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AVI Tables of Contents: 9496980002040608101214

Proceedings of the 2000 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces

Fullname:AVI'00 Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces
Editors:Stefano Levialdi; Vita Di Gesù; Laura Tarantino
Location:Palermo, Italy
Dates:2000-May-24 to 2000-May-26
Publisher:ACM
Standard No:ISBN: 1-58113-252-2; Order Number:608006; ACM DL: Table of Contents hcibib: AVI00
Papers:52
Pages:317
From hierarchies to polyarchies: visualizing multiple relationships BIBAFull-Text 13
  George Robertson
Hierarchy visualization has been a hot topic in the Information Visualization community for the last decade. A number of hierarchy visualization techniques have been invented, with each having advantages for some applications, but limitations or disadvantages for other applications. No technique has succeeded for a wide variety of applications. We continue to struggle with basic problems of high cognitive overhead (e.g., loss of context), poor fit to the data (e.g., problems of scale), and poor fit to the user's task at hand (e.g., handling multiple points of focus). At the same time, information access improvements have made available to us much richer sources of information, including multiple hierarchies and other relationships. I call this broader problem Polyarchy Visualization. In this talk, I will review what we know about hierarchy visualization, illustrate the broader polyarchy visualization problem with some examples, and introduce some novel polyarchy visualization techniques.
The virtual human as a multimodal interface BIBAKFull-Text 14-20
  Daniel Thalmann
This paper discusses the main issues for creating Interactive Virtual Environments with Virtual Humans emphasizing the following aspects: creation of Virtual Humans, gestures, interaction with objects, multimodal communication.
Keywords: action recognition, gestures, multimodal communication, virtual humans
Instructions and descriptions: some cognitive aspects of programming and similar activities BIBAKFull-Text 21-28
  Thomas R. G. Green
The Cognitive Dimensions framework outlined here is generalised broad-brush approach to usability evaluation for all types of information artifact, from programming languages through interactive systems to domestic devices. It also has promise of interfacing successfully with organisational and sociological analyses.
Keywords: Prolog, cognitive dimensions, cognitive psychology, notations, spreadsheet, telephone, usability evaluation
An algorithm for blob hierarchy layout BIBAKFull-Text 29-40
  David Harel; Gregory Yashchin
We present an algorithm for the aesthetic drawing of basic hierarchical blob structures, of the kind found in higraphs and statecharts and in other diagrams in which hierarchy is depicted as topological inclusion. Our work could also be useful in window system dynamics, and possibly also in things like newspaper layout, etc. Several criteria for aesthetics are formulated, and we discuss their motivation, our methods of implementation and the algorithm's performance.
Keywords: blob, hierarchy, higraph, layout
A comparison of set-based and graph-based visualisations of overlapping classification hierarchies BIBAKFull-Text 41-50
  Martin Graham; Jessie B. Kennedy; Chris Hand
The visualisation of hierarchical information sets has been a staple of Information Visualisation since the field came into being in the early 1990's. However, at present, support for visualising the correlations between multiple, overlapping sets of hierarchical information has been lacking. This is despite the realisation that for certain tasks this information is as important as the information that forms the individual hierarchies. In response to this, we have produced two early visualisation prototypes, one based on a graph visualisation, and the other on a set-based metaphor, that endeavour to display such information in a readily perceived form to potential users. The science of botanical taxonomy is used as an example of a field where such a visualisation would be useful, and also as a resource for example information sets that the prototypes can act upon. Technical and perceptual issues involved in the design and implementation of both prototypes are discussed. Following this, informal user testing on both prototypes is described, which utilised user observation techniques to elicit qualitative feedback from the taxonomists. These findings are then used to emphasise the shortcomings and advantages of each prototype, and from these probable issues for future prototyping and development are drawn.
Keywords: authors kit, conference publications, guides, instructions
Architectures to make simple visualisations using simple systems BIBAKFull-Text 51-60
  Alan Dix; Russell Beale; Andy Wood
In previous work, the first author argued for simple lightweight visualisations. These are surprisingly complex to produce due to the need for infrastructure to read files, etc. onCue, a desktop 'agent', aids the rapid production of such visualisations and their integration with desktop and Internet applications. Two examples are used dancing histograms for 2D tables and pieTrees for hierarchical numeric data. A major focus is the importance of architecture, both that of onCue itself and the underlying component infrastructure on which it is built -- separation of concerns, mixed initiative computation and plug-and-play components lead to easily produced and easily used systems.
Keywords: Internet-desktop integration, artificial intelligence, hierarchical data, interactive visualisation, software architecture
Diagrams based on structural object perception BIBAKFull-Text 61-67
  Pourang Irani; Colin Ware
Most diagrams, particularly those used in software engineering, are line drawings consisting of nodes drawn as rectangles or circles, and edges drawn as lines linking them. In the present paper we review some of the literature on human perception to develop guidelines for effective diagram drawing. Particular attention is paid to structural object recognition theory. According to this theory as objects are perceived they are decomposed into 3D set of primitives called geons, together with the skeleton structure connecting them. We present a set of guidelines for drawing variations on node-link diagrams using geon-like primitives, and provide some examples. Results from three experiments are reported that evaluate 3D geon diagrams in comparison with 2D UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagrams. The first experiment measures the time and accuracy for a subject to recognize a sub-structure of a diagram represented either using geon primitives or UML primitives. The second and third experiments compare the accuracy of recalling geon vs. UML diagrams. The results of these experiments show that geon diagrams can be visually analyzed more rapidly, with fewer errors, and can be remembered better in comparison with equivalent UML diagrams.
Keywords: 3D diagrams, diagramming, geon theory, information visualization, perception, visual display
An architecture for pen-based interaction on electronic whiteboards BIBAKFull-Text 68-75
  Takeo Igarashi; W. Keith Edwards; Anthony LaMarca; Elizabeth D. Mynatt
This paper describes the software architecture for our pen-based electronic whiteboard system, called Flatland. The design goal of Flatland is to support various activities on personal office whiteboards, while maintaining the outstanding ease of use and informal appearance of conventional whiteboards. The GUI framework of existing window systems is too complicated and heavy-weight to achieve this goal, and so we designed a new architecture that works as a kind of window system for pen-based applications. Our architecture is characterized by its use of freeform strokes as the basic primitive for both input and output, flexible screen space segmentation, pluggable applications that can operate on each segment, and built-in history management mechanisms. This architecture is carefully designed to achieve simple, unified coding and high extensibility, which was essential to the iterative prototyping of the Flatland interface. While the current implementation is optimized for large office whiteboards, this architecture is useful for the implementation of a range of various pen-based systems.
Keywords: Flatland, GUI toolkit, architecture, implementation, pen computing, whiteboard
Device independent text input: a rationale and an example BIBAKFull-Text 76-83
  Poika Isokoski; Roope Raisamo
Individual characters and text are the main inputs in many computing devices. Currently there is a growing trend in developing small portable devices like mobile phones, personal digital assistants, GPS-navigators, and two-way pagers. Unfortunately these portable computing devices have different user interfaces and therefore the task of text input takes many forms. The user, who in the future is likely to have several of these devices, has to learn several text input methods. We argue that there is a need for a universal text input method. A method like this would work on a wide range of interface technologies and allow the user to transfer his or her writing skill without device-specific training. To show that device independent text input is possible, we present a candidate for a device independent text entry method that supports skill transfer between different devices. A limited longitudinal study was conducted to achieve a proof of concept evaluation of our Minimal Device Independent Text Input Method (MDITIM). We found MDITIM writing skill acquired with a touchpad to work almost equally well on mouse, trackball, joystick and keyboard without any additional training. Our test group reached on average 41% of their handwriting speed by the end of the tenth 30-minute training session.
Keywords: MDITIM, device independence, minimalism, portable devices, text input, unistrokes
Automatic animation of discussions in USENET BIBAKFull-Text 84-91
  Jun Yabe; Shin Takahashi; Estuya Shibayama
This paper proposes a technique for generating more comprehensible animations from discussions, which are often hard to follow, in USENET. This technique consists of two steps. In the first step, our prototype system generates a scenario from articles in a news thread using the quote relationship. In the second step, it generates an animation based on the scenario, casting 3D avatars as the authors of the articles. We also implemented a prototype system based on this technique and made several animations from articles posted to USENET.
Keywords: USENET, automatic animation, using 3D avatar
Smart graphics in adaptive way descriptions BIBAFull-Text 92-97
  Antonio Krüger; Jörg Baus; Andreas Butz
While car navigation systems are widely commercialized already today, pedestrian information systems are still in the early research stage. However, recent progress in mobile computing has opened perspectives for pedestrian navigation systems. In this context, graphics is and will still be an important modality to convey all types of route information. This paper will address the question how to generate graphics for navigation systems that help pedestrians, e.g., airport passengers, city tourists or conference attendees, to find their way in complex environments. We will discuss how the presentation of graphics can be tailored to various technical and cognitive constraints, and we will demonstrate our ideas within a scenario where a passenger of an airport gets navigational help from a stationary info booth and afterwards on her way via a handheld device (PDA). Both the 3D visualization at the info booth and the sketch-like presentation on the PDA are generated from the same data and by the same system, yet are adapted to the specific situation, output medium and user as far as possible.
An intuitive VR user interface for design review BIBAKFull-Text 98-101
  Christian Knöpfle; Gerrit Voß
In today's automotive industry there is an increasing demand for VR technology, because it provides the possibility to switch from cost and time insensitive physical mock up's (PMU) to digital mock up's (DMU). Unfortunately many current VR applications are either limited in the way people can interact with them, or provide a large set of functions, which are hard to use. In this paper we present the design of a VR user interface for applications in the area of digital design review. The basic requirements of such an UI are the ease of use, and the ability to work simultaneously with a group of people on one system. Furthermore we investigate the functional requirements for this kind of application, including navigation, manipulation, examination and documentation of flaws in the design of the models. Documentation is stored as HTML and could therefore be easily transmitted between different parties. The design of the user interface is based on the basic interaction tasks (BIT'S), introduced by Foley et. al., which allow to build complex functionality on top of only a few interaction metaphors. Finally we evaluate the concept on a prototype implementation, done in cooperation with BMW AG.
Keywords: VR, design review, interaction, user interface
Reification, polymorphism and reuse: three principles for designing visual interfaces BIBAKFull-Text 102-109
  Michel Beaudouin-Lafon; Wendy E. Mackay
This paper presents three design principles to support the development of large-scale applications and take advantage of recent research in new interaction techniques: Reification turns concepts into first class objects, polymorphism permits commands to be applied to objects of different types, and reuse makes both user input and system output accessible for later use. We show that the power of these principles lies in their combination. Reification creates new objects that can be acted upon by a small set of polymorphic commands, creating more opportunities for reuse. The result is a simpler yet more powerful interface.
   To validate these principles, we describe their application in the redesign of a complex interface for editing and simulating Coloured Petri Nets. The cpn2000 interface integrates floating palettes, toolglasses and marking menus in a consistent manner with a new metaphor for managing the workspace. It challenges traditional ideas about user interfaces, getting rid of pull-down menus, scrollbars, and even selection, while providing the same or greater functionality. Preliminary tests with users show that they find the new system both easier to use and more efficient.
Keywords: design principles, direct manipulation, instrumental interaction, interaction model, polymorphism, reification, reuse
Guidelines for using multiple views in information visualization BIBAKFull-Text 110-119
  Michelle Q. Wang Baldonado; Allison Woodruff; Allan Kuchinsky
A multiple view system uses two or more distinct views to support the investigation of a single conceptual entity. Many such systems exist, ranging from computer-aided design (CAD) systems for chip design that display both the logical structure and the actual geometry of the integrated circuit to overview-plus-detail systems that show both an overview for context and a zoomed-in-view for detail. Designers of these systems must make a variety of design decisions, ranging from determining layout to constructing sophisticated coordination mechanisms. Surprisingly, little work has been done to characterize these systems or to express guidelines for their design. Based on a workshop discussion of multiple views, and based on our own design and implementation experience with these systems, we present eight guidelines for the design of multiple view systems.
Keywords: design guidelines, information visualization, multiple views, usability heuristics, user interfaces
Using information in task models to support design of interactive safety-critical applications BIBAKFull-Text 120-127
  Fabio Paternò; Vincenzo Sabbatino; Carmen Santoro
The use of models has entered into current practice when developing various types of software product. However, there is a lack of methods able to use the information contained in relevant models concerning human-computer interaction for supporting the design and development of user interfaces. In this paper, we propose a method for using information contained in formally represented task models in order to support the design of interactive applications, with particular attention to those applications where both usability and safety are the main concern. Examples taken from our experience in a case study from the domain of Air Traffic Control are introduced and further discussed to explain how the method can be applied.
Keywords: interactive safety-critical applications, model-based design of user interfaces, task models
Snap-together visualization: a user interface for coordinating visualizations via relational schemata BIBAKFull-Text 128-135
  Chris North; Ben Shneiderman
Multiple coordinated visualizations enable users to rapidly explore complex information. However, users often need unforeseen combinations of coordinated visualizations that are appropriate for their data. Snap-Together Visualization enables data users to rapidly and dynamically mix and match visualizations and coordinations to construct custom exploration interfaces without programming. Snap's conceptual model is based on the relational database model. Users load relations into visualizations then coordinate them based on the relational joins between them. Users can create different types of coordinations such as: brushing, drill down, overview and detail view, and synchronized scrolling. Visualization developers can make their independent visualizations snap-able with a simple API.
   Evaluation of Snap revealed benefits, cognitive issues, and usability concerns. Data savvy users were very capable and thrilled to rapidly construct powerful coordinated visualizations. A snapped overview and detail-view coordination improved user performance by 30-80%, depending on task.
Keywords: coordination, information visualization, multiple views, relational database, tight coupling, user interface, user study
User interface patterns for hypermedia applications BIBAKFull-Text 136-142
  Gustavo Rossi; Daniel Schwabe; Fernando Lyardet
Designing high quality visual interfaces for hypermedia applications is difficult; it involves organizing different kinds of interface objects (for example those triggering navigation), prevent the user from cognitive overhead, etc. Unfortunately, interface design methods do not capture design decisions or rationale, so it is hard to record and convey interface design expertise.
   In this paper, we introduce interface patterns for hypermedia applications as a concept for reusing interface designs. The structure of this paper is as follows: first, we introduce the context in which these patterns were discovered and we give a rationale for their use. Then we present some simple but effective patterns using a standard template. We finally discuss some further issues on the use of interface patterns in hypermedia applications.
Keywords: design patterns, hypermedia applications, interface patterns
Validating the SUE inspection technique BIBAKFull-Text 143-150
  Antoella De Angeli; Maristella Matera; M. Francesca Costabile; Franca Garzotto; Paolo Paolini
In the usability inspection of complex hypermedia a great deal is left to the skills, experience, and ability of the inspectors. The SUE inspection technique has been proposed to help usability inspectors share and transfer their evaluation know-how, make it easier the hypermedia inspection process for newcomers, and achieve more effective and efficient evaluations. The SUE inspection is based on the use of evaluation patterns, called Abstract Tasks, which precisely describe the activities to be performed by evaluators during inspection. This paper presents an empirical validation of this inspection technique: two groups of novice inspectors have been asked to evaluate a commercial hypermedia CD-ROM applying the SUE inspection or the traditional heuristic evaluation technique. Results have shown a clear advantage of the SUE inspection over the heuristic evaluation, demonstrating that Abstract Tasks are efficient tools to drive evaluator's performance.
Keywords: controlled experiments, hypermedia usability, usability evaluation methods
Teallach's presentation model BIBAKFull-Text 151-154
  Peter J. Barclay; Jessie Kennedy
This short paper describes the presentation model used by the Teallach model-based user-interface development environment. Teallach's presentation model provides both abstract and concrete interactors, which are first-class objects that may be freely intermixed when building a user-interface. An example is provided showing this approach in use.
Keywords: model-based systems, presentation models, user-interface development environments
Generating user interface code in a model based user interface development environment BIBAKFull-Text 155-160
  Paulo Pinheiro da Silva; Tony Griffiths; Norman W. Paton
Declarative models play an important role in most software design activities, by allowing designs to be constructed that selectively abstract over complex implementation details. In the user interface setting, Model-Based User Interface Development Environments (MB-UIDEs) provide a context within which declarative models can be constructed and related, as part of the interface design process. However, such declarative models are not usually directly executable, and may be difficult to relate to existing software components. It is therefore important that MB-UIDEs both fit in well with existing software architectures and standards, and provide an effective route from declarative interface specification to running user interfaces. This paper describes how user interface software is generated from declarative descriptions in the Teallach MB-UIDE. Distinctive features of Teallach include its open architecture, which connects directly to existing applications and widget sets, and the generation of executable interface applications in Java. This paper focuses on how Java programs, organized using the model-view-controller pattern (MVC), are generated from the task, domain and presentation models of Teallach.
Keywords: automatic code generation, model-based user interface development environments, user interface development tools
The effect of information scent on searching information: visualizations of large tree structures BIBAKFull-Text 161-172
  Peter Pirolli; Stuart K. Card; Mija M. Van Der Wege
Focus + context information visualizations have sought to amplify human cognition by increasing the amount of information immediately available to the user. We study how the focus + context distortion of the Hyperbolic Tree browser affects information foraging behavior in a task similar to the CHI '97 Browse Off. In comparison to a more conventional browser, Hyperbolic users searched more nodes, searched at a faster rate, and showed more learning. However, the performance of the Hyperbolic was found to be highly affected by "information scent", proximal cues to the value of distal information. Strong information scent made hyperbolic search faster than with a conventional browser. Conversely, weak scent put the hyperbolic tree at a disadvantage. There appears to be two countervailing processes affecting visual attention in these displays: strong information scent expands the spotlight of attention whereas crowding of targets in the compressed region of the Hyperbolic narrows it. The results suggest design improvements.
Keywords: focus + context, hyperbolic tree, information foraging, information visualization
Multidimensional information visualization through sliding rods BIBAKFull-Text 173-180
  Tom Lanning; Kent Wittenburg; Michael Heinrichs; Christina Fyock; Glenn Li
In this paper we propose new visual interface technology to address multidimensional data exploration and browsing tasks. MultiNav, a prototype from GTE Laboratories, is based upon a multidimensional information model that affords new data exploration and semantically structured browsing interactions. The primary visual metaphor is based on sliding rods, each of which is associated with an information dimension from the underlying model. Users can interactively select value ranges along the rods in order to reveal hidden relationships as well as query and restrict the set through direct manipulation. A novel focus+context view is afforded in which detail about individual items is revealed within the context of the global multidimensional attribute space. We propose a novel interaction technique to change focus, which is based on dragging rods from side to side. We relate this work on multidimensional information visualization to other research in the area, including Parallel Coordinates, Dynamic Histograms, Dynamic Queries, and focus+context tables.
Keywords: focus+context, multidimensional information visualization, shopping interfaces, visual interface design
A Web-based approach to interactive visualization in context BIBAKFull-Text 181-188
  Audris Mockus; Stacie Hibino; Todd Graves
This paper proposes a framework for easily integrating and controlling information visualization (infoVis) components within web pages to create powerful interactive "live" documents, or LiveDocs. The framework includes a set of infoVis components which can be placed and linked within a standard HTML document, initialized to focus on key analysis results, and directly manipulated by readers to explore and analyze data further. In addition, authors can script the manipulation of views at the user interaction level (e.g., to set view options, select items within a view, or animate a view). We illustrate our approach with a sample analysis of a real-life data set.
Keywords: authoring visualization web pages, live documents, web-based information visualization
Rapid serial visual presentation: a space-time trade-off in information presentation BIBAKFull-Text 189-192
  Oscar de Bruijn; Robert Spence
Rapid Serial Visual Presentation, or RSVP, is the electronic equivalent of riffling a book in order to assess its content. RSVP allows space to be traded for time and has tremendous potential to support electronic information browsing and search particularly on small displays. However, before this potential can be realised, it is necessary to investigate the parameters involved in the successful application of RSVP in the user interface. The rapid display of images or text is well within the capabilities of current desktop computers and even of current or near future mobile devices. The limiting factor in the application of RSVP, therefore, has to be the limited capability of the user's visual system. Users' reading comprehension with RSVP of text has been studied extensively. The transfer of information with RSVP of images, however, has received relatively little attention. This paper examines some of the problems with applying RSVP for image browsing and search.
Keywords: image browsing, information navigation, rapid serial visual presentation, space-time trade-off, visualisation
Automated generation of agent behaviour from formal models of interaction BIBAKFull-Text 193-200
  Fiorella de Rosis; Berardina De Carolis; Sebastiano Pizzutilo
We illustrate how a formal model of interaction can be employed to generate documentation on how to use an application, in the form of an Animated Agent. The formal model is XDM, an extension of Coloured Petri Nets that enables representing user-adapted interfaces, simulating their behaviour and making pre-empirical usability evaluations. XDM-Agent is a personality-rich animated character that uses this formal model to illustrate the role of interface objects and to explain how tasks may be performed; its behaviour is programmed by a schema-based planning followed by a surface generation, in which verbal and non-verbal acts are combined appropriately, the agent's 'personality' may be adapted to the user characteristics.
Keywords: animated agents, formal models of interaction, user manuals generation
Adaptive user interface for process control based on multi-agent approach BIBAKFull-Text 201-204
  Gianni Viano; Andrea Parodi; James Alty; Chris Khalil; Inaki Angulo; Daniele Biglino; Michel Crampes; Christophe Vaudry; Veronique Daurensan; Philippe Lachaud
Teams of operators are required to monitor and control complex real-time processes. Process information comes from different sources and is often displayed by existing User Interfaces using a variety of visual and auditory forms and compressed into narrow time-windows. Most presentation modalities are fixed during interface design and are not capable of adaptation during system operation. The operators alone must provide the flexibility required in order to deal with difficult and unplanned situations.
   This paper presents an innovative Auto-Adaptive Multimedia Interface (AAMI) architecture, based on Intelligent Agent collaboration, designed to overcome the above drawbacks. The use of this technology should speed up the design and the implementation of human-centred multimedia interfaces, and significantly enhance their usability.
   The proposed architecture separates generic knowledge about adaptive user interface management from application specific knowledge in order to provide a generic framework suitable to be customised to different application domains.
   Benefits from the AAMI approach are evaluated by developing two industrial field-test application including Electrical Network Management and Thermal Plant Supervision system.
   The paper reports the architecture and the basic design principles of the generic framework as well details of the two applications.
   The work is being carried out within the European ESPRIT project: AMEBICA.
Keywords: HCI, adaptive interfaces, agent technology, multimedia
An architecture for automatic gesture analysis BIBAFull-Text 205-210
  E. Ardizzone; A. Chella; R. Pirrone
The field of human-computer interaction has been widely investigated in the last years, resulting in a variety of systems used in different application fields like virtual reality simulation environments, software user interfaces, and digital library systems.
   A very crucial part of all these systems is the input module which is devoted to recognize the human operator in terms of tracking and/or recognition of human face, arms position, hand gestures, and so on.
   In this work a software architecture is presented, for the automatic recognition of human arms poses. Our research has been carried on in the robotics framework. A mobile robot that has to find its path to the goal in a partially structured environment can be trained by a human operator to follow particular routes in order to perform its task quickly. The system is able to recognize and classify some different poses of the operator's arms as direction commands like "turn-left", "turn-right", "go-straight", and so on.
   A binary image of the operator silhouette is obtained from the gray-level input. Next, a slice centered on the silhouette itself is processed in order to compute the eigenvalues vector of the pixels co-variance matrix. This kind of information is strictly related to the shape of the contour of the operator figure, and can be usefully employed in order to assess the arms' position. Finally, a support vector machine (SVM) is trained in order to classify different poses, using the eigenvalues array.
   A detailed description of the system is presented along with some remarks on the statistical analysis we used, and on SVM. The experimental results, and an outline of the usability of the system as a generic shape classification tool are also reported.
A visual tool for querying geographic databases BIBAKFull-Text 211-216
  Andreas D. Blaser; Max. J. Egenhofer
To support users in querying geographic databases we have developed a system that lets people sketch what they are looking for. It closes the gap between user and information system, because the translation of a user's question into a processable query statement is delegated to the information system so that a user can focus on the actual query rather than spending time with its formulation. This system paper highlights a set of interaction methods and sketch interpretation algorithms that are necessary for pen-based querying of geographic information systems. They are part of a comprehensive prototype implementation of Spatial-Query-by-Sketch, which provides feature-based and relation-based spatial similarity retrieval.
Keywords: sketch-based querying, sketching, spatial information retrieval system, visual user interaction
Supporting visual exploration of object movement BIBAKFull-Text 217-220
  Natalia Andrienko; Gennady Andrienko; Peter Gatalsky
The focus of the presented work is visualization of routes of objects that change their spatial location in time. The challenge is to facilitate investigation of important characteristics of the movement: positions of the objects at any selected moment, directions, speeds and their changes with the time, overall trajectories and those for any specified interval etc. We propose a dynamic map display controlled through a set of interactive devices called time controls to be used as a support to visual exploration of spatial movement.
Keywords: animation, direct manipulation, exploratory data analysis, interactive maps, visualization of spatio-temporal data
Interactive visualisation of a travel itinerary BIBAKFull-Text 221-226
  Mark Apperley; Dale Fletcher; Bill Rogers; Kirsten Thomson
We demonstrate a graphic visualisation of a travel itinerary, with special emphasis on time and time zones. A traditional itinerary is a text document, detailing locations, and arrival and departure times for travel and accommodation. It is usually written in diary form, showing the sequence of events to be followed on a trip. Many questions can be answered easily from such an itinerary. What time should the traveler check in at the airport? Which country are they visiting on a particular date? Other questions can be more difficult to answer. How long is the first flight? What time is it at home when the traveler reaches their hotel? The written form is also quite poor at providing a 'picture' of an entire trip. The reader cannot tell at a glance how many countries are being visited, or whether the stay in England is longer than the slay in France. The visualisation discussed here attempts to make answering such questions relatively simple. Usability studies are described which show the advantages of our visualisation.
   Negotiation between the traveler and a travel agent are implicit in the development of a travel itinerary. The visualisation has been developed as part of our "Collaborative Information Gathering" project, whose overall goal is to investigate ways of supporting information search and document creation. The travel system covers the search aspect by supporting collaborative World Wide Web browsing, and document creation by supporting multiple complementary views of the trip and allowing collaborative editing via any of these.
Keywords: CSCW, HCI, collaboration, interface, itinerary, visualisation
Context and interaction in zoomable user interfaces BIBAFull-Text 227-231
  Stuart Pook; Eric Lecolinet; Guy Vaysseix; Emmanuel Barillot
Zoomable User Interfaces (ZUIs) are difficult to use on large information spaces in part because they provide insufficient context. Even after a short period of navigation users no longer know where they are in the information space nor where to find the information they are looking for. We propose a temporary in-place context aid that helps users position themselves in ZUIs. This context layer is a transparent view of the context that is drawn over the users' focus of attention. A second temporary in-place aid is proposed that can be used to view already visited regions of the information space. This history layer is an overlapping transparent layer that adds a history mechanism to ZUIs. We complete these orientation aids with an additional window, a hierarchy tree, that shows users the structure of the information space and their current position within it. Context layers show users their position, history layers show them how they got there, and hierarchy trees show what information is available and where it is.
   ZUIs, especially those that include these new orientation aids, are difficult to use with standard interaction techniques. They provide a large number of commands which must be used frequently and on a changing image. The mouse and its buttons cannot provide a rapid access to all these commands without new interaction techniques. We propose a new type of menu, a control menu, that facilitates the use of ZUIs and which we feel can also be useful in other types of applications.
Hierarchical flip zooming: enabling parallel exploration of hierarchical visualizations BIBAKFull-Text 232-237
  Staffan Björk
This paper describes hierarchical Flip Zooming, a focus+context visualization technique for hierarchical information sets. It allows for independent focus+context views at each node of the hierarchy and enables parallel exploration of different branches of the hierarchy. Visualization, navigation and interaction in the Flip Zooming technique is described as well as how the technique fits into existing models of information visualization. Examples of applications using the technique are given.
Keywords: flip zooming, focus+context visualization, hierarchies, information visualization
Dynamic label sampling on fisheye maps for information exploration BIBAKFull-Text 238-241
  Junichi Tatemura
For data with large dimensionality, placing labels is critical for users' comprehension of a scatterplot or a map of items. We propose a dynamic label sampling technique that, combined with graphical fisheye views, selects appropriate labels out of a large set of items on a map. Labels are sampled to give focus and contextual information according to users' panning/zooming and filtering operation. The paper also demonstrates an example of visual exploration with the image browser based on our technique.
Keywords: browsing, fisheye view, information exploration, information visualization, label sampling, map labeling
CBM: a visual query interface model based on annotated cartoon diagrams BIBKFull-Text 242-245
  Dong-Guk Shin; Ravi Shankar Nori
Keywords: cartoon-based model, database query, graphical user interface, visual query interface
Conversation space: visualising multi-threaded conversation BIBAKFull-Text 246-249
  Dimitri Popolov; Michael Callaghan; Paul Luker
This paper explicates the metaphors used to conceive of asynchronous text-based communication (ATBC) software, such as email and newsgroups. Design of such software has been guided by an understanding of ATBC as essentially a text communication (textual metaphor). However, this mode of discourse has many similarities with oral communication as well. The interaction of oral and textual aspects in ATBC gives rise to a phenomenon of multithreaded discourse, where several discourse threads develop simultaneously, which is a unique property of this medium.
   Our main tenet here is that application of textual metaphor has narrowed the scope of possible designs. We propose a design approach, which explicitly promotes the metaphor of oral communication (conversation) and oral traits of ATBC discourse, while also supporting the multithreaded discourse structure.
   The consequent interface design challenge is that of creating a way to visualise human conversation that would preserve the spontaneity of oral conversation whilst also utilising the persistent nature of text. This goal has been accomplished by spatial representation of multi-threaded discourse in a shared workspace. Based on this proposed way of visualisation, a prototype tool called 'Conversation Space' (ConverSpace) has been created.
Keywords: asynchronous text-based communication, computer-mediated communication, discourse structure, multi-threaded discourse, persistent conversation
Getting the mobile users in: three systems that support collaboration in an environment with heterogeneous communication devices BIBAKFull-Text 250-254
  Thomas Rist; Patrick Brandmeier; Gerd Herzog; Elisabeth André
In this paper we present MapViews, Magic Lounge, and Call-Kiosk, three different but related systems that address the integration of mobile communication terminals into multi-user applications. MapViews is a test-bed to investigate how a small group of geographically dispersed users can jointly solve localization and route planning tasks while being equipped with different communication terminals. Magic Lounge is a virtual meeting space that provides a number of communication support services and allows its users to connect via heterogeneous devices. Finally, we sketch Call-Kiosk a system that is currently being designed for setting up a commercial information service for mobile clients. All three systems emphasize the high demand for automated design approaches which are able to generate information presentations that are tailored to the available presentation capabilities of particular target devices.
Keywords: collaborative systems, mobile communication, multimedia
KVispatch: a visual language that rewrites kinematic objects in animation BIBAFull-Text 255-260
  Kenji Miyamoto; Yasunori Harada; Richard Potter
A rule-based visual language that controls kinematics is proposed. It is designed for visually describing realistic and reactive animations with real-time kinematic modeling. While the kinematics animates graphical objects to simulate continuous phenomena such as the expansion/contraction and free falling of objects, the rewriting system controls discontinuous behaviors such as changes in connectivity, creation/extinction, sudden changes in velocity, or user interactions. Kinematic as well as geometric conditions can trigger rules. Conversely, the rewriting system can change the targets' kinematic states such as velocity as well as geometrical relationships. Thus the kinematics and the rewriting systems cooperate. Using these techniques, kinematically modeled animation can enjoy on-the-fly re-composition controlled by events simply by adding graphical rules. To show this advantage, reactive GUIs and action games are built. Our approach also extends the notion of figure-rewriting from space to space-time.
Graphical information models as interfaces for Web document repositories BIBAKFull-Text 261-265
  Virpi Lyytikäinen; Pasi Tiitinen; Airi Salminen
In interorganisational processes, documents are used to record information created during the processes. Legislative processes involving several legislative organisations, or manufacturing processes involving complicated networks of companies and officials are examples of such processes. In the contemporary computerised environments a great deal of the recorded information is scattered in different kinds of Web repositories with different kinds of interfaces. The repositories should serve as valuable knowledge assets but their use may be difficult and even the knowledge about the kinds of repositories available may be insufficient. The paper presents a method for improving information management in interorganisational processes. In the method, the interorganisational processes are first analysed and the metadata related to the production of documents in the processes is collected. Then the metadata is visualised as graphical models by which documents created in the processes can be accessed. To support a generic solution, an XML specification for the metadata is developed. The method has been used to create visual interfaces for European legal information repositories. The interfaces are currently under testing in the EULEGIS project, which belongs to the Telematics Application Programme of the European Commission.
Keywords: XML, information retrieval, legal information, metadata visualisation
Towards mutual comprehension through interaction BIBAKFull-Text 266-269
  Nadia Bianchi Berthouze; Paolo Bottoni; Toshikazu Kato
We explore interaction as a basis for human-computer comprehension. Perceptual experience is organised through categories establishing the kind of distinctions imposable on perceived phenomena. An interactive tool exploiting a similar categorisation in graphics is integrated into a system for subjective retrieval of images, so that the user interacts with active regions supporting the same type of distinction.
Keywords: Kansei interaction, active region, lexical categories
Button selection for general GUIs using eye and hand together BIBAKFull-Text 270-273
  Masatake Yamato; Katsuro Inoue; Akito Monden; Koji Torii; Ken-ichi Matsumoto
This paper proposes an efficient technique for eye gaze interface suitable for the general GUI environments such as Microsoft Windows. Our technique uses an eye and a hand together: the eye for moving cursors onto the GUI button (move operation), and the hand for pushing the GUI button (push operation). We also propose the following two techniques to assist the move operation: (1) Automatic adjustment and (2) Manual adjustment. In the automatic adjustment, the cursor automatically moves to the closest GUI button when we push a mouse button. In the manual adjustment, we can move the cursor roughly by an eye, then move it a little more by the mouse onto the GUI button. In the experiment to evaluate our method, GUI button selection by manual adjustment showed better performance than the selection by a mouse even in the situation that has many small GUI buttons placed very closely each other on the GUI.
Keywords: GUI button selection, eye gaze interface, eye tracking device, user interface
Using dialog and context in a speech-based interface for an information visualization environment BIBAKFull-Text 274-275
  Kenneth Cox; Rebecca E. Grinter; David Mantilla
We describe a speech-based interface to an information visualization (infoVis) system. Users ask natural-language questions about a given data domain. Our interface then maps the questions into infoVis operations, which result in the display of data visualizations that address the questions. Users can interact with these views via speech or direct manipulation. If users give incomplete information, our interface guides them in clarifying their questions. The intelligence behind our interface is encapsulated in a service logic that embodies domain knowledge about both the data being explored and the infoVis system. This allows users to focus on answering questions, rather than on the mechanics of accessing data and creating views.
Keywords: information visualization, multi-modal interfaces, speech and natural language interfaces
User interfaces for digital television: a navigator case study BIBAKFull-Text 276-279
  Leena Eronen; Petri Vuorimaa
Digital television user interfaces are composed of text, graphics and video. Usability issues that arise include information visualization, searching and navigation. This paper introduces two user interface prototypes for digital television. Both prototypes were tested with real users and the test results are discussed.
Keywords: digital television, navigation, prototypes, usability, user interfaces
Mail-by-example: a visual query interface for email management BIBAKFull-Text 280-281
  Karin Becker; Michelle O. Cardoso; Caren M. Nichele; Michele Frighetto
MBE (Mail by Example) is a visual interface that provides advanced facilities for handling large volumes of electronic messages. It enables users to define ad hoc queries for retrieving messages, folders, or information about those. MBE is based on a "by-example" query style (QBE), to suit the requirements of typical users of email environments. The first evaluation of MBE revealed a generalized satisfaction towards its features.
Keywords: QBE, email overload, visual query language
A fast multi-scale method for drawing large graphs BIBAFull-Text 282-285
  David Harel; Yehuda Koren
We present a multi-scale layout algorithm for the aesthetic drawing of undirected graphs with straight-line edges. The algorithm is extremely fast, and is capable of drawing graphs of substantially larger size than any other algorithm we are awars of. For example, the algorithm achieves optimal drawings of 1000 vertex graphs in less than 3 seconds. The paper contains graphs with over 6000 nodes. The proposed algorithm embodies a new multi-scale scheme for drawing graphs, which can significantly improve the speed of essentially any force-directed method.
   Graphs have become an important part of recently proposed user interfaces, hence the relevance of this paper to work on interface issues.
A meta heuristic for graph drawing: learning the optimal graph-drawing method for clustered graphs BIBAKFull-Text 286-289
  Oliver Niggemann; Benno Stein
The problem of finding a pleasant layout for a given graph is a key challenge in the field of information visualization. For graphs that are biased towards a particular property such as tree-like, star-like, or bipartite, a layout algorithm can produce excellent layouts -- if this property is actually detected.
   Typically, a graph may not be of such a homogeneous shape but is comprised of different parts, or it provides several levels of abstraction each of which dominated by another property.
   The paper in hand addresses the layout of such graphs. It presents a meta heuristic for graph drawing, which is based on two ideas: (i) The detection and exploitation of hierarchical cluster information to unveil a graph's inherent structure. (ii) The automatic selection of an individual graph drawing method for each cluster.
Keywords: clustering, graph-drawing, information-visualization, learning
Relevance of graph-drawing algorithms to graph-based interfaces BIBAFull-Text 290-291
  Bertrand Ibrahim; Honitriniela Randriamparany; Hidenori Yoshizumi
The visual interface plays a significant role in a visual programming system. We therefore developed heuristics that improve the readability of control- and data-flow diagrams with many hundreds, and even thousands of nodes. In this paper, we study how the body of research in graph drawing (GD) can be applied to an actual graph-based interface.
On better understanding UML diagrams through interactive three-dimensional visualization and animation BIBAFull-Text 292-295
  Oliver Radfelder; Martin Gogolla
Different approaches support the construction of software by representing certain aspects of a system graphically. Recently, the UML has become common to provide software designers with tools, in which they can create visual representations of software interactively. But the UML is intended to be drawn on two-dimensional surfaces. Our approach extends UML into a third and fourth dimension in a way that we can place both static and dynamic aspects in one single view. By this, we can show behavior in the context of structural aspects, instead of drawing different diagrams for each aspect with only loose relation to each other. We also use the third dimension to emphasize important things and to place less interesting things in the background. Thereby, we direct the viewer's attention to the important things in the foreground. Currently, UML shows dynamic behavior by diagrams which do not change and are therefore static in nature. In sequence diagrams, for example, time elapses from the top of the diagram to the bottom. We point out that behavior is better visualized by animated diagrams where message symbols move from the sender object to the receiver object. Our approach supports the creation of a system as well as the communication of its dynamic processes especially to customers.
Formalising interactive behaviour in 3D-spatiotemporal worlds BIBAKFull-Text 296-297
  Alex Vakaloudis; Babis Theodoulidis; Chris Harrison
The introduction of VRML has facilitated the production of virtual worlds. Apart from being a format for defining 3D geometries, VRML also provides the foundation for specifying interactive behaviour. However this mechanism is rather primitive, there is no direct modelling for composite events or conditions and no efficient treatment of time. The approach presented in this paper, seeks to address these issues while formalising interactive behaviour in 3D-spatiotemporal worlds. We define the 3D-STECA (3D-SpatioTemporal Event Condition Action) Rules which apply to the user and the objects of a virtual environment. The set of rules comprise a scenario which can be mapped to VRML or Java3D. With this work we document behaviour by using formal expressions and provide the basis for guaranteeing consistency in the interaction.
Keywords: 3D, VRML, spatiotemporal data
A modular approach for exploring the semantic structure of technical document collections BIBAKFull-Text 298-301
  Andreas Becks; Stefan Sklorz; Matthias Jarke
The identification and analysis of an enterprise's knowledge available in a documented form is a key element of knowledge management. Visual methods which allow easy access to a document collection's contents are an enabling technology. However, no single information retrieval technique is likely to adequately deal with such tasks independent of the specific situation. In this paper, we therefore present a visualization technique based on a modular approach that allows a variety of techniques from semantic document analysis to be used in the visualization of the structure of technical document collections.
Keywords: document management and retrieval, knowledge management
Specifying interface properties in object-oriented conceptual models BIBAKFull-Text 302-304
  Oscar Pastor; Pedro J. Molina; Alberto Aparicio
If we accept that computer representation of a conceptual model must be closer to the idea or the world the user has in mind, the conventional object-oriented methods fail in properly addressing the specification of semantics of presentation features within the conceptual model itself. To solve this problem, the conceptual model expressiveness must be enriched adding interface specification to capture such essential information. This information capture must be done preserving the semantics of the conceptual model as a whole.
   In this paper, a set of relevant interface patterns will be introduced in the conceptual modelling phase, preserving the homogeneity of the model. The enrichment is applied to OO Method, a software production OO method developed in the Information Systems and Computation Department at the Valencia University of Technology. Following the OO-Method approach a software product is automatically obtained from the conceptual model and the interface generation is obtained in a natural way.
Keywords: automatic code generation, graphic environments, human computer interfaces, object-oriented methods, object-oriented paradigm, patterns
Augmenting virtual prototyping with physical objects BIBAKFull-Text 305-306
  Virtu Halttunen; Tuomo Tuikka
We define virtual prototype as a functional, photo realistic, and three dimensional digital model of a future hand held electronics product. Besides visualisation, product concept designers need to know the physical attributes of the product, such as dimensions, weight and surface texture. WebShaman Digiloop system augments digital virtual prototypes with physical objects in order to support such tangibility. A data glove is used to manipulate the virtual prototype and a physical mock-up of a concept prototype adds the physical aspects of the product concept to the virtual prototype. The user of this system can examine the functionality and features of the product concept as well as feel the dimensions, weight and texture, and move the prototype freely in physical space.
Keywords: concept design, tangibility, virtual prototype
VISPS, a visual system for plan specification BIBAKFull-Text 307-310
  Marco Porta
In various circumstances, it is possible to arrive at the need to specify sequences of operations that a "machine" has to perform to achieve a purpose. This paper will present VISPS, a visual system originally designed to specify mission plans for the SARA autonomous submarine robot. Although this is the particular setting for which the system had been initially devised, thanks to its flexibility it can be easily configured to adjust to different contexts and situations, even if it is always based on the same simple basic visual mechanism.
Keywords: plan specification, planning, task specification, visual plan