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AVI Tables of Contents: 9496980002040608101214

Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces

Fullname:AVI'08 Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces
Editors:Paolo Bottoni; Stefano Levialdi
Location:Napoli, Italy
Dates:2008-May-28 to 2008-May-30
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 978-1-60558-141-5; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: AVI08
Papers:89
Pages:483
Links:Conference Home Page
  1. Invited papers
  2. Interaction techniques
  3. Content-focused applications
  4. Visualization techniques
  5. User experience
  6. Surface-oriented interaction
  7. Semantics-based applications
  8. User studies on visualization
  9. Interaction environment design
  10. Interactive querying and retrieval
  11. Advanced visualization
  12. Posters Day 1: Interaction environments and semantics based applications
  13. Posters Day 2: Visualization and user experience
  14. Posters Day 3: Retrieval, natural interaction and interaction techniques
  15. Demos session

Invited papers

Ambient mobility: human environment interface and interaction challenges BIBAFull-Text 3
  José Luis Encarnação
Through the convergence of mobility, ubiquity and multimediality/multimodality a new information & communication technology paradigm is emerging: Ambient Intelligence (AmI). AmI basically means that computers move from the desktop into the infrastructure of our everyday life to build networks of smart items serving "smart players" (humans, machines, smart items, animals, etc.) in intelligent environments. AmI begins to influence the way we interact with our environments. An important aspect of future human interaction therefore is the way this interaction evolves from human-computer interaction (HCI) to a human environment interaction (HEI) supporting us in efficiently managing our personal environment, not only at home or in the office, but also in public and industrial environments.
   This contribution addresses the fundamental components that are involved in the forthcoming human-computer-environment interaction. Focus will be specially on the challenges arising when the interaction takes place with mobile services e.g. providing information, supporting work tasks, or enriching leisure, in public and possibly outdoor environments.
Computational photography and video: interacting and creating with videos and images BIBAFull-Text 4
  Irfan Essa
Digital image capture, processing, and sharing has become pervasive in our society. This has had significant impact on how we create novel scenes, how we share our experiences, and how we interact with images and videos. In this talk, I will present an overview of series of ongoing efforts in the analysis of images and videos for rendering novel scenes. First I will discuss (in brief) our work on Video Textures, where repeating information is extracted to generate extended sequences of videos. I will then describe some our extensions to this approach that allows for controlled generation of animations of video sprites. We have developed various learning and optimization techniques that allow for video-based animations of photorealistic characters. Using these sets of approaches as a foundation, then I will show how new images and videos can be generated. I will show examples of Photorealistic and Non-photorealistic Renderings of Scenes (Videos and Images) and how these methods support the media reuse culture, so common these days with user generated content. Time permitting, I will also share some of our efforts on video annotation and how we have taken some of these new concepts of video analysis to undergraduate classrooms.
Principles of entertainment in inhabited television BIBAKFull-Text 5-12
  Marco Fanciulli
Inhabited TV paradigms have been around since a while and several experimental implementations have been delivered around the world. The basic model of these experiments involves the deployment of collaborative virtual environments so that users can take part in TV shows from within these virtual, shared environments. Unfortunately, this approach although cheap and easily implementable, doesn't add up too much to engagement, pace gap between real/virtual world, camera control techniques and most important, adequate TV Formats.
   The talk presents a new paradigm of basic principles for entertaining a virtually deployed audience allowing for interaction and maintaining the entertainment sensation.
Keywords: inhabited TV, social design, virtual life

Interaction techniques

Flower menus: a new type of marking menu with large menu breadth, within groups and efficient expert mode memorization BIBAKFull-Text 15-22
  Gilles Bailly; Eric Lecolinet; Laurence Nigay
This paper presents Flower menu, a new type of Marking menu that does not only support straight, but also curved gestures for any of the 8 usual orientations. Flower menus make it possible to put many commands at each menu level and thus to create as large a hierarchy as needed for common applications. Indeed our informal analysis of menu breadth in popular applications shows that a quarter of them have more than 16 items. Flower menus can easily contain 20 items and even more (theoretical maximum of 56 items). Flower menus also support within groups as well as hierarchical groups. They can thus favor breadth organization (within groups) or depth organization (hierarchical groups): as a result, the designers can lay out items in a very flexible way in order to reveal meaningful item groupings. We also investigate the learning performance of the expert mode of Flower menus. A user experiment is presented that compares linear menus (baseline condition), Flower menus and Polygon menus, a variant of Marking menus that supports a breadth of 16 items. Our experiment shows that Flower menus are more efficient than both Polygon and Linear menus for memorizing command activation in expert mode.
Keywords: within groups, curved gestures, expert mode, flower menus, learning performance, marking menus, novice mode, polygon menus
Efficient web browsing on small screens BIBAKFull-Text 23-30
  Hamed Ahmadi; Jun Kong
A global increase in PDA and cell phone ownership and a rise in the use of wireless services have caused mobile browsing to become an important means of Internet access. However, the small screen of such mobile devices limits the usability of information browsing and searching. This paper presents a novel method that automatically adapts a desktop presentation to a mobile presentation, proceeding in two steps: detecting boundaries between different information blocks and then representing the information to fit in small screens. Distinct from other approaches, our approach analyzes both the DOM structure and the visual layout to divide the original Web page into several subpages, each of which includes closely related content and is suitable for display on the small screen. Furthermore, a table of contents is automatically generated to facilitate the navigation between different subpages. An evaluation of a prototype of our approach shows that the browsing usability is significantly improved.
Keywords: adaptive interface for small screens, mobile web browser
Bridging the gap between real printouts and digital whiteboard BIBAKFull-Text 31-38
  Peter Brandl; Michael Haller; Juergen Oberngruber; Christian Schafleitner
In this paper, we describe a paper-based interface, which combines the physical (real) with the digital world: while interacting with real paper printouts, users can seamlessly work with a digital whiteboard at the same time. Users are able to send data from a real paper to the digital world by picking up the content (e.g. images) from real printouts and drop it on the digital surface. The reverse direction for transferring data from the whiteboard to the real paper is supported through printouts of the whiteboard page that are enhanced with integrated Anoto patterns. We present four different interaction techniques that show the potential of this paper and digital world combination. Moreover, we describe the workflow of our system that bridges the gap between the two worlds in detail.
Keywords: digital pen, interactive paper, paper interface
Exploring blog archives with interactive visualization BIBAKFull-Text 39-46
  A Indratmo; Julita Vassileva; Carl Gutwin
Browsing a blog archive is currently not well supported. Users cannot gain an overview of a blog easily, nor do they receive adequate support for finding potentially interesting entries in the blog. To overcome these problems, we developed a visualization tool that offers a new way to browse a blog archive. The main design principles of the tool are twofold. First, a blog should provide a rich overview to help users reason about the blog at a glance. Second, a blog should utilize social interaction history preserved in the archive to ease exploration and navigation. The tool was evaluated using a tool-specific questionnaire and the Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction. Responses from the participants confirmed the utility of the design principles: the user satisfaction was high, supported by a low error rate in the given tasks. Qualitative feedback revealed that the decision to select which entry to read was multidimensional, involving factors such as the topic, the posting time, the length, and the number of comments on an entry. We discuss the implications of these findings for the design of navigational support for blogs, in particular to facilitate exploratory tasks.
Keywords: blog visualization, social interaction history, social navigation

Content-focused applications

Using subjective and physiological measures to evaluate audience-participating movie experience BIBAKFull-Text 49-56
  Tao Lin; Akinobu Maejima; Shigeo Morishima
In this paper we subjectively and physiologically investigate the effects of the audiences' 3D virtual actor in a movie on their movie experience, using the audience-participating movie DIM as the object of study. In DIM, the photo-realistic 3D virtual actors of audience are constructed by combining current computer graphics (CG) technologies and can act different roles in a pre-rendered CG movie. To facilitate the investigation, we presented three versions of a CG movie to an audience -- a Traditional version, its Self-DIM (SDIM) version with the participation of the audience's virtual actor, and its Self-Friend-DIM (SFDIM) version with the co-participation of the audience and his friends' virtual actors. The results show that the participation of audience's 3D virtual actors indeed cause increased subjective sense of presence and engagement, and emotional reaction; moreover, SFDIM performs significantly better than SDIM, due to increased social presence. Interestingly, when watching the three movie versions, subjects experienced not only significantly different galvanic skin response (GSR) changes on average -- changing trend over time, and number of fluctuations -- but they also experienced phasic GSR increase when watching their own and friends' virtual 3D actors appearing on the movie screen. These results suggest that the participation of the 3D virtual actors in a movie can improve interaction and communication between audience and the movie.
Keywords: audience experience evaluation, audience-participating movie, physiological measures
Content aware video presentation on high-resolution displays BIBAKFull-Text 57-64
  Clifton Forlines
We describe a prototype video presentation system that presents a video in a manner consistent with the video's content. Our prototype takes advantage of the physically large display and pixel space that current high-definition displays and multi-monitor systems offer by rendering the frames of the video into various regions of the display surface. The structure of the video informs the animation, size, and the position of these regions. Additionally, previously displayed frames are often allowed to remain on-screen and are filtered over time. Our prototype presents a video in a manner that not only preserves the continuity of the story, but also supports the structure of the video; thus, the content of the video is reflected in its presentation, arguably enhancing the viewing experience.
Keywords: digital video, entertainment technology, video playback
SparTag.us: a low cost tagging system for foraging of web content BIBAKFull-Text 65-72
  Lichan Hong; Ed H. Chi; Raluca Budiu; Peter Pirolli; Les Nelson
Tagging systems such as del.icio.us and Diigo have become important ways for users to organize information gathered from the Web. However, despite their popularity among early adopters, tagging still incurs a relatively high interaction cost for the general users. We introduce a new tagging system called SparTag.us, which uses an intuitive Click2Tag technique to provide in situ, low cost tagging of web content. SparTag.us also lets users highlight text snippets and automatically collects tagged or highlighted paragraphs into a system-created notebook, which can be later browsed and searched. We report several user studies aimed at evaluating Click2Tag and SparTag.us.
Keywords: Web 2.0, annotation, highlighting, social bookmarking, tagging

Visualization techniques

Timeline trees: visualizing sequences of transactions in information hierarchies BIBAKFull-Text 75-82
  Michael Burch; Fabian Beck; Stephan Diehl
In many applications transactions between the elements of an information hierarchy occur over time. For example, the product offers of a department store can be organized into product groups and subgroups to form an information hierarchy. A market basket consisting of the products bought by a customer forms a transaction. Market baskets of one or more customers can be ordered by time into a sequence of transactions. Each item in a transaction is associated with a measure, for example, the amount paid for a product.
   In this paper we present a novel method for visualizing sequences of these kinds of transactions in information hierarchies. It uses a tree layout to draw the hierarchy and a timeline to represent progression of transactions in the hierarchy. We have developed several interaction techniques that allow the users to explore the data. Smooth animations help them to track the transitions between views. The usefulness of the approach is illustrated by examples from several very different application domains.
Keywords: hierarchy, time, visualization
Visualizing antenna design spaces BIBAKFull-Text 83-90
  Kent Wittenburg; Tom Lanning; Darren Leigh; Kathy Ryall
This paper describes a long-term project exploring advanced visual interfaces for antenna design. MERL developed three successive prototypes that embodied an evolution towards larger scales and more concrete semantics for visualization of large sets of candidate designs and then winnowing them down. We experimented with multidimensional scaling and then collective line graphs before settling on linked scatterplots to visualize performance in a design space of up to 10 million antennas at a time. In the end, the scatterplot solution was most successful at balancing intelligibility with visualization of the space as a whole. The design allows for adding more 1D or 2D linked feature visualizations if needed, and it smoothly transitions to other "details on demand" views for final tweaking.
Keywords: antenna design, human-guided search, information visualization, line graphs, multivariate visualization
The in-context slider: a fluid interface component for visualization and adjustment of values while authoring BIBAKFull-Text 91-99
  Andrew Webb; Andruid Kerne
As information environments grow in complexity, we yearn for simple interfaces that streamline human cognition and effort. Users need to perform complex operations on thousands of objects. Human attention and available screen real estate are constrained. We develop a new fluid interface component for the visualization and adjustment of values while authoring, the In-Context Slider, which reduces physical effort and demand on attention by using fluid mouse gestures and in-context interaction. We hypothesize that such an interface will make adjusting values easier for the user. We evaluated the In-Context Slider as an affordance for adjusting values of interest in text and images, compared with a more typical interface. Participants performed faster with the In-Context Slider. They found the new interface easier to use and more natural for expressing interest. We then integrated the In-Context Slider in the information composition platform, combinFormation. Participants experienced the In-Context Slider as easier to use while developing collections to answer open-ended information discovery questions. This research is relevant for many applications in which users provide ratings, such as recommender systems, as well as for others in which users' adjustment of values on concurrently displayed objects is integrated with extensive interactive functionality.
Keywords: fluid gestures, in-context interface, in-context slider, interaction design, interest expression

User experience

Exploring the feasibility of video mail for illiterate users BIBAKFull-Text 103-110
  Archana Prasad; Indrani Medhi; Kentaro Toyama; Ravin Balakrishnan
We present work that explores whether the asynchronous peer-to-peer communication capabilities of email can be made accessible to illiterate populations in the developing world. Building on metaphors from traditional communication systems such as postal mail, and relevant design principles established by previous research into text-free interfaces, we designed and evaluated a prototype asynchronous communication application built on standard email protocols. We considered different message formats -- text, freeform ink, audio, and video + audio -- and via iterative usage and design sessions, determined that video + audio was the most viable. Design alternatives for authentication processes were also explored. Our prototype was refined over three usability iterations, and the final version evaluated in a two-stage study with 20 illiterate users from an urban slum in Bangalore, India. Our results are mixed: On the one hand, the results show that users can understand the concept of video mail. They were able to successfully complete tasks ranging from account setup to login to viewing and creating mail, but required assistance from an online audio assistant. On the other hand, there were some surprising challenges such as a consistent difficulty understanding the notion of asynchronicity. The latter suggests that more work on the paradigm is required before the benefits of email can be brought to illiterate users.
Keywords: ICT for development, illiterate users, video mail
The inspection of very large images by eye-gaze control BIBAKFull-Text 111-118
  Nicholas Adams; Mark Witkowski; Robert Spence
The increasing availability and accuracy of eye gaze detection equipment has encouraged its use for both investigation and control. In this paper we present novel methods for navigating and inspecting extremely large images solely or primarily using eye gaze control. We investigate the relative advantages and comparative properties of four related methods: Stare-to-Zoom (STZ), in which control of the image position and resolution level is determined solely by the user's gaze position on the screen; Head-to-Zoom (HTZ) and Dual-to-Zoom (DTZ), in which gaze control is augmented by head or mouse actions; and Mouse-to-Zoom (MTZ), using conventional mouse input as an experimental control.
   The need to inspect large images occurs in many disciplines, such as mapping, medicine, astronomy and surveillance. Here we consider the inspection of very large aerial images, of which Google Earth is both an example and the one employed in our study. We perform comparative search and navigation tasks with each of the methods described, and record user opinions using the Swedish User-Viewer Presence Questionnaire. We conclude that, while gaze methods are effective for image navigation, they, as yet, lag behind more conventional methods and interaction designers may well consider combining these techniques for greatest effect.
Keywords: eye-gaze control, image space navigation, user interaction studies, visual interaction
Evaluation of pointing performance on screen edges BIBAKFull-Text 119-126
  Caroline Appert; Olivier Chapuis; Michel Beaudouin-Lafon
Pointing on screen edges is a frequent task in our everyday use of computers. Screen edges can help stop cursor movements, requiring less precise movements from the user. Thus, pointing at elements located on the edges should be faster than pointing in the central screen area. This article presents two experiments to better understand the foundations of "edge pointing". The first study assesses several factors both on completion time and on users' mouse movements. The results highlight some weaknesses in the current design of desktop environments (such as the cursor shape) and reveal that movement direction plays an important role in users' performance. The second study quantifies the gain of edge pointing by comparing it with other models such as regular pointing and crossing. The results not only show that the gain can be up to 44%, but also reveal that movement angle has an effect on performance for all tested models. This leads to a generalization of the 2D Index of Difficulty of Accot and Zhai that takes movement direction into account to predict pointing time using Fitts' law.
Keywords: Fitts' law, edge pointing, performance modelling, screen edges

Surface-oriented interaction

Starburst: a target expansion algorithm for non-uniform target distributions BIBAKFull-Text 129-137
  Patrick Baudisch; Alexander Zotov; Edward Cutrell; Ken Hinckley
Acquiring small targets on a tablet or touch screen can be challenging. To address the problem, researchers have proposed techniques that enlarge the effective size of targets by extending targets into adjacent screen space. When applied to targets organized in clusters, however, these techniques show little effect because there is no space to grow into. Unfortunately, target clusters are common in many popular applications. We present Starburst, a space partitioning algorithm that works for target clusters. Starburst identifies areas of available screen space, grows a line from each target into the available space, and then expands that line into a clickable surface. We present the basic algorithm and extensions. We then present 2 user studies in which Starburst led to a reduction in error rate by factors of 9 and 3 compared to traditional target expansion.
Keywords: Voronoi, labeling, mouse, pen, target acquisition, target expansion, touch input
Physical handles at the interactive surface: exploring tangibility and its benefits BIBAKFull-Text 138-145
  Lucia Terrenghi; David Kirk; Hendrik Richter; Sebastian Krämer; Otmar Hilliges; Andreas Butz
In this paper we investigate tangible interaction on interactive tabletops. These afford the support and integration of physical artefacts for the manipulation of digital media. To inform the design of interfaces for interactive surfaces we think it is necessary to deeply understand the benefits of employing such physical handles, i.e., the benefits of employing a third spatial dimension at the point of interaction.
   To this end we conducted an experimental study by designing and comparing two versions of an interactive tool on a tabletop display, one with a physical 3D handle, and one purely graphical (but direct touch enabled). Whilst hypothesizing that the 3D version would provide a number of benefits, our observations revealed that users developed diverse interaction approaches and attitudes about hybrid and direct touch interaction.
Keywords: GUI, design, hybrid, interfaces, tangible
TapTap and MagStick: improving one-handed target acquisition on small touch-screens BIBAKFull-Text 146-153
  Anne Roudaut; Stéphane Huot; Eric Lecolinet
We present the design and evaluation of TapTap and MagStick, two thumb interaction techniques for target acquisition on mobile devices with small touch-screens. These two techniques address all the issues raised by the selection of targets with the thumb on small tactile screens: screen accessibility, visual occlusion and accuracy. A controlled experiment shows that TapTap and MagStick allow the selection of targets in all areas of the screen in a fast and accurate way. They were found to be faster than four previous techniques except Direct Touch which, although faster, is too error prone. They also provided the best error rate of all tested techniques. Finally the paper also provides a comprehensive study of various techniques for thumb based touch-screen target selection.
Keywords: interaction techniques, mobile devices, one-handed interaction, thumb interaction, touch-screens
Combining and measuring the benefits of bimanual pen and direct-touch interaction on horizontal interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 154-161
  Peter Brandl; Clifton Forlines; Daniel Wigdor; Michael Haller; Chia Shen
Many research projects have demonstrated the benefits of bimanual interaction for a variety of tasks. When choosing bimanual input, system designers must select the input device that each hand will control. In this paper, we argue for the use of pen and touch two-handed input, and describe an experiment in which users were faster and committed fewer errors using pen and touch input in comparison to using either touch and touch or pen and pen input while performing a representative bimanual task. We present design principles and an application in which we applied our design rationale toward the creation of a learnable set of bimanual, pen and touch input commands.
Keywords: bimanual input, pen and touch, self revealing gestures

Semantics-based applications

Semiotic engineering in practice: redesigning the CoScripter interface BIBAKFull-Text 165-172
  Clarisse Sieckenius de Souza; Allen Cypher
Semiotic Engineering uses semiotic theories to characterize human-computer interaction and support research and development of interactive systems. In order to show the value of Semiotic Engineering in design, we illustrate how semiotic concepts have been used in the analysis and generation of redesign alternatives for a web browser-based program called CoScripter. We also discuss how specific perspectives and expectations about the design process can increase the benefit from Semiotic Engineering in design activities, and describe our future steps in this research.
Keywords: UI design methodology, end user programming, graphical user interface design, semiotic engineering
Affective geographies: toward a richer cartographic semantics for the geospatial web BIBAKFull-Text 173-180
  Elisa Giaccardi; Daniela Fogli
Due to the increasing sophistication in web technologies, maps can easily be created, modified, and shared. This possibility has popularized the power of maps by enabling people to add and share cartographic content, giving rise to the geospatial web. People are increasingly using web maps to connect with each other and with the urban and natural environment in ways no one had predicted. As a result, web maps are growing into a venue in which knowledge and meanings can be traced and visualized. However, the cartographic semantics of current web mapping services are not designed to elicit and visualize what we call affective meaning. Contributing a new perspective for the geospatial web, the authors argue for affective geographies capable of allowing richer and multiple readings of the same territory. This paper illustrates the cartographic semantics developed by the authors and discusses it through a case study in natural heritage interpretation.
Keywords: collaborative web mapping, information visualization, map-based interaction, web cartography
Recognition and processing of hand-drawn diagrams using syntactic and semantic analysis BIBAKFull-Text 181-188
  Florian Brieler; Mark Minas
We present an approach to the processing of hand-drawn diagrams. Hand drawing is inherently imprecise; we rely on syntactical and semantical analysis to resolve the inevitable ambiguities arising from this impreciseness. Based on the specification of a diagram language (containing aspects like concrete and abstract syntax, grammar rules for a parser, and attributes for semantics), editors supporting free hand drawing are generated. Since the generation process relies on the specifications only, our approach is fully generic. In this paper the overall architecture and concepts of our approach are explained and discussed. The user-drawn strokes (forming the diagram) are transformed into a number of independent models. The drawn components are recognized in these models, directed by the specification. Then the set of all components is analyzed to find the interpretation that best fits the whole diagram. We build upon DiaGen, a generic diagram editor generator enabling syntax and semantic analysis for diagrams, and extend it to support hand drawing. Case studies (done with a fully working implementation in Java) confirm the strength and applicability of our approach.
Keywords: DiaGen, ambiguity resolution, hand drawing, model, recognition, sketching

User studies on visualization

Exploring video streams using slit-tear visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 191-198
  Anthony Tang; Saul Greenberg; Sidney Fels
Video slicing -- a variant of slit scanning in photography -- extracts a scan line from a video frame and successively adds that line to a composite image over time. The composite image becomes a time line, where its visual patterns reflect changes in a particular area of the video stream. We extend this idea of video slicing by allowing users to draw marks anywhere on the source video to capture areas of interest. These marks, which we call slit-tears, are used in place of a scan line, and the resulting composite timeline image provides a much richer visualization of the video data. Depending on how tears are placed, they can accentuate motion, small changes, directional movement, and relational patterns.
Keywords: information visualization, timelines, video analysis, video history
Exploring the role of individual differences in information visualization BIBAKFull-Text 199-206
  Cristina Conati; Heather Maclaren
In this paper, we describe a user study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of two different data visualization techniques developed for describing complex environmental changes in an interactive system designed to foster awareness in sustainable development. While several studies have compared alternative visualizations, the distinguishing feature of our research is that we try to understand whether individual user differences may be used as predictors of visualization effectiveness in choosing among alternative visualizations for a given task. We show that the cognitive ability known as perceptual speed can predict which one of our target visualizations is most effective for a given user. This result suggests that tailored visualization selection can be an effective way to improve user performance.
Keywords: evaluation of visualization techniques, individual differences
An empirical evaluation of interactive visualizations for preferential choice BIBAKFull-Text 207-214
  Jeanette Bautista; Giuseppe Carenini
Many critical decisions for individuals and organizations are often framed as preferential choices: the process of selecting the best option out of a set of alternatives. This paper presents a task-based empirical evaluation of ValueCharts, a set of interactive visualization techniques to support preferential choice. The design of our study is grounded in a comprehensive task model and we measure both task performance and insights. In the experiment, we not only tested the overall usefulness and effectiveness of ValueCharts, but we also assessed the differences between two versions of ValueCharts, a horizontal and a vertical one. The outcome of our study is that ValueCharts seem very effective in supporting preferential choice and the vertical version appears to be more effective than the horizontal one.
Keywords: empirical evaluation, preferential choice, user studies, visualization techniques

Interaction environment design

Model-based layout generation BIBAKFull-Text 217-224
  Sebastian Feuerstack; Marco Blumendorf; Veit Schwartze; Sahin Albayrak
Offering user interfaces for interactive applications that are flexible enough to be adapted to various context-of-use scenarios such as supporting different display sizes or addressing various input styles requires an adaptive layout. We describe an approach for layout derivation that is embedded in a model-based user interface generation process. By an interactive and tool-supported process we can efficiently create a layout model that is composed of interpretations of the other design models and is consistent to the application design. By shifting the decision about which interpretations are relevant to support a specific context-of-use scenario from design-time to run-time, we can flexibly adapt the layout to consider new device capabilities, user demands and user interface distributions. We present our run-time environment that is able to evaluate the relevant model layout information to constraints as they are required and to reassemble the user interface parts regarding the updated containment, order, orientation and sizes information of the layout-model. Finally we present results of an evaluation we performed to test the design and run-time efficiency of our model-based layouting approach.
Keywords: constraint generation, context-of-use, human-computer interaction, layouting, model-based user interfaces
A mixed-fidelity prototyping tool for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 225-232
  Marco de Sá; Luís Carriço; Luís Duarte; Tiago Reis
In this paper we present a software framework which supports the construction of mixed-fidelity (from sketch-based to software) prototypes for mobile devices. The framework is available for desktop computers and mobile devices (e.g., PDAs, Smartphones). It operates with low-fidelity sketch based prototypes or mid to high-fidelity prototypes with some range of functionality, providing several dimensions of customization (e.g., visual components, audio/video files, navigation, behavior) and targeting specific usability concerns. Furthermore, it allows designers and users to test the prototypes on actual devices, gathering usage information, both passively (e.g., logging) and actively (e.g., questionnaires/Experience Sampling). Overall, it conveys common prototyping procedures with effective data gathering methods that can be used on ubiquitous scenarios supporting in-situ prototyping and participatory design on-the-go. We address the framework's features and its contributions to the design and evaluation of applications for mobile devices and the field of mobile interaction design, presenting real-life case studies and results.
Keywords: evaluation, mobile interaction design, prototyping, usability
Gummy for multi-platform user interface designs: shape me, multiply me, fix me, use me BIBAKFull-Text 233-240
  Jan Meskens; Jo Vermeulen; Kris Luyten; Karin Coninx
Designers still often create a specific user interface for every target platform they wish to support, which is time-consuming and error-prone. The need for a multi-platform user interface design approach that designers feel comfortable with increases as people expect their applications and data to go where they go. We present Gummy, a multi-platform graphical user interface builder that can generate an initial design for a new platform by adapting and combining features of existing user interfaces created for the same application. Our approach makes it easy to target new platforms and keep all user interfaces consistent without requiring designers to considerably change their work practice.
Keywords: GUI builder, UIML, design tools, multi-platform design

Interactive querying and retrieval

KMVQL: a visual query interface based on Karnaugh map BIBAKFull-Text 243-250
  Jiwen Huo
Extracting information from data is an interactive process. Visualization plays an important role, particularly during data inspection. Querying is also important, allowing the user to isolate promising portions of the data. As a result, data exploration environments normally include both, integrating them tightly.
   This paper presents KMVQL, the Karnaugh map based visual query language. It has been designed to support the interactive exploration of multidimensional datasets. KMVQL uses Karnaugh map as the visual representation for Boolean queries. It provides a visual query interface to help users formulate arbitrarily complex Boolean queries by direct manipulation operations.
   With KMVQL, users do not have to worry about the logic operators any more, which makes Boolean query specification much easier. The Karnaugh maps also function as visualization spreadsheets that provide seamless integration of queries with their results, which is helpful for users to better understand the data and refine their queries efficiently.
Keywords: Karnaugh map, direct manipulation, query formulation, visual query, visualization
Query-through-drilldown: data-oriented extensional queries BIBAKFull-Text 251-259
  Alan Dix; Damon Oram
Traditional database query formulation is intensional: at the level of schemas, table and column names. Previous work has shown that filters can be created using a query paradigm focused on interaction with data tables. This paper presents a technique, Query-through-Drilldown, to enable join formulation in a data-oriented paradigm. Instead of formulating joins at the level of schemas, the user drills down through tables of data and the query is implicitly created based on the user's actions. Query-through-Drilldown has been applied to a large relational database, but similar techniques could be applied to semi-structured data or semantic web ontologies.
Keywords: SQL, data structure mining, data-oriented interaction, database query, extensional query, query-by-browsing, tabular interface
Automatically adapting web sites for mobile access through logical descriptions and dynamic analysis of interaction resources BIBAKFull-Text 260-267
  Fabio Paternò; Carmen Santoro; Antonio Scorcia
While several solutions for desktop user interface adaptation for mobile access have been proposed, there is still a lack of solutions able to automatically generate mobile versions taking semantic aspects into account. In this paper, we propose a general solution able to dynamically build logical descriptions of existing desktop Web site implementations, adapt the design to the target mobile device, and generate an implementation that preserves the original communications goals while taking into account the actual resources available in the target device. We describe the novel transformations supported by our new solution, show example applications and report on first user tests.
Keywords: mobile interfaces, model-based design, multi-device web interfaces, user interface adaptation

Advanced visualization

A physics-based approach for interactive manipulation of graph visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 271-278
  Andre Suslik Spritzer; Carla M. D. S. Freitas
This paper presents an interactive physics-based technique for the exploration and dynamic reorganization of graph layouts that takes into account semantic properties which the user might need to emphasize. Many techniques have been proposed that take a graph as input and produce a visualization solely based on its topology, seldom ever relying on the semantic attributes of nodes and edges. These automatic topology-based algorithms might generate aesthetically interesting layouts, but they neglect information that might be important for the user. Among these are the force-directed or energy minimization algorithms, which use physics analogies to produce satisfactory layouts. They consist of applying forces on the nodes, which move until the physical system enters a state of mechanical equilibrium. We propose an extension of this metaphor to include tools for the interactive manipulation of such layouts. These tools are comprised of magnets, which attract nodes with user-specified criteria to the regions surrounding the magnets. Magnets can be nested and also used to intuitively perform set operations such as union and intersection, becoming thus an intuitive visual tool for sorting through the datasets. To evaluate the technique we discuss how they can be used to perform common graph visualization tasks.
Keywords: graph visualization, interaction
Agent warp engine: formula based shape warping for networked applications BIBAKFull-Text 279-286
  Alexander Repenning; Andri Ioannidou
Computer visualization and networking have advanced dramatically. 3D hardware acceleration has reached the point where even low-power handheld computers can render and animate complex 3D graphics efficiently. Unfortunately, end-user computing does not yet provide the necessary tools and conceptual frameworks to let end-users access these technologies and build their own networked interactive 2D and 3D applications such as rich visualizations, animations and simulations. The Agent Warp Engine (AWE) is a formula-based shape-warping framework that combines end-user visualization and end-user networking. AWE is a spreadsheet-inspired framework based on Web sharable variables. To build visualizations, users define these variables, relate them through equations and connect them to 2D and 3D shapes. In addition to basic shape control such as rotation, size, and location, AWE enables the creation of rich shape warping visualizations. We motivate the AWE approach with the Mr. Vetro human physiology simulation supporting collaborative learning through networked handheld computers.
Keywords: 3D graphics, collective simulations, end-user development, end-user programming, real-time image warping, spreadsheets
Image geo-mashups: the example of an augmented reality weather camera BIBAKFull-Text 287-294
  Jana Gliet; Antonio Krüger; Otto Klemm; Johannes Schöning
This paper presents the general idea of image geo-mashups, which combines concepts from web mashups and augmented reality by adding geo-referenced data to a perspective image. The paper shows how to design and implement an augmented reality weather cam, that combines data from a steerable weather cam with additional sensor information retrieved from the web.
Keywords: augmented reality, geo-mashups, image composition processes

Posters Day 1: Interaction environments and semantics based applications

How coherent environments support remote gestures BIBAKFull-Text 297-300
  Naomi Yamashita; Keiji Hirata; Toshihiro Takada; Yasunori Harada
Previous studies have demonstrated the importance of providing users with a coherent environment across distant sites. To date, it remains unclear how such an environment affects people's gestures and their comprehension. In this study, we investigate how a coherent environment across distant sites affects people's hand gestures when collaborating on physical tasks. We present video-mediated technology that provides distant users with a coherent environment in which they can freely gesture toward remote objects by the unmediated representations of hands. Using this system, we examine the values of a coherent environment by comparing remote collaboration on physical tasks in a fractured setting versus a coherent setting. The results indicate that a coherent environment facilitates gesturing toward remote objects and their use improves task performance. The results further suggest that a coherent environment improves the sense of co-presence across distant sites and enables quick recovery from misunderstandings.
Keywords: coherent environment, collaborative physical task, computer-supported collaborative work, remote gesture, video-mediated communication
SLMeeting: supporting collaborative work in Second Life BIBAKFull-Text 301-304
  Andrea De Lucia; Rita Francese; Ignazio Passero; Genoveffa Tortora
Second Life is a virtual world which is often used for the synchronous meeting of teams. However, supporting distributed meeting goes beyond supporting user activities during the meeting itself, because it is also necessary to facilitate their coordination, arrangement and set up.
   In this paper we investigate how teams can work together more effectively in Second Life. We also propose a system, named SLMeeting, which enhances the communication facilities of Second Life to support the management of collaborative activities, organized as conferences or Job meetings and later replayed, queried, analyzed and visualized. The meeting organization and management functionalities are performed by ad-hoc developed Second Life objects and by the communication between these objects and a supporting web site. As a result, the functionalities offered by Second Life are enriched with the capabilities of organizing meetings and recoding all the information concerning the event.
Keywords: 3D interfaces, CSCW, Second Life, collaborative virtual environment, collaborative work, groupware, multimedia meetings
Balancing physical and digital properties in mixed objects BIBAKFull-Text 305-308
  Céline Coutrix; Laurence Nigay
Mixed interactive systems seek to smoothly merge physical and digital worlds. In this paper we focus on mixed objects that take part in the interaction. Based on our Mixed Interaction Model, we introduce a new characterization space of the physical and digital properties of a mixed object from an intrinsic viewpoint without taking into account the context of use of the object. The resulting enriched Mixed Interaction Model aims at balancing physical and digital properties in the design process of mixed objects. The model extends and generalizes previous studies on the design of mixed systems and covers existing approaches of mixed systems including tangible user interfaces, augmented reality and augmented virtuality. A mixed system called ORBIS that we developed is used to illustrate the discussion: we highlight how the model informs the design alternatives of ORBIS.
Keywords: augmented reality, design space, mixed objects, mixed systems, tangible user interfaces
A flexible, declarative presentation framework for domain-specific modeling BIBAKFull-Text 309-312
  Tamás Mészáros; Gergely Mezei; Tihamér Levendovszky
Domain-Specific Modeling has gained increasing popularity in software modeling. Domain-Specific Modeling Languages can simplify the design and the implementation of systems in various domains. Consequent domain specific visualization helps to understand the models for domain specialists. However, the efficiency of domain-specific modeling is often determined by the limited capabilities -- i.e. the lack of interactive design elements, low customization facilities -- of the editor applications.
   This paper introduces the Presentation Framework of Visual Modeling and Transformation System, the framework provides a flexible environment for model visualization and provides a declarative solution for appearance description as well.
Keywords: domain-specific modeling, metamodeling, model visualization, modeling framework, software modeling
Advanced visual systems supporting unwitting EUD BIBAKFull-Text 313-316
  Maria Francesca Costabile; Piero Mussio; Loredana Parasiliti Provenza; Antonio Piccinno
The ever increasing use of interactive software systems and the evolution of the World Wide Web into the so-called Web 2.0 determines the rise of new roles for users, who evolve from information consumers to information producers. The distinction between users and designers becomes fuzzy. Users are increasingly involved in the design and development of the tools they use, thus users and developers are not anymore two mutually exclusive groups of people. In this paper types of users that are between pure end users and software developers are analyzed. Some users take a very active role in shaping software tools to their needs, but they do it without being aware of programming, they are unwitting programmers who need appropriate development techniques and environments. A meta-design participatory approach for supporting unwitting end-user development through advanced visual systems is briefly discussed.
Keywords: end user, end-user development, user classification
VCode and VData: illustrating a new framework for supporting the video annotation workflow BIBAKFull-Text 317-321
  Joey Hagedorn; Joshua Hailpern; Karrie G. Karahalios
Digital tools for annotation of video have the promise to provide immense value to researchers in disciplines ranging from psychology to ethnography to computer science. With traditional methods for annotation being cumbersome, time-consuming, and frustrating, technological solutions are situated to aid in video annotation by increasing reliability, repeatability, and workflow optimizations. Three notable limitations of existing video annotation tools are lack of support for the annotation workflow, poor representation of data on a timeline, and poor interaction techniques with video, data, and annotations. This paper details a set of design requirements intended to enhance video annotation. Our framework is grounded in existing literature, interviews with experienced coders, and ongoing discussions with researchers in multiple disciplines. Our model is demonstrated in a new system called VCode and VData. The benefit of our system is that is directly addresses the workflow and needs of both researchers and video coders.
Keywords: Graphical User Interfaces (GUI), annotation, video
An investigation of dynamic landmarking functions BIBAKFull-Text 322-325
  Philip Quinn; Andy Cockburn; A Indratmo; Carl Gutwin
It is easy for users to lose awareness of their location and orientation when navigating large information spaces. Providing landmarks is one common technique that helps users remain oriented, alleviating the mental workload and reducing the number of redundant interactions. But how many landmarks should be displayed? We conducted an empirical evaluation of several relationships between the number of potential landmarked items in the display and the number of landmarks rendered at any one time, with results strongly favouring a logarithmic relationship.
Keywords: information scent, landmarks, navigation, navigational aids, visual clutter, visual search
Eulr: a novel resource tagging facility integrated with Flickr BIBAKFull-Text 326-330
  Rosario De Chiara; Andrew Fish; Salvatore Ruocco
We have developed a novel information storage and display structure called EulerView, which can be used for the systematic management of tagged resources. The storage model is a non hierarchical classification structure, based on Euler diagrams, which can be especially useful if overlapping categories are commonplace. Keeping the constraints on the display structure relaxed enables its use as a categorisation structure which provides the user with flexibility and facilitates quick user tagging of multiple resources. As one instance of the application of this theory, in the case when the resources are photos, we have developed the Eulr tool which we have integrated with Flickr. User feedback indicates that the Eulr representation is intuitive and that users would be keen to use Eulr again.
Keywords: Euler diagrams, EulerView, Flickr, categorisation, classification, metadata, tagging
Ambiguity detection in multimodal systems BIBAKFull-Text 331-334
  Maria Chiara Caschera; Fernando Ferri; Patrizia Grifoni
Multimodal systems support users to communicate in a natural way according to their needs. However, the naturalness of the interaction implies that it is hard to find one and only one interpretation of the users' input. Consequently the necessity to define methods for users' input interpretation and ambiguity detection is arising. This paper proposes a theoretical approach based on a Constraint Multiset Grammar combined with Linear Logic, for representing and detecting ambiguities, and in particular semantic ambiguities, produced by the user's input. It considers user's input as a set of primitives defined as terminal elements of the grammar, composing multimodal sentences. The Linear Logic is used to define rules that allow detecting ambiguities connected to the semantics of the user's input. In particular, the paper presents the main features of the user's input and connections between the elements belonging to a multimodal sentence, and it enables to detect ambiguities that can arise during their interpretation process.
Keywords: grammar-based language, interpretation of multimodal input, multimodal ambiguity, multimodal interfaces
Fostering conversation after the museum visit: a WOZ study for a shared interface BIBAKFull-Text 335-338
  Cesare Rocchi; Daniel Tomasini; Oliviero Stock; Massimo Zancanaro
According to recent studies, a museum visit by a small group (e.g. a family or a few friends) can be considered successful if conversation about the experience develops among its members. Often people stop at the museum café to have a break during the visit or before leaving. The museum café is the location that we foresee as ideal to introduce a tabletop interface meant to foster the conversation of the visitors.
   We describe a Wizard of Oz study of a system that illustrates the reactions of people to visual stimuli (floating words, images, text snippets) projected on a tabletop interface. The stimuli, dynamically selected taking into account the topic discussed and a set of communicative strategies, are meant to support the conversation about the exhibition and the visit or to foster a topic change, in case the group is discussing something unrelated to the visit. The results of the Wizard of Oz show that people recognized visuals on the table as "cues" for a group conversation about the visit, and interesting insights about the design have emerged.
Keywords: conversation, museum visit, tabletop interface
Exploring emotions and multimodality in digitally augmented puppeteering BIBAKFull-Text 339-342
  Lassi A. Liikkanen; Giulio Jacucci; Eero Huvio; Toni Laitinen; Elisabeth Andre
Recently, multimodal and affective technologies have been adopted to support expressive and engaging interaction, bringing up a plethora of new research questions. Among the challenges, two essential topics are 1) how to devise truly multimodal systems that can be used seamlessly for customized performance and content generation, and 2) how to utilize the tracking of emotional cues and respond to them in order to create affective interaction loops. We present PuppetWall, a multi-user, multimodal system intended for digitally augmented puppeteering. This application allows natural interaction to control puppets and manipulate playgrounds comprising background, props, and puppets. PuppetWall utilizes hand movement tracking, a multi-touch display and emotion speech recognition input for interfacing. Here we document the technical features of the system and an initial evaluation. The evaluation involved two professional actors and also aimed at exploring naturally emerging expressive speech categories. We conclude by summarizing challenges in tracking emotional cues from acoustic features and their relevance for the design of affective interactive systems.
Keywords: affective computing, gestural interaction, interactive installations
Face bubble: photo browsing by faces BIBAKFull-Text 343-346
  Jun Xiao; Tong Zhang
Face recognition technology presents an opportunity in computer automation to help people better organize their personal photo collections. However, the robustness of the technology needs to improve and how users interact with face clusters needs to go beyond the traditional file folder metaphor. We designed a visualization called face bubble that supports both fast one-glance view and filtering and exploration of photo collections based on face clustering results. Our clustering algorithm provides a better accuracy rate than previous work and our circular space filling visual design offers an alternative UI based on the traditional weighted list view. Other visualization techniques such as a fisheye view are also integrated into the interface for fast image browsing. Finally, fine tuning of the design based on user feedback improved the aesthetics of the visualization.
Keywords: clustering, face detection, face recognition, filtering, visualization
Browsing a website with topographic hints BIBAFull-Text 347-350
  S. Rossi; A. Inserra; E. Burattini
This work aimed to propose an adaptive web site in the field of cultural heritage that can dynamically suggest links, based on not intrusive profiling methodologies integrated with topographical information. A fundamental issue, typical in web sites that refer to real sites, is to help the user to orient himself geographically. Our system can support the user in its exploration of physical/virtual space suggesting new physical locations structured as a thematic itinerary through the excavations.
Visual tag authoring: picture extraction via localized, collaborative tagging BIBAKFull-Text 351-354
  Andrea Bellucci; Stefano Levialdi Ghiron; Ignacio Aedo; Alessio Malizia
In this work we present a system to encode location based information extracted from a media collection (the Flickr tagging system) into a single 2D physical label. This information is clustered by using locations metadata (geotags) and key-words (tags) associated to pictures. Our system helps two types of users: the user authoring the physical label and the final user who retrieves up-to-date information scanning the label with his/her camera phone. Preliminary results for a given seed word (the tag Napoli) on 3000 photographs are presented, together with some ad-hoc weighting factors that help in finding significant pictures (representing places) that can be associated to a specific area.
Keywords: clustering, collaborative tagging, geo-referenced photographs
Time2Hide: spatial searches and clutter alleviation for the desktop BIBAKFull-Text 355-358
  George Lepouras; Aggelos Papatriantafyllou; Akrivi Katifori; Alan Dix
With information abundance the user's desktop is often cluttered with files and folders. Existing tools partially address the clutter problem. Time2Hide enhances desktop functionality by allowing icons that are not used for a long time to gradually fade and merge with the background. This aims to alleviate the problem of icon clutter. Users can also perform spatial searches, defining areas of the desktop they wish to search for icons; can reveal one or more hidden files or can go back in time animating the desktop and its changes. With Time2Hide users can still use the desktop as a place for storing files and folders, without worrying about the possible clutter and without being afraid that the files might be moved to an unknown location. The new desktop has been implemented and evaluated. Evaluation results reveal that such an enhanced desktop can significantly support users and propose suggestions for further improvements.
Keywords: desktop tool, icon clutter, personal information management, spatial search

Posters Day 2: Visualization and user experience

Users' quest for an optimized representation of a multi-device space BIBAKFull-Text 359-362
  Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Andrés Lucero; Jean-Bernard Martens
A plethora of reaching techniques, intended for moving objects between locations distant to the user, have recently been proposed and tested. One of the most promising techniques is the Radar View. Up till now, the focus has been mostly on how a user can interact efficiently with a given radar map, not on how these maps are created and maintained. It is for instance unclear whether or not users would appreciate the possibility of adapting such radar maps to particular tasks and personal preferences. In this paper we address this question by means of a prolonged user study with the Sketch Radar prototype. The study demonstrates that users do indeed modify the default maps in order to improve interactions for particular tasks. It also provides insights into how and why the default physical map is modified.
Keywords: interaction techniques, large-display systems, map, multi-display systems, reaching, spatial
Multiview user interfaces with an automultiscopic display BIBAKFull-Text 363-366
  Wojciech Matusik; Clifton Forlines; Hanspeter Pfister
Automultiscopic displays show 3D stereoscopic images that can be viewed from any viewpoint without special glasses. These displays are becoming widely available and affordable. In this paper, we describe how an automultiscopic display, built for viewing 3D images, can be repurposed to display 2D interfaces that appear differently from different points-of-view. For single-user applications, point-of-view becomes a means of input and a user is able to reveal different views of an application by simply moving their head left and right. For multi-user applications, a single-display application can show each member of the group a different variation of the interface. We outline three types of multi-view interfaces and illustrate each with example applications.
Keywords: automultiscopic, display, multi-view
Adapting a single-user, single-display molecular visualization application for use in a multi-user, multi-display environment BIBAFull-Text 367-371
  Clifton Forlines; Ryan Lilien
In this paper, we discuss the adaptation of an open-source single-user, single-display molecular visualization application for use in a multi-display, multi-user environment. Jmol, a popular, open-source Java applet for viewing PDB files, is modified in such a manner that allows synchronized coordinated views of the same molecule to be displayed in a multi-display workspace. Each display in the workspace is driven by a separate PC, and coordinated views are achieved through the passing of RasMol script commands over the network. The environment includes a tabletop display capable of sensing touch-input, two large vertical displays, and a TabletPC. The presentation of large molecules is adapted to best take advantage of the different qualities of each display, and a set of interaction techniques that allow groups working in this environment to better collaborate are also presented.
As time goes by: integrated visualization and analysis of dynamic networks BIBAKFull-Text 372-375
  Mathias Pohl; Florian Reitz; Peter Birke
The dynamics of networks have become more and more important in all research fields that depend on network analysis. Standard network visualization and analysis tools usual do not offer a suitable interface to network dynamics. These tools do not incorporate specialized visualization algorithms for dynamic networks but only algorithms for static networks. This results in layouts that bother the user with too many layout changes which makes it very hard to work with them.
   To handle dynamic networks the Dgd-tool was implemented. It does not only provide several layout algorithms that were designed for dynamic networks but also different instruments for statistical network analysis. Network visualization and statistics are combined in a multiple view interface that allows visual comparison of several network layouts and several network metrics at the same time. Furthermore the time-dependent behaviour of structural changes becomes visible and facilitates the analysis of network dynamics.
Keywords: dynamic network visualization, dynamics of networks, human-centered visual analytics, multiple and integrated views
Revealing uncertainty for information visualization BIBAKFull-Text 376-379
  Meredith Skeels; Bongshin Lee; Greg Smith; George Robertson
Uncertainty in data occurs in domains ranging from natural science to medicine to computer science. By developing ways to include uncertainty in our information visualizations we can provide more accurate visual depictions of critical datasets. One hindrance to visualizing uncertainty is that we must first understand what uncertainty is and how it is expressed by users. We reviewed existing work from several domains on uncertainty and conducted qualitative interviews with 18 people from diverse domains who self-identified as working with uncertainty. We created a classification of uncertainty representing commonalities in uncertainty across domains and that will be useful for developing appropriate visualizations of uncertainty.
Keywords: information visualization, qualitative research, uncertainty visualization, user-centered design
Perceptual usability: predicting changes in visual interfaces & designs due to visual acuity differences BIBAKFull-Text 380-383
  Mike Bennett; Aaron Quigley
When designing interfaces and visualizations how does a human or automatic visual interface designer know how easy or hard it will be for viewers to see the interface? In this paper we present a perceptual usability measure of how easy or hard visual designs are to see when viewed over different distances. The measure predicts the relative perceivability of sub-parts of a visual design by using simulations of human visual acuity coupled with an information theoretic measure. We present results of the perceptual measure predicting the perceivability of optometrists eye charts, a webpage and a small network graph.
Keywords: evaluation, methodology, methods, screen design
Illustrative halos in information visualization BIBAKFull-Text 384-387
  Martin Luboschik; Heidrun Schumann
In many interactive scenarios, the fast recognition and localization of crucial information is very important to effectively perform a task. However, in information visualization the visualization of permanently growing large data volumes often leads to a simultaneously growing amount of presented graphical primitives. Besides the fundamental problem of limited screen space, the effective localization of single or multiple items of interest by a user becomes more and more difficult. Therefore, different approaches have been developed to emphasize those items -- mainly by manipulating the items size, by suppressing the whole context or by adding supplemental visual elements (e.g., contours, arrows). This paper introduces the well known illustrative technique of haloing to information visualization to address the localization problem. Applying halos emphasizes items without a manipulation of size or an introduction of additional visual elements and reduces the context suppression to a locally defined region. This paper also presents the results of a first user-study to get an impression of the usefulness of halos for a faster recognition.
Keywords: halos, illustrative rendering, illustrative visualization, information visualization
Shadow tracking on multi-touch tables BIBAKFull-Text 388-391
  Florian Echtler; Manuel Huber; Gudrun Klinker
Multi-touch interfaces have been a focus of research in recent years, resulting in development of various innovative UI concepts. Support for existing WIMP interfaces, however, should not be overlooked. Although several approaches exist, there is still room for improvement, particularly regarding implementation of the "hover" state, commonly used in mouse-based interfaces.
   In this paper, we present a multi-touch system which is designed to address this problem. A multi-touch table based on FTIR (frustrated total internal reflection) is extended with a ceiling-mounted light source to create shadows of hands and arms. By tracking these shadows with the rear-mounted camera which is already present in the FTIR setup, users can control multiple cursors without touching the table and trigger a "click" event by tapping the surface with any finger of the corresponding hand.
   An informal evaluation with 15 subjects found an improvement in accuracy when compared to an unaugmented touch screen.
Keywords: FTIR, direct-touch, mouse emulation, multi-touch, shadow tracking, tabletop interfaces
LocaweRoute: an advanced route history visualization for mobile devices BIBAKFull-Text 392-395
  Taina M. Lehtimäki; Timo Partala; Mika Luimula; Pertti Verronen
In this research, we addressed the problem of visualizing route histories on a mobile device. We developed a solution, which combines the visualization of three route history parameters: speed, direction, and location. The visualization was tested in a laboratory evaluation with 12 subjects. The results showed that by using the visualization the subjects were able to estimate actual driving speeds accurately. The subjects also evaluated that the visualization supported their knowledge of the speed, location, and direction quite well. The results suggest that the presented visualization is an improvement over currently used route history visualizations.
Keywords: mobile device, route history, visualization
The effect of animated transitions in zooming interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 396-399
  Maruthappan Shanmugasundaram; Pourang Irani
Zooming interfaces use animated transitions to smoothly shift the users view between different scales of the workspace. Animated transitions assist in preserving the spatial relationships between views. However, they also increase the overall interaction time. To identify whether zooming interfaces should take advantage of animations, we carried out one experiment that explores the effects of smooth transitions on a spatial task. With metro maps, users were asked to identify the number of metro stops between different subway lines with and without animated zoom-in/out transitions. The results of the experiment show that animated transitions can have significant benefits on user performance -- participants in the animation conditions were twice as fast and overall made fewer errors than in the non-animated conditions. In addition, short animations were found to be as effective as long ones, suggesting that some of the costs of animations can be avoided. Users also preferred interacting with animated transitions than without. Our study gives empirical evidence on the benefits of animated transitions in zooming interfaces.
Keywords: animation, information visualization, zooming interfaces
Visual design of service deployment in complex physical environments BIBAKFull-Text 400-403
  Augusto Celentano; Fabio Pittarello
In this paper we discuss the problem of deploying appliances for interactive services in complex physical environments using a knowledge based approach to define the relations between the environment and the services, and a visual interface to check the associated constraints, in order to design a solution satisfactory for the user.
Keywords: X3D, navigation, virtual and augmented reality, visual interaction
Visualizing program similarity in the Ac plagiarism detection system BIBAKFull-Text 404-407
  Manuel Freire
Programming assignments are easy to plagiarize in such a way as to foil casual reading by graders. Graders can resort to automatic plagiarism detection systems, which can generate a "distance" matrix that covers all possible pairings. Most plagiarism detection programs then present this information as a simple ranked list, losing valuable information in the process.
   The Ac system uses the whole distance matrix to provide graders with multiple linked visualizations. The graph representation can be used to explore clusters of highly related submissions at different filtering levels. The histogram representation presents compact "individual" histograms for each submission, complementing the graph representation in aiding graders during analysis.
   Although Ac's visualizations were developed with plagiarism detection in mind, they should also prove effective to visualize distance matrices from other domains, as demonstrated by preliminary experiments.
Keywords: software plagiarism, visualization
Visual representation of web design patterns for end-users BIBAKFull-Text 408-411
  Paloma Díaz; Ignacio Aedo; Mary Beth Rosson
In this paper, we discuss the use of visual representations of web design patterns to help end-users and casual developers to identify the patterns they can apply in a specific project. The main goal is to promote design knowledge reuse by facilitating the identification of the right patterns, taking into account that these users have little or no knowledge about web design, and certainly not about design patterns, and that each pattern might include some trade-offs users should consider to make more rational decisions.
Keywords: design patterns, goal-oriented design, web design

Posters Day 3: Retrieval, natural interaction and interaction techniques

Memoria mobile: sharing pictures of a point of interest BIBAKFull-Text 412-415
  Rui Jesus; Ricardo Dias; Rute Frias; Arnaldo J. Abrantes; Nuno Correia
This paper presents the Memoria mobile interface, an application to share and access personal memories when visiting historical sites, museums or other points of interest. With the proposed interface people can navigate the memory space of the place they are visiting and, using their camera-phones or Personal Digital Assistants (PDA), view what has interested them or other people in past occasions. The system consists of a retrieval engine and a mobile user interface that allows capture and automatic annotation of images. Experimental results are presented to show the performance of the retrieval mechanisms and the usability of the interface.
Keywords: mobile user interfaces, multimedia information retrieval, personal memories
An eye tracking approach to image search activities using RSVP display techniques BIBAKFull-Text 416-420
  Simone Corsato; Mauro Mosconi; Marco Porta
Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) is now a well-established category of image display methods. In this paper we compare four RSVP techniques when applied to very large collections of images (thousands), in order to extract the highest quantity of items that match a textual description. We report on experiments with more than 30 testers, in which we exploit an eye tracking system to perform the selection of images, thus obtaining quantitative and qualitative data about the efficacy of each presentation mode with respect to this task. Our study aims at confirming the feasibility and convenience of an eye tracking approach for effective image selection in RSVP techniques, compared to the mouse-click "traditional" selection method, in view of a future where eye trackers might become nearly as common as LCD displays are now. We propose an interpretation of the experimental data and provide short considerations on technical issues.
Keywords: eye tracking, image browsing, image database, image presentation, rapid serial visual presentation
Advanced interfaces for music enjoyment BIBAKFull-Text 421-424
  Adriano Baratè; Luca A. Ludovico
Music enjoyment in a digital format is more than listening to a binary file. An overall music description is made of many interdependent aspects, that should be taken into account in an integrated and synchronized way. In this article, a proposal for an advanced interface to enjoy music in all its aspects will be described. The encoding language that allows the design and implementation of such interface is the IEEE P1599 standard, an XML-based format known as MX.
Keywords: MX, XML, multimedia, music, synchronization
Funky wall: presenting mood boards using gesture, speech and visuals BIBAKFull-Text 425-428
  Andrés Lucero; Dzmitry Aliakseyeu; Jean-Bernard Martens
In our studies aimed at understanding design practice we have identified the creation of mood boards as a relevant task for designers. In this paper we introduce an interactive wall-mounted display system that supports the presentation of mood boards. The system allows designers to easily record their mood board presentations while capturing the richness of their individual presentation skills and style. Designers and clients can play back, explore and comment on different aspects of the presentation using an intuitive and flexible interaction based on hand gestures thus supporting two-way communication. The system records the presentation and organizes it into three information layers (i.e. gesture, sound and visuals), which are first used to segment the presentation into meaningful parts, and later for playback. Exploratory evaluations show that designers are able to use the system with no prior training, and see a practical use of the proposed system in their design studios.
Keywords: gesture-based interaction, wall projection displays
Toward a natural interface to virtual medical imaging environments BIBAKFull-Text 429-432
  Luigi Gallo; Giuseppe De Pietro; Antonio Coronato; Ivana Marra
Immersive Virtual Reality environments are suitable to support activities related to medicine and medical practice. The immersive visualization of information-rich 3D objects, coming from patient scanned data, provides clinicians with a clear perception of depth and shapes. However, to benefit from immersive visualization in medical imaging, where inspection and manipulation of volumetric data are fundamental tasks, medical experts have to be able to act in the virtual environment by exploiting their real life abilities. In order to reach this goal, it is necessary to take into account user skills and needs so as to design and implement usable and accessible human-computer interaction interfaces. In this paper we present a natural interface for a semi-immersive virtual environment. Such interface is based on an off-the-shelf handheld wireless device and a speech recognition component, and provides clinicians with intuitive interaction modes for inspecting volumetric medical data.
Keywords: 3D interaction, 3D user interface, VTK, medical imaging, virtual reality, wireless
Music selection using the PartyVote democratic jukebox BIBAKFull-Text 433-436
  David Sprague; Fuqu Wu; Melanie Tory
PartyVote is a democratic music jukebox designed to give all participants an equal influence on the music played at social gatherings or parties. PartyVote is designed to provide appropriate music in established social groups with minimal user interventions and no pre-existing user profiles. The visualization uses dimensionality reduction to show song similarity and overlays information about how votes affect the music played. Visualizing voting decisions allows users to link music selections with individuals, providing social awareness. Traditional group norms can subsequently be leveraged to maintain fair system use and empower users.
Keywords: CSCW, entertainment, group dynamics, information visualization, music map, music systems, social interaction, voting
A haptic rendering engine of web pages for blind users BIBAKFull-Text 437-440
  Nikolaos Kaklanis; Juan González Calleros; Jean Vanderdonckt; Dimitrios Tzovaras
To overcome the shortcomings posed by audio rendering of web pages for blind users, this paper implements an interaction technique where web pages are parsed so as to automatically generate a virtual reality scene that is augmented with a haptic feedback. All elements of a web page are transformed into a corresponding "hapget" (haptically-enhanced widget), a three dimensional widget exhibiting a behavior that is consistent with their web counterpart and having haptic extension governed by usability guidelines for haptic interaction. A set of implemented hapgets is described and used in some examples. All hapgets introduced an extension to UsiXML, a XML-compliant User Interface Description Language that fosters model-driven engineering of user interfaces. In this way, it possible to render any UsiXML-compatible user interface thanks to the interaction technique described, and not only web pages.
Keywords: haptic interaction, haptically enhanced widget, user interface extensible markup language, virtual reality
Realizing the hidden: interactive visualization and analysis of large volumes of structured data BIBAFull-Text 441-444
  Olaf Noppens; Thorsten Liebig
An emerging trend in Web computing aims at collecting and integrating distributed data. For instance, various communities recently have build large repositories of structured and interlinked data sets from different Web sources. However, up to date there is virtually no support in navigating, visualising or even analysing structured date sets of this size appropriately. This paper describes novel rendering techniques enabling a new level of visual analytics combined with interactive exploration principles. The underlying visualisation rationale is driven by the principle of providing detail information with respect to qualitative as well as quantitative aspects on user demand while offering an overview at any time. By means of our prototypical implementation and two real-world data sets we show how to answer several data specific tasks by interactive visual exploration.
A wearable Malossi alphabet interface for deafblind people BIBAKFull-Text 445-448
  Nicholas Caporusso
Deafblind people have a severe degree of combined visual and auditory impairment resulting in problems with communication, (access to) information and mobility. Moreover, in order to interact with other people, most of them need the constant presence of a caregiver who plays the role of an interpreter with an external world organized for hearing and sighted people. As a result, they usually live behind an invisible wall of silence, in a unique and inexplicable condition of isolation.
   In this paper, we describe DB-HAND, an assistive hardware/software system that supports users to autonomously interact with the environment, to establish social relationships and to gain access to information sources without an assistant. DB-HAND consists of an input/output wearable peripheral (a glove equipped with sensors and actuators) that acts as a natural interface since it enables communication using a language that is easily learned by a deafblind: Malossi method. Interaction with DB-HAND is managed by a software environment, whose purpose is to translate text into sequences of tactile stimuli (and vice-versa), to execute commands and to deliver messages to other users. It also provides multi-modal feedback on several standard output devices to support interaction with the hearing and the sighted people.
Keywords: deafblindness, multimodal feedback, tactile alphabet, ubiquitous computing
SyncDecor: communication appliances for virtual cohabitation BIBAKFull-Text 449-453
  Hitomi Tsujita; Koji Tsukada; Itiro Siio
Despite the fact that various means of communication such as mobile phones, instant messenger and e-mail are now widespread; many romantic couples separated by long distances worry about the health of their relationships. Likewise, these couples have a greater desire to feel a sense of connection and synchronicity with their partners than traditional inter-family bonds. In many prior research projects, unique devices were developed that required a level of interpretation which did not directly affect one's daily routine -- and therefore were more casual in nature. However, this paper concentrates on the use of common, day-to-day items and modifying them to communicate everyday actions while maintaining a sustained and natural usage pattern for strongly paired romantic couples. For this purpose, we propose the "SyncDecor" system, which pairs traditional appliances and allow them to remotely synchronize and provide awareness or cognizance about their partners -- thereby creating a virtual "living together" feeling. We present evidence, from a 3-month long field study, where traditional appliances provided a significantly more natural, varied and sustained usage patterns which ultimately enhanced communications between the couples.
Keywords: awareness, communication, synchronization
Toward haptic mathematics: why and how BIBAKFull-Text 454-457
  C. Bernareggi; A. Marcante; P. Mussio; L. Parasiliti Provenza; Sara Vanzi
Understanding a mathematical concept, expressed in a written form, requires the exploration of the whole symbolic expression to recognize its component significant patterns as well as its overall structure. This exploration is difficult for visually impaired people whether the symbolic expression is materialized as an oral description or a Braille expression. The paper introduces the notion of Haptic Mathematics as a digital medium of thought and communication of mathematical concepts that adopts the nomenclature and language of Mathematics and makes its expressions perceptible as sets of haptic signals. As a first step toward Haptic Mathematics, the paper presents a system adopting an audio-haptic interaction whose goal is to enable visual impaired or blind people to reason on graph structures and communicate their reasoning with sighted people. The paper describes a first system prototype and some preliminary usability results aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the proposal.
Keywords: blind users, haptic, multimodal interactive systems
The need for an interaction cost model in adaptive interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 458-461
  Bowen Hui; Sean Gustafson; Pourang Irani; Craig Boutilier
The development of intelligent assistants has largely benefited from the adoption of decision-theoretic (DT) approaches that enable an agent to reason and account for the uncertain nature of user behaviour in a complex software domain. At the same time, most intelligent assistants fail to consider the numerous factors relevant from a human-computer interaction perspective. While DT approaches offer a sound foundation for designing intelligent agents, these systems need to be equipped with an interaction cost model in order to reason the impact of how (static or adaptive) interaction is perceived by different users. In a DT framework, we formalize four common interaction factors -- information processing, savings, visual occlusion, and bloat. We empirically derive models for bloat and occlusion based on the results of two users experiments. These factors are incorporated in a simulated help assistant where decisions are modeled as a Markov decision process. Our simulation results reveal that our model can easily adapt to a wide range of user types with varying preferences.
Keywords: bloat, information processing, interaction models and techniques, perceived savings, user interaction studies, visual occlusion
Theia: open environment for multispectral image analysis BIBAKFull-Text 462-465
  Vito Roberto; Massimiliano Hofer
Preliminary results of Theia, a software system for multispectral image visualization and analysis are presented. A new approach is adopted, based on modern design techniques and better tuned to the recent advancements in hardware. A careful implementation in the C++ language addresses the issues of time efficiency, openness to personalizations and portability by exploiting the advances of Open Source technologies. Experimental tests on multispectral images have given promising results towards the use of the system as a dynamic, interactive interface to massive data visualization, mining and processing.
Keywords: hyperspectral, image processing, image processing environment, interactive interfaces, multispectral, multispectral analysis, object oriented design, open source, visualization
The multi-touch SoundScape renderer BIBAFull-Text 466-469
  Katharina Bredies; Nick Alexander Mann; Jens Ahrens; Matthias Geier; Sascha Spors; Michael Nischt
In this paper, we introduce a direct manipulation tabletop multi-touch user interface for spatial audio scenes. Although spatial audio rendering exists for several decades now, mass market applications have not been developed and the user interfaces still address a small group of expert users. We implemented an easy-to-use direct manipulation interface for multiple users, taking full advantage of the object-based audio rendering mode. Two versions of the user interface have been developed to explore variations in information architecture and will be evaluated in user tests.

Demos session

Interactive visual interfaces for evacuation planning BIBAKFull-Text 472-473
  Gennady Andrienko; Natalia Andrienko; Ulrich Bartling
To support planning of massive transportations under time-critical conditions, in particular, evacuation of people from a disaster-affected area, we have developed a software module for automated generation of transportation schedules and a suite of visual analytics tools that enable the verification of a schedule by a human expert. We combine computational, visual, and interactive techniques to help the user to deal with large and complex data involving geographical space, time, and heterogeneous objects.
Keywords: coordinated multiple views, geovisualization, task-centered visualization design, transportation planning, visual analytics
Supporting visual exploration of massive movement data BIBAKFull-Text 474-475
  Natalia Andrienko; Gennady Andrienko
To make sense from large amounts of movement data (sequences of positions of moving objects), a human analyst needs interactive visual displays enhanced with database operations and methods of computational analysis. We present a toolkit for analysis of movement data that enables a synergistic use of the three types of techniques.
Keywords: aggregation, cluster analysis, exploratory data analysis, interactive displays, movement behavior, movement data, movement patterns, trajectory, visual analytics, visualization
Scenique: a multimodal image retrieval interface BIBAKFull-Text 476-477
  Ilaria Bartolini; Paolo Ciaccia
Searching for images by using low-level visual features, such as color and texture, is known to be a powerful, yet imprecise, retrieval paradigm. The same is true if search relies only on keywords (or tags), either derived from the image context or user-provided annotations. In this demo we present Scenique, a multimodal image retrieval system that provides the user with two basic facilities: 1) an image annotator, that is able to predict keywords for new (i.e., unlabelled) images, and 2) an integrated query facility that allows the user to search for images using both visual features and tags, possibly organized in semantic dimensions. We demonstrate the accuracy of image annotation and the improved precision that Scenique obtains with respect to querying with either only features or keywords.
Keywords: multi-structural databases, semantic dimensions, visual features
Multimodal user interfaces for smart environments: the multi-access service platform BIBAKFull-Text 478-479
  Marco Blumendorf; Sebastian Feuerstack; Sahin Albayrak
User interface modeling is a well accepted approach to handle increasing user interface complexity. The approach presented in this paper utilizes user interface models at runtime to provide a basis for user interface distribution and synchronization. Task and domain model synchronize workflow and dynamic content across devices and modalities. A cooking assistant serves as example application to demonstrate multimodality and distribution. Additionally a debugger allows the inspection of the underlying user interface models at runtime.
Keywords: human-computer interaction, interface design, model-based user interfaces, multimodal interaction, runtime interpretation, smart home environments, ubiquitous computing, usability
Interactive shape specification for pattern search in time series BIBAKFull-Text 480-481
  Paolo Buono; Adalberto Lafcadio Simeone
Time series analysis is a process whose goal is to understand phenomena. The analysis often involves the search for a specific pattern. Finding patterns is one of the fundamental steps for time series observation or forecasting. The way in which users are able to specify a pattern to use for querying the time series database is still a challenge. We hereby propose an enhancement of the SearchBox, a widget used in TimeSearcher, a well known tool developed at the University of Maryland that allows users to find patterns similar to the one of interest.
Keywords: information visualization, interactive system, interactive visualization, visual querying
A system for dynamic 3D visualisation of speech recognition paths BIBAKFull-Text 482-483
  Saturnino Luz; Masood Masoodian; Bill Rogers; Bo Zhang
This paper presents an interactive visualisation system that assists users of semi-automatic speech transcription systems to assess alternative recognition results in real time and provide feedback to the speech recognition back-end in an intuitive manner. This prototype uses the OpenGL libraries to implement an animated 3D visual representation of alternative recognition results generated by the Sphinx automatic speech recognition system. It is expected that displaying alternatives dynamically will facilitate early detection of recognition errors and encourage user interaction, which in turn can be used to improve future recognition performance.
Keywords: animated interfaces, automatic speech transcription, error correction, interactive visualisation
Perspective change: a system for switching between on-screen views by closing one eye BIBAKFull-Text 484-485
  Fabian Hemmert; Danijela Djokic; Reto Wettach
This project explores the change of on-screen views through single-sided eye closure. A prototype was developed, three different applications are presented: Activating a sniper scope in a 3D shooter game, zooming out into a overview perspective over a web page, and filtering out icons on a cluttered desktop. Initial user testing results are presented.
Keywords: eye, eye closure, eyelid, perspective change, prototype, screen interface
Improving citizens' interactions in an e-deliberation environment BIBAKFull-Text 486-487
  Fiorella De Cindio; Cristian Peraboni; Leonardo Sonnante
In an e-deliberation environment it is particularly important to conceive tools and web interfaces able to facilitate social online interactions between citizens and public officers. In this paper we present some choices made in the development of an e-deliberation platform. In particular we will focus on the use of maps to facilitate citizens interaction based on geo-localized discussions, and on the design of an ad hoc interface for online discussion to increase citizens' participation.
Keywords: e-deliberation, e-participation, map-based interaction, web interfaces, web-based social interaction
"Isn't this archaeological site exciting!": a mobile system enhancing school trips BIBAKFull-Text 488-489
  Carmelo Ardito; Rosa Lanzilotti
Explore! is an m-learning system that aims to improve young visitors' experience of historical sites. It exploits the imaging and multimedia capabilities of the latest generation cell phone, creating electronic games that support learning of ancient history during a visit to historical sites. Explore! consists of two main components: 1) the Game Application running on cellular phones, to be used during the game and 2) the Master Application running on a notebook, used by the game master (i.e. a teacher) to perform a reflection phase, which follows the game. Having the Game Application been described in previous papers, in this work we mainly illustrate the Master Application.
Keywords: learning game, mobile system
MedioVis: visual information seeking in digital libraries BIBAKFull-Text 490-491
  Mathias Heilig; Mischa Demarmels; Werner A. König; Jens Gerken; Sebastian Rexhausen; Hans-Christian Jetter; Harald Reiterer
MedioVis is a visual information seeking system that aims to support users' natural seeking behavior, particularly in complex information spaces. To achieve this goal we introduce multiple complementary visualization techniques together with an easy-to-use and consistent interaction concept. Over the last four years, MedioVis was developed in the context of digital libraries following a user-centered design process. The focus of this paper is the presentation of our interaction model and further to give an overview of the applied visualization techniques.
Keywords: coordinated views, interaction design, semantic zooming
End-user visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 492-493
  Alexander Repenning; Andri Ioannidou
Computer visualization has advanced dramatically over the last few years, partially driven by the exploding video game market. 3D hardware acceleration has reached the point where even low-power handheld computers can render and animate complex 3D graphics efficiently. Unfortunately, end-user computing does not yet provide the necessary tools and conceptual frameworks to let end-user developers access these technologies and build their own interactive 2D and 3D applications such as rich visualizations, animations and simulations. In this paper, we demonstrate the Agent Warp Engine (AWE), a formula-based shape-warping framework for end-user visualization.
Keywords: 3D graphics, end-user programming, real-time image warping
Agrafo: a visual interface for grouping and browsing digital photos BIBAKFull-Text 494-495
  João Mota; Manuel J. Fonseca; Daniel Gonçalves; Joaquim A. Jorge
With the growing popularity of digital cameras, the organization, browsing, management and grouping of photos become a problem of every photograph (professional or amateur), because their collections easily achieve the order of thousands. Here, we present a system to automate these processes, which relies on photo information, such as, semantic features (extracted from content), meta-information and low level.
Keywords: image analysis, image grouping, user interface