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AutomotiveUI Tables of Contents: 091011121314-114-2

AutomnotiveUI 2012: International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications

Fullname:Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications
Editors:Andrew L. Kun; Bastian Pfleging; Marc Kurz; Linda Boyle; Bryan Reimer; Andreas Riener; Jennifer Healey; Wei Zhang
Location:Portsmouth. New Hampshire
Dates:2012-Oct-17 to 2012-Oct-19
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1751-1; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: AutomotiveUI12
Papers:38
Pages:280
Links:Conference Website
  1. Keynote speech
  2. Driver distraction
  3. Models
  4. Visual/audio
  5. Driver-vehicle interface
  6. Navigation
  7. Multimodal interaction
  8. Workload and demand
  9. Fully peer reviewed and regularly accepted full/short papers

Keynote speech

Using standards to improve the replicability and applicability of driver interface research BIBAFull-Text 15-22
  Paul Green
This paper describes how referring to and using test methods and conditions specified in recognized standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), U. S. Department of Transportation (US DOT), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and other organizations can improve the replicability and applicability of driver interface research. In particular, this paper examines all 25 papers presented at the 2011 AutomotiveUI (Auto-UI) Conference. Identified for each paper were (1) the method used, (2) the dependent measures, (3) if the dependent measures were adequately defined, (4) the relevant standards, and (5) if the relevant standards were cited.
   Of the 9 papers involving driving or simulated driving, only the experiments using the ISO lane-change test (3 papers) would obviously be publicly replicable because the scenarios were otherwise described too generally (e.g., "highway"). Furthermore, to a lesser extent, many papers did not define the dependent measures used, so what was measured was sometimes uncertain (e.g., gap or headway). A solution would be to cite the definitions of measures in SAE Recommended Practice J2944 (e.g., lane departure, option A; time to collision, option B). Finally, only 2 of the 25 papers completely cited relevant industry standards, resulting in a weak connection between the research presented and application (though for some papers, there were no relevant standards).
   To strengthen that connection, the call for papers for future Auto-UI conferences must require submissions to cite relevant standards in the keywords and references section where appropriate, and their inclusion must be among the review criteria. To aid future authors, lists of relevant ISO, US DOT, and other standards and guidelines are provided in this paper. As the authors of Auto-UI papers present similar materials at other conferences, the recommendations given here are appropriate for other conferences as well.

Driver distraction

An exploratory study on the impact of typeface design in a text rich user interface on off-road glance behavior BIBAFull-Text 25-32
  Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Ying Wang; Alea Mehler; Hale McAnulty; Erin Mckissick; Joseph F. Coughlin; Steve Matteson; Vladimir Levantovsky; David Gould; Nadine Chahine; Geoff Greve
This paper reports on the initial results of an exploratory study of the impact of typeface design on glance behavior away from the roadway when a driver interacts with a multi-line menu display designed to model a text rich automotive human machine interface (HMI). Data from 42 participants ranging from 36 to 75 years of age was collected in a driving simulation experiment in which participants were asked to respond to a series of address, restaurant identification, and content search menus that were implemented using two different typeface designs. Among men, a "square grotesque" typeface resulted in a 12.2% increase in visual demand as compared to the "humanist" typeface. Total glance time and number of glances required to complete a response showed consistent results. This research suggests that optimizing typeface characteristics may be viewed as a "low cost" method of providing a significant reduction in interface demand and associated distractions. Future work will need to assess if other font characteristics can be tuned to provide further reductions in demand.
Evaluating the distraction potential of connected vehicles BIBAFull-Text 33-40
  Joonbum Lee; John D. Lee; Dario D. Salvucci
Connected vehicles offer great potential for new sources of information, but may also introduce new sources of distraction. This paper compares three methods to quantify distraction, and focuses on one method: computational models of driver behavior. An integration of a saliency map and the Distract-R prototyping and evaluation system is proposed as a potential model. The saliency map captures the bottom-up influences of visual attention and this influence is integrated with top-down influences captured by Distract-R. The combined model will assess the effect of coordinating salient visual features and drivers' expectations, and in using both together, generate more robust predictions of performance.
Designing browsing for in-car music player: effects of touch screen scrolling techniques, items per page and screen orientation on driver distraction BIBAFull-Text 41-48
  Annegret Lasch; Tuomo Kujala
User interface features of a touch based mobile music player and their comparative impact on driver distraction when searching music albums were investigated. In a driving simulator experiment (N=18) three scrolling methods buttons, swipe and kinetic were compared, whereat the number of music tracks presented in a list-style format varied between three, five and seven items per page. Half of the participants used the music player in a portrait mode and half of them in a landscape mode. It was expected that swipe supports less severe distraction effects than kinetic or button due to systematic page-by-page scrolling and low levels of pointing accuracy required for browsing. Three items should enable more efficient visual sampling efficiency per page, but visual demands are increased compared to five or seven since more scrolling is required. Screen orientation should have no distraction effects. Results indicate that swipe led to less severe distraction effects than buttons or kinetic scrolling methods. Seven items per page was found most distracting, whereas few significant differences were found between three and five. As predicted, screen orientation had no significant effects.

Models

Predicting information technology usage in the car: towards a car technology acceptance model BIBAFull-Text 51-58
  Sebastian Osswald; Daniela Wurhofer; Sandra Trösterer; Elke Beck; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper is aimed at studying information technology acceptance in an automotive context. Most models of technology acceptance focus on barriers of successful information technology implementation in organizations, while factors that take the contextual situation into account are neglected. We address this issue through deriving context-related determinants from an extensive literature review and a content analysis, and we further describe a technology acceptance modeling process to provide an explanation for drivers' acceptance of in-car technology. Based on our evaluation we take the determinants safety and anxiety into consideration, and propose a theoretical car technology acceptance model (CTAM) by incorporating these determinants into the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) model. Our modeling approach and proposed questionnaire support decision processes regarding in-vehicle information system implementation in the automotive industry as well as behavior prediction for research purposes.
Standardizing model-based in-vehicle infotainment development in the German automotive industry BIBAFull-Text 59-66
  Steffen Hess; Anne Gross; Andreas Maier; Marius Orfgen; Gerrit Meixner
Based on the analysis of existing HMI development processes in the automotive domain, a reference process for software engineering has been developed. This process was used to develop a domain data model and a model-based specification language in order to establish a common exchange format based on consistent domain knowledge. This approach provides a common ground for collaboration to OEMs, suppliers, and software tool developers. It also facilitates traceability from requirements and conceptual elements to concrete, specified elements using the model-based specification language.
Effect of performance feedback (or lack thereof) on driver calibration BIBAFull-Text 67-74
  Shannon C. Roberts; William J. Horrey; Yulan Liang
Many drivers are miscalibrated, i.e. they think they are better or worse than they actually are at multitasking situations. Recent studies focused on calibration while driving show that drivers are miscalibrated, either over confident or under confident, and that this effect changes under different conditions. Previous work has demonstrated behavioral and performance benefits of feedback, yet these studies have not explicitly examined the issue of calibration. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to examine effect of feedback on calibration using an instrumented van and test track, employing a well-defined method to assess calibration. Twenty-four drivers completed a series of driving tasks on a test track. Half of the participants received performance feedback while the other half received no feedback. Calibration was assessed through comparison of drivers' subjective ratings of performance and confidence to objective performance measures. Results indicated that participants' calibration improved over time, but there was no consistent effect of feedback. In some cases, the Feedback group performed worse than those who did not receive feedback.

Visual/audio

How can we design 3D auditory interfaces which enhance traffic safety for Chinese drivers? BIBAFull-Text 77-83
  Min Juan Wang; Yi Ci Li; Fang Chen
With the rapid motorization in countries such as China, the large number of vehicles has caused a dramatic increase of accidents. Thus, the needs for active safety systems are urgent; the system designs must fulfill drivers' needs and local situations. Many studies have indicated that auditory design has great potentials for presenting traffic information to the drivers. In this study, the aim is to understand Chinese drivers' attitudes toward 3D Auditory Traffic Information System, and to explore Chinese drivers' requirements for traffic information support. In the experiment, 23 car drivers were invited to focus group discussions. The results illustrated that the majority (19 out of 23) of participants are interested in 3D auditory design concept and have strong preferences towards using meaningful sounds as the basis for auditory icons. Results also showed differences between experienced and novice drivers regarding how to prioritize traffic information under different traffic conditions. The findings have implications for future design of 3D auditory traffic information system development.
Graded auditory warnings during in-vehicle use: using sound to guide drivers without additional noise BIBAFull-Text 85-91
  Johan Fagerlönn; Stefan Lindberg; Anna Sirkka
Auditory signals have proven useful to guide and inform drivers in dangerous situations. Sounds can become annoying, however, thereby negatively affecting consumer acceptance of an interface or system. Auditory warnings are typically salient sounds such as sudden beeps or repetitive tones. But adding sound to the environment is not necessarily the only way to aurally alert people to a change in the environment. The present study explored the usefulness of three alternative strategies to notify drivers in early stages of a threatening situation using sound: 1. panning the radio sound from the driver's position (equal sound level in both ears) to one side; 2. reducing the sound level of the radio; and 3. a mild auditory warning signal (i.e., an added sound). The participants responded to the early warnings in a simple reaction task while performing a simulated driving task. After each condition, the drivers completed a questionnaire concerning their opinions of the early warnings. Interestingly, the results show that manipulating the sound of the radio can be a useful way to notify drivers. Panning the sound of the radio may be especially effective and tolerable. Potential benefits and issues with the investigated warning strategies are discussed.
Is stereoscopic 3D a better choice for information representation in the car? BIBAFull-Text 93-100
  Nora Broy; Elisabeth André; Albrecht Schmidt
In modern cars users need to interact with safety and comfort functions, driver assistance systems, and infotainment devices. Basic requirements include the perception of the current status and of information items as well as the control of functions. Handling that myriad amount of information while driving requires an appropriate interaction design, structure and visualization of the data. This paper investigates potentials and limitations of stereoscopic 3D for visualizing an in-vehicle information system. We developed a spatial in-car visualization concept that exploits three dimensions for the system's output. Based on a prototype, that implements the central functionality of our concept, we evaluate the 3D representation. A laboratory study with 32 users indicates that stereoscopic 3D is the better choice as it improves the user experience, increases the attractiveness, and helps the user in recognizing the current state of the system. The study shows no significant differences between non-stereoscopic and stereoscopic representations in the users' workload. This indicates that stereoscopic visualizations have no negative impact on the primary driving task.

Driver-vehicle interface

Use of brain computer interface to drive: preliminary results BIBAFull-Text 103-106
  Deanna Hood; Damian Joseph; Andry Rakotonirainy; Sridha Sridharan; Clinton Fookes
This paper reports on the implementation of a non-invasive electroencephalography-based brain-computer interface to control functions of a car in a driving simulator. The system is comprised of a Cleveland Medical Devices BioRadio 150 physiological signal recorder, a MATLAB-based BCI and an OKTAL SCANeR advanced driving experience simulator.
   The system utilizes steady-state visual-evoked potentials for the BCI paradigm, elicited by frequency-modulated high-power LEDs and recorded with the electrode placement of Oz-Fz with Fz as ground. A three-class online brain-computer interface was developed and interfaced with an advanced driving simulator to control functions of the car, including acceleration and steering.
   The findings are mainly exploratory but provide an indication of the feasibility and challenges of brain-controlled on-road cars for the future, in addition to a safe, simulated BCI driving environment to use as a foundation for research into overcoming these challenges.
The social car: new interactive vehicular applications derived from social media and urban informatics BIBAFull-Text 107-110
  Ronald Schroeter; Andry Rakotonirainy; Marcus Foth
Digital information that is place- and time-specific, is increasingly becoming available on all aspects of the urban landscape. People (cf. the Social Web), places (cf. the Geo Web), and physical objects (cf. ubiquitous computing, the Internet of Things) are increasingly infused with sensors, actuators, and tagged with a wealth of digital information. Urban informatics research explores these emerging digital layers of the city at the intersection of people, place and technology. However, little is known about the challenges and new opportunities that these digital layers may offer to road users driving through today's mega cities. We argue that this aspect is worth exploring in particular with regards to Auto-UI's overarching goal of making cars both safer and more enjoyable. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study, which included 14 urban informatics research experts participating in a guided ideation (idea creation) workshop within a simulated environment. They were immersed into different driving scenarios to imagine novel urban informatics type of applications specific to the driving context.
Hand gesture-based visual user interface for infotainment BIBAFull-Text 111-115
  Eshed Ohn-Bar; Cuong Tran; Mohan Trivedi
We present a real-time vision-based system that discriminates hand gestures performed by in-vehicle front-row seat occupants for accessing the infotainment system. The hand gesture-based visual user interface may be more natural and intuitive to the user than the current tactile interaction interface. Consequently, it may encourage a gaze-free interaction, which can alleviate driver distraction without limiting the user's infotainment experience. The system uses visible and depth images of the dashboard and center-console area in the vehicle. The first step in the algorithm uses the representation of the image area given by a modified histogram-of-oriented-gradients descriptor and a support vector machine (SVM) to classify whether the driver, passenger, or no one is interacting with the region of interest. The second step extracts gesture characteristics from temporal dynamics of the features derived in the initial step, which are then inputted to a SVM in order to perform gesture classification from a set of six classes of hand gestures. The rate of correct user classification into one of the three classes is 97.9% on average. Average hand gesture classification rates for the driver and passenger using color and depth input are above 94%. These rates were achieved on in-vehicle collected data over varying illumination conditions and human subjects. This approach demonstrates the feasibility of the hand gesture-based in-vehicle visual user interface.
Exploring the back of the steering wheel: text input with hands on the wheel and eyes on the road BIBAFull-Text 117-120
  Martin Murer; David Wilfinger; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Sebastian Osswald; Manfred Tscheligi
Safe interaction with interactive systems in the car requires both hands to be placed on the steering wheel and eyes to be kept on the road. To allow safe text input in the vehicle, we propose the back of the steering wheel as space for interactive text input elements. In the effort to explore this space, we present two design alternatives for text input elements; one has two sliding sensors and the other has three buttons on each side of the wheel. In combination with a head up display and an adapted keyboard layout, these elements allow text input while driving with the eyes on the road an the hands on the wheel. In a first study with end users, we show the potential of the proposed text input approach for future vehicles.

Navigation

"Get off your car!": studying the user requirements of in-vehicle intermodal routing services BIBAFull-Text 123-130
  Peter Fröhlich; Matthias Baldauf; Stefan Suette; Dietmar Schabus; Ulrich Lehner; Marko Jandrisits; Alexander Paier
Traffic information from diverse transportation domains is increasingly becoming interlinked and accessible in real-time. Upcoming intermodal transportation services could advise drivers to change to a public transportation means, especially in case of severe congestions on the road. We present a road user study with 52 participants with an in-car intermodal routing prototype that gained first empirical evidence on the user requirements in such scenarios. We found that a considerable number of recommendations for modal shifts to public transit were actually accepted by the drivers. In-car inquiry results highlight that decision-making under such complex time-constrained conditions needs to be supported by a considerable amount of updated, detailed and valid information about time savings, pricing, connections and also the actual route situation ahead. We show that the presentation of such large amounts of information should be feasible without categorical safety losses, even with small-screen devices (such as smartphones). To guide further development, related design experiences with regard to presentation modality, system input, and screen design are shared.
Improving navigation support by taking care of drivers' situational needs BIBAFull-Text 131-138
  Daniel Münter; Anna Kötteritzsch; Tobias Islinger; Thorsten Köhler; Christian Wolff; Jürgen Ziegler
Current in-car navigation systems provide only a limited level of adaption to the driver and driving conditions. The driver's actual information need while interacting with the navigation interface is not taken into account. This paper aims at investigating the impact of situational features on the drivers' support need as well as proposing modes of adaptation for situation-aware navigation support. Therefore, three studies were conducted. It became evident that the driver's need for more or less navigation support depends on the complex interplay of different characteristics of the driver, the vehicle, and the driving environment. Based on our findings, a set of driving situation related adaption rules for a more user centered navigation support is proposed.
Navigation to multiple local transportation futures: cross-interrogating remembered and recorded drives BIBAFull-Text 139-146
  Alexandra Zafiroglu; Jennifer Healey; Tim Plowman
This paper describes findings from a three country, twenty-four participant study consisting of two in-home and in-car ethnographic interviews, separated by a month during which participants created videos, and their cars were GPS tracked and their Android smartphone data collected during and surrounding their driving times. We demonstrate how an ethnographic research approach that cross-interrogates data produced by GPS sensors, smart phone application monitoring, ethnographic interviews and participant-produced videos maps out a rich design space for future automotive user interfaces. These findings redefine the design space for automotive user interfaces and interactive vehicular interactions by recording real necessities, joys and pain points that people experience when using their cars.

Multimodal interaction

On the design and evaluation of robust head pose for visual user interfaces: algorithms, databases, and comparisons BIBAFull-Text 149-154
  Sujitha Martin; Ashish Tawari; Erik Murphy-Chutorian; Shinko Y. Cheng; Mohan Trivedi
An important goal in automotive user interface research is to predict a user's reactions and behaviors in a driving environment. The behavior of both drivers and passengers can be studied by analyzing eye gaze, head, hand, and foot movement, upper body posture, etc. In this paper, we focus on estimating head pose, which has been shown to be a good predictor of driver intent and a good proxy for gaze estimation, and provide a valuable head pose database for future comparative studies. Most existing head pose estimation algorithms are still struggling under large spatial head turns. Our method, however, relies on using facial features that are visible even during large spatial head turns to estimate head pose. The method is evaluated on the LISA-P Head Pose database, which has head pose data from on-road daytime and nighttime drivers of varying age, race, and gender; ground truth for head pose is provided using a motion capture system. In special regards to eye gaze estimation for automotive user interface study, the automatic head pose estimation technique presented in this paper can replace previous eye gaze estimation methods that rely on manual data annotation or be used in conjunction with them when necessary.
Multimodal interaction in the car: combining speech and gestures on the steering wheel BIBAFull-Text 155-162
  Bastian Pfleging; Stefan Schneegass; Albrecht Schmidt
Implementing controls in the car becomes a major challenge: The use of simple physical buttons does not scale to the increased number of assistive, comfort, and infotainment functions. Current solutions include hierarchical menus and multi-functional control devices, which increase complexity and visual demand. Another option is speech control, which is not widely accepted, as it does not support visibility of actions, fine-grained feedback, and easy undo of actions. Our approach combines speech and gestures. By using speech for identification of functions, we exploit the visibility of objects in the car (e.g., mirror) and simple access to a wide range of functions equaling a very broad menu. Using gestures for manipulation (e.g., left/right), we provide fine-grained control with immediate feedback and easy undo of actions. In a user-centered process, we determined a set of user-defined gestures as well as common voice commands. For a prototype, we linked this to a car interior and driving simulator. In a study with 16 participants, we explored the impact of this form of multimodal interaction on the driving performance against a baseline using physical buttons. The results indicate that the use of speech and gesture is slower than using buttons but results in a similar driving performance. Users comment in a DALI questionnaire that the visual demand is lower when using speech and gestures.
Cross-cultural differences in the use of in-vehicle technologies and vehicle area network services: Austria, USA, and South Korea BIBAFull-Text 163-170
  Myounghoon Jeon; Andreas Riener; Ju-Hwan Lee; Jonathan Schuett; Bruce N. Walker
Vehicle area network (VAN) communications and related services are getting more pervasive [1]. However, even though user-centered design has been emphasized, VAN services have often been developed through a technology-driven approach. This paper presents cross-cultural survey results on VAN services in three different countries: Austria, USA, and South Korea. The current research compared the state-of-the-art of drivers' current in-vehicle technology use and investigated their needs and wants for plausible new services in the near future. Further, we validated our next generation in-vehicle interface concepts stemming from our previous participatory design process [2]. Results showed clear differences between Austrians vs. Americans and Koreans. Even though Koreans and Americans in our survey were older than Austrians, they seemed more open-minded to VAN services (e.g., social networks in car, V2V services, in-vehicle agent, etc) in general and rated them more positively. Through these cross-cultural needs analyses of end users, designers and practitioners are expected to gain insights into developing a standardized service across cultures as well as culturally tuned in-vehicle interfaces. Moreover, we hope that this initial international collaboration can serve as a good test bed for future research and hope to expand our consortium with more colleagues in the AutomotiveUI community for further cross-cultural studies.

Workload and demand

Exploring differences in the impact of auditory and visual demands on driver behavior BIBAFull-Text 173-177
  Yan Yang; Bryan Reimer; Bruce Mehler; Alan Wong; Mike McDonald
This study compared the performance metrics of drivers who carried out visual-manipulative and auditory in-vehicle tasks while driving. Although these two different types of secondary tasks resulted in similar levels of self-reported workload, performing the visual tasks had a much greater impact on measurements of lateral control and resulted in greater compensatory behavior. While performing the auditory tasks, the overlap in drivers' processing resources was less than that of the visual task. However, competition over cognitive (or central) resources was revealed through the drivers' eye movements. A reduction in the allocation of visual attention, as observed through the concentration of gaze while performing the auditory tasks, suggests that tasks involving an increase in cognitive workload can also impact driving performance. The impact on performance can cause safety concerns as drivers' compensatory adjustments have been observed to result in slower reaction times. These findings are consistent with the Multiple Resources Theory [1] and provide some quantitative support for the theory.
Impact of word error rate on driving performance while dictating short texts BIBAFull-Text 179-182
  Martin Labský; Jan Curín; Tomáš Macek; Jan Kleindienst; Ladislav Kunc; Hoi Young; Ann Thyme-Gobbel; Holger Quast
This paper describes the impact of speech recognition word error rate (WER) on driver's distraction in the context of short message dictation. A multi-modal dictation and error correction system was used in a simulated driving environment (Lane Change Test, LCT) to dictate text messages with prescribed semantic content. Driving accuracy was measured using several objective statistics produced by the LCT simulator. We report results for three datasets: 28 LCT trips by native US-English speakers at 40km/h, 23 more trips at 60km/h which had noise added in order to artificially increase WER levels and 22 LCT trips at 60km/h performed by non-native accented speakers. For the two datasets that used 60km/h we observed a moderate correlation between the driver's WER and driving performance statistics such as the mean deviation from ideal track (MDev) and the standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP). This correlation reached statistical significance for all of these statistics in the native dataset, and was significant for the overall SDLP in the non-native dataset. Additionally, we observed that higher WER levels lead to significantly lower message throughput and to significantly lower quality of sent messages, esp. for non-native speakers.
Exploring the effects of size and luminance of visual targets on the pupillary light reflex BIBAFull-Text 183-186
  Andrew L. Kun; Oskar Palinko; Ivan Razumenic
In driving simulator studies pupil diameter is often employed as a physiological measure of cognitive load. However, pupil size is primarily influenced by the pupillary light reflex (PLR). In this paper, we explore the influence of the size and luminance of visual targets on the PLR. Our results indicate that even for small targets (angular radius of 2.5°) changes in luminance can result in PLR that can obscure cognitive load-related pupil diameter changes. We propose a weighting function to be used to predict the PLR and present initial results that support its utility.
Defining workload in the context of driver state detection and HMI evaluation BIBAFull-Text 187-191
  Bruce Mehler; Bryan Reimer; Marin Zec
Workload is a dynamic concept that can have different meanings depending on the investigative perspective and the question being asked. Awareness of these methodological distinctions is essential when interpreting research and human machine interface evaluations. Understanding workload within the contexts of objective demand vs. effective workload, physical vs. mental workload, task pacing, automation, technology education, measurement context and distraction are among the themes raised in this brief review.

Fully peer reviewed and regularly accepted full/short papers

Task analysis of vehicle entry and backing BIBAFull-Text 195-200
  Yuqing Wu; Linda Ng Boyle; Daniel V. McGehee; Linda S. Angell; James Foley
This paper uses a conventional task analysis (TA) in a compact parking space maneuver scenario. The goal of this analysis is to identify areas where driver errors might occur during a common driving maneuver. Backing out of a parking space can be divided into several components beginning with the moment the driver enters the vehicle to entry into traffic. A detailed operational sequence diagram was developed to describe the process. This is an exploratory study to extend understanding of drivers' movements as they enter a vehicle and how they proceed to maneuver in a confined parking space. The process can be used for future studies and to identify possible solutions to minimize backing crashes. The results showed that there are many areas where driver errors could occur for omission of steps and failure to detect.
Development of an automotive user interface design knowledge system BIBAFull-Text 201-208
  Hao Tan; Yi Zhu; Jianghong Zhao
Design knowledge plays a key role in the design of a good automotive user interface. In this paper, we propose a qualitative field study and design approach to develop a design knowledge system for automotive user interface. The methods used are based on contextual design and similar concepts from the area of User Centered Design (UCD). Using the data from field study and design as the knowledge content, we developed a web-based design knowledge system: Transportation User Interface Design Knowledge System (TUI) that consists of user, design, and scenario modules. Designers and engineers can use the system to identify drivers' needs, generate design ideas, and help them enhance the automotive user interface. The system has been adopted in one automotive design firm in China, and one actual interface has been designed with the help of the system. The success of the adoption of the system is also discussed in this paper.
"FaceLight": potentials and drawbacks of thermal imaging to infer driver stress BIBAFull-Text 209-216
  Bernhard Anzengruber; Andreas Riener
Driving a modern vehicle is a complex, cognitive demanding task involving concentrated observation of the road, roadside, car status, information displays of assistance systems, etc. Drivers are conscious about this overabundance of information, nevertheless, they are operating tertiary controls, talking on the phone, smoking cigarettes, having lunch, reading maps or meeting agendas, or working on their computer. As a consequence -- caused by visual/manual/cognitive demand and limited multitasking capabilities -- precarious driving situations are created. Solutions are rare but badly needed to prevent imminent danger on the roads. To explore the potential of thermal imaging to infer mental conditions of the driver in an unobtrusive manner, and to use this information to automatically react to a detected risky state, we have developed the "FaceLight" prototype and performed a lab-based driving simulator study to evaluate the interface under conditions of varying workload. With "FaceLight" the driver can be interpreted as sort of signal light, with a 'red face' (hot surface temperature) standing for high stress or cognitive demand while a 'green face' (cooler temperature) equals to a more relaxed, stress-free mental state. Initial results have revealed that this technology has potential to capture shifts in the mental state of an individual in an inattentive manner, but highlighted also that a lot of influencing factors still need to be incorporated to reliably recognize a specific state solely based on facial skin temperature.
Driver-vehicle confluence or how to control your car in future? BIBAFull-Text 217-224
  Andreas Riener
Human-computer confluence (HCC) aims at investigating how the emerging symbiotic relation between humans and computing devices can enable new forms of sensing, perception, interaction, and comprehension. Latest advancements in information and communication technology have been the key enabler that this vision actually became reality. The concept of driver-vehicle confluence is understood as a specific instantiation of HCC, and its main objective is to understand the symbiosis between drivers, cars, and the infrastructure within an arbitrarily large region of interest. This covers not only information sharing within a collective of cars, for example about an oil spill on the road -- more important is to reason about driver states, learn about social connections and emotional influences, and forecast driver action or vehicle movement. All these can be achieved by modeling driver behavior, studying distributed negotiation processes, performing driving studies and simulations, and relating the results back to observations made in reality.
   In this visionary paper we identify some of the most crucial problems and present some possible solutions to establish driver-vehicle confluence in the automotive domain. By introducing this concept we are dealing with complex traffic situations, many distributed vehicles (i. e., driver-car pairs) that can act in orchestration, or drivers represented as emoting individuals. The success of any objective to achieve is mainly determined by wide user acceptance. For this reason, advantages and positive effects should superficially be generated for the individual driver. Some examples are reduced traveling time, lower fuel consumption/CO2 emission, or a more relaxed style of driving (improved driving experience and pleasure). Due to the close coupling and interconnectedness of involved entities, effects on the local level would directly induce changes such as increased road safety, traffic flow optimization or enhanced economy of driving, also on the global scale. Two concrete scenarios are outlined in the back of this paper to accentuate the potential and beneficial effects the application of driver-vehicle confluence might have on future traffic.
Trip experience sampling: assessing driver experience in the field BIBAFull-Text 225-232
  Alexander Meschtscherjakov; David Wilfinger; Sebastian Osswald; Nicole Perterer; Manfred Tscheligi
This paper introduces Trip Experience Sampling (TES) -- a low-tech method to gather driver experiences in the car. It builds upon the original paper-and-pencil based experience sampling method and applies it to the automotive context. TES uses driver logbooks to survey user experience at the end of a trip while still sitting in the car. To proof the feasibility of TES we collected 475 trip experience samples from 20 participants in a field study. Our study showed that TES is a feasible and successful method to conduct user experience research in the car without distracting the driver. TES is a successful method in terms of return rate, trip diversity, data quality and subjective participants' responses. The strengths of the method lie in the entire abandonment of technology making it a quantifiable field method, which is easy to conduct.
Road type classification through data mining BIBAFull-Text 233-240
  Phillip Taylor; Sarabjot Singh Anand; Nathan Griffiths; Fatimah Adamu-Fika; Alain Dunoyer; Thomas Popham
In this paper we investigate data mining approaches to road type classification based on CAN (controller area network) bus data collected from vehicles on UK roads. We consider three related classification problems: road type (A, B, C and Motorway), signage (None, White, Green and Blue) and carriageway type (Single or Double). Knowledge of these classifications has a number of uses, including tuning the engine and adapting the user interface according to the situation. Furthermore, the current road type and surrounding area gives an indication of the driver's workload. In a residential area the driver is likely to be overloaded, while they may be under stimulated on a highway. Several data mining and temporal analysis techniques are investigated, along with selected ensemble classifiers and initial attempts to deal with a class imbalance present in the data. We find that the Random Forest ensemble algorithm has the best performance, with an AUC of 0.89 when used with a wavelet-Gaussian summary of the previous 2.5 seconds of speed and steering wheel angle recordings. We show that this technique is at least as good as a model-based solution that was manually created using domain expertise.
Multimodal reference resolution for mobile spatial interaction in urban environments BIBAFull-Text 241-248
  Mohammad Mehdi Moniri; Christian Müller
We present results of a study on referring to the outside environment from within a moving vehicle. Reference resolution is the first necessary step in integrating the outside environment into the interactive system in the car. It is the problem of finding out which of the objects outside the users is interested in. In our study, we explored eye gaze, head pose, pointing gesture with a smart phone, and the user's view field. We implemented and tested everything in a moving vehicle in a real-life traffic. For safety reasons, the front-seat passenger used the system while the driver was concentrating completely on driving. For analysis and visualization of the user's interaction with the environment, 528 buildings of the city were modeled in 2.5D by using an airborne LIDAR scan, Google Earth, and a spatial database. As a result of our study, we propose in this paper a new algorithm for spatial reference resolution together with a scanning mechanism.
Physical and spiritual proximity: linking Car2X communication with online social networks BIBAFull-Text 249-256
  Monika Mitrevska; Sandro Castronovo; Angela Mahr; Christian Müller
Millions of drivers share the same roads every day. They share the same location but they are socially isolated and anonymous to each other. Anonymity and isolation are considered to be among the most common factors for aggressive behavior on the road (road rage).
   This paper presents a novel way to reduce anonymity between drivers. Furthermore argues that reducing anonymity by making drivers socially aware of each other reduces road rage. This awareness is achieved by introducing online social networks to the Car2X communication domain.
   The main focus of the paper is the evaluation of this idea which was carried out in two phases: In context of an on-site study and as part of an online experiment within a social network. The aim was to demonstrate the correlation between the anonymity level among drivers and the aggressiveness. The results confirmed that lowering the anonymity lever by revealing common personal interests between two drivers reduces their aggressive behavior.
Detection response tasks: how do different settings compare? BIBAFull-Text 257-260
  Antonia S. Conti; Carsten Dlugosch; Klaus Bengler
Detection response tasks (DRTs) have been used in many different laboratory settings and their usage continues to spread. The degree to which the DRT is replicable and produces concurring results is an important characteristic of its validity. The current article presents a comparison of DRT performance across two separate experimental settings. Results are discussed in terms of how the DRTs (specifically: remote or peripheral detection task and tactile detection task) compare with one another, including DRT reaction times in their relative baseline units. Assessments show that DRT results are comparable across different experimental settings, demonstrating the DRT as a valid measurement method.
Heart rate measures reflect the interaction of low mental workload and fatigue during driving simulation BIBAFull-Text 261-264
  Udo Trutschel; Christian Heinze; Bill Sirois; Martin Golz; David Sommer; David Edwards
The objective of this study was to assess the monotonic mental workload under changing conditions of operator fatigue during a night time driver simulation study. Several cardiovascular measures were used in order to differentiate between driving and a continuous tracking task. From all of the standard cardiovascular measures, heart rate in beats per minute emerged as the most sensitive for workload discrimination. Heart rate was higher during driving than during the tracking task, pointing to a slightly higher demanding workload for the driving task. This result was stable over the course of the night and showed only a minimal fatigue influence. Heart rate variability in milliseconds, on the other hand, was on average higher for the continuous tracking task in comparison to the driving. This was especially the case for the sessions with high subjective sleepiness. It can thus be concluded that the fatigue state of the operator was more impaired during the tracking task than during driving.
M2M gossip: why might we want cars to talk about us? BIBAFull-Text 265-268
  Jennifer Healey; Chieh-Chih Wang; Andreas Dopfer; Chung-Che Yu
What could or should your car be saying about you to other cars or other people on the road? In this paper, we present some preliminary results from a multi-state in-vehicle driver monitoring system and position it with respect to our work in M2M communication. We propose to improve our current motion object tracking algorithm with the addition of a driver state variable, allowing cars to make predictions about other cars' trajectories with information beyond position, velocity and maps. We envision a transportation future where autonomous and semi-autonomous vehicles could be talking about us to our benefit and advanced driver assist would extend beyond the vehicle to a network of connected cars.
Pedal misapplications by older drivers induced by difficulty with inhibition function BIBAFull-Text 269-272
  Takahiko Kimura; Kazumitsu Shinohara
Pedal error, i.e., pedal misapplication, while driving is a major problem, particularly for older drivers. Psychological studies on aging and cognition have shown that the cognitive functions of older people are different from those of younger people. Therefore, pedal error may be related to the cognitive functions, which are affected by aging. We investigated the cognitive aspect of pedal misapplication, focusing on the age-related differences in the inhibition function. Our results indicate that inhibition in a Stroop task was larger in older people. Furthermore, the reaction time in a shifting foot pedal task was longer for older people than for younger people, suggesting that older drivers are more likely to make a pedal error. Therefore, to prevent pedal misapplication, an interface with several countermeasures that take into account age-related differences in the inhibition function should be developed.
Information analysis and presentation based on cyber physical system for automobiles BIBAFull-Text 273-276
  Kazunari Nawa; Naiwala P. Chandrasiri; Tadashi Yanagihara; Kentaro Oguchi
Information provision services in vehicle have started according to the progress of data communication infrastructure surrounding vehicles. In such information services, a large amount of data related to vehicles and drivers has been accumulated to the data-center and also been analyzed to provide proper information to drivers. Towards such technical trends surrounding vehicles, a cyber physical system for vehicle application is proposed here. In the proposed system, expected continuous spiral information flow for vehicles and drivers is described. In the data-center, accumulated information has been analyzed by intelligent information processing of data mining, then finally trusted information has been presented to drivers through human machine interface. According to the progress of the information processing technologies in the data-center, several potential applications are introduced mainly based on personal adaptation and big data analysis. It is revealed that destination and route was automatically predicted with 80% accuracy, topics in dialogue were also automatically extracted with 50% precision and driving skill could be separated into two different skill groups. As an experimental challenge to give a better driving advise, a haptic sense device onto a steering wheel was also fabricated and revealed that stimulating Meissner's corpuscles with a frequency range between 30 and 60 Hz was the best for the palm.
Are 5 buttons enough: destination input on touchscreen keyboards BIBAFull-Text 277-280
  David Wilfinger; Martin Murer; Manfred Tscheligi
Although alternative means of text input in vehicles have already been developed, touchscreen keyboards still pose a standard solution for this input in modern vehicles. Until alternative means of text input will be widely available in vehicles, it is important to further investigate potential improvements in button text input on touch screens. This paper presents a study in which we compared three means of text input for navigation destination entry on a touchscreen in the central console: two keyboards using a QWERTY and an ABC layout, respectively, and a novel 5Button input approach using only 5 buttons to type in city names. The study focused on performance, distraction, and user experience caused by the different keyboards. Results show that the QWERTY and ABC keyboards performed better in terms of perceived workload than the 5Button approach. Performance and perceived usability were best with the QWERTY keyboard, even compared to the ABC keyboard. No significant differences between the systems were found in lane keeping behavior. The main downside of the 5Button approach was the increase of mental workload compared to the other keyboards.