Computers XXI

Fullname:Proceedings of the 21st Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group
Note:HCI...but not as we know it
Editors:Dorothy Rachovides; Devina Ramduny-Ellis
Location:Lancaster University, England, United Kingdom
Dates:2007-Sep-03 to 2007-Sep-07
Volume:2
Publisher:BCS
Standard No:ISSN 1477-9358; 1-902505-95-6, 978-1-902505-95-4; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: BCSHCI07-2
Papers:79
Pages:270
Links:Online Proceedings
  1. BCSHCI 2007-09-03 Volume 2
    1. Short Papers
    2. Student Papers
    3. Posters
    4. Interactive Experience
    5. Panels
    6. Organisational Overviews
    7. Workshops
    8. Tutorials
    9. HCI Practice Day
    10. Doctoral Consortium

BCSHCI 2007-09-03 Volume 2

Short Papers

Blogs, Reflective Practice and Student-Centred Learning BIBAPDFFull-Text 1
  Russell Beale
Blogging can be used to enhance education by encouraging reflective practice. We present a study in which a final year HCI course was constructed around regular blogging activity. We discuss the role of blogs in providing a social mechanism for the student body and in acting as a conduit between classroom and practical examples. We analyze the blogs from a quantitative and qualitative perspective, and show that the students found it a useful and effective addition to their learning.
Erotic Life as a New Frontier in HCI BIBAPDFFull-Text 2
  Olav W. Bertelsen; Marianne Graves Petersen
In this paper we discuss how information technology impacts erotic life. This has been a neglected issue in most of the literature, even the literature on IT in the home. We argue that current IT, in particular in the home, tends to marginalize erotic aspects of life, through developing domestic technology, without considering how it impacts conditions for erotic life in the home. We suggest the need for a counter discourse in HCI, and we outline a number of theoretical and empirical perspectives, which can contribute to establish erotic life as a new frontier in HCI.
An Empirical Investigation into Dual-Task Trade-offs while Driving and Dialing BIBAPDFFull-Text 3
  Duncan P. Brumby; Dario D. Salvucci; Andrew Howes
Engaging in a secondary task, such as dialing a cell phone, while driving a car has been found to have a deleterious effect on driver performance. A point often overlooked though is that people can potentially vary the extent to which these two tasks are interleaved (i.e., attention can be returned to driving more or less often while dialing). To investigate this idea of strategic variability in multitasking behavior, an experiment was conducted in a driving simulator in which participants were instructed to focus on dialing as quickly as possible or on steering as safely as possible. It was found that participants drove more safely when encouraged to do so. However, driving safely necessarily brought about an increase in the total time to complete the dialing task because of frequent task interleaving. In contrast, there was a significant increase in the lateral deviation of the car from the lane centre when participants were encouraged to complete the dialing task as quickly as possible. These results suggest that contrary to existing advice, the total time that the driver is distracted is less important to safety than the strategy used for interleaving secondary and primary tasks. In particular, there may be value in designing mobile devices that facilitate short bursts of interaction for in-car use because allowing drivers to make additional glances back to the road while actively working on a concurrent secondary task might help to elevate some of the effects of distracted driving.
Habitats: A Simple Way to Bridge Artifacts, Professions, and Theories in Ubiquitous Design BIBAPDFFull-Text 4
  Martin Brynskov; Gunnar Kramp
This paper briefly shows how product designers as well as information system designers may use the habitat framework as a tool to inform their understanding of the pervasive computing systems they are designing. This is done by (1) introducing the basic elements of habitats, (2) analyzing and comparing two empirical case-studies, one about life and death (emergency response at major incidents) and one about playfulness (children's pervasive play and gaming), and (3) discussing the usefulness of using habitats. The result is a number of real-world examples where we argue that using habitats as a simple common ground seems to be useful for professionals coming from quite different traditions.
Lessons Learned Implementing an Educational System in Second Life BIBAPDFFull-Text 5
  Richard Stephen Clavering; Andrew Robert Nicols
Second Life is an online 3D virtual environment that offers interesting potential for use in education due to its widespread availability, flexibility, and its use of standard platforms and input devices. Given a broad design brief for a nine-week masters' student project of using Second Life for education, we explored a range of potential ways of using the environment, and designed and implemented a 3D turtle-graphics system. In this paper we present our findings together with a reflection on both the constraints that Second Life places on the range of educational uses worth pursuing, and the specific issues likely to be faced by researchers creating other such systems.
Learning Beans: Design, Implementation and Evaluation BIBAPDFFull-Text 6
  Fintan Culwin
This paper describes the use of statechart notation to design the pattern of behavior that a user will have when interacting with a learning bean. The larger context of a learning bean and the stakeholders that are involved in its deployment and use are also introduced, two beans are briefly described and the results of a user trial presented.
Designing for Appropriation BIBAPDFFull-Text 7
  Alan Dix
Ethnographies often show that users appropriate and adapt technology in ways never envisaged by the designers, or even deliberately subverting the designers' intentions. As design can never be complete, such appropriation is regarded as an important and positive phenomenon. However designing for appropriation is often seen as an oxymoron; it appears impossible to design for the unexpected. In this paper we present some guidelines for appropriation based on our own experience and published literature and demonstrate their use in two case studies. You may not be able to design for the unexpected, but you can design to allow the unexpected.
Evaluating Advanced Interaction Techniques for Navigating Google Earth BIBAPDFFull-Text 8
  Emmanuel Dubois; Philippe Truillet; Cédric Bach
This paper presents the design and comparison of a mouse-based interaction technique (hereafter IT) and two advanced IT, used in public spaces to support navigation in a 3D space. The comparison is based on a composite evaluation, including performance and satisfaction aspects. These preliminary results demonstrate that the use of mixed IT in a public space do not result in more differences among user than a mouse-based IT. It also highlights the fact that performance and satisfaction have to be considered simultaneously since they appear to be two complementary aspects of an evaluation, especially in public space environment, where the performance is no longer the only dimension to consider.
Envisioning Future Mobile Spatial Applications BIBAPDFFull-Text 9
  Peter Fröhlich; Rainer Simon; Elisabeth Muss; Andrea Stepan; Peter Reichl
This paper presents two empirical investigations of future applications of mobile spatial interaction, i.e. the use of mobile phones as pointers to the real world. In situated interviews and a photo diary study, real-world objects of interest for referencing services were identified. Furthermore, envisioned services, their attractiveness and relevant usage situations were explored. The presented results of the study indicate that access to background information on buildings as well as spatially-related search and service access are highly attractive for future users, whereas spatially-related purchase, advertisement, gaming, and sharing is of less interest.
Thanks for the Memory BIBAPDFFull-Text 10
  Richard Harper; Dave Randall; Nicky Smyth; Carwyn Evans; Lisa Heledd; Robin Moore
This paper reports the trial of a memory prosthesis, SenseCam, as a resource for digital narratives. Over a period of one week, six participants were asked to use SenseCams to capture digital traces of their experiences, and to use the same to create 'story telling' materials for presentation. The study found that all users delighted in the devices, though the traces that the SenseCams produced were not analogues to their own memory. Instead, the data traces presented a picture of daily life which was at once different to the one recollected by participants and yet brought a sense of wonder, depth and felt-life that was enriching. Furthermore, SenseCam data enabled participants to create artistic and evocative stories about prosaic activities that would not normally merit being recounted. The paper will comment on the implications these findings have for memory prosthesis device design, and on the epistemological assumptions underscoring them.
Automatic vs. Manual Multi-Display Configuration: A Study of User Performance in a Semi-Cooperative Task Setting BIBAPDFFull-Text 11
  Thomas Heider; Thomas Kirste
Emerging multi-display infrastructures provide users with a large number of (semi-) public and private displays. Selecting what information to present on which display here becomes a real issue, especially when multiple users with diverging interests have to be considered. This especially holds for dynamic ensembles of displays. Therefore, automatic assignment strategies might be useful, if they are able to provide the required assignment precision. We claim that it is possible to define such strategies, and show that it is able to assist users in solving specific tasks in multi-display environments at least as effectively as conventional manual assignment. Our claims are based on user performance data collected in the scope of a comparison study.
Head-Shaped Tangible Interface for Affective Expression BIBAPDFFull-Text 12
  Christian Jacquemin
A head shaped resin with several holes and equipped with a camera is used for facial expression synthesis through intuitive multiple finger contacts and gestures. The calibration of the interface is presented together with an evaluation of its accuracy under different light and equipment conditions. Three experiments on using the interface of facial expression synthesis are described: a synthesis of emoticons and two modes of expressive animation by associating faces zones with expressions of a 3D face. Evaluations confirm the usability of the interface and show that subjects have appreciated its nuanced and sensitive interaction modes.
Expert Habits vs. UI Improvements: Re-Design of a Room Booking System BIBAPDFFull-Text 13
  Per A. Jonasson; Morten Fjeld; Aiko Fallas Yamashita
This paper presents the results of a case study examining prototyping as a method in re-designing a user interface (UI). In the case presented, a web-based room booking was re-designed. Running on a university web site, the existing system has caused much critique amongst its users. Their expectations for a new UI were increased ease of use, less effort required, and less time consumed. We prototyped a new UI using Visio and tested it with a small number of experienced and novice users. Our results partly favor the existing system and partly the new one. To our surprise, experienced users performed relatively poorer with the new UI considering their critique of the existing one. We found paper prototyping to be an efficient method to gain user feedback on usability issues and that a low-fidelity prototype does not automatically mean low-effort testing. We observed that visible-state UI elements can be demanding to test through paper prototyping.
GazeSpace: Eye Gaze Controlled Content Spaces BIBAPDFFull-Text 14
  Sven Laqua; Shane Udaraka Bandara; Angela Sasse
In this paper, we introduce GazeSpace, a novel system utilizing eye gaze to browse content spaces. While most existing eye gaze systems are designed for medical contexts, GazeSpace is aimed at able-bodied audiences. As this target group has much higher expectations for quality of interaction and general usability, GazeSpace integrates a contextual user interface, and rich continuous feedback to the user. To cope with real-world information tasks, GazeSpace incorporates novel algorithms using a more dynamic gaze-interest threshold instead of static dwell-times. We have conducted an experiment to evaluate user satisfaction and results show that GazeSpace is easy to use and a "fun experience".
Contextualizing the Blogosphere: A Comparison of Traditional and Novel User Interfaces of the Web BIBAPDFFull-Text 15
  Sven Laqua; Nnamdi Ogbechie; Angela Sasse
In this paper, we investigate how contextual user interfaces affect blog reading experience. Based on a review of previous research, we argue why and how contextualization may result in (H1) enhanced blog reading experiences. In an eyetracking experiment, we tested 3 different web-based user interfaces for information spaces. The StarTree interface (by Inxight) and the Focus-Metaphor interface are compared with a standard blog interface. Information tasks have been used to evaluate and compare task performance and user satisfaction between these three interfaces. We found that both contextual user interfaces clearly outperformed the traditional blog interface, both in terms of task performance as well as user satisfaction.
Bluetooth Friendly Names: Bringing Classic HCI Questions into the Mobile Space BIBAPDFFull-Text 16
  Barry Lavelle; Daragh Byrne; Gareth J. F. Jones; Alan F. Smeaton
We explore the use of Bluetooth friendly names within the mobile space. Each Bluetooth-enabled device possesses a short string known as a 'friendly name' used to help identify a device to human users. In our analysis, we collected friendly names in use on 9,854 Bluetooth-enabled devices over a 7-month period. These names were then classified and the results analysed. We discovered that a broad range of HCI themes are applicable to the domain of Bluetooth friendly names, including previous work on personalisation, naming strategies and anonymity in computer mediated communication. We also found that Bluetooth is already being used as a platform for social interaction and communication amongst collocated groups and has moved beyond its original intention of file exchange.
Investigating the Usability of PDAs with Ageing Users BIBAPDFFull-Text 17
  Sheila McCarthy; Heather Sayers; Paul McKevitt
Mobile technologies have the potential to enhance the lives of ageing users, especially those who experience a decline in cognitive abilities. However, diminutive devices often perplex the aged and many HCI problems exist. This research ultimately aims to develop a mobile reminiscent application for ageing users entitled MemoryLane. This application will use artificial intelligent techniques to compose and convey excerpts from a lifetime's memories to the user in a multimodal storytelling format. The proposed deployment platform for MemoryLane is a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA). The initial stage of this research, a HCI pilot study was recently conducted with a sample of ageing users, the study aimed to investigate the usability of a PDA. This paper documents the methodologies employed in this pilot study and its subsequent results. The next stages of the research are also identified and discussed.
ALT Text and Basic Accessibility BIBAPDFFull-Text 18
  Tom McEwan; Ben Weerts
Recent surveys have shown that the majority of websites are not accessible. Despite legal obligations and the importance of the internet for disabled people, most websites fail to reach a basic level of accessibility, yet web developers are not short of accessibility guidelines and recommendations. This preliminary study consists of a meta-review of web accessibility studies in order to identify a set of common barriers faced by the impaired. Automated testing, of websites created by recent multimedia graduates in their final semester, confirms these problems. In particular non-use, and incorrect use, of ALT (alternative) text emerges as the most frequent, basic error. We conclude that ALT is a litmus test of developers' attitudes towards accessibility and propose future work to identify how to understand and improve these attitudes.
Calling Time: An Effective and Affective Evaluation of Two Versions of the MIT Beer Game BIBAPDFFull-Text 19
  Nicola Millard; Rosalind Britton
Playing a business game needs to be both educational and entertaining. Thus, evaluation of the experience of playing games needs to incorporate both effective and affective dimensions. This experiment compared the experience of playing the conventional MIT beer game with a prototype electronic version, which had been developed to reduce the complexity and costs associated with the original game. It suggested design enhancements in terms of effective and affective dimensions of play.
Overcoming the Distance between Friends BIBAPDFFull-Text 20
  Johanna Renny Octavia; Elise van den Hoven; Hans De Mondt
Staying in touch is a fundamental aspect in maintaining a long-distance relationship, whether it is in a family context or a friendship. An effective communication appliance can enable families or friends living apart to have a feeling of connectedness and help them to maintain their relationship despite the physical distance. This paper describes the results of an exploration study on people living far away from their families and friends, with a focus on how they stay in touch with their close friends and overcome the distance. The targeted user group in this study is geographically and physically isolated people. A user study was conducted by means of a survey, focus group and interview. The results show that sharing problems and feelings between two remotely located friends is crucial. Consequently, the design goal was set to enable users to notify and physically comfort each other, in a subtle way, through a remote but shared experience, whenever a problem or feeling occurs.
Validating the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) Tool Cross-Culturally BIBAPDFFull-Text 21
  Lidia Oshlyansky; Paul Cairns; Harold Thimbleby
HCI methods and tools are often used cross-culturally before being tested for appropriateness and validity. As new tools emerge, they must be cross-culturally validated to ensure that they work with all audiences, not just those in the country in which they were developed. This paper presents the validation of a technology acceptance model over nine culturally-diverse countries. The model validated is the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT). The paper also explores ongoing analysis of the culture differences that emerge on UTAUT measures, and suggests avenues for future work.
Voice Art: Investigating Paralinguistic Voice as a Mode of Interaction to Create Visual Art BIBAPDFFull-Text 22
  Dharami Perera; R. T. Jim Eales; Kathy Blashki
In this paper, we report on our investigation into people's ability to use the volume of their voice to control cursor movement to create drawings. Early analysis of the results show changing the volume of the voice as an interaction method is a concept that is easily understood by users. People find changing the volume of their voice comfortable, natural and intuitive. With motivation, training and practice use of volume to control drawing tasks shows great promise. This is especially hopeful for artists with upper limb disabilities who show remarkable endurance, patience and determination to create art with whatever means available to them. We have also identified several design recommendations that may improve the control and performance of such a system. We believe that volume control has wider implications beyond assisting artists with upper limb disabilities. Some possible implications may be: as an alternative mode of interaction for disabled people to perform tasks other than creating visual art or for hands busy environments and as a voice training system for people with speech impairments.
Interaction Design in the Wild BIBAPDFFull-Text 23
  Dorothy Rachovides; David Frohlich; Maxine Frank
The StoryBank project in the UK is exploring the application of digital storytelling technology to information sharing in the developing world. A multidisciplinary team of interaction designers, ethnographers and computer scientists are adopting a user-centered approach to the design of a system which should be useful to a specific rural community in South India. This paper discusses some of the challenges that the interaction designers met and how these shaped the design process.
Meaningful Personalization at a Self-Service Kiosk BIBAPDFFull-Text 24
  Jamie Sands; Graham Johnson; David Benyon; Gregory Leplatre
Personalization of a self-services kiosk or ATM may provide the user with an efficient means of obtaining new appropriate services with the degree of immediate gratification consumers now require. Successful personalization relies on many factors including acceptance of the services provided and the way these services are delivered. This paper presents a summary of the results from a recent investigation of personalized services at a self-service kiosk and the use of avatars as a potential interface style. Results indicate that users -- in particular younger users -- would accept personal information being used and would accept new services such as news headlines and budgeting advice at a self-service kiosk.
A Pattern-Based Usability Inspection Method: First Empirical Performance Measures and Future Issues BIBAPDFFull-Text 25
  Martin Schmettow; Sabine Niebuhr
The Usability Pattern Inspection (UPI) is a new usability inspection method designed for the added downstream utility of producing concrete design recommendations. This paper provides first empirical evidence that UPI measures up to the established inspection method Heuristic Evaluation (HE) regarding defect identification. It is shown that there is also some potential for synergy between UPI and HE. The further research plan of measuring UPI is presented.
Usability -- Not as we know it! BIBAPDFFull-Text 26
  Paula Alexandra Silva; Alan Dix
YouTube has been the Internet success story of 2006. However, when subjected to conventional usability evaluation it appears to fail miserably. With this and other social Web services, the purpose of the user is fun, uncertainty, engagement and self-expression. Web2.0 has turned the passive 'user' into an active producer of content and shaper of the ultimate user experience. This more playful, more participative, often joyful use of technology appears to conflict with conventional usability, but we argue that a deeper 'usability' emerges that respects the user's purposes whether acting as homo ludens.
Names and Reference in User Interfaces BIBAPDFFull-Text 27
  Harold Thimbleby; Michael Harrison
This short paper argues that references in user interfaces, in particular names and the values they denote, are often designed in a way that is incomplete and inconsistent thereby causing problems for users. This paper explores names and values through illustrations in order to clear the way for a more systematic approach to the design of names and reference.
Internalist and Externalist HCI BIBAPDFFull-Text 28
  Harold Thimbleby; Will Thimbleby
The history of technology, as a discipline, supports alternate points of view termed internalist and externalist, which terms highlight an approximately similar division in points of view within HCI. Conventional HCI is externalist, rightly concerned with human-centered issues; but externalism risks ignoring important internalist issues. A successful human-computer system is better if it is successful from both perspectives. This discussion paper argues that the externalist view, while necessary and immensely useful, is not sufficient -- and in the worst case, risks eclipsing innovation from internalist quarters.
Designing Educational Software Inline with the Creative Learning Process: Just how Important is the Preparation Phase? BIBAPDFFull-Text 29
  Sylvia Truman
A question gaining widespread interest in education today is 'how can learning tasks be structured to encourage creative thinking in the classroom?' This has a number of implications for the design of educational software. Numerous scholars have suggested that the processes of 'learning' and 'creativity' share many similarities. Extending upon this a generative framework of creative learning is presented here. This framework exists as a design support tool to aid the design of educational software. In order to demonstrate how this framework can be applied in practice, a music composition program called 'SoundScape' has been developed in accordance with the framework. This paper reports upon study conducted with SoundScape within a school with 96 children aged 11. The study focused upon two objectives, firstly, identifying differences in explicitly supporting the "preparation" phase of the creative process as opposed to not explicitly supporting the "preparation" phase. Secondly, the study compared differences in using real-world metaphors at the interface compared to using visual abstract representations at the interface.
Is an Apology Enough? How to Resolve Trust Breakdowns in Episodic Online Interactions BIBAPDFFull-Text 30
  Asimina Vasalou; Astrid Hopfensitz; Jeremy Pitt
This paper addresses what kind of system allows the victim of a trust breakdown to fairly assess an unintentional offender who is also a benevolent member. Two systems were compared: a system that displayed the offender's unblemished reputation score as obtained in previous interactions with other members, and a system that also had a communication channel which displayed the offender's expressed apology and regret over the offence. The findings of this study suggest that the system which also endorses apology, as well as records reputation, allows the victim to recover his/her trust in the unintentional offender. However, trust is repaired only when the offender validates the apology with a reparative action.
Use Study on a Home Video Editing System BIBAPDFFull-Text 31
  Hans Weda; Marco Campanella
To help consumers dealing with their growing amount of home video, we have developed the Edit While Watching (EWW) system. It is designed to automatically create an edited version of a home video and then allow the users to modify and refine it in an easy, intuitive and lean-back way. To measure the ease of use, ease of learning, and effectiveness of the EWW system, we have performed a use test by means of giving participants tasks to do and interviewing them. The use test was focused on four main aspects: functionality, usability, pleasantness, and user satisfaction. The test was performed with eight participants, and was located in the Philips HomeLab, which resembles a home environment as much as possible. The results show that the system provides rather limited control of the editing functions, and the overview of the video material is unsatisfactory. However, the participants judged the system as an easy to learn and easy to use video editing tool. They expressed their pleasure in working with it.

Student Papers

Visualising Bluetooth Interactions: Combining the Arc Diagram and DocuBurst Techniques BIBAPDFFull-Text 32
  Daragh Byrne; Barry Lavelle; Gareth J. F. Jones; Alan F. Smeaton
Within the Bluetooth mobile space, overwhelmingly large sets of interaction and encounter data can very quickly be accumulated. This presents a challenge to gaining an understanding and overview of the dataset as a whole. In order to overcome this problem, we have designed a visualisation which provides an informative overview of the dataset. The visualisation combines existing Arc Diagram and DocuBurst techniques into a radial space-filling layout capable of conveying a rich understanding of Bluetooth interaction data, and clearly represents social networks and relationships established among encountered devices. The end result enables a user to visually interpret the relative importance of individual devices encountered, the relationships established between them and the usage of Bluetooth 'friendly names' (or device labels) within the data.
Breaking the Campus Bubble: Informed, Engaged, Connected BIBAPDFFull-Text 33
  Nick Day; Corina Sas; Alan Dix; Mokoko Toma; Chris Bevan; Dave Clare
This paper introduces UniVote, a system supporting mobile phone-based interaction with public displays. The case study carried out at Lancaster University indicates that the campus "bubble" in which students live can lead to feelings of isolation within an insular community cut off from the outside world. UniVote makes use of a voting system to help elicit user involvement, keep users informed of campus- and world-wide events and news and create a sense of community. Findings of this preliminary study suggest that the campus "bubble" can indeed be broken, and the voting component of the system particularly fosters interaction and human connectedness.
Teaching Severely Autistic Children to Recognise Emotions: Finding a Methodology BIBAPDFFull-Text 34
  Salima Elzouki; Marc Fabri; David Moore
This paper presents part of our wider research project concerning the design, development and evaluation of computer systems for children with autism. Research currently being carried out concerns how children with autism recognise human facial expressions of emotion and how the use of computer-based animated characters might help them in this recognition. The context for the research is a primary school unit of children with severe autism and moderate to severe learning difficulties. We present results of a preliminary study designed to establish a baseline for the abilities of each child, and describe the methodology considerations that arose during and after the study. The merit of participant observers is discussed, and links to action research are pointed out.
MARPLE Investigates: An 'Adversarial' Approach to Evaluating User Experience BIBAPDFFull-Text 35
  Jane Holt; Simon Lock
User experience of interactive systems has always been difficult to assess due to its subjective nature. In this paper we present a new approach to the evaluation of pleasure as an aspect of user experience. This multi-lateral approach, entitled MARPLE, is based upon an adversarial courtroom metaphor.
Designing for Photolurking BIBAPDFFull-Text 36
  Haliyana Khalid; Alan Dix
This paper describes our early work on design and development to support photolurking. Photolurking is browsing and looking at people's photographs without participating in discussion or addressing the owner of the photographs or photologs, whilst still discussing them in other avenues. We suggest several recommendations, including supporting ad-hoc instantaneous sharing, having remote and live discussion with groups of friends, and fostering collaborative experience. Having said that, the aim of this paper is not to propose an ideal application for supporting photolurking, but rather to provide an instance of how findings and analysis from ethnographic studies can feed into practical design.
Mapping the Demographies of Virtual Humans BIBAPDFFull-Text 37
  Rabia Khan; Antonella De Angeli
This paper presents a census of 147 virtual agents, by examining and reporting on their physical and demographical characteristics. The study shows that the vast majority of agents developed are from a white ethnic background. Overall, female agents tend to be more photo realistic than their male counterparts who are more cartoon like. These findings highlight current stereotypes in relation to agents and contribute to a deeper understanding of virtual worlds.
Design in Evaluation: Reflections on Designing for Children's Technology BIBAPDFFull-Text 38
  Emanuela Mazzone; Diana Xu; Janet Read
This paper reflects on the design value that emerges from evaluation methods used in the field of child computer interaction. The work is based around an evaluation study of a tangible game prototype for children. The prototype and the evaluation techniques used are described. The authors provide a reflection on the analysis of results from one of the methods and use this analysis to propose a direct connection with design tools.

Posters

How Effective is it to Design by Voice? BIBAPDFFull-Text 39
  Mohammad Alsuraihi; Dimitris Rigas
Previous studies on usability of crowded graphical interfaces that are full of widgets like menus, buttons, palette-tools etc, have shown evidence that they create a fertile environment for information overload and usability problems. In this paper, we investigate the use of multimodal interaction metaphors (visual, vocal and aural) for improving effectiveness of learning functions and completing tasks in one of the most graphically crowded user-interfaces, the user-interface of IDEs (or Interface Design Environments). This investigation was done empirically on two experimental interface design toolkits (TVOID and MMID) which were built especially for the study. Assessment of the visual and multimodal interaction metaphors was carried out by two independent groups of users (A and B) of which each consisted of 15 users. Results showed that the use of speech for input and output along with limited use of the mouse was more effective than interacting visually only using the typical common graphical metaphors: pull-down menus, toolbar, toolbox, properties-table and status-bar.
Ten Emotion Heuristics: Guidelines for Assessing the User's Affective Dimension Easily and Cost-Effectively BIBAPDFFull-Text 40
  Eva de Lera; Muriel Garreta-Domingo
Emotional appeal is a key dimension in user experience that often goes unmeasured in most user-centered design projects. This paper presents preliminary work for developing a set of guidelines for efficiently, easily and cost-effectively assessing the users' affective state by evaluating their expressive reactions during an interface evaluation process. The evaluation of this dimension complements the analysis of the objective and quantitative data gathered through usability tests and the subjective feedback provided through post-test questionnaires.
Challenges of Evaluating the Information Visualization Experience BIBAPDFFull-Text 41
  Sarah Faisal; Paul Cairns; Ann Blandford
Information Visualisation (InfoVis) is defined as an interactive visual representation of abstract data. We view the user's interaction with InfoVis tools as an experience which is made up of a set of highly demanding cognitive activities. These activities assist users in making sense and gaining knowledge of the represented domain. Usability studies that involve a task-based analysis and usability questionnaires are not enough to capture such an experience. This paper discusses the challenges involved when it comes to evaluating InfoVis tools by giving an overview of the activities involved in an InfoVis experience and demonstrating how they affect the visualisation process. The argument in this paper is based on our experiences in designing, building and evaluating an academic literature visualisation tool.
Mental Health Issues and Pervasive Computing BIBAPDFFull-Text 42
  David Haniff
This poster describes work being undertaken in the use of pervasive computing for the treatment of mental health problems. The use of technology to help patients with psychological issues such as depression are explored and preliminary investigations are discussed.
Interaction Manifolds: Theory from Experiments BIBAPDFFull-Text 43
  Cecily Morrison; Alan Blackwell
This poster builds on comparative ethnographic work of a multi-disciplinary medical team using a paper-based and a computer-based patient record system. It describes the design and preliminary results of an experiment aimed to help articulate an analytical construct that would describe the tradeoffs between a technological setup and a group's ability to negotiate an interaction among themselves.

Interactive Experience

The Emotion Sampling Device (ESD) BIBAPDFFull-Text 44
  Linda Hole; Oliver Williams
The emotion sampling device (ESD) has been developed in the light of ever-increasing interest in the area of affective computing, and out of a need to better understand the effect that electronic products have on the emotions of their users. A study of emotion theory and current sampling techniques revealed a need for a method of a different nature, one that does not rely upon the traditional forms of emotion representation. Therefore, the ESD aims to satisfy this need, being a tool that can not only accurately sample the multi-faceted human emotional experience, but also blend seamlessly into our world in the true spirit of ubiquitous computing.
Clever Tracking User Behaviour over the Web: Enabling Researchers to Respect the User BIBAPDFFull-Text 45
  Evdokiya Ignatova; Willem-Paul Brinkman
Concerns over automatically tracking users' actions while respecting consent, privacy and users' rights motivated the development of CleverTracker. CleverTracker is a remote action-tracking software framework, which researchers can use to collect data about users' interactions with applications while respecting ethical issues. Users are in control of the recording process (through start and stop functionality), can opt out from it and can view the collected data. The open source framework is designed to support desktop, web application and multiple programming languages.

Panels

HCI 2.0? Usability meets Web 2.0 BIBAPDFFull-Text 46
  Alan Dix; Laura Cowen
The web has already dramatically changed society, but the web itself is changing. Web2.0 sites mean that users have become the producers of content and the designers of each others' viewing experience. Technologies such as AJAX combined with public Javascript libraries have allowed applications to be deployed that once would have required extensive programming. Open APIs and mashups make it difficult to tell the difference between a service, and application or a web page. So what are the challenges for HCI when every user is designer, and every menu a different behaviour, when experience outranks efficiency, and connectivity replaces consistency?
A Conference Panel -- but not as we know it! BIBAPDFFull-Text 47
  Tom McEwan; Nick Bryan-Kinns; David England; Janet Finlay; Eamonn O'Neill
This panel will take the form of a public debate about whether the conference of which it forms part has a future. Academic conferences are increasingly hard to cost-justify and growing awareness of the environmental impact adds to the negative aspects -- especially when the HCI community have developed so many tools and techniques to afford virtual collaboration, dissemination and critique. Yet participants continue to enjoy conferences and some would seem them as vital to the sustainability and coherence of the discipline. It is chaired by the chair of HCI2005 [3], and features as panellists the chairs of HCI2003 [1], HCI2004 [2], HCI2006[4], HCI2008, and is intended to feature vibrant contributions from other delegates. The motion to be debated is "This conference believes that the conference has no future after Sept 5th 2008".

Organisational Overviews

HCI and Creative Problem-Solving at Lancaster BIBAPDFFull-Text 48
  Tom Ormerod; Linden Ball; Alan Dix; Corina Sas
The Creative Problem-Solving Research Group (CPSRG) at Lancaster University is a collaboration between psychologists and computer scientists conducting research into creativity, problem-solving and design at the interface between humans and computer systems. Our aim is to develop theoretical understandings and practical interventions that address how creative individuals and groups manage conflicting demands of novelty and divergent thinking versus constraint, domain relevance and minimization of task load. Current projects include creative design in virtual and ubiquitous environments, developing methodologies for inspirational design, and impacts of expert reasoning on creative problem-solving.
Introducing the Companions Project: Intelligent, Persistent, Personalised Interfaces to the Internet BIBAPDFFull-Text 49
  David Benyon; Oli Mival
The Companions project is a 4 year, EU funded Framework Programme 6 project involving a consortium of 16 partners across 8 countries. Its aim is to develop a personalised conversational interface, one that knows and understands its owner, and can access resources on the Internet. It does this whilst nurturing an emotional, psychological and social involvement from its owner (user seems an inappropriate term in this context). In doing this it will change interactions to relationships. On a technical level it intends to push the state of the art in machine based natural language understanding, knowledge structures, speech recognition and text to speech.

Workshops

3rd International Workshop on Ubiquitous and Collaborative Computing (iUBICOM) BIBAPDFFull-Text 50
  Rahat Iqbal; Jacques Terken
It is recognised that the traditional methods of requirements capture are not suitable when applied to ubiquitous and collaborative systems. With these sorts of systems what is important is an understanding of the social characteristics of work itself as well as the people who operate in the work environment. User-centred design and evaluation approaches have been used to do this however these approaches may not be straightforward in situations where perceptive technology is involved. The purpose of this workshop is to bring multi-disciplinary researchers together in order to discuss different models and theories that can be used to design and evaluate ubiquitous and collaborative systems. Particularly, the focus of the third International Workshop on Ubiquitous and Collaborative Computing (iUBICOM) is on user-centred design and evaluation of ubiquitous and collaborative computing including ethnography.
2nd International Workshop on Formal Methods for Interactive Systems BIBAPDFFull-Text 51
  Paul Curzon; Antonio Cerone
This workshop is the second in a series that is intended as a focused forum for researchers from academia and industry interested in the application of formal methods to interactive system design. Topics of interest include, for example, the development of formal tools, techniques and methodologies based on cognitive psychology results, the development and use of formal user models, case studies applying formal methods to interface design, and formal analysis of the design of the wider socio-technical systems.
Design, Use and Experience of E-Learning Systems BIBAPDFFull-Text 52
  Willem-Paul Brinkman; Annette Payne; Nayna Patel; Darren Griffin; Joshua Underwood
The use of computer applications to support learning and assessment is becoming more common, along with a growing body of research focusing on the pedagogical effectiveness of these applications. However, until recently less research attention has been given to the design of learning technology with regard to their usability, actual use, and the way they motivate and engage learners. Learner centred design [7] looks beyond the technological possibilities such as distance learning, virtual reality, and computer assisted assessments by focussing on learners in their learning contexts, and how their interaction with these applications can help and stimulate them to apply deep learning strategies. However, what are the best and most effective ways to accomplish this? Can lessons learned in the field of HCI be directly applied, or do e-learning applications have their own set of design guidelines? The workshop plans to bring together individuals with an interest in the design and use of e-learning systems with the aim of improving and understanding the learning experience. The workshop will be a platform to discuss new ideas and to share experiences, but also to identify new research challenges and potential solutions.
Usability of User Interfaces: From Monomodal to Multimodal BIBAPDFFull-Text 53
  Silvia Abrahão; Jean Vanderdonckt
This workshop is aimed at reviewing and comparing existing Usability Evaluation Methods (UEMs) which are applicable to monomodal and multimodal applications, whether they are web-oriented or not. It addresses the problem on how to assess the usability of monomodal user interfaces according to techniques involving one or several modalities, in parallel or combined. In particular, how to synchronize results provided by different UEMs producing various types of results (e.g., audio, video, text, log files) is concerned. It also addresses the problem on how to assess the usability of multimodal user interfaces according to techniques based on multiple modalities. In particular, the question of generalizing the applicability of existing UEMs to these new types of user interfaces is concerned.
Designing for Attention (2) BIBAPDFFull-Text 54
  Mary Zajicek; Claudia Roda
As computer system become more complex and computer based activities proliferate people find themselves alone at the computer carrying out a range of what were originally social activities, for example shopping, learning and collaborating. Group dynamics focus attention, and without them attention can be lost. A significant challenge of human computer interaction research is the design of systems capable of reasoning about users' attention and consequently deciding how to gain and guide user's attention. Attention awareness has the special target of minimizing cognitive load by addressing issues such as: interruption management / notification optimization, individual versus group interaction, and just-in-time information selection. Whilst "disappearing", i.e. minimizing cognitive load, has been a main objective of interface design, we feel that true adaptation to human cognitive abilities requires a better understanding of the reactive, deliberative, social, and aesthetic processes controlling attention allocation and of how they can be supported by technologies. Improving such understanding is the primary objective of this workshop.
Towards a UX Manifesto BIBAPDFFull-Text 55
  Effie Lai-Chong Law; Arnold P. O. S. Vermeeren; Marc Hassenzahl; Mark Blythe
In this workshop we invite researchers, educators and practitioners to contribute to the construction of a coherent Manifesto for the field of User Experience (UX). Such a UX manifesto should express statements about issues like: Fundamental assumptions underlying UX (principles), positioning of UX relative to other domains (policy) and action plans for improving the design and evaluation of UX (plans). The UX manifesto can become a reference model for future work on UX.
Designing Human Centred Technologies for the Developing World: HCI but not as we know it BIBAPDFFull-Text 56
  Rose Luckin; Lynne Dunckley; Andrew M. Dearden
ICT could be a powerful tool for development, but how appropriate are developed-world HCI methods? Should we 'parachute in' foreign methods, do we have more to learn than to teach?
The End of Cognition? BIBAPDFFull-Text 57
  Phil Turner
Cognition has long been a central conceptual pillar for human-computer interaction (HCI) but with the current emphasis on interaction design and user experience, this position may now be in doubt. This workshop considers whether cognition still has relevance for the "post experience" generation.
Emotion in HCI BIBAPDFFull-Text 58
  Christian Peter; Russell Beale; Elizabeth Crane; Lesley Axelrod
An increasing number of conferences, symposia, workshops, journals and books address the subject of emotions and their role in Human-Computer Interaction, including workshops at the last two HCI conferences. The need for discussion, exchange of ideas, and interdisciplinary collaboration is ever-increasing as the community grows. This workshop will meet the requirements of individuals working in fields affected by emotion, giving them a podium to raise their questions and work with like-minded people of various disciplines on common subjects. It will focus around four sessions, and will use predominantly small group work, rather than being presentation-based.
From HCI to Media Experience: Methodological Implications BIBAPDFFull-Text 59
  Elizabeth F. Churchill; Jeffrey Bardzell
The landscape of interactive technology design and evaluation is expanding. In the past, usability and task efficiency were the main focus for research in human computer interaction; evaluation methods worked from single user data over constrained tasks. This kind of work remains central to our discipline. However, new issues are complicating this scenario. For example, how do we design for quintessentially elusive concepts like "experience"? Especially when that experience is not singular, but social, where data are spread across many people, potentially many platforms and devices, and many settings. Where the lab test cannot shed light on ways that experience unfolds over time. The units of analysis and the data to be gathered are contested. In this workshop we invite discussion of interactive media experience and how to design for and evaluate it.
Supporting Human Memory with Interactive Systems BIBAPDFFull-Text 60
  Denis Lalanne; Elise van den Hoven
The major goal of this workshop is to explore how interactive systems can support human memory, using novel technologies and innovative human/machine interaction paradigms, such as tangible interaction. We believe this is important since memory and attention are becoming critical resources for our wellness, e.g. with regard to a continuously increasing information overload. The goal of this workshop is not only to support personal information management but also daily life activities, e.g. adapted to user preferences and specific contexts. Where current multimedia search engines are designed for large user communities and their applications, this workshop targets the support of individual's personal memory in everyday life.
Second International Workshop on Physicality BIBAPDFFull-Text 61
  Devina Ramduny-Ellis; Alan Dix; Steve Gill
When designing purely physical products we do not necessarily have to understand what it is about their physicality that makes them work -- they simply have it. However, as we design hybrid physical/digital products we now have to understand what we lose or confuse by the added digitality -- and so need to understand physicality more clearly than before. This multi-disciplinary workshop will seek to construct a fundamental understanding of the nature of physicality: how humans experience, manipulate, react and reason about 'real' physical things and how this may inform the design process and the design of future innovative products.

Tutorials

Using Personas Effectively BIBAPDFFull-Text 62
  Peter Bagnall
Personas are a powerful design and communication tool to help all those involved in the creation of interactive systems to better focus their efforts on their users. A persona is a fictional character made to represent an archetypal user, and is best derived from field research. They help direct design, and communicate both to marketing and engineering teams.
Introducing HCI: A Practitioner's Guide BIBAPDFFull-Text 63
  Steve Cummaford; John Long
HCI continues to grow in popularity amongst commercial practitioners, many of whom have no formal training or education in HCI. Conferences, such as HCI 2007, offer an attractive means for practitioners to increase their knowledge and skills. However, many such practitioners can find it difficult to understand how research presentations relate to their specific needs. They often fail to make the most of their attendance at conferences and can struggle to pull through knowledge from the HCI research reported into their own practices, due to their lack of HCI training. This tutorial presents an introduction to the discipline of HCI in the form of a practitioner's guide, and so seeks to help delegates identify conference sessions, which offer the most promise for delivering value to the commercial practitioner. In so doing, it suggests ways in which the research can be pulled through into their practices, so increasing their engagement with HCI.
Old Cards, New Tricks: Applied Techniques in Card Sorting BIBAPDFFull-Text 64
  William Hudson
Card sorting is an extremely useful technique in the design of interactive systems. However, it is under-used in practice -- often through a lack of understanding and the complexities of cluster analysis. This half-day, hands-on tutorial uses concrete examples taken from live web sites to guide participants through the analysis, design and execution of card sorting activities, particularly as they apply to web navigation. Specific topics presented include open and closed sorting, rapid data collection using bar codes, cluster analysis and extensions to traditional analyses using quality of fit metrics and measures of deviation.
Ajax Usability and Design BIBAPDFFull-Text 65
  William Hudson
AJAX, and related approaches that enable greater levels of interaction within web pages, have the potential to both help and hinder usability. This half-day interactive tutorial examines the issues, providing examples and guidance on appropriate application of these technologies.
Managing Iterative Projects More Effectively: Theories, Techniques and Heuristics of HCI Practitioners BIBAPDFFull-Text 66
  John Long; Steve Cummaford
Most HCI specialists are involved, in one way or another, with iterative project management (IPM), as opposed to HCI, on a day-to-day basis. However, few specialists have any systematic training or exposure to IPM. Further, market pressures highlight the importance of HCI iterative and adaptive planning and development to meet changing conditions, associated with novel technology and customer change. This tutorial is intended to fill these gaps. IPM is characterised in terms of its theory, its methods and heuristics to support its practice. Exercises and mini-practicals support the integration of HCI into the heuristics, methods and theory of IPM. In the light of our recent experience, participants' IPM effectiveness, as either managers or as team members, is expected to increase as a result.
Introduction to Social Network Analysis BIBAPDFFull-Text 67
  Panayiotis Zaphiris; Ulrike Pfeil
Online communities and social software are revolutionizing the way we interact with the web. Analysing the interactions that take place there is complex. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a powerful way of doing such analysis. This tutorial provides a detailed introduction to SNA. The theory is backed up with a number of practical case studies.

HCI Practice Day

Information Architecture with IBM Task Modeler BIBAPDFFull-Text 68
  Colin Bird; Mark Farmer
The IBM Task Modeler supports the rapid creation and analysis of hierarchical task models, thereby providing a valuable and naturally visual tool for information architects. Task Modeler not only facilitates the essential processes of design, validation, and modification but also enables an information architect to develop and apply schemes for information classification.
Creating and Analysing Models in IBM Task Modeler BIBAPDFFull-Text 69
  Mark Farmer; Colin Bird
We illustrate the basic constituents of a model and demonstrate how the facilities of Task Modeler, such as the visualization options, enable the rapid creation, analysis, and communication of the model.
Eye Tracking in Practice BIBAPDFFull-Text 70
  Tony Renshaw; Natalie Webb
This paper describes the practical side of eye tracker use in the field of human computer interaction. The paper relates to usability evaluations in practice covering those topics of primary importance to practitioners including the business case for eye tracking and the technique's benefits and limitations. The authors describe techniques, based on practical experience, to be deployed to ensure success with eye tracking and provide some useful links and references for those contemplating adoption of the technique. Ideas on future practical areas of deployment are discuss.

Doctoral Consortium

The Role of Input Devices in the Gaming Experience BIBAPDFFull-Text 71
  Eduardo H. Calvillo Gámez
This paper reports on my doctoral work done at UCLIC that looks at how novel input devices affect the gaming experience. The paper presents the motivation, question, methodology, expected contributions, partial results and time line to complete the thesis.
Figuring Configuration: "everyday" users and end-user configuration of Pervasive Computing Environments BIBAPDFFull-Text 72
  Thom Heslop
The research outlined investigates strategies that non-programming or "everyday" users may take in interaction with a Pervasive Computing Environment within relevant domains specified by them using a novel probe methodology developed with reference to theories of appropriation of technology and Vygotsky's "Tool and Result" methodology. A hypothesis of configuration policy styles is tested and types of everyday user styles and likely task domains are identified and discussed.
Facilitating the Communication between Malaysian Grandparents and Grandchildren Living Abroad through Computer-Mediated Communication BIBAPDFFull-Text 73
  Nazean Jomhari
The main focus of this research is to design a Computer-Mediated Communication system that is easily used by grandparents (GP) and grandchildren (GC) separated by physical distance. An effective and usable design solution requires an understanding of its users and context, and therefore this project also aims to understand the nature of the communication failures and successes in GP-GC relationship and how physical distance and technology change this relationship, especially in Eastern (more specifically Malaysian) culture, which has not been studied extensively in published GP-GC communication literature.
Interaction Manifolds: Understanding Behaviour Around a Shareable Interface BIBAPDFFull-Text 74
  Cecily Morrison
This poster presents a suggestion for how ethnography of shareable interfaces might be used to inform subsequent design decisions by creating an analytical construct that we name the interaction manifold. We first describe and summarize results of our research to date in a medical intensive care unit. We then propose why and how an analytic construct might prove useful for design of shareable interfaces.
Social support in empathic online communities for older people BIBAPDFFull-Text 75
  Ulrike Pfeil
The goal of my PhD is to investigate how older people exchange social support in empathic online communities. This will be achieved through an in-depth investigation of online communities for older people. The results of my work will shed light on the characteristics of empathy exchanged among older people in online communities opposed to their offline communication. This is a valuable contribution to the research area of HCI, as it shows how empathic online communities can be used to support older people in their daily lives. I have published the preliminary findings of my work as a full paper at CHI 2007.
Interaction Designers' Use of Their Repertoire in Meetings with Clients BIBAPDFFull-Text 76
  Per Sökjer
An important part of an interaction designer's work is meeting with clients during design sessions. It is of great importance that the designers participate in establishing some level of common ground. This research aims at investigating how designer's repertoire, in terms of facts, skills and examples, can help establishing common ground between designers and their clients. The research method is inspired by cognitive ethnography. Initial results from workshops, where interaction designers work together with participants from the Swedish Enforcement Authority, indicate that the interaction designers use examples from several design levels to establish common ground with clients and each other. Our future research aims to show how interaction designer and client work together in multidisciplinary teams.
The Design and Evaluation of an Assistive Multimodal Interface BIBAPDFFull-Text 77
  Phillip Strain
A requirements capture carried out with thirty blind and visually impaired participants has outlined many issues visually impaired people face when accessing the Web using current assistive technology. One key finding was that spatial information is not conveyed to users. An assistive multimodal interface has been developed that conveys spatial information to users via speech, audio and haptics. Additionally, techniques for evaluating assistive technology with visually impaired participants are discussed.
Issues with the Construct of Quality BIBAPDFFull-Text 78
  Nele Van den Ende; Jettie Hoonhout; Lydia Meesters
This paper proposes an outline for a framework that aims to give a comprehensive view of perceived video quality, including physical characteristics, perceptual attributes and cognitive factors.
Safer prescribing in intensive care: designing a system to reduce errors BIBAPDFFull-Text 79
  Kathryn Went
Prescribing in intensive care is a complex process involving a number of disciplines working in a highly stressful clinical environment. Within the National Health Service this process is generally written down manually. Errors are made each year as a consequence of illegible or incorrect prescriptions. This research investigates engaging users from multi-disciplines in the design process to result in a system that is usable and demonstrates a reduction in prescribing errors.