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AutomotiveUI Tables of Contents: 091011121314-114-2

AutomnotiveUI 2011: International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications

Fullname:Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications
Editors:Matthias Kranz; Garrett Weinberg; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Martin Murer; David Wilfinger
Location:Salzburg, Austria
Dates:2011-Nov-30 to 2011-Dec-02
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-4503-1231-8; ACM DL: Table of Contents; hcibib: AutomotiveUI11 editor Manfred Tscheligi
Papers:28
Pages:211
Links:Conference Website
  1. Messaging in motion
  2. Modes of interaction
  3. Modeling & adapting
  4. Studies effects in the car
  5. Studying car and driver
  6. Putting the E in the car: eco and electric
  7. Workshops

Messaging in motion

Dictating and editing short texts while driving: distraction and task completion BIBAFull-Text 13-20
  Jan Curín; Martin Labský; Tomáš Macek; Jan Kleindienst; Hoi Young; Ann Thyme-Gobbel; Holger Quast; Lars König
This paper presents a multi-modal automotive dictation editor (codenamed ECOR) used to compose and correct text messages while driving. The goals are to keep driver's distraction minimal while achieving good task completion rates and times as well as acceptance by users. We report test results for a set of 28 native US-English speakers using the system while driving a standard lane-change-test (LCT) car simulator. The dictation editor was tested (1) without any display, (2) with a display showing the full edited text, and (3) with just the "active" part of text being shown. In all cases, the system provided extensive text-to-speech feedback in order to prevent the driver from having to look at the display. In addition, cell phone messaging and GPS destination entry were evaluated as reference tasks. The test subjects were instructed to send text messages containing prescribed semantic information, and were given a list of destinations for the GPS task. The levels of driver distraction (evaluated by car's deviation from an ideal track, reaction times, number of missed lane change signs, eye gaze information etc.) were compared between the 3 ECOR and the 2 reference tasks, and also to undistracted driving. Task completion was measured by the number and quality of messages sent out during a 4 minute LCT ride, and subjective feedback was collected via questionnaires. Results indicate that the eyes-free version keeps the distraction level acceptable while achieving good task completion rate. Both multi-modal versions caused more distraction than the eyes-free version and were comparable to the GPS entry task. For native speakers, the missing display for the eyes-free version did not impact quality of dictated text. By far, the cell phone texting task was the most distracting one. Text composition speed using dictation was faster than cell phone typing.
Effects of speech-based vs handheld e-mailing and texting on driving performance and experience BIBAFull-Text 21-24
  Jacques Terken; Henk-Jan Visser; Andrew Tokmakoff
In this paper we present a voice-enabled service for handling e-mail and SMS messages while driving, and an evaluation of the service. In the evaluation, driving performance was compared in three conditions with a highway driving scenario in a driving simulator: driving only, driving in combination with voice-enabled handling of e-mail/SMS messages, and driving in combination with handheld handling of e-mail/SMS messages. Both objective measurements and subjective judgments about driving performance were collected. The results showed that drivers increased the headway when performing an additional task. With respect to the subjective measures, drivers felt that driving only was safest, and that voice-enabled interaction was safer, enabled better concentration and a better driving performance than handheld interaction. We conclude that handheld interaction is felt to have a stronger impact on driver performance and workload than voice-enabled interaction.
Content matters: towards handling e-mail while driving safely BIBAFull-Text 25-30
  Sergej Truschin; Tobias Schlachtbauer; Andreas Zauner; Michael Schermann; Helmut Krcmar
Advancements in information and communication technology make new IT-based services in the tertiary scope of a car driver (short: automotive services) possible like e-mail and social networking and are highly demanded by customers. However, if not well designed, these services have a potential to dangerously distract drivers from their main driving task and therefore increase the risk of road accidents. Hence, we studied the effects of an in-car e-mail client on drivers' distraction. A low fidelity driving simulator was used to test 32 participants on their degree of distraction while driving. In this paper we present the findings of this evaluation. Our results show that when designing complex automotive services like an e-mail client one of the crucial factors besides the user interface is to keep the provided content simple and well structured thus reducing the amount of driver's distraction considerably.

Modes of interaction

Generating route instructions with varying levels of detail BIBAFull-Text 31-38
  Jürgen Ziegler; Tim Hussein; Daniel Münter; Jens Hofmann; Timm Linder
In this paper, we present a technique for adaptive generation of personalized route instructions based on the driver's knowledge of particular route sections. We evaluated the mechanism with two empirical studies, both attesting significant preference for the adaptively generated presentations over an established online service (Google Maps).
Evaluating the usability of a head-up display for selection from choice lists in cars BIBAFull-Text 39-46
  Garrett Weinberg; Bret Harsham; Zeljko Medenica
It has been established that head-down displays (HDDs), such as those commonly placed in the dashboard of commercial automobiles, negatively affect drivers' visual attention [1]. This problem can be exacerbated when screens are "busy" with graphics or rich information. In this paper, which is an extension of a user-preference study [23], we present the results of a driving simulator experiment where we examined two potential alternatives to HDDs for presenting textual lists. Subjects conducted a series of street name finding tasks using each of three system variants: one with a head-down display (HDD), one with a head-up display (HUD), and one with only an auditory display. We found that the auditory display had the least impact on driving performance and mental load, but at the expense of task completion efficiency. The HUD variant had a low impact on mental load and scored highest in user satisfaction, and therefore appears to be the most viable target for future study.
A study on user acceptance of proactive in-vehicle recommender systems BIBAFull-Text 47-54
  Roland Bader; Oliver Siegmund; Wolfgang Woerndl
Modern in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) are able to provide a large amount of data to the driver. If every information which might be of interest is delivered directly to the driver, information overload becomes a serious problem. Recommender systems are a promising approach to reduce information overload but they are mainly designed for desktop systems or mobile devices. In-vehicle recommender systems have to cope with interaction restrictions and limited cognitive resources of the driver. Therefore, we investigate proactive recommender systems, where recommendations are pushed automatically. The contribution of this paper is a user study in a real world setup to investigate the acceptance of a proactive recommender system while driving. The evaluation is based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). As perceived ease of use is crucial for acceptance, we design an in-vehicle user interface for proactive recommendations. Our results show that our proactive recommender is perceived as helpful and assisting and is not obtrusive and distracting while driving. We also found that clear information delivery and trust is crucial for the acceptance of in-vehicle recommendations.
Individual differences in preferred steering effort for steer-by-wire systems BIBAFull-Text 55-62
  Swethan Anand; Jacques Terken; Jeroen Hogema
Steer-by-wire systems provide drivers with the opportunity to personalize steering settings in vehicles. Studies conducted in the past have indicated that preferences for steering effort, one of the factors which affect steering feel, vary based on individual differences that include factors such as age, gender and driving style. These differences have mostly been established by subjective evaluations and comparative studies, where participants were unable to modify steering effort actively while driving a vehicle. This paper describes an experiment conducted on a driving simulator designed with a user interface that allows participants to actively modify steering effort settings on the steering wheel, to investigate the effect of gender on preferences for desired steering effort and personalization of future steering systems. Participants in the study performed multiple driving tasks on the simulator while interacting with the user interface to vary steering effort and subsequently reported their preferred level. Results from the study indicate individual differences exist with respect to preferred steering effort, although gender does not significantly impact the preference for steering effort. On the basis of the findings we propose a recommendation for the design and development of by-wire steering systems.
Statistical effects of selected noise characteristics on speaker recognition in automotive environments: a first ANOVA-based investigation BIBAFull-Text 63-70
  Sven Tuchscheerer; Christian Krätzer; Jana Dittmann; Tobias Hoppe
A statistical analysis using the univariate, multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used in this paper to investigate the impact of selected noise characteristics (here a 4-factorial design: amplitude, complexity, harmony and fundamental frequency) to speech signals and consecutively to the detection performance in speaker recognition systems (exemplarily used here: the BioSecure reference system ALIZE) in automotive application scenarios. An application scenario specific set of noise signals is recorded and generated and used to evaluate the influence of the noise characteristics. The results show that especially the amplitude and the fundamental frequency show a significant impact (p-values < 0.01), which is completely independent of the features used in the speaker recognition system. The two other characteristics (complexity and harmony) show much less significant impacts (p-values >0.5).

Modeling & adapting

Support for modeling interaction with automotive user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 71-78
  Stefan Schneegaß; Bastian Pfleging; Dagmar Kern; Albrecht Schmidt
During the last decade, the number of functions of automotive user interfaces has increased rapidly. Besides traditional controls to drive a car, driver assistance, infotainment, entertainment, and comfort systems need to be controlled while driving. This does not only affect the driver's cognitive workload but also leads to increased complexity in designing automotive user interfaces. In this paper, we provide models and tools for rapid prototyping and the evaluation of user interfaces in this context. Usually, functional prototypes of user interfaces are implemented that allow the usability and quality to be assessed with time-consuming user studies. In contrast, in our approach we use an adapted Keystroke-Level Model (KLM) that is based on empirically collected data for typical operations in the car. It takes into account the aspect of attention switching in the car between primary tasks and other tasks. We present KLM operator times that we determined in a user study as well as a formula for estimating the task completion time. The presented model is the foundation for the MI-AUI prototyping tool that we implemented for permitting the creation of automotive interfaces using tangible controls. By demonstrating a typical operation with the MI-AUI prototype, the estimated task completion time can be calculated. MI-AUI is an evaluation tool that can be quickly and easily applied in early stages of the design process without the need to involve real drivers.
The automotive ontology: managing knowledge inside the vehicle and sharing it between cars BIBAFull-Text 79-86
  Michael Feld; Christian Müller
Cars have been increasingly equipped with technology, meeting the demand of people for safety, connectivity, and comfort. Upcoming HMIs provide access to in-car systems and web services in a personalized manner that facilitates a large array of functionality even while driving, with other passengers also benefiting from an enhanced experience. Such intelligent applications however depend on a solid basis to be effective: Personalization, adaptive HMI, situation-aware intelligent systems -- either of these require semantic knowledge about the user, the vehicle, the current driving situation. Advanced functions coexist with sensors, other functions, and even other vehicles. In such an environment, collaboration can be highly beneficial. Obtaining a common understanding of knowledge and providing a platform to exchange it is essential in order to reach the next level of intelligent in-car systems. This work describes the Automotive Ontology, which is located at the core of such an open platform. We give an overview of design areas relevant to automotive applications, as well as meta aspects that facilitate inference and reasoning.
The impact of an adaptive user interface on reducing driver distraction BIBAFull-Text 87-94
  Patrick Tchankue; Janet Wesson; Dieter Vogts
This paper discusses the impact of an adaptive prototype in-car communication system (ICCS), called MIMI (Multimodal Interface for Mobile Info-communication), on driver distraction. Existing ICCSs attempt to minimise the visual and manual distraction, but more research needs to be done to reduce cognitive distraction. MIMI was designed to address usability and safety issues with existing ICCSs. Few ICCSs available today consider the driver's context in the design of the user interface. An adaptive user interface (AUI) was designed and integrated into a conventional dialogue system in order to prevent the driver from receiving calls and sending text messages under high distraction conditions. The current distraction level is detected by a neural network using the driving speed and steering wheel angle of the car as inputs. An adaptive version of MIMI was compared to a non-adaptive version in a user study conducted using a simple driving simulator. The results obtained showed that the adaptive version provided several usability and safety benefits, including reducing the cognitive load, and that the users preferred the adaptive version.
A dynamic content summarization system for opportunistic driver infotainment BIBAFull-Text 95-98
  Barbara Rosario; Kent Lyons; Jennifer Healey
The in-vehicle experience offers a unique challenge for delivering the right amount of information to the driver at the right time. The level of attention required to successfully manage the driving task is often in variable. An ideal in vehicle information delivery system would deliver content to the driver only during low task demand times, such as waiting at a stop light, when the driver's safety would be minimally compromised. The system would also have to respond to sudden changes in the situation such as driver interruption or distraction and terminate gracefully, allowing the driver to refocus on the driving task. In this paper, we present an embedded natural language processing (NLP) system that delivers speech synthesized summarized text content into tailored time slices. The system is also designed to respond dynamically to interruptions. We anticipate that this system could safely deliver speech synthesized content to drivers and allow them to make the most of their time on the road. We have implemented this system on an Atom Z530 processor with 1GB of RAM, a processor comparable to those found in factory installed In-Vehicle Infotainment (IVI) systems and have evaluated it in a laboratory test using a standard NLP corpus to demonstrate this potential.
Human modeling in a driver analyzing context: challenge and benefit BIBAFull-Text 99-104
  Tobias Islinger; Thorsten Köhler; Christian Wolff
In the past years, driver analyzing has become a field of increasing interest. Within this topic, camera based as well as camera free systems are in the scope of researchers all over the world with the overall goal to detect, for example, critical driver states like drowsiness or distraction. Unfortunately, there are yet no comprehensive models for understanding the driver and his states in the automotive context. Therefore, we present a user model tailored to automotive needs. This model allows us to understand the driver in the automotive environment and to set up a general architecture from which we can decide on necessary input information for detecting a certain driver state.

Studies effects in the car

Capture the car!: qualitative in-situ methods to grasp the automotive context BIBAFull-Text 105-112
  Alexander Meschtscherjakov; David Wilfinger; Nicole Gridling; Katja Neureiter; Manfred Tscheligi
In terms of human computer interaction (HCI), the car interior is a space, which can be divided into three areas: the driver's area, the front seat area, and the back seat area. So far HCI researchers have primary focused on the driver, and how in-car electronic devices can be designed to assist the driver in order to increase safety and comfort. We propose that for investigating interactive technology in the car in a holistic way, all three areas have to be taken into account. For that purpose we argue for an increased usage of qualitative in-situ studies, which have been hardly applied in automotive user interface research. So far the HCI community has mainly focused on laboratory studies utilizing driving simulators. Despite the broad range of available field study methods, such as ethnographic and self-reporting studies, the adaption of these methods for the automotive context is challenging due to the specific characteristics of this environment. For instance, cars provide only very limited space, the environment is constantly changing while driving and the driver must not be distracted from driving safely. As a consequence, a lack of experience exists, on how in-situ methods should be applied to cars. In this paper we describe three qualitative in-situ studies, we conducted to research the driver, the front seat passenger, and the rear seat passenger spaces. All three studies used a different method tailored to fit these three areas best. To share our experiences and insights we discuss the strengths and pitfalls of each method.
User interface transfer for driver information systems: a survey and an improved approach BIBAFull-Text 113-120
  Fabian Hüger
At present, devices are establishing themselves on the mobile device market which permit personalization and expansion by means of applications. These applications are increasingly also expected in the vehicle. In contrast to mobile devices, an expandable system in the vehicle is subject to special requirements. These are discussed in this publication and existing approaches are evaluated with regard to the requirements. In this case, outplacing subsequent applications to a smartphone or web server is identified as the best solution. For user interface (UI) integration to the driver information system, final user interface descriptions are identified as a good compromise between complexity and reusability. An improved approach for UI transfer with final UI descriptions using HTML is presented. Compared to existing concepts, this achieves an improvement in the form of graphical quality, response behaviour, reusability and complexity. A prototype implementation makes it clear that a series production system can be subsequently expanded with applications that cannot be distinguished from the basic functions of the driver information system in terms of graphical quality and response behaviour.
Investigating the effects of an advance warning in-vehicle system on behavior and attention in controlled driving BIBAFull-Text 121-128
  Lars Holm Christiansen; Nikolaj Yde Frederiksen; Alex Ranch; Mikael B. Skov
Advance warning systems constitute a class of in-vehicle systems that could influence and improve driving in the future, e.g. by warning of accidents or slippery roads. However, the effects of advance warning systems are still poorly understood and investigated. In this paper, we report from an experiment in a controlled driving situation where we investigate how such advance warnings affect driver behavior and attention. Our results showed that the advance warnings overall had a limited effect on the speed of the drivers, although they had a positive effect for some road conditions especially for slippery road conditions. Furthermore, our subjects had a significantly higher number of eye glances. In particular, they glanced at the system when warnings were issued.
Central executive functions likely mediate the impact of device operation when driving BIBAFull-Text 129-136
  Sachi Mizobuchi; Mark Chignell; Junko Suzuki; Ko Koga; Kazunari Nawa
We measured multitasking performance across a range of device interfaces and investigated the relationship between task performance and three measures of cognitive capacity (assessing the executive processes of shifting, inhibition, and updating, respectively). In the first experiment, higher levels of ability on the three executive processes of shifting, updating and inhibition were associated with improved multitasking performance. However, the impact of cognitive demands was reduced when touch input and combined visual and audio output was used in the device interaction task. When a simulated driving task was added in the second experiment, the impact of cognitive demands increased, and the use of combined audio and video output no longer reduced the impact of Central Executive (CE) function ability on performance.
   While inhibition, updating, and shifting all seemed to be involved when carrying out the device operation during simulated driving, the effects of shifting and updating ability were greater than the effect of inhibition. Detailed analysis of the data indicated that the impact of cognitive demand when using a device in a dual task setting was restricted to people with low levels of shifting, updating, and inhibition ability. It is suggested that future research on the impact of in-vehicle technology focus on drivers with low levels of ability on or more of a range of cognitive factors, including the CE functions of shifting, updating, and inhibition. Based on the present results it seems likely that less cognitively able drivers will be put at most risk by inappropriate or poorly designed device tasks and interfaces.
An angry driver is not the same as a fearful driver: effects of specific negative emotions on risk perception, driving performance, and workload BIBAFull-Text 137-142
  Myounghoon Jeon; Jung-Bin Yim; Bruce N. Walker
Most emotion detection research starts with a valence dimension -- positive and negative states. However, these approaches have not discriminated the effects of distinct emotions of the same valence. Recent psychological findings have proposed that different emotions may have different impacts even though they belong to the same valence. The current study consists of a simulated driving experiment with two induced affective states that are important in driving contexts, to investigate how anger and fear differently influence driving-related risk perception, driving performance, and perceived workload. Twenty four undergraduates drove under three different road conditions with either induced anger or fear. Anger led to more errors than fear, regardless of difficulty level and error type. Also, participants with induced fear reported greater workload than participants with induced anger. Results are discussed in terms of the cognitive appraisal mechanism and design directions for the in-vehicle emotion detection and regulation system.

Studying car and driver

Investigating safety services on the motorway: the role of realistic visualization BIBAFull-Text 143-150
  Peter Fröhlich; Matthias Baldauf; Marion Hagen; Stefan Suette; Dietmar Schabus; Andrew L. Kun
Today's in-car information systems are undergoing an evolution towards realistic visualization as well as to real-time telematics services. In a road study with 31 participants we explored the communication of safety information to the driver. We compared three presentation styles: audio-only, audiovisual with a conventional map, and audiovisual with augmented reality. The participants drove on a motorway route and were confronted with recommendations for route following, speed limitation, lane utilization, unexpected route change, and emergency stops. We found significant differences between these safety scenarios in terms of driving performance, eye glances and subjective preference. Comparing the presentation styles, we found that following such recommendations was highly efficient in the audio-only mode. Additional visual information did not significantly increase driving performance. As our subjective preference data also shows, augmented reality does not necessarily create an added value when following safety-related traffic recommendations. However, additional visual information did not interfere with safe driving. Importantly, we did not find evidence for a higher distraction potential by augmented reality; drivers even looked slightly less frequently on the human-machine interface screen in the augmented reality mode than with conventional maps.
Determining human-centered parameters of ergonomic micro-gesture interaction for drivers using the theater approach BIBAFull-Text 151-158
  Angela Mahr; Christoph Endres; Christian Müller; Tanja Schneeberger
In this paper, we describe a technique to determine user preferences concerning in-car micro-gesture interaction. The approach is derived from the theater technique [1], and implies a collaborative adjustment of parameters with the experimenter, until the subject has decided about the final settings. We evaluated three systematically selected gestures (zooming, sweeping, and circling) for controlling four exemplary comfort functions of the car (window lifter, air condition, radio volume, and seat heating). The main result of our study is the geometry of a "sweet spot" for micro-gesture recognition close to the steering wheel, which is independent from the underlying technical recognition approach. Additionally, preferred sizes, angles, and pause times for the investigated gestures are provided. We give an indication, which of the gestures is preferred by the users (the sweeping gesture). Finally, we provide a more detailed view on the interaction between gesture preferences and function.
Natural, intuitive finger based input as substitution for traditional vehicle control BIBAFull-Text 159-166
  Andreas Riener; Philipp Wintersberger
Both amount as well as dynamicity of content to be displayed in a car increases steadily, forcing manufacturer to change over to customizable screens integrated in dashboard and center console instead of dozens to hundreds of individual control signals. In addition, new requirements such as Internet access in the car or web services accessible while driving invalidates rudimentary display formats. Traditional forms of interaction such as buttons or knobs are unsuitable to respond to dynamic content shown on digital screens, requesting new mechanisms for distraction-free yet effective user (driver) input. We pick up this problem by introducing a novel sensing device allowing for natural, contactless, and eyes-free operation by relating finger movements in the area of the gearshift to screen coordinates. To assess quality features of this interface two research questions were formulated, (i) that the application of such a device would allow for natural, intuitive mouse pointer control in a similar manner than traditional forms of input and (ii) that the interface is insusceptible to varying workload conditions of the driver. Results from experimentation have revealed that, with respect to the first hypothesis, proximity sensing in a two-dimensional plane is a viable approach to directly control a mouse cursor on a screen integrated into the dashboard. A generally accepted conclusion on the assumption that the index of performance of the interface does not change with varying workload (hypothesis ii) cannot be drawn. To simulate different conditions of workload a dual task signal-response setting was used.
A cooperative in-car game for heterogeneous players BIBAFull-Text 167-176
  Nora Broy; Sebastian Goebl; Matheus Hauder; Thomas Kothmayr; Michael Kugler; Florian Reinhart; Martin Salfer; Kevin Schlieper; Elisabeth André
Car rides are often perceived as dull by the passengers, especially children. Therefore, we aim to introduce a system fostering a collaborative and communicative experience in this environment. This paper presents the design for a game played together by all car-occupants, including the driver, according to their abilities and capacities. A fully implemented prototype of our system called nICE: nice In-Car Experience is evaluated under real world conditions in a user study with five families using a qualitative approach.

Putting the E in the car: eco and electric

Driver interfaces for electric vehicles BIBAFull-Text 177-184
  Helena Strömberg; Pontus Andersson; Susanne Almgren; Johan Ericsson; MariAnne Karlsson; Arne Nåbo
The dissemination of electric vehicles (EVs) is an important step towards a more sustainable transport system, but barriers to adoption persist. Much effort and resources are put into solving battery technology related issues and progress is made continuously. There remain however important matters that have not been equally discussed; the design of user interfaces and human-machine interaction (HMI) of EVs is one.
   This paper seeks to examine a few of the issues regarding EV HMI through a study that evaluates two different concepts for an EV instrument cluster in order to develop knowledge on (i) what information is relevant to present to the driver of an EV and (ii) how that information should be presented; innovatively or in a more familiar way. Two consecutive user tests, according to a between-subject procedure, were used to test two concepts in a driving simulator. Ten participants, with little or no experience of driving an electric or a hybrid electric vehicle, tested each concept. The participants were asked to drive the EV simulator and to interact with the user interface while different events were triggered, designed so that the participants would experience several of the situations that might appear when driving an EV for a longer period of time. Data was gathered through objective measurements, e.g. time, number if errors etc., as well as through questionnaires and interviews
   The results show that participants had problems understanding the EV specific information content independent of concepts, even though they considered the information shown to be the right one. Both concepts had advantages and disadvantages, most notably that participants expected the vehicle to work like a conventional car when the interface was traditional and that they felt insecure when the interface was innovative.
   Some of the discovered problems can be attributed to the participants' lack of knowledge and useful mental concepts regarding electricity and batteries, which made understanding the information difficult. More research on how to support EV drivers through design of the HMI given these deficiencies is needed.
Eco-driving incentives in the North American market BIBAFull-Text 185-192
  Anna Korina Loumidi; Steffi Mittag; William Brian Lathrop; Frank Althoff
Finding the correct incentives that will nudge drivers to improve their fuel efficiency is the key for achieving long-term change in their driving behavior. In this paper we discuss a participant study which is designed to provide insights on driver attitudes, behaviors and habits. This study focuses on residents in the San Francisco Bay area, and analyzes the eco-topic from multiple perspectives such as people's everyday routine, purchasing decisions, and driving habits.
   The results show how income, age and gender of participants relate to their eco-friendliness. The most preferred types of information as well as visualizations for displaying fuel consumption and efficiency information in the car are discussed. Lastly, appropriate reward types for eco-driving are ranked and show what participants prefer best. The methodology and results of this research contribute to the design of automotive interfaces that may help people change their behavior and improve their fuel efficiency.
Slow down, you move too fast: examining animation aesthetics to promote eco-driving BIBAFull-Text 193-202
  Noam Tractinsky; Ohad Inbar; Omer Tsimhoni; Thomas Seder
We examine how people perceive visual properties of new concepts for the design of animated vehicle instrument clusters, with emphasis on aesthetic aspects. The project is placed in the context of animations for eco-conscious driving. It consists of two stages: Creating animations and studying drivers' reactions to them. Two studies were conducted which provide various insights regarding tradeoff in the design process and drivers' preferences. The second study also serves as a first step towards the study of people's aesthetic perceptions of in-vehicle animations.

Workshops

Subliminal perception in cars BIBAFull-Text 203-206
  A. Riener; M. Jeon; M. Tscheligi; J. Fellner
Following laws and provisions passed on the national and international level, the most relevant goal of future vehicular interfaces is to increase road safety. To alleviate the cognitive load associated with the interaction with the variety of emerging information and assistance systems in the car (and to increase driving performance as well), subliminal persuasion is assumed to be a promising technique to reduce the amount of information the driver must store and recall. Subliminal cues could be provided across appropriate sensory modalities, according to the specific nature of the current task, and corresponding to drivers' cognitive abilities.
   The central objective of this workshop is to provoke a lively debate on the adequacy of information provided below active awareness and to discuss how to resolve potential problems in this highly risky research field. This approach exhibits exciting challenges, which can -- once fully understood -- impact on society at large, making significant contributions toward a more natural, convenient, and even relaxing future style of driving. Therefore, and to further strengthen significance of results, the workshop is directed at researchers from a range of disciplines, such as engineering, neuroscience, computer science, and psychophysiology.
AutoNUI: a workshop on automotive natural user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 207-209
  Bastian Pfleging; Albrecht Schmidt; Tanja Döring; Martin Knobel
Natural user interfaces by means of gesture and speech interaction have become a hot topic in research as well as already for real products. Most use cases currently center around consumer electronics devices like smart phones, TV sets, gaming, or other large screens like tabletops.
   Motivated by the latest results in those areas, our vision is to apply natural user interfaces like gesture and speech interaction to the automotive domain as well. This integration might on one hand reduce driver distraction in certain cases and on the other hand allow to design new experiences for operating infotainment and entertainment systems.
   The goal of this workshop is to explore the design space of natural multi-modal automotive user interfaces. We would like to analyze where and how new interaction techniques can be integrated into the car.
Integrating mobile devices into the car ecosystem: tablets and smartphones as vital part of the car BIBAFull-Text 210-211
  Steffen Hess; Alexander Meschtscherjakov; Torsten Ronneberger; Marcus Trapp
Today, there is a trend towards integration of mobile (nomadic) devices into the car ecosystem. Thereby, this integration goes beyond using the devices' core features (such as making phone calls, short messaging, or using social media networks) in the car. Soon, tablets and smartphones will be a vital part of the car enabling services that cannot be used in the car without these devices anymore. This development leads to several research questions regarding the software engineering domain. In this workshop, we are going to discuss current challenges and promising approaches for integrating mobile devices into the car environment from different standpoints. Challenges regarding requirements engineering, user experience and software architecture will be addressed from different stakeholder viewpoints (User, OEM, supplier, 3rd party developer).